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Moving Picture Experts Group

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"MPEG" redirects here. For the guild, see Motion Picture Editors Guild. For the
unaffiliated company that licenses patent pools for some MPEG standards, see
MPEG LA.

The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of experts that was formed by
ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.[1] It was
established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and
Leonardo Chiariglione[2], who has been from the beginning the Chairman of the group. The first
MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada.[3][4][5] As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to
include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and
research institutions. MPEG's official designation is ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11 - Coding of
moving pictures and audio (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working
Group 11).[6][7][8][9]

Contents
[hide]

1 Overview
2 Sub Groups

3 Cooperation with other groups


o

3.1 Joint Video Team

3.2 Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding

4 Standards

5 Standardization process

6 See also

7 Notes

8 External links

[edit] Overview

Compression methodology

The MPEG compression methodology is considered asymmetric as the encoder is more complex
than the decoder.[1] The encoder needs to be algorithmic or adaptive whereas the decoder is
'dumb' and carries out fixed actions.[1] This is considered advantageous in applications such as
broadcasting where the number of expensive complex encoders is small but the number of
simple inexpensive decoders is large. The MPEG's (ISO's) approach to standardization is novel,
because it is not the encoder that is standardized, but the way a decoder interprets the bitstream.
A decoder that can successfully interpret the bitstream is said to be compliant.[1] The advantage
of standardizing the decoder is that over time encoding algorithms can improve, yet compliant
decoders continue to function with them.[1] The MPEG standards give very little information
regarding structure and operation of the encoder and implementers can supply encoders using
proprietary algorithms.[10] This gives scope for competition between different encoder designs,

which means better designs can evolve and users have greater choice, because encoders of
different levels of cost and complexity can exist, yet a compliant decoder operates with all of
them.[10]
MPEG also standardizes the protocol and syntax under which it is possible to combine or
multiplex audio data with video data to produce a digital equivalent of a television program.
Many such programs can be multiplexed and MPEG defines the way such multiplexes can be
created and transported. The definitions include the metadata used by decoders to demultiplex
correctly.[11]

[edit] Sub Groups


ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 - Coding of moving pictures and audio has following Sub Groups
(SG):[6]

Requirements
Systems

Video

Audio

3D Graphics Compression

Test

[edit] Cooperation with other groups


[edit] Joint Video Team
Joint Video Team (JVT) is joint project between ITU-T SG16/Q.6 (Study Group 16 / Question
6) - VCEG (Video Coding Experts Group) and ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 - MPEG for the
development of new video coding recommendation and international standard.[6][12] It was formed
in 2001 and its main result has been H.264/MPEG-4-AVC (MPEG-4 Part 10).[13]

[edit] Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding


Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) is a group of video coding experts from
ITU-T Study Group 16 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (MPEG). It was created in
2010 to develop High Efficiency Video Coding, a new generation video coding standard that
further reduces (by 50%) the data rate required for high quality video coding, as compared to the
current ITU-T H.264 / ISO/IEC 14496-10 standard.[14][15] JCT-VC is co-chaired by Jens-Rainer
Ohm and Gary Sullivan.

[edit] Standards
The MPEG standards consist of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole
specification.[16] The standards also specify Profiles and Levels. Profiles are intended to define a
set of tools that are available, and Levels define the range of appropriate values for the properties
associated with them.[17] Some of the approved MPEG standards were revised by later
amendments and/or new editions. MPEG has standardized the following compression formats
and ancillary standards:

MPEG-1 (1993): Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital
storage media at up to about 1,5 Mbit/s (ISO/IEC 11172). The first MPEG
compression standard for audio and video. It is commonly limited to about
1.5 Mbit/s although the specification is capable of much higher bit rates. It
was basically designed to allow moving pictures and sound to be encoded
into the bitrate of a Compact Disc. It is used on Video CD, SVCD and can be
used for low-quality video on DVD Video. It was used in digital satellite/cable
TV services before MPEG-2 became widespread. To meet the low bit
requirement, MPEG-1 downsamples the images, as well as uses picture rates
of only 2430 Hz, resulting in a moderate quality.[18] It includes the popular
MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3) audio compression format.

MPEG-2 (1995): Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio


information (ISO/IEC 13818). Transport, video and audio standards for
broadcast-quality television. MPEG-2 standard was considerably broader in
scope and of wider appeal supporting interlacing and high definition. MPEG2 is considered important because it has been chosen as the compression
scheme for over-the-air digital television ATSC, DVB and ISDB, digital satellite
TV services like Dish Network, digital cable television signals, SVCD and DVD
Video.[18] It is also used on Blu-ray Discs, but these normally use MPEG-4 Part
10 or SMPTE VC-1 for high-definition content.

MPEG-3: MPEG-3 dealt with standardizing scalable and multi-resolution


compression[18] and was intended for HDTV compression but was found to be
redundant and was merged with MPEG-2, as a result there is no MPEG-3
standard.[18][19] MPEG-3 is not to be confused with MP3, which is MPEG-1 Audio
Layer 3.

MPEG-4 (1998): Coding of audio-visual objects. (ISO/IEC 14496) MPEG-4 uses


further coding tools with additional complexity to achieve higher compression
factors than MPEG-2.[20] In addition to more efficient coding of video, MPEG-4
moves closer to computer graphics applications. In more complex profiles,
the MPEG-4 decoder effectively becomes a rendering processor and the
compressed bitstream describes three-dimensional shapes and surface
texture.[20] MPEG-4 supports Intellectual Property Management and Protection
(IPMP), which provides the facility to use proprietary technologies to manage
and protect content like digital rights management.[21] It also supports MPEGJ, a fully programmatic solution for creation of custom interactive multimedia
applications (Java application environment with a Java API) and many other

features.[22][23][24] Several new higher-efficiency video standards (newer than


MPEG-2 Video) are included, notably:
o

MPEG-4 Part 2 (or Simple and Advanced Simple Profile) and

MPEG-4 AVC (or MPEG-4 Part 10 or H.264). MPEG-4 AVC may be used
on HD DVD and Blu-ray Discs, along with VC-1 and MPEG-2.

In addition, the following standards, while not sequential advances to the video encoding
standard as with MPEG-1 through MPEG-4, are referred to by similar notation:

MPEG-7 (2002): Multimedia content description interface. (ISO/IEC 15938)

MPEG-21 (2001): Multimedia framework (MPEG-21). (ISO/IEC 21000) MPEG


describes this standard as a multimedia framework and provides for
intellectual property management and protection.

Moreover, more recently than other standards above, MPEG has started following international
standards; each of the standards holds multiple MPEG technologies for a way of application.[25]
[26][27][28][29]
(For example, MPEG-A includes a number of technologies on multimedia application
format.)

MPEG-A (2007): Multimedia application format (MPEG-A). (ISO/IEC 23000)


(e.g., Purpose for multimedia application formats, [30] MPEG music player
application format, MPEG photo player application format and others)

MPEG-B (2006): MPEG systems technologies. (ISO/IEC 23001) (e.g., Binary


MPEG format for XML,[31] Fragment Request Units, Bitstream Syntax
Description Language (BSDL) and others)

MPEG-C (2006): MPEG video technologies. (ISO/IEC 23002) (e.g., Accuracy


requirements for implementation of integer-output 8x8 inverse discrete
cosine transform[32] and others)

MPEG-D (2007): MPEG audio technologies. (ISO/IEC 23003) (e.g., MPEG


Surround[33], SAOC-Spatial Audio Object Coding and USAC-Unified Speech and
Audio Coding)

MPEG-E (2007): Multimedia Middleware. (ISO/IEC 23004) (a.k.a. M3W) (e.g.,


Architecture,[34] Multimedia application programming interface (API),
Component model and others)

Supplemental media technologies (2008). (ISO/IEC 29116) Part 1: Media


streaming application format protocols will be revised in MPEG-M Part 4 MPEG extensible middleware (MXM) protocols. [35]

MPEG-V (2011): Media context and control. (ISO/IEC 23005) (a.k.a.


Information exchange with Virtual Worlds) [36][37] (e.g., Avatar characteristics,
Sensor information, Architecture[38][39] and others)

MPEG-M (2010): MPEG eXtensible Middleware (MXM). (ISO/IEC 23006) [40][41][42]


(e.g., MXM architecture and technologies, [43] API, MPEG extensible middleware
(MXM) protocols[44])

MPEG-U (2010): Rich media user interfaces. (ISO/IEC 23007)[45][46] (e.g.,


Widgets)
MPEG groups of standards [26][27][28][47][48]

Acronym
for a
group of
standard
s

Title

First
public
ISO/IEC
release
standar
date
ds
(First
edition)

MPEG-1

Coding of moving
pictures and
associated audio for
digital storage media.
ISO/IEC
Commonly limited to
11172
about 1.5 Mbit/s
although specification
is capable of much
higher bit rates

1993

MPEG-2

Generic coding of
moving pictures and
associated audio
information

1995

ISO/IEC
13818

Description

abandoned, incorporated into


MPEG-2

MPEG-3
MPEG-4

Coding of audio-visual ISO/IEC


objects
14496

1999

MPEG-7

Multimedia content
description interface

ISO/IEC
15938

2002

MPEG-21

Multimedia framework ISO/IEC


(MPEG-21)
21000

2001

MPEG-A

Multimedia
application format
(MPEG-A)

2007

ISO/IEC
23000

MPEG-B

MPEG systems
technologies

ISO/IEC
23001

2006

MPEG-C

MPEG video
technologies

ISO/IEC
23002

2006

MPEG-D

MPEG audio
technologies

ISO/IEC
23003

2007

MPEG-E

Multimedia
Middleware

ISO/IEC
23004

2007

(none)

Supplemental media
technologies

ISO/IEC
29116

MPEG-V

Media context and


control

ISO/IEC
2011
23005[38]

MPEG-M

MPEG extensible
middleware (MXM)

ISO/IEC
2010
23006[43]

MPEG-U

Rich media user


interfaces

ISO/IEC
2010
23007[45]

MPEGH[27]

(planned Under
High-Efficiency Video
ISO/IEC
developm
Coding
23008)
ent

2008

will be revised in MPEG-M Part


4 - MPEG extensible
middleware (MXM) protocols

[edit] Standardization process


Main article: International Organization for Standardization#Standardization process

A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that starts with the proposal
of new work within a committee. Here are some abbreviations used for marking a standard with
its status:[3][49][50][51][52][53]

PWI - Preliminary Work Item


NP or NWIP - New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal (e.g., ISO/IEC NP 23007)

AWI - Approved new Work Item (e.g., ISO/IEC AWI 15444-14)

WD - Working Draft

CD - Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC CD 23000-5)

FCD - Final Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC FCD 23000-12)

DIS - Draft International Standard

FDIS - Final Draft International Standard

PRF - Proof of a new International Standard

IS - International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007)

CD Amd / PDAmd (PDAM) - Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft


Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/CD Amd 6)

FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) - Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment


(e.g., ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003/FPDAmd 1)

FDAM (FDAmd) - Final Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/FDAmd


4)

Amd - Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Amd 1:2007)

Other abbreviations:

TR - Technical Report (e.g., ISO/IEC TR 13818-5:2005)


TS - Technical Specification

IWA - International Workshop Agreement

Cor - Technical Corrigendum (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Cor 1:2008)

A proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at Subcommittee and then at the Technical
Committee level (SC29 and JTC1 respectively - in the case of MPEG). When the scope of new
work is sufficiently clarified, MPEG usually makes open requests for proposals - known as "Call
for proposals". The first document that is produced for audio and video coding standards is called
a Verification Model (VM). In the case of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 this was called Simulation and
Test Model, respectively. When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under
development is reached, a Working Draft (WD) is produced. This is in the form of a standard but
is kept internal to MPEG for revision. When a WD is sufficiently solid, becomes Committee
Draft (CD) (usually at the planned time). It is then sent to National Bodies (NB) for ballot. The
CD becomes Final Committee Draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes is above the quorum.
After a review and comments issued by NBs, FCD is again submitted to NBs for the second
ballot. If the FCD is approved, it becomes Final Draft International Standard (FDIS). ISO then
holds a ballot with National Bodies, where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot). If
approved, the document becomes International Standard (IS).[3]
ISO/IEC Directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document
is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member
bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if the document was developed by an
international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council.[50]

[edit] See also

Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG)


Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)

Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG)

Multimedia and Hypermedia information coding Expert Group (MHEG)

Audio codec

Video codec

Video quality

Video compression

Pro-MPEG

MP3

Leonardo Chiariglione

[edit] Notes
1.
2.

^ a b c d e John Watkinson, The MPEG Handbook, p.1


^ Hans Geog Musmann (PDF), Genesis of the MP3 Audio Coding
Standard, retrieved 2011-07-26
a b c

3.

"About MPEG". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2009-12-13.

4.

^ "MPEG Meetings". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2009-12-13.

5.

^ chiariglione.org (2009-09-06). "Riding the Media Bits, The Faultline".


Retrieved 2010-02-09.

6.

^ a b c ISO, IEC (2009-11-05). "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29, SC 29/WG 11


Structure (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 - Coding of Moving Pictures and
Audio)". Retrieved 2009-11-07.

7.

^ MPEG Committee. "MPEG - Moving Picture Experts Group". Retrieved


2009-11-07.

8.

^ ISO. "MPEG Standards - Coded representation of video and audio".


Retrieved 2009-11-07.

9.

^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and


hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-11.
a b

10.

11.

^ John Watkinson, The MPEG Handbook, p.3

12.
13.

John Watkinson, The MPEG Handbook, p.2

^ "ITU-T and ISO/IEC to produce next generation video coding


standard". 2002-02-08. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
^ ITU-T. "Joint Video Team". Retrieved 2010-03-07.

14.

^ ITU-T (2010-01). "Final joint call for proposals for next-generation


video coding standardization". Retrieved 2010-03-07.

15.

^ ITU-T. "Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding - JCT-VC". Retrieved


2010-03-07.

16.
17.

^ Understanding MPEG-4, p.78


^ Cliff Wootton. A Practical Guide to Video and Audio Compression.
p. 665.

18.
19.

a b c d

The MPEG Handbook, p.4

^ Salomon, David (2007). "Video Compression". Data compression: the


complete reference (4 ed.). Springer. p. 676. ISBN 978-1-84628-602-5.
a b

20.

21.

^ Understanding MPEG-4, p.83

22.

^ "MPEG-J White Paper". 2005-07. Retrieved 2010-04-11.

23.

^ "MPEG-J GFX white paper". 2005-07. Retrieved 2010-04-11.

24.

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 14496-21:2006 - Information technology -- Coding of


audio-visual objects -- Part 21: MPEG-J Graphics Framework eXtensions
(GFX)". ISO. Retrieved 2009-10-30.

25.
26.

The MPEG Handbook, pp.4-5

^ Official MPEG Web Site


^ a b MPEG. "About MPEG - Achievements". chiariglione.org. Retrieved
2009-10-31.

27.

a b c

MPEG. "Terms of Reference". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2009-10-

31.
28.
29.

^ a b MPEG. "MPEG standards - Full list of standards developed or under


development". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2009-10-31.
^ MPEG. "MPEG technologies". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2009-10-31.

30.

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC TR 23000-1:2007 - Information technology -Multimedia application format (MPEG-A) -- Part 1: Purpose for multimedia
application formats". Retrieved 2009-10-31.

31.

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 23001-1:2006 - Information technology -- MPEG


systems technologies -- Part 1: Binary MPEG format for XML". Retrieved 200910-31.

32.

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 23002-1:2006 - Information technology -- MPEG video


technologies -- Part 1: Accuracy requirements for implementation of integeroutput 8x8 inverse discrete cosine transform". Retrieved 2009-10-31.

33.

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 23003-1:2007 - Information technology -- MPEG audio


technologies -- Part 1: MPEG Surround". Retrieved 2009-10-31.

34.

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 23004-1:2007 - Information technology -- Multimedia


Middleware -- Part 1: Architecture". Retrieved 2009-10-31.

35.

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 29116-1:2008 - Information technology -- Supplemental


media technologies -- Part 1: Media streaming application format protocols".
Retrieved 2009-11-07.

36.

^ ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-10-30). "MPEG-V (Media context and


control)". Retrieved 2009-11-01.

37.

^ MPEG. "Working documents - MPEG-V (Information Exchange with


Virtual Worlds)". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2009-11-01.

38.

^ a b ISO. "ISO/IEC FDIS 23005-1 - Information technology -- Media


context and control -- Part 1: Architecture". Retrieved 2011-01-28.

39.

^ Christian Timmerer, Jean Gelissen, Markus Waltl, and Hermann


Hellwagner (PDF), Interfacing with Virtual Worlds, retrieved 2009-12-29

40.

^ ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-10-30). "MPEG-M (MPEG extensible


middleware (MXM))". Retrieved 2009-11-01.

41.

^ MPEG. "MPEG Extensible Middleware (MXM)". Retrieved 2009-11-04.

42.

^ ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 (2008-10). "MPEG eXtensible Middleware


Vision". ISO. Retrieved 2009-11-05.

43.

^ a b ISO. "ISO/IEC FCD 23006-1 - Information technology -- MPEG


extensible middleware (MXM) -- Part 1: MXM architecture and technologies".
Retrieved 2009-10-31.

44.

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 23006-4 - Information technology -- MPEG extensible


middleware (MXM) -- Part 4: MPEG extensible middleware (MXM) protocols".
Retrieved 2011-01-28.

45.

^ a b ISO. "ISO/IEC 23007-1 - Information technology -- Rich media user


interfaces -- Part 1: Widgets". Retrieved 2011-01-28.

46.

^ ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-10-30). "MPEG-U (Rich media user


interfaces)". Retrieved 2009-11-01.

47.

^ ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-11-05). "Programme of Work (Allocated to


SC 29/WG 11)". Retrieved 2009-11-07.

48.

^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and


hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-07.

49.
50.

^ ISO. "International harmonized stage codes". Retrieved 2009-12-31.


^ a b ISO. "Stages of the development of International Standards".
Retrieved 2009-12-31.

51.

^ "The ISO27k FAQ - ISO/IEC acronyms and committees". IsecT Ltd..


Retrieved 2009-12-31.

52.

^ ISO (2007). "ISO/IEC Directives Supplement Procedures specific to


ISO" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-12-31.

53.

^ ISO (2007). "List of abbreviations used throughout ISO Online".


Retrieved 2009-12-31.

[edit] External links

Official MPEG web site


MPEG.ORG

MPEG Industry Forum (MPEGIF)

MPEG Books

[show]v d eMPEG (Moving Picture

Experts Group)
[show]v d eMultimedia compression and

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