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Author(s): Michael J. Wichura

Source: The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Feb., 1970), pp. 284-291

Published by: Institute of Mathematical Statistics

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2239738

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Statistics

TheAnnalsofMathematical

1970,Vol. 41, No. 1,284-291

CONVERGENT RANDOM VARIABLES WITH GIVEN WEAKLY

CONVERGENT IMAGE LAWS'

BY MICHAEL J. WICHURA

of Chicago

University

d, and

metricspace,withdistancefunction

Let S be an arbitrary

1. Introduction.

distributions

letY' be itsBorela-algebra.DenotebyY(S) theclass ofall probability

on (S, 9). A net(Py)y of probabilitiesP e (S) is said to convergeweaklyto a

probabilityP eG (S) if P(f) = lim Pf(f) foreach real-valuedboundedcontinuous

functionf on S; here P(f) = ffdP, PY(f) = ffdPY. Let gs(S) denote the subclass of CA(S)consistingof thoseprobabilitiesP forwhichthereexistsa separable

one. gS(S) includestheso-calledtightprobabilities

subsetofS in f ofP-probability

i.e. probabilitiesP such thatsup {P(K): Kcompact} = 1 ([5] page 29). The chief

resultofthispaperis statedin thefollowing.

be a netofprobabilities

THEOREM1. Let (S, d) be a metricspace and let (Py)yEr

P E gs(S). Thenthereexistsa probability

weaklytoa probability

PYG i7(S)converging

on Q

X andX/(yE F) defined

S-valuedfunctions

space (Q, ., ji) andA-9- measurable,

- 1 ofXyare respectively

uX- ' ofX and luXy

P andPy(yE F)

suchthatthedistributions

toXalmostuniformly.

andsuchthatXyconverges

One sometimes([1], [8]) has occasion to considerthe weak convergenceof

distributions

probability

Pywhichare definedonlyon certainsub-c-algebrasof9,

in Theorem1 thatthe

of interestto knowthatthe requirement

and it is therefore

PY belongto 3d(S) can be weakened.To make thisprecise,let us say thata net

ofprobabilities

(Py)yEr

Pydefinedon sub-c-algebras-4yof " convergesweaklyto a

P E ^(S) iflimyPY(f) = Pff) = limyPY(f) foreach real-valuedbounded

probability

theupperand lower

continuousfunctionfon S; here Pyand Pydenoterespectively

associatedwithPY:

probabilities

PY(f) = inf{Py(g):f < g, Py(g)defined}

PY(f)

of thisdefinition

see Theorem1 of [8]). It is clearthat

(forequivalentformulations

thisdefinition

of weak convergence

reducesto theusual one ifall the -4yequal Y.

Let Y' denotethesub-c-algebraof S9 generatedby the open balls of S. We then

extensionofTheorem1:

havethefollowing

THEOREM2. Let S, 9, and Yo be definedas above and let (Py)yerbe a net of

in 9, which

probabilities

g'o and contained

Py,definedon a-algebras 4y containing

ReceivedOctober23,1968;revisedAugust7, 1969.

l Thisresearch

was supported

in partbyResearchGrantNo. NSF-GP-8026fromtheDivision

of Mathematical,

Physicaland Engineering

Sciencesof theNationalScienceFoundation,

and,in

partfromtheStatistics

Branch,Office

ofNavalResearch.

284

285

convergesweaklyto a probability

space

onQ suchthat:

(Q, X, ji) andS-valuedvariablesX andXy(yeF) defined

(1)

(2)

=x-

(3)

- P,

Xy-X

measurable (yeF)

uX,-1 = PY(yeFr)

almostuniformly.

We remarkthatit is consistent

in Theorems1

thatYS(S) = Y(S) (see [2] page 252). In thissense,therequirement

and 2 thatPG Y,(S) can be replacedbythetrivialone thatP Y

g(S).

In the construction

used to validateTheorems1 and 2, Q0is theproductspace

Sx HlyerSy,

whereeach Sy is a copy of S, M is a a-algebra whichcontainsthe

1uis theprolongationto (Q, X) of a mixture

sl = 9 x Hlyerdy,

product F-algebra

of productprobabilitieson (Q, d), and X and Xyare thecanonicalprojectionsof

LI onto S and Sy(ye F). When F is countableand S separable,one has -=a.

havebeenusedto validatespecialcases ofTheorem1. Working

Otherconstructions

is equivalentto almostsure

withsequences(forwhichalmostuniform

convergence

convergenceby Egoroff'stheorem)instead of nets, Skorokhod ([7], Theorem

3.1.1) has provedTheorem1 for S separableand complete;in his construction

Q = [0, 1], theunitinterval,4 is thea-algebraof its Borel sets,and p is Lebesgue

measure.Again workingwith sequences,Dudley ([3], Theorem 3) has proved

Q is a countableproductof copies

Theorem1 forS separable;in his construction,

of S x [0, 1], a is the producta-algebra on Q2,and p is a mixtureof product

of almostsurely

probabilitieson (Q, X). For applicationsand otherconstructions

see

convergent

processeswhichare of interestin thetheoryof weak convergence,

thesurveypaperbyPyke[6].

2. Proof for F countableand S finite.The simplicityof our constructionis

obscuredin thegeneralcase by severaltechnicalconsiderations;in orderto illustratethe generalidea we willin this sectionproveTheorem1 underthe assumptionsthat F is countableand S is finite.To this end, let (Sy,fy) be a copy of

(S, S9) foreach y, and let (Q, A)=(S xHlyr Sy,Y x flyrJS"y)be the productof

the measurablespaces (S, f) and (SY, Vy)(yeF). Let the canonical coordinate

mappingsX and Xy(yE F) be definedon Q by

(4)

X( (s,(so)oer)) = S,

Xy((s, (SO)oer))

The requiredmeasurability

properties

clearlyhold.

Let k: y-- k(y)be anyfunction

fromF to {0, 1, 2, ..,

(5)

sy(y F).

o} suchthat

limye r k(y)= oo

further

specified).For I < k < oo, set

(6)

= X}.

Uk = nyy:k(y)>k{XY

286

MICHAEL J. WICHURA

over

each Ukin viewof(5).

Let Qy(yeF) be any familyof probabilitieson (S, f). It laterwill be further

givingmass one to thepoints E S, let

specified.Letting3, denotetheprobability

Pi=s =

(7)

bs x HlyerMj,s,y

componentsare respectively:

bs definedon (S, f), and

= QY

Pj,s,y

= bs

if

0 ? k(y)<j,

if

is countable,Mj s(Uk) = 1 forj1? k. Next, defineprobabilities,j(1 < j < oo) on

(Q, X) by

(8)

Clearly 1X-1 = p

tjXy- = Qy

=P

if

0 ? k(y)<j

if

j<k(y)<

oo,

= I ifj? k.

and puj(Uk)

Finally,let (wk)1

(9)

Wk _

(10)

k<0,

Z

Ej<k

Z Wk = 1

Ek

Clk

Wk<

andput

p=

(I1)

Ejwjpj.

Clearly iX- 1 = p

( 12)

(13)

1elXY -

)k(y) P + (I -t)k(y))Qy

/(Uk) >?

and

k(l

withrespect

Since limk-o Ck = 1, (13) impliesthat Xy-+ X almost uniformly

in

of (12), to

in

it

view

this

suffices,

setting

to p. To comp1-tethe proof

special

of Pyto P impliestheexistenceof k(y)'ssatisfying

showthattheweak convergence

(5) and probabilitiesQysatisfying

(14)

Py=

0k(y) P +

-(l

Wk(y))QY

forall yCF. Now ifk(y) = oo,thereexistsa Qysatisfying

(1 5)

P1. = P,

287

(16)

(17)

Mk.y=

min ES

P{S})

qk,s,y

(14) if any only if

Es Es qk(y),s,y = 1, and thenone musttake

(18)

Ink(y),y?

and

Qy = EseSqk(y),s,y6s.

We notethatEs Esqk,s,y = 1 forall k(O < k < oo) and thatmo0y

to showthat(5) is satisfied

and (15) holdsfork(y)= oo ifwe put

(19)

(20)

Py{s}

-+

P{s}

Hence limyerqksy= P{s} foreach se S, 1 ? k < oo; this,togetherwiththe fact

thatqk,s,y > 0 if P{s} = 0, impliesthatqk,,,y is ultimately

foreach

nonnegative

k (1 ? k < oo). Thus since S is finite,thereexistsforeach k an indexykeIT such

that mk,y_ 0 for all y _ y(k). Since mk,y ? 0 impliesk(y)? k, (5) is satisfied.

Next,ifk(y)= oo, we have (recallZs s qk,s,y = 1)

(21)

0?

Py{s}?(+

k/(1-

k) )(Py{s}-P{S})

< 1

for each s e S and arbitrarilylarge k; since Wk/(l - Wk) -+ oc, it follows that

Py{s} = P{s} for each seS, i.e., that (15) holds. This completesthe proof of

Theorem1 forF countableand S finite.

2 in the general case. Let P, Py(yeF), ?, Y'0, and

3. Proof of Theorenm

e

be as in Theorem2. Let W(P) = {C e : P(boundaryof C) = 0} be the

y(y-F)

class of P-continuity

sets.We recall ([5] page 50) thatW(P) is an algebraand that

foreach s e S, theopen ball

(22)

theanalogueof(20) holdsforsetsCe-(P) (conferT1.1 of [8]):

LEMMA

1. In thepresentcontext,C e(P)

implies

PROOF. Let F be a closed subsetof S. Since the continuousboundedfunctions

fn:s - max((1 - nd(s,F)), 0) decrease to the indicatorfunctionof F, the weak

of Py to P impliesthatlimsupyPY(F) _ limsupyPY(fn)= P(fn)I P(F).

convergence

The dual relationforopen sets is seen to hold by takingcomplements;thus for

anyC S/'we have

(23)

P(C) ? liminfy

PY(C) ? limsupyPY(C) < P(C),

288

MICHAEL J. WICHURA

extrememembersof(23) are equal. 0

We shall need a sequenceof "finiteapproximations"to S. For this,choose and

fixanytwo numericalsequences(Ak)l I k< and (8k)1 <k< . suchthat

(24)

Ak >

(25)

Ak = O

limk,

Ek Sk <

Ek > ?,

00-

thenhave

LEMMA2. In thepresentcontext,thereexistpositiveintegersnk(l _ k < oo) and

disjointsubsetsCm. . ., mk(O < mj nj, 1 j ? k) ofS suchthat

(26)

(27)

Cm1,... mk-1

CmI,

EO<mkk<nk

1<j<kmax1

maxO<j<nj,

(28)

-,,nk

_mk_nkd(Cml,

ZO<mj_nj,l 1j<kP(Cml

_1,1k

,mk)

Ak

-k

nmk- l,O)

PROOF.Let E be a separablesubsetof S suchthatP(E) = 1 and let {sn, n _ 1} be

a countabledensesubsetofE. In viewof(22), thereexistsforeach n ? 1 an open ball

in S, call itEn,centeredat Sn withradiusgreaterthan'A1 butlessthanA1,suchthat

En6W(P). Since the union of these balls covers E and hence has P-probability

one, there exists a positive integern1 such that P(Un n, En) ? 1-81. Setting

(29)

CMl,

c-

* * *, mk

(P)

? m1 ? n1),

Cm(1

CO =

S-Un<nlEn

max,?<m?nid(Cml)< A1,P(CO)

S-E

CO,C

81C,

1m?nm?nCm1Iweget

** ,Cn,1e(P)nft0

The proofis completedbyinductionon k. 0

Let Hk(1 ? k < oo) be the finitepartition of S whose members are the Cml,...mk,

and put Ho = {S}. Choose and fixnumbersWksatisfying

(9) and defineokkby(10).

<

For 0 k < oo, CeHik,and y eF, set(confer(16), (17), and (19) )

S=EOZmi?niCmi,

qk,C,y =

(30)

Py(C) + (Py(C)

P(C) )(k/(l

k(y)=sup {j

0: m., _ 0}.

In viewof(29) and Lemma 1,theconvergence

following

(20)) that

limyErk(y)= oo

(31)

Qy = EC E nk(y)qk(y),C,yPy(

(32)

C),

wherePy( C) denotestheprobability

on theoccurrenceof theeventC. It is easy to see thatQyis itselfa probabilityon

(Sya,sy)and that(confer(14))

(33)

(-)k(y)

(ZC e

rk(y)

Py(|

C)P(C))

+(1

Ok(y))Qy

Py

289

fl, rSY,

the productof themeasurablespaces (S, 9) and (SY,.y)(y E F).

s E S, and let(confer(7))

Let Ck,S denotetheelementofHk containing

y X fly e FS1y)be

Vj'S= bs X flyvj,s,y

be the productprobabilityon (Q, d) whose componentsare respectively:b

definedon (S, 9), and

(34)

= PYO Ck(y)s)

if

0 ? k(y)<i,

j < k(y)< oo,

= bs

if

k(y)= oo,

= QY

VJ,S,Y

if

base (sinceforeach

A E a? is a cylindersetwitha finite-dimensional

(S, S9) whenever

manyC in Hk(y) belongsto ), and hence([4] page 74)

yeF, each of thefinitely

thismappingis a randomvariableforeach A E d/. Thus ([4] page 76) we maydefine

a probabilityVj on (Q,4) by the formula(confer(8)) vj = fsvjsP(ds). Finally

v on (Q, d) by

(confer(11) ), definetheprobability

v=

(35)

Once again,letthecoordinatemappingsX and Xy(ye F) be definedon Q by (4).

We have

LEMMA 3.

In thepresentcontext,

(37)

(y eF)

X is sl'-9' measurable,Xyis '-.4y measurable

vX-' = P

(38)

vX,- I = PY(yeF).

(36)

For (38),

PROOF. Relations(36) and (37) followdirectlyfromthe definitions.

observethat

vX

' (=

k(y)(ECenk(,)

Py(

IC)P(C))+(1

-Ok(y))Qy

if

if

to a?y

restricted

0 < k(y)<

k(y)= ci.

00,

In viewof (33), (38) holds when0 < k(y)< oo. It remainsto show that(38) holds

hereis similarto, butmorecomplicatedthan,thatat

whenk(y)= oo; theargument

(21). Put

(39)

Dk =

EO0mj?nj,1?j<kEl?mk<nk

CmI,

,mk(k _

1);

D = liminfkDk

(40)

P(D) = 1.

tWk; since(in viewof(26) )

W = Uk

290

MICHAEL J. WICHURA

D ([4] page 19) of C<@> (resp..?y, f), and let YD denotetheBorelc-algebraofD.

In viewof (24), (27), and (39), each open subsetof D is a union,necessarily

countable, ofsetsoftheformCnD withC Ec ; itfollowsthat YD C cr<KrD> = C<KC>nD.

Since Dk belongsto t7k, we have D E c<W>,and since([5] page 5) YD = fnD, we

have

(42)

De

ryrDcrD=

/DCCU<W>.

of P and Py,theconditionk(y)= oo implies(see

(30) and (21)) that for each Ce-W the inequalities0 < Py(C) + (Py(C) - P(C))

(wk/(l - Wk)) ? 1 hold forarbitrarily

largevaluesofk; sincelimk,

O k/(l - wk) = 00

it followsthatPy and P coincideover W,henceovero<W>, and hence,in viewof

(42), over . r)D. But then,in viewof (40), we have PY(J) = P(D) = 1, so thatP

and Pycoincideover.y Thiscompletestheproofofthelemma. ]

Now putA,, = 0 and set(confer(6) and (24))

(43)

Uk=

nY:k(y)>k{d(Xy, X)

?k(y)}

is separable(so thatd(Xy,X) is d1-measurable

(confer[5] page 6)). For any subset

QOof Q, let v*(Qf)= inf{v(A): Q. a A e .} denote the outer probabilityof QO

underv.

LEMMA4. In thepresentcontext,

overeach

XY-*X uniformly

(44)

Uk

Iimk, V*(Uk)= I

(45)

PROOF. We get (44) from(24), (31), and (43). For (45) put Ek = infm,kDm(1 <

k < oo),whereDm is definedby (39). Suppose that UkcA Ed/. Then thereexists

([4] page 81) a countablesubset1A of f suchthatA dependsonlyon X and theX,

withy [A; it followsthat

er

ny

rA;

k(y)> k {d(Xy,

X) < Ak(y)}C A

(theseton theleftneed notbelongto d/). Thus forj < k we have (confer(34) and

(27))

vj(A) = fsvj,s(An {X = s})P(ds)

>

_V__S(nY6rA;k(y)?k{d(XY,S) ? Ak}(y)P(ds)

= P(Ek).

impliesP(Ek) _ 1 -LmEkEm; (45) nowfollowsfrom(9) and (25).

We notethatthe Uk increasewithk. In viewof Lemmas3 and 4, to completethe

to establish

proofofTheorem2 itsuffices

291

space and let (Uk)k>1 be an increasing

sequenceof subsetsof Q of outerprobabilitiesv*(Uk). Let X be the a-algebra

generatedbysl and theUk(l < k < oo). Thenv maybeprolongedto a probability

It

on(Q, .) suchthat

(46)

JU(Uk)

foreachk.

PROOF. Put

Bk*E sl

Bk

Uk-

Uk-

(1

V*(Uk)

v*(Bk)(1

<

formula

(47)

I(Yk

Ak

Bk)

Ek fAkfk

moreoverthe

dv

to (Q, ) is v, providedthat

each fk is a nonnegative,d-measurable random variable vanishingoff of

Bk*(l < k? oo) and thatEkfk = 1.

Let fk be the indicator function of Bk*

(47). Then

(48)

,u(Uk)

hi(Zj_kBj)

= YjkJffjdv

<kBj *(

v(UjikBj*).

setcontainingUk,we have

(49)

On the otherhand, suppose UkcA E X, so thatBjc A forj < k. Then each Bj*,

and hencealso U .<kB*, is containedin A up to a v-equivalence.It followsthat

v(A) ? v(Ui<kBi*) andthat

(50)

REFERENCES

on non-separable

metricspaces

of probabilities

[II DUDLEY, R. M. (1966a).Weakconvergence

on Euclideanspaces.Ill.J.Math.10 109-126.

andempirical

measures

ofBairemeasures.

StudiaMath.27 251-268.

[2] DUDLEY,R. M. (1966b).Convergence

measuresand randomvariables.Ann.Math.

[3] DUDLEY, R. M. (1967).Distancesofprobability

Statist.39 1963-1572.

[4] NEVEU,J. (1965). MathematicalFoundationsof the Calculus of Probability.Holden-Day, Inc.,

San Francisco.

D. R. (1967). ProbabilityMeasures on Metric Spaces. Academic Press,

[51 PARATHASARATHY,

New York.

ofweaklyconvergent

ofalmostsurelyconvergent

constructions

[6] PYKE,R. (1968).Applications

Berlin.

processes.Proc. Internat.Symp.Prob. Inform.Theor.Springer-Verlag,

[7] SKOROKHOD,A. V. (1956). Limit theoremsforstochasticprocesses (translatedby SIAM). Th.

ProbabilityAppl. 1 261-290.

ofnon-Borel

on a metric

[8] WICHURA,MICHAELJ.(1968).On theweakconvergence

probabilities

ColumbiaUniv.

dissertation,

space.Unpublished

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