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GRADUATE SCHOOL OF LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

PROGRAMME
MASTERS PROGRAMME IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

COURSE:
FIELD AND LABORATORY PRACTICES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

REPORT: EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO CONTROL THE WATER POLLUTION OF


KASUMIGAURA LAKE AREA
SUBMITTED BY
(201526058) TIN MIN HTOO
DATE: 2015/12/22
SUBMITTED TO
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR. Kenichi Matsui and Lei Zhongfan

1. Introduction
Water is a natural resource, fundamental to life, livelihood, food security and sustainable development as
well as human dignity and cultural values. Lake is very important for fresh water. Lake Ksumigaura is the
second-largest lake in Japan and 60 km to the north-east of Tokyo, and in the south-east of Ibaraki prefecture. In
order to study water environment and water pollution we went to the Ksumigaura Lake on November 18 2015
as shown in Table 1.0
No
1
2

location
Kasumigaura Canal Water Pumping station
Kasumigaura Environmental Sciences Center

important research information


Lake Kasumigaura Water Research Station, To study the bio eco engineering research
National Institute of Environmental Studies

Remark
To study the water supply system
To study the public awareness program and

including the Jokasou treatment systems.

Table 1.0 Study Area of Lake Kasumigaura area


1.1. Purpose
To focus on how to study the surface water environment and control of water pollution based on lake
Kasumigaura area.
2. Water Environment of Lake Kasumigaura Area.
2.1 Background of Lake Kasumigaura Area.
The required basic information of water resources on the lake Kasumigaura area is as shown in Table
2.0
Water flow
Depth:
Watershed area:

1.4 billion m3

Remark

Min. 4m / Maxi. 7m
2135 km2

Surface Area

220 km2

Shoreline

251 km

Storage:

Approx. 850 million m3

Table 2.0 the basic information about Lake Kasumigaura Area

2.2

Water Supply by Pump Station of Lake Kasumigaura Area.


The following table and figure show the water utilization and pipe network on Lake Kasumigaura area.

Table 3.The Ratio of Water Utilization Lake Kasumigaura Area.


Sector
Irrigation (Agricultural use)
Industrial Consumption
Domestic use

Usage
70%
20%
10%

Remark
Annual supply: 123,840,000 m3/yr
Annual supply: 33,457,000 m3/yr
Annual supply: 18,278,000 m3/yr

Figure 1.0 The Pipe Network of Lake Kasumigaura Area

2.3 Important Parameters for Water Pollution


As shown in Fig: 2.0 the important parameters of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen
(TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) are high concentration level with compared to the water quality standard for
lake in Japan. This is from the main source of domestic water. Households, industries, livestock and agricultural
lands flow into rivers around Lake Kasumigaura and this is one of the main reasons of eutrophication. The COD
level of the lake has recorded beyond 8mg/l in past years, and this condition should be improved. Ibaraki
Prefectural Government has tried to improve water quality.

Figure.2.0 COD, TP and TN Fluctuation on Lake Kasumigaura Area

2.4 Water Policy and Related Law in Japan


It can be seen that measure of water policy and related laws has already been established in Japan to
control water pollution as shown in Table 4.0
Table 4.0 The Water Related Laws in Japan
NO

Affairs

Organization

Main Law

.
1

Water Supply

Ministry Of Health,

Water Works Law

Labor And Welfare

Law On Execution Of
Preservation Project Of

Of

Water For Water Supply


Agriculture Land Improvement Act

Water Use For Agriculture

Ministry

Water Conservation Forest


Industry Water Supply

Forestry And Fishery


Forest Law
Ministry Of Industry Trade And Industry Water Law

Hydropower

Economy

Industrial Water Supply


Business Law
Electric

Power

Development Promotion

Sewerage

Ministry Of Land

Law
Sewerage Law

River Water Resources Facilities

Infrastructure And Transport

River Law

Comprehensive Or Basic Policy For

Specified

Multiple

Water Supply

Purpose Dam Law

And Demand Reservoir Area

Water

Resource

Development Promotion
Law
Cooperation Law
Law Concerning Special
Measure For Reservoir
5

Water Quality

Ministry Of The Environment

Environmental Conservation

Area
The Basic Environment
Law
Water Pollution Control
Law

Source: UN/World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) 2003


2.5 Environmental Quality Standard in Japan
The table 5.0 shows the water quality standard with regard to the areas and Category III and Category A
are the standard for lakes in Japan.
Table 5.0 Water Quality Classification
Category Related Area
I
Conservation Of Natural Environment And Uses Listed In II-V
Water Supply Classes 1, 2, And (Except Special Types), Fishery Class 1, Bathing, And Uses Listed In
II
III-V
III
Water Supply Classes3 (Special Types), Uses Listed IV-V
IV
Fishery Class 2 And Uses Listed In V
V
AA

Fishery Class 3, Industrial Water, Agricultural Water, And Conservation Of The Environment
Water Supple Class 1, Fishery Class 1, Conservation Of Natural Environment, And
In A-C

Water Supple Class 2, Nad 3, Fishery Class 2 Bathing, And Uses Listed In B-C

Fishery Class 3, Industrial Water Class 1, Agricultural Water, And Uses Listed In C

Industrial Water Class 2 And Conservation Of The Environment

Source: https://www.env.go.jp/en/water/

Uses Listed

3. Discussion
Approach by Water purification Technologies
It can be seen that the policy, law and regulation have been set up and the following technological
approaches were applied in order to control the water quality on lake Kasumigaura area and its environ. These
include:
(a) Newly developed advanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal which is called Jokasou treatment method
(b) Physicochemical treatment using water bloom and sludge,
(c) Water purification system for advantages of soil, soil micro organism and vegetation
(d) Methods of analyzing the water quality improvement by monitoring or simulation and public release of the
information
4. Conclusion
To understand the water environment of this area, the influencing factors of water resources, water
supply and utilization are vital role. After that the next important factor is the condition of pollution on that lake
and its surrounding. Moreover, what are the current measures of water pollution in terms of policy, law and
management also must be considered. This is also the need to assess whether or not current measures are
effective. In conclusion, the above mentioned approaches are very effective but it needs to promote by means of
technological innovation. That is why I feel these approaches used to control water quality in Lake
Kasumigaura can be applied to improve lakes in Myanmar. However, there is the need to improve policy
measure of my country in the area of water quality control as well as more technological innovations.

Reference:

UN/World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) 2003


https://www.env.go.jp/en/water/