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UPPER LIMB & LOWER LIMB

1. Write short notes on,


a. Distribution of median nerve in the hand. (30).
b. Cruciate ligament of knee joint (30).
2. Discuss the shoulder joint and the hip joint in relation to,
a. Articular surfaces
b. Ligaments
c. Movements and stability. (100)
3. Regarding the LL,
3.1
3.1.1 Describe the attachments of the psoas muscle. (20)
3.1.2 What is its function. (10)
3.1.3 Discuss the psoas fascia and its clinical significance. (20)
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2

Describe the microscopic structure of muscle fibers (cell) of the psoas


muscle including the arrangement of its myofibrils. (30)
How does its microscopic structure differ from that of a heart muscle fiber?

4. A few days following the removal of a plaster cast for a fracture at the upper end of the
right fibula, a patient was found to have a foot drop and an area of numbness ( sensory
impairment) in the foot. O/E the orthopaedic surgeon diagnosed an injury to the
common peroneal nerve.
4.1. State the site where this nerve can be palpated.(10)
4.2. Describe the origin, course and distribution of this nerve.(70)
4.3. Explain the anatomical basis of the clinical features. (20)
5. Write notes on,
5.1. Iliotibial tract (50)
5.2. Course, relations and branches of the femoral artery. (50)
6. Give an account of the blood supply of the hand.
7.
7.1. Describe the intra-articular structures of the knee joint.(60)
7.2. Discuss the functions of the structures mentioned in 7.1(40)
(AL2005 main)

8.
8.1. Describe the anatomy of the carpal tunnel.(35)
8.2. State briefly the effects of nerve compressing in the carpal tunnel.(15)
(AL2004 main)
9.
9.1. Describe the structure and function of menisci of the knee joint.(35)
9.2. List the structures that contribute to the stability of the patella.(15)
(AL2004 main)
10.
10.1. Describe the course and distribution of median nerve. (70)
10.2. Add a note on blood supply of the hand. (30)
11.
11.1. Describe the origin, course and distribution of the femoral nerve. (70)
11.2. Discuss the clinical importance of the femoral nerve (30)
(AL2003 main)
12. Describe the course and branches of the
a. Axillary artery (50)
b. Femoral artery (50)
(AL2002 rep)
13.
13.1. Describe the course, relations and distribution of the common peroneal nerve and
its branches. (80)
13.2. Discuss the anatomical basis of foot drop. (20)
(AL2002 main)
14.
14.1. Describe the brachial plexus and its relations. (50)
14.2. Explain the signs and symptoms in lesion of brachial plexus. (50)
15.
15.1. Give an account on femoral canal.
15.2. Explain collateral circulation occurring in femoral artery ligation just below
inguinal ligament.
16.
16.1 Describe the arrangement of the tendons in the middle finger.(60)
16.2 What are the movements produced by these muscles?(40)
17.
17.1 Give attachments of the flexor retinaculum in the hand.(40)
17.2 Name the structures which pass through the carpal tunnel.(40)
17.3 What are the effects of compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel?(20)

18.Discuss how the anatomy of the following structures help in the function of the joint.
a) The rotator cuff of the shoulder joint.(40)
b) The menisci in the knee joint.(30)
c) The ligaments of the ankle joint.(30)
19.
19.1 Name the muscles,tendons attached to the phalanges of the middle finger.(40)
19.2 What are the actions and the nerve supply of each of these muscles?(60)
20.
20.1 Describe the bony structures involved in the mechanism of full abduction.(70)
20.2 Name the muscles involved and their nerve supply.(30)
21. Give an account of
21.1 The carpal tunnel & its contents.(50)
21.2 The origin and the course of the great saphenous vein. (50)
22.
22.1 Describe the attachments of the retinaculae in the region of the ankle joint.(30)
22.2 Describe the arrangement of tendons around this joint.(50)
22.3 What are the effects of damage to the common peroneal nerve in the region of the
knee?(20)
23.Give an account of the
23.1 The blood supply of the hand. (50)
23.2 The femoral canal. (50)
24. Discuss the role of the median nerve in the function of the hand.(100)
25.
25.1 Describe the origin,course & termination of the great saphenous vein.(60)
25.2 What are the sites of communication between the superficial & deep veins of the
limb veins?(20)
25.3 What anatomical features help in the venous drainage of the lower limb? 20)
26.
26.1 Describe the veins of the lower limb. (60)
26.2 Discuss their features of clinical interest. (40)

27. Compare the stability of the shoulder joint and the hip joint based on the arrangement
of the following structures.
27.1 Articular surfaces (30)
27.2 capsule and ligaments (30)
27.3 Muscles (40)
28. Describe the origin, course and distribution of ulnar nerve. (100)
29.
29.1 Describe how the cords of the brachial plexus are formed.(branches of the brachial
plexus are not required)(10)
29.2 State the anatomical locations of the various parts forming the brachial plexus.(10)
29.3 Describe the course & distribution of the muscular branches of the radial nerve in
the upper arm.(60)
29.4 Indicate the sensory loss seen in damage to the radial nerve in the mid shaft region
of the humerus and give the reasons for this.(20)
30.
30.1 Define the anatomical extent of the female breast.(20)
30.2 Name the muscles which lie immediately posterior to the female breast.(10)
30.3 Describe the lymphatic drainage of the breast.(50)
30.4 Name the nerves which could be damaged during removal of axillary lymph
nodes.(20)
31. Give a brief account on the axilla and its contents.(30)
32. 65yr old lady was admitted to hospital due to engorgement of veins of the lower medial
part of the lower limb.It was diagnosed as varicose veins.
32.1 Explain the superficial venous drainage of the lower limb.(60)
32.2 State the sites of main perforators.(15)
Surgery was recommended to remove the part of the vein responsible.After the
operation patient complained of sensory loss on the medial side of the leg up to the ball of
the big toe .
32.3 Explain the anatomical basis of the above condition.(25)

33. 50yrs old Somapala met with a road traffic accident and was admitted to the
hospital.The clinician found that his left lower limb shortened and laterally rotated.
33.1 Explain the anatomical basis of the above condition.(30)
After an X ray examination it was found that there was a complete fracture near the
upper epiphysis of the femur.
33.2 Describe the blood supply of the head of the femur.(40)
33.3 Why does he have a risk of avascular necrosis.(30)
34.A bull fighter had a stab injury to his upper part of the anterior aspect of the thigh.
34.1 Describe the boundaries of the femoral triangle.(60)
34.2 Name the content of the femoral sheath and margins of femoral ring.(40)
35. A 23yr old rugby player was seen in the accident ward after sustaining an injury to his
right knee.After investigation his medial meniscus & anterior cruciate ligament were
found to be damaged.
35.1.1 Briefly describe the medial meniscus of the knee joint.(30)
35.1.2 List the arteries which take part in forming the anastamosis around the knee
joint.(10)
35.1.3 Give the attachments and functions of anterior cruciate ligament.(10)
35.2
35.2.1 Briefly write why shoulder joint is dislocated inferiorly.(20)
35.2.2What is the nerve that could be damaged?(10)
35.2.3 What are the signs & symptoms of damage to this nerve?(20)