This book gives important instructions in formatting equations in word2010. This helps users to understand different formatting options in word2010

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This book gives important instructions in formatting equations in word2010. This helps users to understand different formatting options in word2010

© All Rights Reserved

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Equations (Level 3)

Contents

Introduction ..............................................................................................................1

Inserting an Equation .............................................................................................1

The Equation Tools Design Tab ..........................................................2

The Tools Group ............................................................................ 2

The Symbols Group ...................................................................... 3

The Structures Group .................................................................. 3

Typing an Equation from Scratch ......................................................................4

Equation Groups ......................................................................................................5

Alignment of Equations ........................................................................5

Boxing Equations .....................................................................................6

Numbering Equations Automatically using Captions ................................6

Creating your own Caption Style ......................................................7

Placing Captions alongside Equations .............................................7

Cross-referencing Equations ...............................................................8

Introduction

You can type mathematical equations in any of the Microsoft Office suite of programs. These

can include fractions, integrals, matrices, mathematical symbols, etc.

In Word 2007, Microsoft introduced a new equation editor, which only works for files saved in

the new format (*.docx). If you copy an equation from Word into Excel or PowerPoint (or open

a .docx file in Word 2003), the equation converts to a picture. Note that if you create a new

equation in either of these programs, the old editor is used see Microsoft Office 2003 Equations

for details. These notes explain how to use the new editor in Word 2010.

Inserting an Equation

In order to use the new equation editor you must be working on a file in the new format (.docx). If you are

working in Compatibility Mode, you must start by saving your file in this format.

1. Load up Microsoft Word as usual and either start with a new document or open an existing file

3. Change Save as type: to Word Document (*.docx) , supply a File name: then press <Enter> for [Save]

4. Next, move the insertion point to where you would like to insert the equation

5. Move to the Insert tab and click on the list arrow attached to the [Equation] button on the far right

A selection of commonly-used equations appears.

6. Scroll up and down the list to see whats provided then select Area of Circle as a simple example

The equation appears in your document, centrally aligned if you insert it on a blank line (or as part of your

text if in an existing paragraph). The Equation Tools Design tab also appears on the Ribbon. If you click away

from the equation this disappears; when you click on an equation it is again displayed.

The Equation Tools Design tab is divided into three groups: Tools, Symbols and Structures.

The first button in the Tools group, [Equation], again lets you pick equations from the built-in list youve just

seen. The next two buttons, [Professional] and [Linear], let you change the layout of your equation:

1. Click on [Linear] to display the equation on a single line (here, the superscripted 2 becomes ^2)

2. Click on [Professional] to return it to its original layout

The final button in the Tools group allows you to add text to your equation box:

3. Press <End> to move the typing position to the right of the box then type the words where r

4. Now click on [Normal Text] and continue with is the radius of the circle

Youll find the font is no longer italic and matches the rest of your document. To correct the initial words:

5. Drag through the words where r then click on [Normal Text] to

make them match the rest of the text

The Tools group also includes a group arrow in the bottom right corner,

which displays the Equation Options dialog box (as shown on the right).

This gives you access to more-advanced features. To see exactly what

can be changed:

6. Click on the [Equation Options] button - the Tools group arrow

7. Note the various settings which can be changed

Most of these are very advanced but there might be something you

need for your own equations. Note the Justification setting at the

bottom thats why your equation was centred.

Its worth looking at autocorrect:

8. Click on [Math AutoCorrect] the AutoCorrect dialog box

appears

These autocorrect entries only work inside an equation box for

example you can type \alpha to generate a Greek and can create

your own autocorrect entries.

2

Note also that you can change the defaults for all new equations by clicking on the [Defaults] button.

10. Press <Esc> or click on [Cancel] again theres no need to change any of the settings here

The buttons in the Symbols group give you quick access to symbols and operators. Those which currently

appear are the most commonly-used, but there are many others too:

1. Press [Home] to move the typing position to the start of the equation

2. Choose the symbol you require (any will do) then click on the button to insert it

3. Press <Ctrl z> to [Undo] the insertion here

4. Next, click on the [More] button at the foot of the symbols

scroll bar to see the full set of common (Basic Math)

symbols

5. Finally, click on the down arrow to the right of Basic Math to

see the other groups of symbols

6. Investigate these groups then end by choosing Basic Math

once more

7. Finally, press <Esc> to close the list of symbols

Remember that you can also use the facilities provided by Math AutoCorrect to type in codes to pick up these

symbols from the keyboard

The Structures group contains the various elements that you are likely to need if you are typing in your own

equation (ie not using a built-in one or if you want to customise one of these). Each button covers a different

group of elements fractions, super/subscripts, roots, integrals, large operators (sums, products, unions etc),

brackets, functions, accents (including over/underbars and boxed equations), limits and logs, operators and

matrices. Commonly-used forms are also provided for many of these structures.

To see how these work, try amending your current formula for the volume of a sphere:

1. Check you are at the start of the formula - press <Home> if necessary

2. Press <Delete> then type V (for volume to replace A for area)

3. Press the <right_arrow> key to move the typing position across the equals sign

4. Now click on the [Fraction] button and choose the first fraction ([Stacked Fraction])

5. Press the <left_arrow> key to move back into the lower part of the fraction and type 3

6. Next press the <up_arrow> key to move up to the top part of the fraction and type 4

7. Use the <right_arrow> key to move across to the superscripted 2 (the 2 should be highlighted)

8. <Delete> the current superscript and type 3 instead

9. Finally, press <End> then use <Backspace> to remove the word circle, then type sphere instead

The above exercise demonstrates not only how to add a structure to an equation but also how you can use

the arrow keys to move along and edit it. You can also, of course, move the typing position by clicking with

the mouse.

You can save your own equations for future use in the Equation Gallery (so that they join the list of Built-In

equations). To do this:

1. First, select the equation here, drag through the equation, omitting the words (ie where r is the )

2. Now click on the [Equation] button in the Tools group on the far left and choose Save Selection to

Equation Gallery the Create New Building Block dialog box appears:

4. At the bottom, change Options: to Insert content only if you want to allow your equation to be

embedded in text

5. Note that you can Save in: either the Building Blocks or Normal template

6. Finally, press <Enter> for [OK]

Note that you can also invoke the Save Selection command by right clicking on the selection or by clicking on

the Equation Options arrow at the bottom right of the equation box and choosing Save as New Equation

To test out the new equation:

7. Click to the right of the current equation then press <Enter> for a new paragraph and type in a short

piece of text (a couple of words will do)

8. Now go to the Insert tab and click on the list arrow attached to the [Equation] button

9. Scroll down to the bottom of the list and choose Volume of Sphere your equation will be added

Note that it also appears at the bottom of the list if you click on the [Equation] button on the Equation Tools

Design tab.

This next exercise shows you how to type in a complicated equation using the structures provided. The

example below sums up a series of numbers from k=1 to k=n:

1. Click to the right of the new equation then press <Enter> for a new line

2. Move to the Insert tab then click on the [Equation] button if the list of built-in equations appears,

choose Insert New Equation at the foot of the list (alternatively, simply press <Alt =>)

3. Start by clicking on the [Large Operator] button and choose the second [Summation] button

4. Press the <left_arrow> key to move into the end box and type k

5. Press <left_arrow> twice and, in the box above the summation, type n

6. Press <down_arrow> and, in the box below the summation, type k=1

4

8. Then click on the [Fraction] button and choose the first fraction, [Stacked Fraction]

9. Press <left_arrow> and type 2 followed by <up_arrow> and type 1

10. Press the <End> key to the typing position to the end of the equation

11. Complete the equation by typing n(n+1)

12. Click anywhere outside the equation box to leave the Equation Editor

Your result should appear as:

Equation Groups

By default, equations are placed in separate boxes but there are times when you want to group equations

together. This can be achieved by pressing <Shift Enter> for a new line between each equation rather than

<Enter> for a new paragraph. In fact, Word will do this automatically for you, if you choose to align adjoining

equations (eg on the equals character).

Begin by creating a second equation which sums the squares of the number from k=1 to n:

1. Click on the existing equation then on the equation box holder (the symbol in the top left corner of the

equation box) to select the whole equation

2. Press <Ctrl c> to [Copy] the equation then press <right_arrow> twice to move to the right of the box

3. Press <Shift Enter> for a new line then <Ctrl v> to Paste a second copy of the equation

Note that because you pressed <Shift Enter> inside the first equation, a new equation box automatically

appeared had you pressed <Enter> you would be back to normal typing.

4. Drag through the letter k before the equals sign (to select it) then click on [Script] on the Equation

Tools Design tab and choose the first button, [Superscript]

5. Press <right_arrow> twice to move into the superscript and type 2

6. Use <right_arrow> again to move into the fraction and change the 2 to 6

7. Finally, press <End> and complete the new equation by typing (2n+1)

Your result should appear as:

Alignment of Equations

Currently, your equations dont quite line up properly (conventionally, equations line up on the equals sign).

In fact, your equations are lined up on the left because they are in a single paragraph. Had they been in

separate paragraphs, they would be centrally justified on the page. See what happens if you add some text:

1. Click on the [Normal Text] button and add sums the squares both equations move to the left

2. Next, select the two equations by clicking three times on either (three clicks selects the paragraph) or by

dragging through them

3. Right click on the selection and choose Align at =

Your equations should now be properly aligned. In fact you can align equations at other characters too if you

need to:

5

4. Move the current typing position to immediately after the letter n in (2n+1) in the second equation

5. Right click and choose Align at this Character

6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 but this time choose the letter n in (n+1) in the first equation youll find the two

equations line up at the chosen positions

7. Press <Ctrl z> twice to [Undo] the new alignment you were just experimenting

Note: One of the other options displayed by right-clicking, namely Insert Manual Break, can be used to split an

equation onto two lines.

Boxing Equations

Individual equations can be boxed using a facility accessible from the Accent button; grouped equations can

only be boxed together by boxing the whole paragraph:

1. Click on the first of your equations (the volume of the sphere) then on the equation box holder on the left

2. Next, click on the [Accent] button, scroll down and click on [Boxed Formula] your equation is boxed

3. Next, press <Ctrl End> to move to the end of your work then press <Enter> for a new paragraph

4. Now, click on either of the sum of series equations immediately above

5. Repeat step 2 (it doesnt work as expected!) then press <Ctrl z> for [Undo]

6. Move to the Home tab and click on the list arrow attached to the [Borders] button in the Paragraph

group and choose [Outside Borders] the whole paragraph is boxed, from the left to the right margin

7. Click on the [View Ruler] button above the scroll bar on the right (or on [Ruler] on the View tab)

8. Drag the Left Indent indicator (the rectangle) to the 3.5cm mark and the Right Indent indicator to 12.5cm

your equations should now be properly boxed

Because both equations were in the same paragraph, a single box is drawn.

In Microsoft Word you can number each equation if you want to:

1. Click on the first equation then on its equation box holder on the left to select it

2. Move to the References tab and click on the [Insert Caption] button in the Captions group

3. Under Label: choose Equation from the list provided

4. Under Position: select the location where you want the caption to appear - note that this is limited to

Above item or Below item; here, choose Below selected item

5. To change the number format used for the caption (eg to include the chapter number if you have

numbered headings), click on [Numbering...], select the format you want then click on [OK]

6. Click on [OK] again to close the Caption Window

A new caption, correctly numbered, should appear below (or above) your equation box.

Captions are held separately from the equations. If you want to delete or move an equation, you need to

select its caption too. By default, captions move with equations across a page break.

When an equation is deleted or moved, subsequent equations may not appear to be renumbered. However,

all are renumbered when you insert another caption (or when you next load up the document). They would

also appear correctly if you printed your document or used Print Preview. The numbering can also be

updated by selecting the whole document (<Ctrl a>) and pressing key <F9>.

Tip: An easy way to add captions to unnumbered equation boxes is to Copy an existing caption and then

Paste it above or below each unnumbered equation in turn.

6

Another thing you might want to do is to label your equations in a completely different way, not including

the word Equation at all. You can create your own new caption, but you might have to repeat the process if

you move between computers (new captions are held by Word, not the file itself). A common equation

referencing style is simply to enclose the equation number in brackets:

1. First, press <Ctrl z> to [Undo] the current caption then, on the References tab, click on [Insert Caption]

2. Click on [New Label] then, in the New Label dialog box, type ( then press <Enter> for [OK]

3.

If you want to include the chapter number and use a period separator click on [Numbering] but you

must be using numbered headings for this to work

4. Finally, press the <spacebar> and type ) to finish off the label

5. Press <Enter> for [OK] and the new-style caption should appear

You can modify the default Caption Style if you want - eg to change the font, font size, etc. To do this:

1. Move to the Home tab on the Ribbon then click on the Styles group arrow - the Styles Task Pane appears

2. Scroll down to the bottom of the list of styles then click on the down arrow on the right of Caption and

select Modify...

3. Set the font (type, size, bold etc) and justification as required

4. Click on [OK] to accept any changes

5. Finally, [Close] the Styles Task Pane

One very annoying feature of captions is that there is no option to place them to the left or right of equations

(only above or below). You can, however, do this manually. For this, it doesnt matter whether the captions

have been placed above or below the equations.

You proceed as follows:

1. Click on the first equation then, on the Ruler, set up a Center Tab at the 8cm mark and a Right Tab at the

16cm mark assuming the right margin is set at 16cm

Tip: To set a tab at the right margin, set it a little to the left (eg at 15cm) then drag the tab into position.

2. Next, press < Home> and <left-arrow> twice to move to immediately before the equation

3. Press <Tab>, <End>, <right-arrow>, then <Tab> again

4. Select the caption then drag it to the required position (ie far left or far right)

5. Move to the end of the line and <Delete> the empty paragraph

You should find that your caption is now in the same line as the equation.

An easier way to achieve the above is to use a table. You would normally create a (1-row 3-column) table

even before you begin your equation, but here lets convert the existing equation and caption:

1. Select the equation and caption by clicking on it three times (or drag through with the mouse)

2. Next, move to the Insert tab and click on [Table] and choose Convert Text to Table

3. Press <Enter> for [OK] to set the Number of columns: 3 and Separate text at: Tabs

4. On the Table Tools Design tab, click on the [Borders] button and choose No Border

5. Finally, on the Table Tools Layout tab, set up each cells Alignment as required eg the equation cell to

[Align Center] and caption cell to [Align Centre Right] (or [Align Centre Left])

Cross-referencing Equations

When you discuss equations in the text, you should use cross-references. These are then automatically

updated if the equation numbering changes:

1. On a new line, type the text As can be seen from equation

2. Move to the References tab and click on [Cross-reference]

3. Change the Reference type: to ( and check Insert reference to: is set to Entire caption

4. Press <Enter> for [Insert] then <Esc> for [Close]

5. Continue by typing on page

6. Now repeat steps 2 to 4 but at step 3 change Insert reference to: to Page Number

7. Type a space then repeat steps 2 to 4 but at step 3 change Insert reference to: to Above/below

8. Continue with the rest of your text

9. End by closing down Word

Youll now be asked whether you want to save the changes to your file (you can if you want) and to your

Building Blocks and/or Normal templates. If you answer yes, the Volume of Sphere equation will be available for

your future work. You probably dont want this, so:

10. Click on [No] when asked whether you want to save the changes to your file and templates

If you do save the changes and later want to remove the Volume of Sphere equation from the Gallery:

1. Go to the Insert tab and click on the list arrow attached to [Equation] as normal, then right click on the

Volume of Sphere and choose Organize and Delete

This takes you into the Building Blocks Organizer, where:

2. Volume of Sphere should already be selected so click on [Delete]

3. Answer [Yes] then press <Esc> to [Close] the Building Blocks Organizer

Screen shot(s) reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation.

Copyright 2011: The University of Reading

Last Revised: December 2011

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