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JFS: Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food

Photooxidative Stability of Ice Cream Prepared from Milk Fat

M. SHIOTA, N. IKEDA, H. KONISHI, AND T. YOSHIOKA

JFS: Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food Photooxidative Stability of Ice Cream Prepared from Milk Fat

Sen

sory

and

Nut

ritiv

e

Qua

lities

of

Foo

Introduction

  • I CE CREAM IS A FROZEN DAIRY PRODUCT THAT IS WIDELY CONSUMED

throughout the world. It contains approximately 8 to 15% fat

(Li and others 1997) because fat plays an important role in bring- ing the desired characteristics to ice cream: a smooth, creamy,

soft feeling in the mouth, and a good flavor (Guinard and others 1997). Ice cream has some unique characteristics such as the sol-

id fat network ( Thomas 1981), and these characteristics have been studied by many researchers. Schmidt and Smith (1989) re- ported the effects of processing condition on the physical prop- erties of ice cream. Goff and others (1989) studied the influence of milk components on the physical properties of ice cream. Ohmes and others (1998) reported sensory and physical proper- ties of ice creams containing milk fat or fat replacers. Most of the research on ice cream has focused on its physical characteristics and sensory aspects. Recently, most grocery stores have adopted stronger lighting than ever on food products to show their products attractively. Since the business hours in grocery stores are often extended, the potential risk of light-induced degradation of food products would be increased. Deterioration resulting from oxidation dur- ing storage has not been considered an important problem for ice cream because ice cream is usually kept in frozen conditions at –18 to –20 C (Azzara and Campbell 1992). Ice cream, however, contains a high percentage of fat compared with other food prod- ucts; therefore, ice cream might deteriorate during storage under strong lighting in grocery stores. Light-induced oxidation could potentially cause serious problems in the quality and safety of ice cream. With respect to light-induced oxidation of edible fats and oils, several articles have been published. The oxidation strongly de- pends on the fatty acid composition of oil in the food products (Cosgrove and others 1987; Neff and others 1993). Furthermore, Dimick (1982) reported the association between the activation of riboflavin and the degradation of dairy products. Vitamins such as tocopherol (Parkhurst and others 1968; Cillard and others 1980; Niki and others 1984), -carotene (Matsushita and Terao

1980;

Palozza and

Krinsky 1992),

and ascorbic acid (Cort

1974;

Miller and Aust 1989) were reported to prevent or promote the oxidation. Light-induced oxidation of fluid milk has been well documented and discussed in several reviews (Forss 1979; Chen and Nawar 1991; Azzara and Campbell 1992).

However, the

theories regarding light-induced oxidation of

fluid milk are considered inapplicable to the photooxidation of ice cream because the composition (including the fat content), manufacturing process, and storage condition of ice cream are obviously different from that of fluid milk. Little is known about the mechanism of light-induced oxidation of milk fat in ice cream. The present investigation expanded upon previous studies of photooxidation of milk to ice cream containing 14.25% milk fat. The objectives of the research were to determine the relation be- tween the photooxidation of milk fat in ice cream and flavor dete- rioration, and to reveal the factors affecting the photooxidative stability of ice cream. These results can help improve the photo- oxidative stability of ice cream.

Materials and Methods

  • I FROM different commercial sources in Australia, Hungary, and

NGREDIENTS FOR MILK FAT USED IN THIS STUDY WERE OBTAINED

Japan. These materials were prepared with conventional centrifugation, and the compositions are shown in Table 1. Commercial skim milk powder (Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used. The following were commercially purchased and used as ingredients for the ice cream mix:

glycerol monostearate (Rik- en Vitamin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) as the emulsifier; mixture of locust bean gum, guar gum, and gelatin ( Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd., Yokkaichi, Japan) as the stabilizer; -carotene (Roche Holding Ltd., Basle, Switzerland) as the coloring agent, and sugar (Dain- ippon Meiji Seito Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). All reagents for analyti- cal experiments were of analytical grade.

Preparation of ice cream mix

The composition of the ice cream mix is shown in Table 2. Raw materials—skim milk, milk-fat material, emulsifier, stabilizer, sugar, coloring agent, and water—were combined as shown in

  • 1200 JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE—Vol. 67, Nr. 3, 2002

© 2002 Institute of Food Technologists

Photooxidative stability

Photooxidative

stability ofof ice

ice cream

cream

.. ..

..

Table 1—Composition of milk-fat materials used for ice

cream samples (Nr 1 through Nr 7)

Table 2—Ice cream formulation

Content %

ay 1949). These experiments were duplicated.

od. The scores of Nr 7 exposed for 3 and 7 d were higher than

Nr

7.

The contents of the tocopherol were measured by high-per-

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1201

Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food

Photooxidative stability

Photooxidative

stability ofof ice

ice cream

cream

..

Ice cream samples

Fat

Solids, non-fat

Water

Nr

%

%

%

Fat

Solids, non-fat

14.25

11.50

  • 1 40.0

4.8

55.2

Sugar

12.76

  • 2 68.0

2.0

30.0

Emulsifier

0.25

  • 3 78.0

4.0

18.0

Stabilizer

0.20

  • 4 75.0

1.0

24.0

Coloring agent

0.06

  • 5 69.0

4.0

27.0

Water

60.98

  • 6 60.0

10.0

30.0

  • 7 84.0

1.8

14.2

the table to obtain 100 kg of mix. All mixes were prepared with fat

content set at 14.25%, and the concentration of non-fat milk sol-

ids was adjusted to 11.50% by the addition of skim milk and wa-

ter. The raw materials were dissolved and mixed well in water

and pasteurized at 80 C for 60 s. The ice cream mixes were

homoge- nized at a total pressure of 150 kg/cm 2 and secondary

Sensory evaluation

Sensory evaluations of ice cream samples exposed to fluores-

cent light for 0-, 3-, and 7-d intervals were conducted by 6

trained panelists. Before evaluation, a 1-h training session was

held to familiarize the panelists with the evaluation method.

During the training session, samples that contained the oxidized

off-flavor were presented to the panelists, and these panelists

were instructed to estimate the characteristic identified as oxi-

pressure of

 

dized off-flavors. The samples used during training evaluation

50

kg/cm 2 by using a homogenizer (Sanwa Machine Co., Inc., Nu-

were taken from ice cream, both fresh and exposed to light for

mazu, Japan).

 

various times to obtain different intensities of oxidized flavor. In

 

this session, panelists were also taught how to evaluate samples.

Ice cream production

 

The trained 6 panelists evaluated the ice cream for intensity

 

These prepared ice cream mixes were aged overnight at 5 C,

of oxidized flavor. Ice cream samples were served at –12 C in a

then frozen in an ice cream freezer (APV Crepaco, Inc., Chicago,

50-mL capacity white paper cup. All samples were coded with

Ill., U.S.A.) to

5

C. The

overrun of all samples was 70%. These

random numbers, and all orders of serving were completely ran-

frozen mixes were filled and packaged in 50-mL containers and

domized. The ice cream samples were served at room tempera-

kept at 20 C.

 

ture in partitioned booths illuminated with white fluorescent

 

lights. Filtered water (21 C) was provided to cleanse the palate

Extraction of oil fraction from milk-fat materials

of panelists between the samples. Panelists were instructed also

 

The milk-fat materials adopted in this study were dissolved in

to rest between samples to avoid fatigue. The intensity of light-

n-hexane/diethyl ether (1:1, v:v) and then shaken strongly by a

induced deterioration of the samples was scored on a 10-point

vortex mixer (MT-51, Yamato Scientific Co., Tokyo, Japan) for

scale. Scoring was from 1, very strong oxidized flavor, to 10, no fla-

3 min. The upper phase was collected and the solvent was

 

vor defected.

re- moved by a roto-evaporator to obtain the oil fraction from

 

the milk-fat materials (REI-N, Asahi Techno Glass Corp.).

Fat

anal

ysis

Extraction of ice cream oil part

The fat content of all milk-fat materials was measured by

 

The whole cup of ice cream samples used for each analysis

Roese-Gottlieb’s method (AOAC 1991). Free-fat content, which

was dissolved in n-hexane/diethyl ether (1:1, v:v) and then shak-

was regarded as fat outside the fat globules in ice cream, was

en strongly by a vortex mixer for 3 min. The upper phase was col-

measured as described by Noda (Noda and Shiinoki 1986). The

lected and the solvent was removed by a roto-evaporator to ob-

fatty acid composition of the oil fraction was measured by gas liq-

tain the oil part from ice cream samples.

uid chromatography, as follows. An oil sample was transmethy-

lated by potassium hydrate (KOH) to obtain the fatty acid meth-

Light-exposing storage test

 

yl esters, which were dissolved in n-hexane and injected into the

 

The light-exposing storage test was carried out for the ice

gas liquid chromatograph. The fatty acid composition was mea-

cream samples and for the oil fractions: (1) The ice cream sam-

sured using the following equipment: Hewlett-Packard HP6890

ples (50 g of each) were packed in white paper containers with

series II (Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, Calif., U.S.A.); detector,

transparent polyethylene terephthalate caps. These samples

flame-ionization detector (Hewlett-Packard); column, fused-sili-

were placed on shelves exposed to 650 l x fluorescent light from

ca capillary column, DB-WAX (30 m, 0.25 i.d., 0.25 M [film], J & W

the top and kept at –20 C. At intervals of 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d, we

Scientific, Folsom, Calif., U.S.A.); and carrier gas, helium.

removed the ice cream samples and determined the peroxide

values (PVs). The display case was illuminated by cool white flu-

Analysis of vitamins and minerals

orescent lamps mounted parallel to the shelves at a distance of

The -carotene content in each oil fraction was measured by

50

cm from the samples. (2) The oil fractions (10 g of each) were

high-performance liquid chromatography under the following

kept in 7.2-cm-dia petri dishes and placed on shelves under

the same conditions. At intervals of 0, 3, and 7 d, we removed oil

frac- tion samples and determined the PVs.

Photooxidative stability was evaluated by PV determined by

the colorimetric ferric thiocyanate method (Chapman and Mack-

conditions: column, Shodex PSpak DS-613 (150 mm × 6.0-mm

i.d., Showa Denko K.K., Tokyo, Japan); mobile phase, methanol/

n-hexane/benzene = 2:1:1; detection, UV/VIS detector (UV-970,

JASCO Corp., Hachioji, Japan) at a wavelength of 453 nm; column

oven temperature, 60 C; flow rate, 0.8 mL/min.

ay 1949). These experiments were duplicated.

od. The scores of Nr 7 exposed for 3 and 7 d were higher than

Nr

7.

The contents of the tocopherol were measured by high-per-

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Table 3—Time dependence of flavor score of ice creams

exposed to 650 l × fluorescent light at – 20 C

those of other samples. And scores of Nr 1 exposed for 3 and 7 d

were lower than those of other samples. Insignificant differences

 

Ice cream samples

Storage period (d)

of flavor scores were observed among samples Nr 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

Nr

0

3

7

These results indicated that milk-fat materials used for ice cream

  • 1 5.25 a

7.67

a

4.50 a

preparation in this study led to different degrees of intensity for

a

  • 2 6.67

8.67

ab

6.33 bc

photo-induced off-flavor.

a

  • 3 6.50

8.67

ab

5.67

abc

The quality of ice cream depends upon the source of basic in-

a

  • 4 7.00

8.58

ab

5.83

abc

gredients, especially milk fat. An oxidized flavor in the milk fat

a

ab

could carry over into the ice cream and lowers the relative con-

  • 6 8.75

a

7.00

ab

  • 5 8.75

6.92

5.50

6.33

ac

bc

 

Values followed by the same letters at same storage period are not significantly different at

  • 7 9.00 a

8.17

b

7.42

b sumer acceptability of ice cream (Abd EL-Rahman and others

1997). From this report, the differences of flavor scores among ice

Sen

sory

and

Nut

ritiv

e

Qua

lities

of

Foo

P < 0.05.

formance liquid chromatography under the following conditions:

column, Zorbax NH2 (250 mm × 4.6-mm i.d., Hewlett-Packard,

Palo Alto, Calif., U.S.A.); mobile phase, n-hexane/2-pro-

panol = 49:1; detection, fluorescence detector (FP-920S, Jasco

Corp., Hachioji, Japan) at a wavelength of Ex 298 nm and Em 325

nm; column oven temperature, 35 C; flow rate, 1.3 mL/min.

The contents of the ascorbic acid were measured by high-per-

formance liquid chromatography under the following conditions:

column, Nucleosil Si100 3 m (150 mm × 6.0-mm i.d., GL Sciences

Inc., Tokyo, Japan); mobile phase, n-hexane/ethyl acetate/n-

propanol/acetic acid = 40:30:2:1; detection, UV/VIS detector

(UV-970, JASCO Corp., Hachioji, Japan) at a wavelength of 495

nm; column oven temperature, 25 C; and flow rate, 1.3 mL/min.

The contents of the riboflavin were measured by high-perfor-

mance liquid chromatography under the following conditions:

column, Cosmosil 5 C18 (150 mm × 4.6-mm i.d., Nacalai Tesque

Co.,

Ltd., Kyoto, Japan); mobile phase, 10 mM of NaH 2 PO 4 (pH =

5.5) / methanol = 70:30; detection, fluorescence detector (F1100,

Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at wavelengths of Ex 445 nm and Em

530 nm; column oven temperature, 40 C; and flow rate, 0.8 mL/

min.

Minerals were identified and quantified by inductively cou-

pled plasma (ICP) emission spectrometry (ICPS-8000, Shimadzu

Corp., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) ( JISC 1998).

Statistical analysis

Means obtained from flavor scores were subjected to analysis

of variance according to the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) (SAS

Institute 1992). The probability for statistical significance was set

at P < 0.05. The combined influence between peroxide formation

of the oil part and riboflavin content was investigated with multi-

ple regression analysis. Prior to this analysis, the average and

standard deviation of variables were transformed to 0 and 1, re-

spectively. This analysis was performed with SAS software.

Results

and Discussion

Sensory evaluation of oxidized flavor after storage

Flavor changes during the storage of ice cream samples,

which were prepared from 7 fat materials and exposed to fluores-

cence light, were determined by sensory evaluation. The total

amount of fat content of all ice cream samples in this study was

set to a definite percentage of 14.25% because fat content in a

food influences both texture and flavor (Li and others 1997).

Ta- ble 3 shows the results of sensory evaluation on the 7 ice

cream samples for the storage period of 0, 3, and 7 d. The flavor

score decreased as the storage period increased. This result

indicated an increase in intensity of oxidized flavor

storage peri-

during the

cream samples stored 0 d in this study was suggested to be influ-

enced by the differences in milk fat’s oxidized flavor. This result

showed the importance of the initial quality of the starting raw

materials, especially the milk fat, for the light-exposed product’s

quality.

Milk-fat materials and light-induced oxidation

The photooxidative stability of ice cream samples prepared

from 7 milk-fat materials was evaluated. After the samples were

exposed to fluorescent light for storage periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and

  • 7 d, the oil fraction PV extracted from them was determined, as

shown in Figure 1. These PVs increased with the increasing stor-

age period. The PV of ice cream sample Nr 1 increased signifi-

cantly faster than that of other samples, and those of samples Nr

  • 6 and Nr 7 increased insignificantly. After the samples were ex-

posed to fluorescent light for the 7-d storage period, sample Nr 1

showed the highest PV, 6.8 meq/kg among the samples, and the

PVs of samples Nr 6 and Nr 7 were as low as approximately 1.3

meq/kg. This result showed that ice cream could have different

susceptibilities on the light-induced oxidation depending on the

fat ingredients used in this study.

Table 3—Time dependence of flavor score of ice creams exposed to 650 l × fluorescent light

Figure 1—Time dependence of peroxide value of fat part

in ice creams exposed to 650l × fluorescent light at –20

Samples:

Nr 1;

Nr 2;

Nr 3;

Nr 4;

Nr 5;

Nr 6;

C.

Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food

Table 4—Composition of oil fraction from milk-fat materials

 

Nr 1

Nr 2

Nr 3

Nr 4

Nr 5

Nr 6

Nr 7

Fatty acid composition (%)

 

C4:0

1.9

1.8

1.8

2.0

1.5

1.9

1.9

C6:0

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.6

1.4

1.5

1.6

C8:0

1.0

1.2

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

C10:0

2.4

2.9

2.6

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

C12:0

3.0

3.6

3.3

3.0

3.2

3.3

3.4

C14:0

11.1

11.8

10.8

10.8

10.5

10.6

11.2

C14:1

1.0

1.0

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.9

1.0

C15:0

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.2

C16:0

31.9

29.8

31.7

29.6

28.7

30.3

31.3

C16:1

1.5

1.6

2.0

1.7

1.8

1.6

1.5

C18:0

13.2

11.6

10.2

12.4

12.6

11.6

11.5

C18:1

21.5

22.3

23.4

24.1

25.6

24.1

22.9

C18:2

2.0

2.2

3.1

2.2

2.5

3.9

3.2

C18:3

1.6

2.0

1.4

1.9

1.9

1.0

1.0

Oxidizability a

0.0563

0.06646

0.06368

0.06482

0.06812

0.0638

0.05658

-Carotene ( g/100 g)

426

589

456

474

607

326

114

Tocopherol (mg/100 g)

 

-Tocopherol

1.90

2.15

3.00

3.48

2.83

1.22

1.42

-Tocopherol

nd

0.01

0.01

nd

nd

nd

nd

-Tocopherol

0.01

0.03

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.11

0.15

-Toc./

-Toc.

0.0053

0.0140

0.0133

0.0086

0.0141

0.0902

0.1056

a Calculated by the following formula: 0.02 × oleic acid content(%) + linoleic acid content(%) + 2 × linolenic acid content(%) nd = not detected

Relationship between flavor score and generation of hydroperoxide

The relationships between flavor scores and PVs determined

for ice cream samples were estimated as shown in Figure 2. The

flavor score decreased with increasing peroxide values. And the

correlation coefficient r was 0.795 (n = 21). Photooxidation of the

oil part in milk was reported to affect flavor deterioration (Forss

1979; Azzara and Campbell 1992). The result in this study sug-

gested that the development of off-flavor in ice cream exposed to

fluorescent light may be due to photooxidation of milk fat in ice

cream.

Photooxidative stability of oil fractions

The photooxidative stability of the oil fraction extracted from

milk-fat materials used in this study was evaluated. The PV of

the oil fraction increased with the increasing storage period as

shown in Figure 3. The PV of Nr 3 exposed 7 d was higher than

those of other samples. And the PVs of Nr 6 and Nr 7 exposed 7 d

were lower than those of other samples.

Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food Table 4—Composition of oil fraction from milk-fat materials Nr 1

Figure 2—Correlation between flavor score and peroxide

values of fat part in ice creams exposed to 650l × fluores-

cent light at –20 C for 7 d (correlation coefficient, n = 21,

and

r =

that of

0.795)

ice

creams

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Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food Table 4—Composition of oil fraction from milk-fat materials Nr 1

Figure 3—Time dependence of

peroxide value of

oil frac-

tion extracted from milk-fat materials exposed to

650l

× fluorescent light at –20 C. Samples: Nr 1;

Nr

2;

Nr

3;

r = 0.367)

Nr 4;

Nr

5;

Nr

6;

Nr

7

 

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Table 5—Composition of hydrophilic substances of ice cream samples

 

Nr 1

Nr 2

Nr 3

Nr 4

Nr 5

Nr 6

Nr 7

Riboflavin (mg/100 g)

0.0945

0.0593

0.0455

0.0496

0.0535

0.0601

0.0438

Ascorbic acid (mg/100 g)

0.775

0.198

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

Mineral (mg/100 g)

Na

8.94

2.96

1.78

1.93

1.85

22.38

1.38

K

27.83

12.61

7.15

7.06

6.85

13.10

4.94

Ca

17.50

6.11

2.95

3.64

3.75

47.58

2.23

Mg

1.67

0.70

0.39

0.43

0.46

2.40

0.32

P

16.07

7.37

4.60

4.59

5.40

33.32

4.26

Fe

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.03

0.06

0.04

Zn

0.08

0.05

0.04

0.05

0.04

0.21

0.05

Cu

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

Mn

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd = not detected

Figure 4 shows the correlation between the increased PVs

( PV ) of the ice cream oil parts and those of oil fractions exposed

for 7 d. The numbers shown on the plots indicate the sample

numbers. The PVs of these milk-fat materials’ oil fractions were 5

times higher than those of the corresponding ice cream samples’

oil parts under this experimental condition. A high correlation of

PV was observed between milk-fat materials’ oil fractions and

ice cream samples’ oil parts for samples Nr 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 (r =

0.935). However, samples Nr 1 and 3 did not belong to the high

correlation described above. The PV of the oil parts in ice cream

samples was relatively high compared with the oil fraction for

sample Nr 1. On the contrary, PV was relatively low in ice cream

for sample Nr 3 compared with the oil fraction. These results in-

dicate that the photooxidative stability of ice cream depends on

the oxidative stability of its oil part, but other factors mentioned

later are affecting the photooxidative stability of ice cream.

Effect of milk-fat components

Photooxidative stability of milk has been reported to be af-

fected by the composition of fatty acid or vitamins in it (Cillard

and others 1980; Cosgrove and others 1987; Olsen and Ashoor

1987). These compositions are attributed to the seasonal differ-

ences in feeding conditions or processing conditions of several

milk products, and so on (Norris and others 1973; Bassette and

others 1983; Jensen and others 1999).

To investigate the factors affecting light-induced oxidation of

the oil fraction of milk-fat materials, we determined the composi-

tions of oil fractions. As shown in Table 4, the fatty acid composi-

tion and the contents of some oil-soluble vitamins, tocopherols,

and -carotene, were determined. It is well known that the oxida-

tive stability of saturated fatty acids > monounsaturated fatty ac-

ids > polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus the oxidizability of these

oil fractions, which were calculated on the basis of the unsaturat-

ed fatty acid composition (Cosgrove and others 1987), was also

shown in Table 4.

Oxidizability = 0.02 × oleic acid content (%) + linoleic acid con-

tent (%) + 2 × linolenic acid content (%)

Sen

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Figure 4—Correlation of peroxide values of oil fractions

Figure 4—Correlation of

peroxide values of oil fractions

Table 5—Composition of hydrophilic substances of ice cream samples Nr 1 Nr 2 Nr 3 Nr

Figure 5—Correlation between

peroxide values of oil frac-

tions and oxidizability (correlatio n coefficient, n = 7,

Table 6—Free-fat contents and oxidizability of ice cream

samples.

quencher of activated oxygen (Matsushita and Terao 1980; Goul-

son and Warthesen 1999). However, the results showed that

-

zen in the manufacturing process, in which processed milk-fat

cient, n = 7,

r = 0.846)

r = 0.634).

Dutton HJ, Schwab AW, Moser HA, Cowan JC. 1948. The flavor problem of soy-

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Ice cream samples

Free-fat content/

Oxidizability

N o

total fat

content %

rati o a

  • 1 33.29

 

1.04

  • 3 18.24

0.94

  • 6 37.25

0.98

  • 7 28.10

0.93

a Oxidizability ratio = oxidizability of free fat to oxidizability of total fat.

carotene could adversely affect and lessen the photooxidative

stability for milk fat. A more precise investigation is required to

clarify the impact of -carotene.

These results indicate that the photooxidative stability of the

oil fraction depended on the composition of the oil-soluble vita-

mins, such as tocopherol and -carotene; however, the influence

of fatty acid compositions on the photooxidative stability of oil

was lower under the conditions in this study.

The influence of composition differences on light-induced ox-

idation was examined. To compare the susceptibility of the pho-

tooxidation of the oil fraction, the increasing rate of peroxide for-

mation from 0 to

7 d was defined as PV (oil). The correlation

coefficients between the PV (oil) of oil fractions and oxidizabili-

ty, tocopherol composition, and -carotene concentration

were determined.

The oxidizability values ranged narrowly from 0.056 to 0.068.

The PV (oil) of the oil fractions and oxidizability showed low cor-

relation (correlation coefficient r = 0.367), as shown in Figure 5.

The effects of tocopherols’ composition on the PV (oil) of the oil

fractions are shown in Figure 6. The amount of tocopherols af-

fected the photooxidative stability of the oil fraction. The PV

(oil) decreased with the increasing -tocopherol/ -tocopherol ra-

tio with a high correlation (correlation coefficient r = 0.846). The

results showed that -tocopherol is effective in obtaining photo-

oxidative stability for milk fat, and supported previous research

reporting that antioxidative activity of tocopherol increased

in the order of < < < (Griewahn and Daubert 1948).

Figure 7 shows the effect of -carotene content on PV (oil) of the

oil frac- tions. The PV (oil) increased with increasing

-carotene con- tent, and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.634.

-Carotene was

reported to inhibit lipid photooxidation because of its ability as a

Hydrophilic fraction of milk-fat materials

Another factor affecting light-induced oxidation—the effect

of hydrophilic substances, such as riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and

minerals—was investigated. Transition metals like Cu and Fe

(Hegenauer and others 1979) and ascorbic acid (Parkhurst and

others 1968) were reported to involve oil autooxidation. The in-

fluence of riboflavin on light-induced fat oxidation was especial-

ly important (Korycka-Dahl and Richardson 1978; Azzara and

Campbell 1992). The compositions of these hydrophilic sub-

stances in ice cream samples are shown in Table 5. Ice cream

sample Nr 1 shows the highest riboflavin content. Oxidation that

involves riboflavin was presumed to progress in fluid milk as fol-

lows: First, riboflavin is reduced by light with the amino acid (Ko-

rycka-Dahl and Richardson 1978). Reduced riboflavin is reoxi-

dized to form a superoxide anion. Riboflavin is capable of

generating singlet oxygen via the excited triplet state or superox-

ide anion. The photogeneration of singlet oxygen could lead to

autooxidation of unsaturated fatty acid (Rawls and Santen 1970).

Ice cream samples Nr 1 and 2 contained ascorbic acid, and other

samples did not contain ascorbic acid. In this experiment, the in-

fluence of ascorbic acid on the photooxidation was not clear. Ice

cream sample Nr 1 showed lower oxidative stability compared

with the correlation with PV of oil fractions, as shown in Figure

Figure 6—Correlation between peroxide values of oil frac-

Figure 6—Correlation between peroxide values of oil frac-

tions and -tocopherol/ -tocopherol (correlation coeffi-

Figure 7—Correlation between peroxide values of oil frac- tions and -carotene content (correlation coefficient, n =
Figure 7—Correlation between
peroxide values of oil frac-
tions and
-carotene content (correlation coefficient, n = 7,
Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food

zen in the manufacturing process, in which processed milk-fat

cient, n = 7,

r = 0.846)

r = 0.634).

Dutton HJ, Schwab AW, Moser HA, Cowan JC. 1948. The flavor problem of soy-

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Vol. 67, Nr. 3, 2002—JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE

1205

Sen

sory

and

Nut

ritiv

e

Qua

lities

of

Foo

4. It was suggested that riboflavin could promote photooxidation

in ice cream.

Among transition metals, Cu was known to act as a strong

prooxidant (Dutton and others 1948). However, the amount of

Cu in all ice cream samples was trace level (under 0.01 mg/100 g)

to promote milk-fat oxidation (Renner 1983). Furthermore, sam-

ple Nr 6 contained the highest amount of transition metals

among samples, had a low concentration of Fe (0.06 mg/100 g),

and did not promote photooxidation. It was inferred from this re-

sult that the content of transition metals was so low that the con-

tribution of metals to photooxidation of ice cream appears insig-

nificant.

Combined influence of some factors on the photooxidation of ice cream

The combined influence of the photooxidative stability of the

oil fraction of ice cream was investigated with multiple regression

analysis. The combined influence between oxidizability and -to-

copherol/ -tocopherol on the photooxidative stability of the oil

fraction was determined. The -carotene content in milk-fat ma-

terials was dropped from the regression analysis because -caro-

tene was added as a coloring agent in this ice cream mix, and the

amount of -carotene carried over from milk-fat ingredients was

too low in comparison with that of -carotene to affect the photo-

oxidation of ice cream. Prior to the multiple regression analysis, all

data were standardized. Through the standardization process, the

average and standard deviations of valuables were transformed

to

0

and

1, respectively. The

multiple linear model

was:

 

PV (oil) = 0.05 × oxidizability – 0.83 × -tocopherol/ -tocopherol

where PV (oil) is the PV of

the oil fraction increased during 7 d.

In this regression equation, the

coefficient of determination (R 2 )

was 0.72. Thus 72% of the variation of data was explained by the

combination of oxidizability and -tocopherol/ -tocopherol. The

contributing proportion of oxidizability and -tocopherol/ -toco-

pherol on the photooxidative stability of the oil fraction was 2.0%

and 69.9%, respectively. These results indicated that the

toco- pherol composition had more effect than the fatty acid

composi- tion on the photooxidative stability of oil fraction

extracted from milk-fat materials.

Next, the combined influence of the susceptibility for photo-

oxidation of the oil fraction and the riboflavin concentration

was investigated with multiple regressions. The multiple linear

mod- el was:

PV (ice)

= 0.47 ×

PV (oil) + 0.76 × riboflavin

where

PV (ice) is the PV of ice cream, which increased over 7 d.

In this regression equation, the coefficient of

determination (R 2 )

was 0.71. Thus 71% of the variation of data was explained by the

combination of the PV (oil) and the riboflavin content in ice

cream. The contributing proportions of the PV (oil) and ribofla-

vin content on the photooxidative stability of ice cream were

17.6% and 53.7%, respectively.

This result suggested that the photooxidative stability of ice

cream was influenced by the combination of riboflavin content

and the susceptibility for photooxidation of the oil fraction.

Free-fat content dependence

Ice cream has a structure in which whipped air bubbles are

stabilized by a network of solid milk fat. The ice cream mix is fro-

globules are de-emulsified and a portion of milk fat, discharged

from milk-fat globules, is present in free-fat form ( Thomas 1981).

The free-fat content of several ice cream samples in this study

was determined ( Table 6) to investigate the effect of free fat on

photooxidative stability. Ice cream sample Nr 3 showed 18.24%

free-fat content, which was lower than other ice cream samples.

Ice cream sample Nr 3 showed high oxidative stability in spite of

the low oxidative stability of the oil fraction, as shown in Figure 4.

This result indicates that free-fat content affects the photooxida-

tive stability of ice cream and suggests that the fat in milk glob-

ules has higher photooxidative stability than the free fat in ice

cream. An insignificant difference of oxidizability, which was cal-

culated on the basis of fatty acid composition, was observed be-

tween the oil fraction from milk-fat materials and free fat from

ice cream samples. This indicates that the de-emulsification of

the milk-fat globule to discharge free fat takes place with no

specificity on fatty acid species. These results showed that fatty

acids in free fat can be oxidized easier by light than can fatty ac-

ids in milk-fat globules, in spite of fatty acid compositions that

are the same in both free fat and globules.

Conclusions

T

HE PHOTOOXIDATIVE STABILITY OF ICE CREAM SAMPLES PREPARED

from 7 different milk-fat ingredients was investigated. We

observed that photooxidation of ice cream affected its oxidized

flavor development. The combined influence of the photooxida-

tive stability of the oil part and riboflavin content on the photo-

oxidative stability of ice cream was evaluated by multiple regres-

sion analysis. In this analysis, the susceptibility for

photooxidation of the oil part ( PV [oil]) and riboflavin content

were identified and confirmed as important attributes for the

photooxidative stability of ice cream. The susceptibility of photo-

oxidation of the oil part was influenced by the oxidizability of fat-

ty acid in the fat ingredient and tocopherol composition.

The results in this study suggested that vitamin concentration

was important to the composition of ice cream, and free-fat con-

tent in ice cream was important to structure. The fatty acid

compo- sition and the concentration of vitamins in milk fat vary

widely be- cause of differences in dietary intake and genetic

differences between cows. These also are influenced by the

season, breed, lactation period, and other factors (Norris and

others 1973; Hart- man and Dryden 1974; Jensen and others

1999). This result can help improve the photooxidative stability

of ice cream by improv- ing the selection of ingredients and

preparation conditions.

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MS 20000901 Submitted 9/5/00, Accepted 11/23/01, Received 3/11/02

Authors Shiota, Ikeda, Konishi, and Yoshioka are with the Technology and Research Institute, Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd., 1-1-2 Minamidai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-1165, Japan. Direct inquiries to author Shiota (E- mail: m-shiota@mtf.biglobe.ne.jp).

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