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# Towards Effective

8Ds

## 8 Discipline Problem Solving Approach

D0 - Prepare for the Ford Global 8D Process
D1 - Establish Team
D2 - Describe the Problem
D3 - Develop Interim Containment Action (ICA)
D4 - Define and Verify Root Cause and Escape Point
D5 - Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) for
Root Cause and Escape Point
D6 - Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective Actions
(PCAs)
D7 - Prevent Recurrence
D8 - Recognize Team and Individual Contributions

## 8 Discipline Problem Solving Approach

D1 - Establish Team

work-team

been there) ?

## Is this a mean shift issue or a excessive variation issue?

Understanding Problems
Variation

Off-Target
X
XXX X
X
XX
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X

On-Target
Center
Process

XXX
XXX
XXX X
X XX X

X
X
X

Reduce

Understanding Problems
Large
Off-Target

Variation

LSL

LSL

USL

USL

On-Target
Center
Process

Reduce
LSL

USL

problem

## LSL = Lower spec limit

USL = Upper spec limit

Understanding Problems
Problem :
A Question posed for a solution, decision or determination.
A proposition requiring some operation to be performed.
Practical Problem

Need

Low yield ?

Do
Statistical Problem

Need

## Mean off target ?

Do
Statistical Solution

Need

## Find / Isolate Variables

Do
Practical Solution

Need

## Install Auto Controller

Understanding Problems
Common Cause Variation
Source of variation which affects all individual
values of a process; Random in nature.
E.g. Ambient temperature; general vibrations in lathe;
etc.

## Special Cause Variation

Source of variation that is intermittent, (often
unpredictable); Non- random in nature.
E.g. Tool broken; Change in RM composition etc.

Understanding Problems
Perception
Special Cause Common Cause
Special Cause

In Control

Inaction /
Out of control

Truth
Common Cause Out of control

In Control

2 Dimensions in Solving
Problems
6 sigma

SPC

tools
Auto
controls
First/Last off
Common

SPC
Special

Type of Cause

## Escape: A control system failure

that allowed advancement of substandard product or service.
Escape Point: The earliest location in the process,
closest to the root cause, where the problem
should have been detected, but was not.

transit

## Keep record of actual rejections from the 100% sorting

done as a part of ICA.

## Clearly identify all the boxes which have been

contained with labels detailing the actual characteristics
checked.

## If possible also identify on the part itself .e.g absence of

thread in a casting, mark on the thread to show that this
was actually checked.

cause.

## Process root cause What caused the part to fail?

Escape root cause - What caused the bad part to slip past
Supplier place to the Customer plant?

## The ROOT causes have to be verified before we can

proceed further. (90% of the 8Ds we see does not do this
effectively)

## Proof confirming proper identification of the Root

Cause/potential Cause.

## Passive Verification is done by observation. The presence of the cause is

looked for without making any changes to the process.
If presence of the Root Cause/potential Root Cause variable cannot
be observed or proven, chances are great that the identified cause
is not a Root Cause or potential Root Cause.

## Active Verification is a process where confirmation of proper

identification of the Root Cause/potential Root Cause is made by
making the effect come and go using the variable identified as the
cause. Both coming and going are essential tests of Root
Cause/potential Root Cause confirmation.

Choose PCA

80% of the 8Ds lack link between root cause and PCA !!

root cause.

## PCA should address the Root cause and not an

intermediate cause.

Verify PCA

## Verification of Actions: Proof developed BEFORE

implementation that the action taken will do what is
intended by providing before and after data comparison and
does not introduce a new problem.

## Verification activities may include the following:

Tests and demonstrations
Comparing the new action with a similar proven action.
Reviewing newly designed documents before their
release

Validate PCA

## Validation of Actions: Ongoing evidence that the

implemented action is doing what was intended without
introducing a new problem.
Validation follows successful Verification.

Validate PCA
Pre-customer Validation is ongoing evidence (data) - before exposure to
the customer and following successful Verification - that the implemented
action is still doing what was intended without introducing a new problem.
Validation activities may include tests,inspections, observations and
other quality checks performed on production product using the
specified production process.
These tests, etc., are correlated to the customer's symptom and are
good indicators of action effectiveness.
Customer Validation is ongoing evidence (data) - received from the
customer - that the action taken to eliminate the customer's symptom is still
working.
Confirmation is obtained by monitoring the same indicator that
demonstrated the symptom initially.
Performance results of the indicator may be tracked using the
Paynter Chart.

Prevent Recurrence
This is the toughest part!!
We tend to relax once the problem disappears
momentarily.
Document the corrective actions in FMEA /
Control plans / Operator Instructions.
Read across to similar product / process lines
Redefine Standards based on lessons learnt.

Control plans
Process control
Product inspection
Sampling size
Frequency
Default is 5 pcs every hour