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List of physics terms and terminology

LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS AND TERMINOLOGY


CHAPTER ONE (INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS )
ITEM
Physical quantity
Kuantiti fizik
Base quantity
Kuantiti asas
Derived quantity
Kuantiti terbitan

Precision / Consistency
Kepersisan
Accuracy
Kejituan

Sensitivity
Kepekaan
Error
Ralat
Systematic error
Ralat sistematik

Random error
Ralat rawak

Parallax error

MEANING / DEFINITION
A quantity that can be measured
Kuantiti yang boleh diukur
A physical quantity that cannot be defined in terms of other
physical quantities
Kuantiti fizik yang tidak dapat ditakrifkan dalam sebutan
kuantiti fizik yang lain
A physical quantity that is derived by combining base
quantities. This can be done by multiplication or division or
both.
Kuantiti fizik yang dihasilkan daripada gabungan kuantiti
asas secara pendaraban atau pembahagian atau keduaduanya
A measurement is more consistent when there is a smaller
deviation among the readings.
Suatu pengukuran adalah lebih konsisten apabila terdapat
sisihan yang kecil antara bacaan-bacaan
The accuracy of a measurement is how close the
measurement is to the actual value of the quantity being
measured.
A measurement is more accurate when the reading is closer
to the actual value
Suatu pengukuran adalah lebih jitu apabila bacaan itu
lebih hampir kepada nilai sebenar
The ability of an instrument to detect small changes in the
physical quantity that is measured
Kebolehan alat mengesan perubahan kecil pada kuantiti
yang diukur.
The difference between the reading obtained and the actual
value
Perbezaan antara bacaan yang diperoleh dan nilai sebenar
A systematic error is an experimental error that will produce
readings which are either always higher or always lower
than the actual value that is being measured.
Ralat sistematik ialah ralat eksperimen yang akan
menghasilkan bacaan-bacaan yang sama ada sentiasa lebih
besar atau sentiasa lebih kecil daripada nilai sebenar yang
sedang diukur.
A random error is caused by uncertainties in a measurement
that will produce readings that could be higher or lower than
the actual value that is being measured.
Ralat rawak adalah disebabkan oleh ketakpastian dalam
suatu pengukuran yang akan menghasilkan bacaan-bacaan
yang lebih tinggi atau lebih kecil daripada nilai sebenar.
Is a random error which occurs when the eye of the observer
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List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Ralat paralaks

Zero error
Ralat sifar
Manipulated variable
Pembolehubah
dimanipulasikan
Responding variable
Pembolehubah bergerakbalas
Fixed variable
Pembolehubah dimalarkan

MEANING / DEFINITION
is not directly above the scale of the instrument, causing the
line of sight to be not perpendicular to the scale
Ialah ralat rawak yang berlaku apabila mata pemerhati
tidak tegak di atas skala alat pengukur, menyebabkan garis
penglihatan tidak serenjang dengan skala itu
Is a systematic error where the instrument does not show
zero reading when it is not taking a measurement.
Ialah ralat sistematik di mana alat itu tidak menunjukkan
bacaan sifar semasa tidak membuat pengukuran
A physical quantity which you control and change for the
purpose of investigation in an experiment
Kuantiti fizik yang dikawal atau diubah untuk tujuan
menjalankan penyiasatan dalam suatu eksperimen
A physical quantity which changes in response to changes to
the manipulated variable
Kuantiti fizik yang yang berubah disebabkan oleh
perubahan kepada pembolehubah dimanipulasikan
A physical quantity which is kept constant throughout the
experiment
Kuantiti fizik yang dikekalkan malar sepanjang eksperimen

CHAPTER TWO (FORCES AND MOTION)


ITEM
Linear motion
Gerakan linear
Scalar quantity
Kuantiti skalar
Vector quantity
Kuantiti vektor
Velocity
Halaju
Speed
Laju
Acceleration
Pecutan
Distance
Jarak
Displacement
Sesaran
Inertia

Newtons First law


Hukum Pertama Newton

MEANING / DEFINITION
Motion along a straight line
Gerakan sepanjang satu garis lurus
A physical quantity which has only magnitude
Kuantiti fizik yang mempunyai magnitud sahaja
A physical quantity which has both magnitude and direction
Kuantiti yang mempunyai magnitud dan arah
The rate of change of displacement
Kadar perubahan sesaran
The rate of change of distance
Kadar perubahan jarak
The rate of change of velocity
Kadar perubahan halaju
The total length of the path travelled
Jumlah panjang lintasan yang dilalui
Displacement is the shortest distance from one point to
another point along a specific direction
Jarak terpendek dari satu titik ke titik yang lain mengikut
satu arah tertentu
The tendency of an object to resist change to its state of rest
or motion.
Sifat semulajadi sesuatu objek yang menentang perubahan
kepada keadaan asalnya sama ada pegun atau bergerak
An object will remain at rest or motion with uniform
velocity along a straight line unless it is acted upon by an
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List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM

Newtons Second law


Hukum Kedua Newton
Newtons Third law
Hukum Ketiga Newton
Momentum
Momentum
Principle of conservation of
momentum
Prinsip keabadian momentum
Force
Daya
Impulse
Impuls
Impulsive force
Daya impuls
Weight
Berat
Mass
Jisim
Free fall
Jatuh bebas

Work
Kerja
Energy
Tenaga
Gravitational field
Medan graviti

MEANING / DEFINITION
external force.
Suatu objek akan berada dalam keadaan pegun atau
gerakan dengan halaju seragam sepanjang garis lurus
kecuali dikenakan satu daya luar
The net force on an object is proportional to the rate of
change in momentum.
Daya bersih pada suatu objek berkadar terus dengan kadar
perubahan momentum
To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Bagi setiap tindakan terdapat satu tindakbalas yang
mempunyai magnitud yang sama dan bertindak pada arah
yang bertentangan.
The product of mass and velocity of an object
Hasil darab jisim dengan halaju bagi suatu objek
The total momentum of a system is constant if no external
forces act on the system.
Jumlah momentum suatu system adalah tetap jika tiada
daya bertindak pada sistem itu.
A push or a pull that can change the size, shape or velocity
of an object.
Suatu tolakan atau tarikan yang boleh mengubah saiz,
bentuk atau halaju suatu objek
Change of momentum.
Perubahan momentum
A large force that acts for a short period of time during a
collision or explosion
Daya yang besar yang bertindak untuk masa yang pendek
semasa suatu perlanggaran atau letupan
The force of gravity which is exerted on it by earth.
Daya tindakan gravity ke atas suatu jasad.
The amount of matter in the object.
Jumlah kuantiti jirim di dalam suatu objek.
Free fall occurs when an object falling under the force of
gravity only without being affected by any other external
forces.
Jatuh bebas berlaku apabila suatu objek jatuh disebabkan
oleh daya gravity sahaja tanpa kesan daripada sebarang
daya luar.
The product of force and the displacement along the
direction of the force
Hasil darab daya dengan sesaran dalam arah daya itu.
The capacity to do work.
Keupayaan melakukan kerja.
The region in which an object experiences a force due to
gravitational attraction.
Kawasan di mana suatu objek mengalami daya yang
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List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Potential energy
Tenaga keupayaan
Elastic potential energy
Tenaga keupayaan kenyal
Kinetic energy
Tenaga kinetik
The principle of conservation
of energy
Prinsip keabadian momentum

Power
Kuasa
Elasticity
Kekenyalan

Hookes law
Hukum Hooke
Elastic limit
Had kenyal

Force constant (spring


constant)
Pemalar daya (pemalar
spring)

MEANING / DEFINITION
disebabkan oleh tarikan graviti
The energy of an object because of its position.
Tenaga yang dimiliki oleh suatu objek disebabkan oleh
kedudukannya.
The energy of an object when it is stretched or compressed
Tenaga yang dimiliki oleh objek yang diregang atau
dimampat
The energy of an object due to its motion
Tenaga yang dimiliki oleh suatu jasad disebabkan oleh
gerakannya.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can be
transformed from one form to another, but the total energy
in a closed system is constant.
Tenaga tidak boleh dicipta atau dimusnahkan tetapi boleh
berubah bentuk ke bentuk yang lain. Jumlah tenaga di
dalam suatu system tertutup adalah tetap.
The rate at which work is done or energy is transferred.
Kadar melakukan kerja atau pemindahan tenaga.
The property of an object that enables it to return to its
original shape and dimensions (size) after an applied
external force is removed.
Keupayaan bahan untuk kembali ke bentuk dan saiz asalnya
apabila tindakan daya yang dikenakan dialihkan.
The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the
stretching force provided the elastic limit is not exceeded.
Pemanjangan spring adalah berkadar terus dengan daya
regangan dengan syarat had kenyal tidak dilampaui.
The elastic limit of a spring is the maximum stretching force
which can be applied to the spring before it ceases to be
elastic.
Had kenyal suatu spring adalah daya maksimum yang
boleh dikenakan pada spring itu sebelum ia hilang
kekenyalannya.
The force constant of a spring is the force per unit
extension.
Pemalar daya spring ialah daya per unit pemanjangan

CHAPTER THREE (FORCES AND PRESSURE)


ITEM
Pressure

MEANING / DEFINITION
The force acting perpendicularly on unit area of a surface.
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List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Tekanan
Atmospheric Pressure
Tekanan Atmosfera
Archimedes principle
Prinsip Archimedes

Bernoullis principle
Prinsip Bernoulli

Pascal's principle
Prinsip Pascal
Law of flotation
Hukum apungan
Hydrometer
Hidrometer

MEANING / DEFINITION
Daya yang bertindak secara normal pada seunit luas
permukaan
The pressure which is caused by the weight of the thick
layer of air (atmosphere) above the earths surface.
Tekanan yang disebabkan oleh lapisan tebal udara di atas
permukaan bumi.
An object that is completely or partially immersed in a
fluid is acted on by a buoyant force which is equal to the
weight of the displaced fluid.
Objek yang direndam atau separa rendam dalam suatu
bendalir akan dikenakan oleh satu daya julangan yang
sama dengan berat bendalir yang tersesar oleh jasad itu.
In a steady flow of a fluid, the pressure of the fluid
decreases when the velocity of the fluid increases.
Dalam suatu pengaliran bendalir yang mantap, tekanan
bendalir itu berkurang apabila laju pengaliran
bertambah.
The pressure applied on the surface of an enclosed liquid
is transmitted uniformly throughout the liquid
Tekanan yang dikenakan pada permukaan suatu cecair
akan dipindahkan dengan seragam ke seluruh cecair.
The weight of an object floating on the surface of a liquid
is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the object.
Berat objek yang terapung adalah sama dengan berat
cecair yang disesarkan
An instrument that measures the relative density of
liquids.
Alat untuk mengukur ketumpatan relatif cecair.

CHAPTER FOUR (HEAT)


ITEM
Temperature

MEANING / DEFINITION
The degree of hotness of an object
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List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Suhu
Heat
Haba
Thermal equilibrium
Keseimbangan terma
Heat capacity
Muatan haba
Specific heat capacity
Muatan haba tentu
Latent heat
Haba pendam
Specific latent heat
Haba pendam tentu

Specific latent heat of fusion


Haba pendam tentu pelakuran

Specific latent heat of


vaporisation
Haba pendam tentu
pengewapan
Boiling
Pendidihan
Boyles law
Hukum Boyle

Charles Law
Hukum Charles

MEANING / DEFINITION
Darjah kepanasan suatu objek.
Energy transferred from hot object to a colder object.
Tenaga yang dipindahkan dari objek yang panas ke objek
yang lebih sejuk.
Two objects are in thermal equilibrium when the net rate
of heat transfer between them is zero.
Dua objek berada dalam keseimbangan terma apabila
tiada pemindahan bersih haba antaranya
The heat capacity of an object is the quantity of heat
energy required to increase its temperature by 1oC.
Muatan haba adalah kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk
menaikkan suhu objek itu sebanyak 1oC.
The quantity of heat energy required to increase the
temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1 oC or 1 K.
Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu 1
kg bahan sebanyak 1 C atau 1 K.
The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant
temperature during a change of phase.
Haba yang diserap atau dikeluarkan pada suhu yang
malar semasa perubahan fasa.
The amount of heat energy required to change the phase
of 1 kg of the substance at a constant temperature.
Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk mengubah
1 kg bahan dari satu keadaan fizikal ke keadaan yang
lain.
The quantity of heat energy required to change 1 kg of the
substance from solid to liquid without a change in
temperature.
Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk mengubah
1 kg bahan dari pepejal ke cecair tanpa perubahan suhu.
The quantity of heat energy required to change 1 kg of the
substance from liqiud to gas without a change in
temperature.
Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menggubah
1 kg bahan dari cecair ke gas tanpa perubahan suhu.
A process where a liquid changes to vapour at a constant
temperature known as the boiling point.
Proses di mana cecair berubah menjadi wap pada suhu
tetap yang dikenali sebagai takat didih.
The pressure of a fixed mass of gas is inversely
proportional to its volume provided the temperature of the
gas is kept constant.
Tekanan bagi suatu jisim tetap gas berkadar songsang
dengan isipadu apabila suhu adalah tetap.
The volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional
to its absolute temperature provided the pressure of the
gas is kept constant.
Isipadu suatu jisim tetap gas berkadar terus dengan suhu
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List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Pressure law
Hukum Tekanan

MEANING / DEFINITION
mutlaknya apabila tekanan gas itu dikekalkan tetap
The pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature provided the
volume of the gas is kept constant.
Tekanan suatu jisim tetap gas berkadar terus dengan suhu
mutlaknya apabila isipadu gas itu dikekalkan tetap

CHAPTER FIVE (LIGHT)


ITEM
Reflection of light
Pantulan cahaya

Laws of reflection
Hukum pantulan cahaya

Refraction of light
Pembiasan cahaya

Laws of refraction
Hukum pembiasan

Apparent depth
Dalam ketara
Real depth
Dalam nyata

Total internal reflection


Pantulan dalam penuh

MEANING / DEFINITION
Reflection of light occurs when a light ray is incident on a
mirror and changes its direction of propagation
Pantulan cahaya berlaku apabila suatu sinar cahaya
ditujukan pada suatu cermin dan arah perambatannya
berubah
1 The incident ray, reflected ray and the normal at the
point of incidence all lie in the same plane.
2 The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of
reflection.
1 Sinar tuju, sinar pantulan dan garis normal di titik
tuju berada pada satah yang sama.
2 Sudut tuju sama dengan sudut pantulan
The change of direction of propagation light when it
crosses the boundary between two materials of different
optical densities.
Perubahan arah perambatan sinar cahaya apabila sinar
itu melintasi sempadan antara dua medium dengan
ketumpatan optik yang berlainan.
1 The incident ray, refracted ray and the normal at the
point of incidence all lie in the same plane.
2 Snell's law : The ratio (sin i) / (sin r) is a constant.
1 Sinar tuju, sinar biasan dan garis normal di titik tuju
berada pada satah yang sama.
2 Nisbah (sin i) / (sin r) adalah suatu pemalar
The distance of the image formed by refraction from the
surface of the water.
Jarak dari permukaan air ke imej yang dibentuk oleh
pembiasan
The distance of the object from the surface of the water.
Jarak dari permukaan air ke objek

Total internal reflection occurs when light travelling in a


denser medium towards a less dense medium is totally
reflected when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical
angle
Pantulan dalam penuh berlaku apabila cahaya yang
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List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM

Critical angle
Sudut genting

Convex lens
Kanta cembung
Concave lens
Kanta cekung
Focal length
Panjang fokus

MEANING / DEFINITION
merambat dalam medium yang lebih tumpat kea rah
medium yang kurang tumpat dipantul sepenuhnya apabila
sudut tuju melebihi sudut genting
The angle of incidence in the optically denser medium for
which the angle of refraction in the less dense medium is
90o
Sudut tuju dalam medium lebih tumpat yang
menyebabkan sudut biasan dalam medium yang kurang
tumpat menjadi 90o
Converges parallel light rays to a point
Menumpukan sinar-sinar selari pada satu titik
Diverges parallel light rays from a point.
Mencapahkan sinar-sianr selari dari satu titik
The distance between the principal focus, F and the
optical centre, O of a lens.
Jarak antara fokus utama, F, dan pusat optik suatu kanta

CHAPTER SIX (WAVES)


ITEM
Wave motion
Perambatan gelombang
Wavefront
Muka Gelombang
Transverse wave
Gelombang Melintang
Longitudinal wave
Gelombang Membujur
Amplitude
Amplitud
Period
Tempoh
Frequency, f
Frekuensi
One complete oscillation
Satu ayunan lengkap
Wavelength,
Panjang gelombang
Damping
Pelembapan
Forced oscillation
Ayunan paksa
Natural frequency

MEANING / DEFINITION
Wave motion carries energy from one place to another
place in a medium without the transfer of the particles
along the medium.
A wavefront is a line or plane where the vibrations of
every point on it are in phase
A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium
is at perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the
wave.
A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium
is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave.
The maximum displacement from its equilibrium position.
The time taken to make one complete oscillation
The number of complete oscillations made by a vibrating
system in one second
A complete oscillation may be referred as the movement
of a vibrating system from one extreme position to the
other and back to the same position.
The wavelength is the distance between successive points
of the same phase in a wave.
Damping occurs when an oscillating system loses energy
due to frictional forces.
Forced oscillation occurs when a system oscillates under
the influence of an external driving force.
The frequency of a system when it oscillates freely.

List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Frekuensi asli
Resonance
Resonans
Reflection of waves
Pantulan gelombang
Incident waves
Gelombang Tuju
Reflected wave
Gelombang Pantulan
Angle of incidence
Sudut Tuju
Angle of reflection
Sudut pantulan
Law of Reflection
Hukum Pantulan
Refraction of waves
Pembiasan Gelombang
Diffraction of wave
Pembelauan Gelombang
Principle of superposition
Prinsip superposisi
Coherent waves
Gelombang Koheren
Interference
Interferens
Constructive interference
Interferens membina
Destructive interference
Interferens memusnah
Antinode
Antinod
Node
Nod
Sound wave
Gelombang bunyi
Loudness
Kenyaringan
Pitch
Kelangsingan
SONAR
Electromagnetic waves

MEANING / DEFINITION
Resonance occurs when a system oscillates at the
maximum amplitude when the driving frequency is equal
to the natural frequency of the system.
Reflection of waves is the change in direction of
propagation when a wave strikes an obstacle.
The waves moving towards an obstacle.
The wave which has undergone a change in direction of
propagation after reflection.
The angle between the direction of propagation of the
incident wave and the normal
The angle between the direction of propagation of
reflected wave and the normal.
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
Refraction is the change of direction of propagation when
the speed of a wave changes as it moves from one
medium to another
Diffraction of waves is the spreading of waves as they
pass through an aperture or around the edge of an obstacle
The sum of the displacements of all the component waves
at the point.
Waves of the same frequency and are in phase.
Superposition of two coherent waves constructively or
destructively
Occurs when two waves that are in phase superimpose
to produce a wave with crests and troughs of maximum
amplitude.
Occurs when two waves that are out of phase superimpose
to produce zero resultant amplitude
A point where constructive interference occurs.
A point where destructive interference occurs.
Sounds are longitudinal waves produced by vibrations
such as the vibrations of the diaphragm of a loudspeaker,
guitar string and tuning fork.
The intensity of a sound as heard by an observer (depends
on the amplitude of the sound)
The pitch of the sound is an indication of the sharpness of
a sound (depends on the frequency of the sound)
Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) is a system
used to detect underwater objects or to determine the
depth of the water by means of an echo.
Electromagnetic waves are propagating waves in space

List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Gelombang elektromagnet

MEANING / DEFINITION
with electric and magnetic components.

CHAPTER SEVEN (ELECTRICITY)


ITEM
Current
Arus
Ampere, A
Coulomb, C
Electric field
Medan elektrik
Potential Difference
Beza keupayaan
Ohms Law
Hukum Ohm
Ohmic Conductor
Konduktor Ohm
Non Ohmic Conductor
Konduktor bukan Ohm
Resistance
Rintangan
Effective Resistance
Rintangan berkesan
Electromotive Force (e.m.f)
Daya gerak elektrik (d.g.e.)
Internal Resistance
Rintangan dalam
Electrical Energy
Tenaga elektrik
Power
Kuasa
Power Rating
Kadar kuasa

MEANING / DEFINITION
Current is the rate of flow of electric charge
SI unit of current
A unit of charge
An electric field is a region where an electric force acts on
a particle with an electric charge.
Potential difference is defined as the work done to move a
unit of charge from one point to another in an electric
field.
The electric current flowing through a conductor is
directly proportional to the potential difference across the
ends of the conductor, if the temperature and other
physical dimensions remain constant.
Material which obey Ohms Law
Material which do not obey Ohms Law
Resistance is defined as (potential difference)/(current)
The effective resistance is the combined resistance in the
circuit.
The total energy supplied by a cell when one unit of
charge flows through the cell.
The resistance within a cell due to its electrolyte or
electrodes
Energy supplied by a source of electricity (cell / battery)
when current flows in a closed circuit.
Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy
The power rating of an appliance denotes the rate at which
it consumes electrical energy at a certain voltage

CHAPTER EIGHT (ELECTROMAGNETISM)


ITEM
Electromagnet
Elektromagnet

MEANING / DEFINITION
An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is
produced by an electric current. It is a temperory magnet.
It acts as a magnet when the current is flow and ceases to
be a magnet when the current is switched off.

10

List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Magnetic field
Medan magnet
Catapult field
Medan lastik
Direct current motor
Motor arus terus
Electromagnetic induction
Aruhan elektromagnet
Induced e.m.f.
D.g.e. teraruh
Induced current
Arus teraruh
Faraday's law
Hukum Faraday
Lenz's law
Hukum Lenz
Direct current
Arus terus
Alternating current
Arus ulang alik
Transformer
Transformer
Step-up transformer
Transformer injak naik
Step-down transformer
Transformer injak turun
Ideal transformer
Transformer unggul
Transmission of electricity
Penghantaran elektrik
National Grid Network
Rangkaian Grid Nasional

MEANING / DEFINITION
A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic materials
experiences a force.
The resultant field produced when a straight wire carries a
current in a uniform magnetic field.
A direct current motor is used to convert electrical energy
into rotational kinetic energy.
The production of an electromotive force in a conductor
due to a changing magnetic flux.
An emf produced in a conductor when there is a changing
magnetic flux or cutting of magnetic flux by the conductor
Induced current is produced in a circuit when there is a
changing magnetic flux or cutting of magnetic flux by a
conductor
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f is directly
proportional to the rate at which a conductor cuts through
the magnetic flux.
Lenz's Law state that an induced electric current always
flows in such a direction as to oppose the change in
magnetic flux.
Current which flows in one direction.
Current which flows back and forth in two opposite
directions
A device which steps up or steps down the voltage of an
alternating current.
A transformer that steps up voltage
A transformer that steps down voltage
A transformer where the output power is equal to the input
power and the efficiency is 100%
The transmission of electricity from the power station to
consumers (industries and residential areas) by electric
cables
The national grid is a network of electrical cables
connecting electrical power stations to consumers of
electricity.

CHAPTER NINE (ELECTRONICS)


ITEM
Thermionic emission
Pemancaran termionik
Cathode ray
Sinar katod

MEANING / DEFINITION
A process of emitting electrons from a hot metal surface.
A beam of fast moving, high energy electrons

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List of physics terms and terminology

Semiconductor
Semikonduktor
Doping
Pendopan
n-type semiconductor
Semikonduktor jenis-n
p-type semiconductor
Semikonduktor jenis-p
Semiconductor diode
Diod semikonduktor
Forward-biased
Pincang ke hadapan
Reverse-biased
Pincang songsang
Rectification
Rektifikasi
Half-wave rectification
Rektifikasi separuh gelombang
Full-wave rectification
Rektifikasi penuh gelombang
Smoothing Capacitor
Kapasitor perata
n-p-n transistor
Transistor n-p-n
p-n-p transistor
Transistor p-n-p

Materials whose resistance is between those of good


conductors and good insulators.
The process of adding a small amount of impurities into
the semiconductors.
Semiconductor where the majority charge carriers are free
electrons
Semiconductor where the majority charge carriers are
holes
A p-n junction device which conducts current in one
direction only
A diode is forward biased when the p-end is connected to
the positive terminal of the battery and the n-end is
connected to the negative terminal of the battery.
A diode is reverse biased when the p-end is connected to
the negative terminal of the battery and the n-end is
connected to the positive terminal of the battery.
To convert alternating current into direct current using
diodes
The process of rectification using a diode which allows
current flow in half of a cycle.
The process of rectification using four diodes to allow
current to flow in a complete cycle and in the same
direction.
A capacitor that is used to smoothen the output voltage of
a rectification process
A transistor which consists of a layer of p-type
semiconductor sandwiched between two layers of n-type
semiconductors.
A transistor which consists of a layer of n-type
semiconductor sandwiched between two layers of p-type
semiconductors.
A logic gate is an electronic switch with one or more
inputs and only one output.
A truth table shows the results of every possible output
given every possible input.
A logic gate where the output is 1 only when both inputs
are 1
A logic gate that inverts the input

Logic gate
Get logik
Truth table
Jadual kebenaran
AND gate
Get DAN
NOT gate
Get TAK
Or gate
A logic gate where the Output is 1 except when both
Get ATAU
inputs are 0
CHAPTER TEN (RADIOACTIVITY)
ITEM
Nucleus
Nukleus
Nucleon
Nukleon
Proton number, Z

MEANING / DEFINITION
The small core of the atoms which contains the protons
and neutrons
Protons and neutrons
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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List of physics terms and terminology

ITEM
Nombor proton
Nucleon number, A
Nombor nucleon
Nuclide
Nuklid
Isotope
Isotop
Radioisotope
Radioisotop
Radioactivity
Radioaktiviti
Radioactive decay
Reputan radioaktif
Alpha decay
Reputan alfa
Beta decay
Reputan beta
Gamma decay
Reputan gama
Half life
Setengah hayat
Atomic mass unit (a.m.u)
Unit jisim atom
Nuclear fission
Pembelahan nuklear
Chain reaction
Tindak balas berantai
Nuclear fusion
Pelakuran nuklear
Nuclear reactor
Reaktor nuklear

MEANING / DEFINITION
The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
A nuclide is one type of nucleus with a particular proton
number and a particular nucleon number.
Atoms of an element which have the same proton number
but different nucleon numbers
Isotopes with unstable nuclei
Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of unstable
nucleus into a more stable nucleus with the random
emission of radiation.
Radioactive decay is a process where an unstable nucleus
becomes a more stable nucleus by emitting radiation
A radioactive decay where an alpha particle is emitted
A radioactive decay where a beta particle is emitted
A radioactive decay where gamma rays are emitted
The time taken for mass or activity of a radioactive
substance to become half its original value
The atomic mass unit (a.m.u) is used to measure the
masses of atomic particles.
A process involving the splitting of a heavy nucleus into
two lighter nuclei and several neutrons at the same time
A chain reaction is a self-sustaining reaction in which the
neutrons produced in a reaction can initiate another
similar reaction.
Nuclear fusion is the combining of two lighter nuclei to
form a heavier nucleus
A nuclear reactor produces tremendous amount of energy
through nuclear fission.

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