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LASHING FORCES - EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Faculty of Maritime Studies - SPLIT


Prepared by : Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng.
Master Mariner

Split, listopad.2011.

SUMMARY
> 1. Theoritic Approach of ships motion and
lashing forces.
> a. Review of the basic parameter & forces based on
BV rules
> b. Deck securing

> c. Cargo Holds Stowage

> 2. Lashing module on Easecon


> a. Presentation of calculation display
> b. Example of optimisation of bay plan

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Container loss at sea


THE BASIC CAUSE of many collapsed container stows
and the loss of containers overboard can be
attributed to inadequate or incorrect securing,
resulting from either lack and/or misunderstanding of
instructions/information on-board concerning
applicable stowage and securing arrangements

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Common reason why stows collapse


(source West of England P&I)

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Container stacks being too heavy and too high overall, exposing the
lower containers to excessive transverse racking and compressive
forces due to the tipping effect.
Containers at the top of the stack being significantly heavier than
those below.
The wind force acting on the outboard stacks not being taken into
account.
Loose lashings allowing the stacks to tilt and arrest sharply as the
slack is taken up.
Two 20 foot containers placed in a 40 foot slot, leaving insufficient
space for lashing rods to be fitted to the inward facing ends.
Out of gauge containers, such high cube boxes, mixed randomly
with standard units
High cube boxes stowed cumulatively
Securing equipment not applied correctly
Portable and/or fixed securing equipment in damaged or worn
condition
The movement of inadequately secured heavy cargo within a
container resulting in damage to the container walls

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Ship motion
Ship at sea may move in
six different direction
simultaneously.
Rolling, pitching and
heaving generate the
highest forces

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Pounding

Heavy pounding at
bow and stern
increases considerably
vessel motion and
lashing forces
EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Ship movement and forces on


containers and lashing
> Rolling
> affects container corner posts, twistlocks, hatch covers and
the deck by inducing compression and tension forces.
> The motion also creates transverse racking forces which, if
excessive, may distort the walls and ends of container
frames
> Deck cargo racking forces are resisted primarily by lashing
rods and turnbuckles

> Pitching
> Forces are similar to forces created by rolling, but acts
longitudinally

> Heaving
> Increases tension and compression forces on twistlocks and
container posts

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Acceleration forces
> When considering the shipboard stowage location of
cargo items, acceleration forces should be borne in
mind:
> Lower accelerations forces occur in the mid-ship sections,
lowest cell position under deck and as close to the centerline
as possible
> Higher accelerations forces occur at ship's extremities, high
on deck and in the outrigger slots by the ship's side.
> The higher is GM the greater is righting moment when ship is
rolling, consequently transverse acceleration forces intensify
with increase of GM
Acceleration correction for ship length and speed

v = speed (knots)
L = Length between perpendiculars (m)

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Forces effecting container stack

Standard ISO
Racking force door end
Racking force doorless end
Racking force side walls
-Corner post compression
*closed box containers

20
150 kN
150 kN
75 (150*) kN
864 kN

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

40

150 kN
150 kN
75 (150*) kN
864 kN

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

CLASS REQUIREMENTS
The following forces are to be considered:
> static (gravity) forces, (20 24 T, 40 30, 48 T)
> inertial forces due to ship motions (roll and heave,
pitch and heave, GM=0.07B)

> wave impact forces (forward of 0.25L, lashing strength


increased for 20%)

> wind forces, (20 10kN, 40 20kN)


> forces imposed by the securing arrangements.

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Lashing bridges
Advantages:
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shorter lashing bars
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easier and safer lashing
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Possibility to secure fourth tier
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Heavier containers may be
loaded on higher tiers
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Lashing system is simple
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Easy access to reefer
containers on 2nd tier
Disadvantage:
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Lashing bridge is fixed
structure while containers are
moving with hatch covers,
resulting effect is that lashing
become slack or takes
excessive load
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Difficult maintenance of lashing
bridge - painting
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Additional weight on deck,
reduces stability
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45 container can not be loaded
on 1st and 2nd tier

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Lashing in holds is done with cell guides

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Lashing system
Container vessel
should be equipped
with approved
lashing system.

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

On deck lashing

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Ma
EASEACON LASHING MODULE

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TURNBUCKLE
DUAL FUNCTION TWISTLOCK

LASHING BAR

ISO LASHING GAP

BASE TWISTLOCK

LOCKABLE STACKING CONE


EASEACON LASHING MODULE

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Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Cargo securing manual


> The International Convention for the Safety of
Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, Chapter 6 (Carriage
of Cargoes), Regulation 5 and Chapter 7,
Regulation 5 (Carriage of Dangerous Goods),
requires that cargo units, including containers,
shall be loaded, stowed and secured throughout
the voyage in accordance with a Cargo Securing
Manual approved by the Administration.

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

CSM permitted vertical container weight


distribution

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Vertical distribution in CSM


GM < 1 m

GM < 2.5 m

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Mixed stowage vertical weight


distribution
20 FEET -> 2 tiers

20 FEET -> 3 tiers

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

CSM - loading in holds

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Mixed stowage stack calculation


16
22
AFT

18

14

24

26

FWD

19.5

MAX STACK LOAD 40

120 MT

MAX POINT LOAD 40

30 MT (max stack load / 4)

CURRENT POINT LOAD 40 AFT

(16+22+18+24) / 4 = 20 MT

CURRENT POINT LOAD 40 FWD

(16+22+14+26) / 4 = 19.5 MT

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Effect to on stack due to shifting of


mass, wind force, missing lashing

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Easeacon Bay planner operates in


two modes: (Ctrl+L switches Lash mode while focus is on Bay Planner window)
STACK MODE

LASH MODE

When Easeacon is in STACK MODE, stack alarm (red color) appears if


stack weight is exceeded. In LASH MODE red color means that at least one
lashing force is excessive.
EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Bay 11, lashing / no lashing


NO LASHING

WITH LASHING

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Bay 11, Red flag on GAP end


LASHED SIDE

GAP END

When 20 containers are loaded with ISO gap then lashing is from one side of
container only. Unlashed side shows increased racking force. If container is lashed
from both sides then Easeacon
warning for GAP forces may be ignored.
EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Bay 11, Wind or no wind


WIND

NO WIND

Identical stack when loaded in inner slot will have smaller lashing forces then stack
loaded at a ship side due to wind effect.
FORCE BY WIND = 1kN/m2

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

27

EASEACON and max stack


Easeacon often shows some
forces to be 100 to 105% although
stack is loaded as per cargo
securing manual.
Small differences are acceptable
due to different hydrostatic data
used in calculation.
Even Easeacon lashing test
condition exceed lashing forces in
some parameters.
CSM VALUES

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Change of GM and lashing forces


With change of GM acceleration forces changes, consequently all
lashing forces will change accordingly

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Change of container COG


COG at 45%

COG at 60%

Easeacon default container vertical center of gravity is at 45% of container height.


Value might be changed to 50 or 60% for safer more pessimistic GM calculation.
Change of VCG reduces calculated GM consequently lashing forces are lower.
EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

Warnings
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Exceeding the permissible stack mass may result in:


> overstressing hatch top construction,
> overstressing stowage and securing devices,
> damaging containers,
> loss of containers overboard.
Neglecting permissible sequences of masses in stacks may result in:
> overstressing stowage and securing devices,
> damaging containers,
> loss of containers overboard.
Failing to properly lock Twistlocks may result in:
> loss of containers overboard.
Failing to apply lashings as lined out in the relevant bay plans may result in:
> overstressing Twistlocks,
> damaging containers (racking),
> loss of containers overboard.
Exceeding the recommended pretension of 5 kN in lashings may result in:
> overstressing these lashings,
> damaging containers,
> loss of containers overboard.
Exceeding of the max. GM-value in the stowage plan result in:
> higher transversal acceleration,
> overstressing stowage and securing devices,
> damaging containers.

EASEACON LASHING MODULE

Capt.Goran Belamaric, Mag. Eng

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