You are on page 1of 32

A Final Stage Presentation on

EVALUATION OF FIRE RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUID TO REPLACE


CONVENTIONAL MINERAL OIL IN NUCLEAR INDUSTRY
Presented by

Zeeshan Ahmad
(132090007)
Under the Guidance of

Dr. V.M.Phalle
Associate Professor & TPO

VEERMATA JIJABAI TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE


(An Autonomous Institute Affiliated to University of Mumbai)
Mumbai 400019
&

Mr. N. L. Soni, OS /Mr. P. K. Mishra, SO/E


REFUELLING TECHNOLOGY DIVISION
Reactor Design & Development Group
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Trombay, Mumbai

Contents
1.

Introduction
Problem definition
Objective
Summery

2.

Literature review

3.

Classification of Hydraulic Fluids


Classification of Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids, Their Properties and Uses
Properties of Hydraulic Fluids and Their Effect on System Performance
Requirements for Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids
Tribological Properties of Hydraulic Fluids
Effect of Gamma Radiation on Properties of Hydraulic Fluid

Methodology
Tribological Evaluation of Hydraulic Fluids
Gamma Irradiation of Hydraulic Fluids

4.
5.
6.

Discussion and results


Conclusion and future scope
References

1.Introduction
1. Objective
Study of different types of hydraulic fluids and their properties and selection of fire resistant
hydraulic fluid based on previous data available and system requirements.
Study of tribological behaviour of different hydraulic fluid and selection of standard method
of evaluating tribological properties based on our requirements.
Preparation and submission of report on tribological behaviour of hydraulic fluids.
Conclusion based on experimental data of both the hydraulic fluids.
Planning and preparation of sample for gamma radiation of hydraulic fluids inside a gamma
chamber located at ISOMED, south side of BARC.
Measurement of viscosity, viscosity index of radiated oil samples at different temperatures
and conclusion based on experimental data.

2. Summery
a) Literature Reviewed
Study of different types of hydraulic fluids
Selection of fire resistant hydraulic fluid
Study of properties of hydraulic fluids and their effect on system performance
Study of different tribological test methods as per ASTM and ISO standards
Study of effect of gamma radiation on properties of hydraulic fluids

2.Literature Survey
Sr. No.

Author Name & Book Title

Literature

Engineering Design Handbook of Classification of Hydraulic Fluids ,


Hydraulic Fluids, Headquarters, U.S. Tribological Properties of Hydraulic
Army Materiel Command, April Fluids
1971.

Lubricants, Industrial Oils and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluid Types


Related Products (Class L) for Industrial Applications
Classification Part 4: Family H
(Hydraulic Systems), ISO Standard
6743

Hydraulic Fluid Power Fire- Requirements


for
Resistant (Fr) Fluids Guidelines for Hydraulic Fluids
Use, Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi-110002.

H. H. Zuidema, The Performance of Friction, Wear, and Lubrication: Terms


Lubricating Oil, Reinhold Publishing and Definitions
Corp., N. Y., 1959.

Fire-Resistant

Sr. No.

Author Name & Book Title

Literature

S. Sharma, S. Sangal, K. Mondal, On


the optical microscopic method for the
determination of ball-on-flat surface
linearly reciprocating sliding wear
volume, Wear 300 (2013) 8289

Measurement and Calculation of Wear, A


model for calculation of the wear volume in
case of linearly reciprocating sliding wear
test has been studied in this paper to get
accurate and quick results. The model
proves to be an effective tool for the
calculation of the wear volume.

Charles Spar, Hydraulic Fluids and Their Relative radiation resistance of various
Applications, ASME Publication 64 hydraulic fluids.
WA/LUB-14.

R.O .Bolt and J.G. Carrol, Effect of Change of properties of lubricant because
radiation on aircraft lubrications and of gamma irradiation
fuels, California Research Corporation,
WADC Technical Report No 56- 646, Part
II, ASTIA Document No. AD 151176.
April 1958.

Zeeshan
Ahmad,
P.K.Mishra, Tribological data of gamma irradiation on
Determination of Effect of Gamma hydraulic fluids.
Radiation on Petroleum based Hydraulic
Fluid - ENKLO-68 RTD Report, BARC,
Mumbai

Literature Survey conti..


Sr. No.

Bench Type Friction and Wear Tester

Literature

Timken Tester
Federal Test Method 6505

A steel block is pressed against a rotating,


cylindrical steel ring

Almen Tester

a cylindrical rod is rotated in a split bushing


which is pressed against it

Falex Tester
Federal Test Method 3807 & Federal Test
Method 3812

A cylindrical rod is rotated between two hard Vshaped bearing blocks which are pressed against
the rod

Four-ball Tester
ASTM D-2596-67T, Federal Test Method
6514 & ASTM D-2266-64T

In the four-ball machine (often called the "Shell"


Four-ball Tester) a 1/2-in.-diameter steel ball is
rotated in contact with three stationary similar
balls which are clamped in a fixed position

SAE Tester
Federal Test Method 6501

In the SAE machine, two cylinders aligned axially


and in contact with each other are driven at
different speeds. One of the cylinders may be
driven in either direction. The pieces revolve
under a flooded lubrication condition from the
test liquid held in a cup.

ASTM
Designation
G133-05(2010),
Standard Test Method for Linearly
Reciprocating Ball-on-Flat Sliding Wear,
ASTM International, West Conshohocken,
PA, 2010, www.astm.org

A flat specimen and a spherically ended


specimen (here in called the ball specimen),
which slides against the flat specimen. These
specimen moves relative to one another in a
linear, back & forth sliding motion, under a
prescribed set of conditions.

Bench Type Friction and Wear Tester

3.Methodology
1. Tribological testing of hydraulic fluid
Objective:

The main objectives of this test was


To evaluate the wear characteristics hydraulic fluids at different conditions
To compare these wear characteristics of the two oil samples with each other and also with
actual pump test

Apparatus and materials:

This test has been carried out at Refueling Technology Division (RTD), BARC Mumbai
A reciprocating sliding wear and friction machine (Plint and Partner TE-70) was used based on
ASTM G133 Procedure B
Bearing steel plate SS-52100 and bearing steel balls SS-52100 of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) diameter
were used as fixed specimen and moving specimen respectively.

Other test conditions:


Oil Name

Temperature (C)

Oil-A
FRHF

65

POE
Oil-B

65

Mineral
Oil-A
FRHF

90

POE

Load(N)

Frequency (Hz)

Sliding

Stroke Length

Distance (M)

(MM)

15

10

400

20000

15

20

400

10000

25

10

400

20000

15

10

400

20000

15

20

400

10000

25

10

400

20000

15

10

400

20000

15

20

400

10000

25

10

400

20000

Test Procedure:
Load

Typical Contact Geometry

Time (Sec)

TE70 Reciprocating Wear & Friction Machine

The following test procedure was followed as per ASTM


standard G133 05
1. Specimens on which experiments were carried out (e.g. plate & ball) were cleaned
thoroughly using acetone and ultrasonic cleaning machine. The samples were
dried by using hot air.
2. The sample bath was cleaned using acetone & was dried with hot air.
3. The specimens were cleaned after they were secured in place in the test fixture by
wiping with acetone and then with lint free tissue paper.
4. The ball specimen was gently lowered upon the flat specimen & it was also
ensured that the reciprocating drive shaft motion was horizontal & parallel to the
surface of flat specimen.
5. The test load was applied. It was confirmed that the desired oscillating speed had
been set before starting the test

Test Parameters:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4

Parameter

As per ASTM Standard ( Procedure B)

Applied Normal ForceBall Tip Radius


Stroke Length
Test Duration

200 N
4.76 mm
10 mm
sliding Distance 400 m

Parameters Used For This


Test
15 N, 25 N
in (12.7 mm)
1 mm
sliding Distance 400 m

Frequency of oscillation

10 Hz

10,20,10 Hz

Type of motion produced by Not Specified. It can be Sinusoidal velocity


the oscillating drive system
profile, triangular velocity profile

Sinusoidal velocity profile

Ambient relative humidity

40 to 60 %

60%

8
9

Ambient Temperatures
Medium

150 2C
Lubrication

65C
Lubrication

Measurement and Calculation of Wear:


1.

Wear measurement of ball specimen:

Owing to the nature of this type of test, the wear on ball specimen may not be circular or flat
always therefore refer the following which applies.
If the ball appears flat but not circular, the average of the maximum and minimum
dimensions of the scar is taken as effective ball scar diameter (D).
Pin scar measurement may be made by removing the ball specimen holder and placing the
wear scar portion under the microscope. A calibrated ocular or a photo-micrograph of known
magnification may be used to measure scar dimensions.

As per ASTM G99-05(2010) Volume loss of Ball in mm3 is calculated using following formula

( . , )4
, =
64 ( , )
4
= 64
Vb= Wear volume for ball scar of diameter D in mm3
D = Ball scar diameter in mm
R = Ball radius in mm
3

Where

Note: This is an approximate geometric relation that is correct to 1 % for (wear scar diameter/ball radius) <0.3, and is correct to 5
% for (wear scar diameter/ball radius) <0.7. The exact equation is as given below.

Volume loss of ball (Vb) is given by,


= 6 [3 2 4 + 2 ]
= [ 2 2 /4]1/2
D = Wear scar diameter
R = Radius of Ball
Wear rate of ball is calculated using following formula.

=
( 103 )
Where

Where

k = Wear rate of ball in mm3/Newton.


Meter
Vb = Wear volume for ball scar of diameter D in mm3
P = Load in N
L = Sliding Distance in mm

2. Wear of Flat specimen:

Wear of Flat specimen is calculated using following formula


[8 0.001 ( ) + ( 3 )]
=
12
Where, w = width of wear scar in mm
d = depth of wear scar in mm
l = length of wear scar in mm

Typical photographs indicating Ball wear

Ball SS-52100, 15 N, 10 Hz, 20000 sec

Ball SS-52100, 25 N, 20 Hz, 10000 sec

Typical photographs indicating Plate wear

Plate SS-52100, 15 N, 10 Hz, 20000 sec

Plate SS-52100, 25 N, 20 Hz, 10000 sec

Results and Discussion


Effect of Temperature on Coefficient of Friction
Stribeck Curve for OIL-A and OIL-B
0.11
OIL-A
0.1

Coefficient of Friction

1.

OIL-B

0.09
0.08
0.07

Regime 1 Regime 2

0.06

Regime 3

0.05
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*V/P(Stribeck Parameter)

0.25

0.3

0.35

Friction Characteristics
Effect of Temperature on Coefficient of Friction
15 N / 20 Hz

0.081
0.08

Oil-A

0.089 0.088

0.09

0.081

Oil-B

0.079

0.07

0.06

0.05

Oil-A

0.1
0.095

0.095

0.096

0.092

0.089

0.076

0.063

0.05
27

65

90

27

Effect of Temperature on Coefficient of Friction


25 N / 10 Hz
0.1
Oil-A
0.09

Oil-B

0.086 0.086
0.077

0.08
0.073

0.073

0.07
0.06
0.05
27

65

Temperature (C)

65

Temperature (C)

Temperature (C)

Coefficient of Friction

0.102

Coefficient of Friction

Coefficient of Friction

Effect of Temperature on Coefficient of Friction


15 N / 10 Hz

90

90

Oil-B

Wear Characteristics
1. Ball Wear
Load Vs. Wear Rate of Ball
27C /10 Hz

10-7
1.50

OIL-A
OIL-B

0.90

0.83

0.60
0.38

0.36
0.30

Load Vs. Wear Rate of Ball


65C /10 Hz
1.50

0.00
15

Load (N)

OIL-A

25

Wear Rate(mm/Nm)

Wear Rate(mm/Nm)

1.20
1.20

OIL-B

1.20
0.90

0.87

0.86

0.60
0.30

0.22

0.21

0.00
15

25

Load (N)

Plate Wear
Load Vs. Wear Rate of Plate
27C /10 Hz
OIL-A

4.79

5.00

OIL-B

4.00
3.00
2.00

2.82
1.81
1.36

1.00
0.00
15

Load (N)

25
5.00

Wear Rate(mm/Nm)

Wear Rate(mm/Nm)

6.00

Load Vs. Wear Rate of Plate


65C /10 Hz
OIL-A

OIL-B

4.00

3.53

3.00
2.21
2.00
1.00

1.45
0.56

0.00
15

Load (N)

25

2. Radiation resistance of hydraulic fluid


Objective:

The main objectives of this test was


To give a brief description of fluids and standard test methods for viscosity measurement.
To measure the viscosities of the Radiated oil sample at different level of radiation.
To compare the result of two different oil sample each radiated at five different levels of
radiation.

Sample Preparation

Measurement of properties of ENKLO-68:


1. Density:
Following graph gives the variation of density in g/cm3 for fresh as well as
irradiated oil samples with respect to temperature in range of 15-100 C (288K to
373K).

0.90

Density (g/cm)

0.80
0.70

Density Vs Temperature

0.60

0 Mrad (Fresh Oil)


5 MRad
25 MRad
50 MRad
100 MRad
300 MRad

0.50
0.40
0.30

0.20
283

303

323

343

Temperature (K)

363

383

2. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Kinematic Viscosity:


Following graph gives the variation of Kinematic Viscosity in mm2/s (cST) for fresh
as well as irradiated oil samples with respect to temperature in range of 15-100 C
(288K to 373K).
1000.0

Kinematic viscosity Vs Temperature


0 MRad (Fresh Oil)

5 MRad
25 MRad

50 MRad

Kinematic Viscosity (mm2/s)

100.0

100 MRad

300 MRad

10.0

1.0
283

303

323

343

Temperature (K)

363

383

3. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Viscosity index:


110

Viscosity index

100
90
80
70
60
50
0

50

100

150

200

250

Gamma Radiation Dose (MRad)

300

350

Measurement of properties of POE-68 oil:

1. Density:

Density (g/cm)

Following graph gives the variation of density in g/cm3 for fresh as well as
irradiated oil samples with respect to temperature in range of 15-100 C (288K to
373K).

Fresh
5 MRad
25 MRad
50 MRad
100 MRad
300 MRad

0.2
283

303

323

343

Temperature (K)

363

383

Fresh
Oil
Sampl
e

5
MRad

25
MRad

50
MRad

100
MRad

300
MRad

2. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Kinematic Viscosity:


Following graph gives the variation of Kinematic Viscosity in mm2/s (cST) for fresh as
well as irradiated oil samples with respect to temperature in range of 15-100 C (288K
to 373K).
Viscosity Vs Temp Graph for POE oil

500
Fresh
5 MRad

Viscosity mm/s

25 MRad
50 MRad
100 MRad
300 MRad
50

5
270

290

310

330

Temperature K

350

370

3. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Viscosity index:

Viscosity Index

150
148
146
VI

144
142
0

50

100

150

200

Gamma Radiation Dose (Mrad)

250

300

4. Conclusion and Future Scope


1. Tribological Evaluation

The tribological evaluation for qualifying hydraulic Oil-A and Oil-B has been done on sliding
friction and wear machine TE-70. Friction and wear were the major candidate for qualifying
the oils.
As discussed in previous chapter, the friction characteristics of the two oils are almost same.
The stribeck curve shows that both Oil-A and Oil-B have similar operating conditions in
hydrodynamic regime.
The wear characteristics shows that the wear rate of ball and plate under Oil-A lubrication is
high as compared to Oil-B but the order of wear rate is very low for both oils and is of order
10-7, which is condition of mild wear. Hence it can be acceptable.
Based on tribological experiment it can be concluded that both hydraulic oils are similar in
tribological behaviour, Oil-A has the advantage of being fire resistant. There for Oil-B can be
replaced by Oil-A if there is chances of fire hazard or the operating temperature is high.

2. Radiation Resistant

There is approx. 5.92% decrease in the density of the ENKLO 68 and 6.02% decrease in the
density of the POE 68 from 15 to 100 C

The density of both ENKLO-68 and POE-68 oil has been found to be resistive to radiation
levels up to 300 MRad for same temperature as the radiation level increases Density is not
much affected.

The viscosity of the ENKLO-68 has been found to be more resistive to radiation levels and is
affected by 12-13% only where as POE-68 oil has been found to be less resistive and is
affected by 50-60% for same temperature.

It is found that the percentage change in viscosity for both oil samples is higher in lower
temperature range as compared to that in higher temperature range with respect to unirradiated fresh oil sample.

The viscosity index of the ENKLO-68 oil has not improved because of radiation and remains
constant, where as VI of POE-68 oil has improved.

The appearance of hydraulic oil ENKLO-68 has changed after exposure to Gamma radiation,
where as the appearance of hydraulic oil POE-68 Remains unchanged.

Analysis of Total Acid Number (TAN) and Total Base Number (TBN) may give the change in
acidic or basic content in the oil. This may be helpful to decide the effect of irradiated oil on
the components of hydraulic system.

Based on above discussion it is concluded that up to 50 MRad radiation level Oil-A can be
used as hydraulic fluid in replacement of Oil-B in nuclear industry when the operating
temperature is high.

Future Scope

The test procedure discussed in this report for sliding friction and wear measurement can be
used for general purpose friction and wear test under lubricated or dry condition.
The data available in this report can be used for selection of hydraulic oils for other
applications also.
The properties of hydraulic oils will required to be evaluated at more radiation levels, for this
purpose it is planned to irradiate hydraulic oils at 5, 25, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 MRad
radiation levels.
The appearance of oil is not a major concern in this report but in future the oil has to be
further analysed for presence of oxidation compounds using TAN and Oxidation Stability test.
Change-over of a system from one hydraulic oil to another can create problems unless
consideration is given to circuit and component design.
For this purpose, a Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid Test Facility (FRHTF) will be developed by
RTD at Engineering Hall 3. In this facility hydraulic performance, compatibility with existing
hydraulic components, and high temperature operability will be tested by evaluating the
changes in properties of the hydraulic oils after being used in this facility test setups.
The test facility will be designed to be operated without any operator.
A man machine interface (MMI) will be required to design to run this test facility 24x7
without any operator assistance.

References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Engineering Design Handbook of Hydraulic Fluids, Headquarters, U.S. Army Materiel Command, April 1971.
W.D. Phillips, A Comparison of Fire-resistant Hydraulic Fluids for Hazardous Industrial Environments. Part 1. Fire resistance and lubrication properties,
FMC Corporation (UK) Ltd.
Sullivan, M.V., Wolfe, J.K., and Zisman, W.A., Flammability of the higher boiling liquids and their mists, Zng. Eng. Chem., 39, 12 (1947), 1607-14.
Murphy, C.M., and Zisman, W.A., Synthetic hydraulic fluids, Product Engineering, 21, 9 (1950), 109-13.
Lubricants, Industrial Oils and Related Products (Class L) Classification Part 4: Family H (Hydraulic Systems), ISO Standard 6743.
Santosh Javalagi and Swaroop Reddy Singireddy, Hydraulic fluid properties and its influence on system performance, Linkping University.
Hydraulic Fluid Power Fire-Resistant (Fr) Fluids Guidelines for Use, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi-110002.
Friction, Wear, and Lubrication: Terms and Definitions, Research Group on Wear of Engineering Materials, Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development.
H. H. Zuidema, The Performance of Lubricating Oil, Reinhold Publishing Corp., N. Y., 1959.
Federal Test Method Standard No. 791a, Test Method No. 6505.
Federal Test Method Standard No. 791a, Test Method No. 3807.
Federal Test Method Standard No. 791a, Test Method No. 3812.
ASTM Standards 1969, Designation D-2596- 67T, Part 17, p. 970, Philadelphia, American Society for Testing Materials, 1969.
Federal Test Method Standard No. 791a, Test Method No. 6514.
ASTM Standards 1967, Designation D-2266- 64T, Part 17, p. 799, Philadelphia, American Society for Testing Materials, 1967.
Federal Test Method Standard No. 791a, Test Method No. 6501.
H. Gisser, The Effects of Nuclear Radiation in Lubricants, Conference on Effects of Nuclear Radiation on Materials, Watertown Arsenal, 1967.
R. C. Gunderson and A. W. Hart, Synthetic Lubricants, Reinhold Publishing Corp., N.Y., 1962.
Roger E. Hatton, Introduction to Hydraulic Fluids, Reinhold Publishing Corp., N. Y., 1962.
Charles Spar, Hydraulic Fluids and Their Applications, ASME Publication 64 WA/LUB-14.
R.O .Bolt and J.G. Carrol, Effect of radiation on aircraft lubrications and fuels, California Research Corporation, WADC Technical Report No 56- 646,
Part II, ASTIA Document No. AD 151176. April 1958.
William L. R. Rice, Nuclear Radiation Resistant Lubricants, California Research Corporation, WADC Technical Report No 57-299, ASTIA Document No.
AD 118329 May 1957.
S. Sharma, S. Sangal, K. Mondal, On the optical microscopic method for the determination of ball-on-flat surface linearly reciprocating sliding wear
volume, Wear 300 (2013) 8289
ASTM G133-05(2010), Standard Test Method for Linearly Reciprocating Ball-on-Flat Sliding Wear, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA,
2010, www.astm.org
Zeeshan Ahmad, P.K.Mishra, Determination of Effect of Gamma Radiation on Petroleum based Hydraulic Fluid - ENKLO-68 RTD Report, BARC,
Mumbai
http://www.viscopedia.com/methods/measuring-principles/
Hutchings, I.M. (1992), Tribology Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials, Edward Arnold, London.
Zum Gahr, K.-H. (1987), Microstructure and Wear of Materials, Tribology Series 10, Elsevier, Amsterdam.