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Abutment

These are first and last supports of a bridge and they retain earth

on their backside, which serves as an approach to the bridge.

Back (Dirt) Wall

Wing Wall

backside, which serves as an approach to the bridge. Back (Dirt) Wall Wing Wall Breast Walls
backside, which serves as an approach to the bridge. Back (Dirt) Wall Wing Wall Breast Walls
Breast Walls (Stem)
Breast Walls (Stem)
backside, which serves as an approach to the bridge. Back (Dirt) Wall Wing Wall Breast Walls

Footing

backside, which serves as an approach to the bridge. Back (Dirt) Wall Wing Wall Breast Walls

Abutment Cap

Types of Abutment

Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2
Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2

Gravity Type

Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2

Buried Type

Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2
Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2
Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2
Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2

Balancing Type

Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2
Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2
Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2
Types of Abutment Gravity Type Buried Type Balancing Type 2

2

Abutment with wing wall

Abutment with wing wall

Some considerations in preliminary planning of abutment

The following measures often help in achieving economy in the design of abutments

Provision of sliding bearings or roller cum rocker bearings or elastomeric bearing without pin on abutment reduces

horizontal force on the abutment .

Eccentric abutment towards the backfill increases stabilizing moment .

For 5 to 6 m height and spans up to 20m usually solid plain

mass concrete or masonry abutments are economical .

For heights above 6 m and spans beyond 20m RC abutments are suitable .

Preliminary Sizing of Abutment H 150mm× 2 + bearing width 300mm to 450mm thick with

Preliminary Sizing of Abutment

H

150mm× 2 + bearing width

300mm to 450mm thick with

75 to 200mm projection h 1 to 1.5m 0.3h HFL 1/6 to 1/3 slope Max.
75 to 200mm projection
h
1 to 1.5m
0.3h
HFL
1/6 to 1/3 slope
Max. scouring depth

0.35H to 0.45H

HFL 1/6 to 1/3 slope Max. scouring depth 0.35H to 0.45H Gravity (wall) type abutment 300mm

Gravity (wall) type abutment

300mm to 450mm thick with 75 to 200mm projection

150mm× 2 + bearing width

1 to 1.5m H H/12 to H/8 H/12 to H/8
1 to 1.5m
H H/12 to H/8
H/12 to H/8

2/5 H to 3/4 H

width 1 to 1.5m H H/12 to H/8 H/12 to H/8 2/5 H to 3/4 H

H/10 to H/8

Max. Scouring

depth

Reinforced concrete abutment

b

H / 8 Max. Scouring depth Reinforced concrete abutment b 0.4 to 0.6m clear distance Plan
H / 8 Max. Scouring depth Reinforced concrete abutment b 0.4 to 0.6m clear distance Plan

0.4 to 0.6m clear distance

Plan of abutment

Nabutment b 0.4 to 0.6m clear distance Plan of abutment N = 305 +2.5L + 10H

N = 305 +2.5L + 10H mm L – span in m H- Ht of support in m span in m H- Ht of support in m

Materials for Piers and Abutments

[Minimum grade of material]

Mass Concrete - M10 grade

(With mix proportions of 1:3:6 with 40-mm maximum size aggregates.)

Reinforced Concrete - M20 grade

(With mix proportions of 1:2:4)

Coarse Rubble Masonry

(With Cement mortar of proportions 1:4)

Brick Masonry

(With Cement mortar of proportions 1:4)

Prestressed Concrete - M35

1. Vertical loads • Self wt. Of abutment • Dead & Superimposed Dead Load from

1. Vertical loads

Self wt. Of abutment

Dead & Superimposed Dead Load from Superstructure

Live Load

Earthquake load (vertical component)

Wind load (vertical component)

Uplift by braking effort

Load due to soil mass

2. Horizontal loads

Force due to Braking Effort

Force due to Frictional Resistance of Bearing

Wind Load

Force due to Earthquake

Force due to Earth Pressure

Force induced by creep, shrinkage and temperature variation

Force due to surcharge

For working stress design method, there are nine combinations of loads to be considered in design

Load Combination (Refer IRC 6)
Load Combination
(Refer IRC 6)

In Limit State Design Method, there are three combinations

of

three

combinations are

loads

to

be

considered

in

design.

These

Basic combination

Seismic combination

Accidental combination

These combinations are given for stability check, limit

state of strength, limit state of serviceability and

foundation design.

Partial safety factors for loads for different combinations

and for different works are not similar. They are chosen

on the basis of nature of work carrying out.

Refer IRC 6 2010, Table 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 for

combination of loads

RC Abutment

A Transverse Section of Abutment
A
Transverse Section of
Abutment

Longitudinal Section of Abutment

Loads on abutment from deck

Dead load from deck (vertical)

Find Self wt of railing, kerb/footpath, wearing course, slab , cross

beam and main beam per unit length of abutment

Weight / length of abutment

Live load from deck (vertical)

Load

due

to

temperature

variation

from

deck (horizontal)

Find maximum live load per unit length of abutment Live Load on Abutment / Length of Abutment

Find temperature variation range T

Find movement of deck at free end of deck

T× Coefficient of Thermal Expansion × Span of Deck

Find shear stiffness of bearing from manufacturer’s list Horizontal load requires for unit deformation

Find horizontal load on each bearing H H = Shear Stiffness × Movement of Deck Or H = A×G×Movement of deck/Thickness of bearing

Find total horizontal load per unit length of abutment

(Horizontal Load on a Bearing × No. of Bearings) / Length of Abutment

Load

due

to

earthquake

in

longitudinal

and

transverse direction of bridge (horizontal)

Load due to wind in longitudinal and transverse direction of bridge (horizontal)

Find force due to earthquake F eq from superstructure and substructure per unit length of abutment in longitudinal direction of bridge and find force due to earthquake F eq from superstructure and substructure in transverse direction of bridge

F eq = αβγW or Z/2× I/R× S a /g

Find force due to wind F w from superstructure and substructure per unit length of abutment in longitudinal and transverse direction of bridge

F T w = pAC D G F L w = fraction of F T w

Loads at rear of abutment

Find force due to earth pressure F b per unit length of abutment F b = ½× k a ×γ×H× H

Find force due to Surcharge F s per unit length of abutment 1.2 m earth fill on the road level is taken as surcharge load

F s = k a ×w×H

Stability Check

H
H

1.

Find overturning and restoring moment about toe of abutment for different load combination

Backfill + DL+ LL+ temperature load/braking load

Backfill + DL+ Surcharge due to compacting equipment/LL

Backfill + DL+ par. LL + seismic load

2.

Check overturning effect

M restoring /M overturning

≥ 2 for basic combination ≥ 1.5 for seismic combination

Find shear and resisting shear at the base of footing

Shear = sum of horizontal forces at base Resisting shear = sum of vertical load at base × tanø

Check sliding effect

V resisting / V sliding

≥ 1.5 for basic combination

≥ 1.25 for seismic combination

3. Check bearing pressure at base of footing Pressure = P/A ± Pe/Z ≤ bearing capacity of soil

Design Of Abutment Cap, Main Stem, Back Wall and Slab Base

Design abutment cap

When bearing stress in cap does not exceed the permissible value of bearing stress in concrete, provide

reinforcement according to IRC78

Design main stem of abutment as a RC slab and check the stem as a RC column

When design axial load on abutment ≤ 0.1f ck A, abutment is designed as RC cantilever slab

Design back wall as a RC cantilever slab

Back wall is designed for earth pressure and surcharge and check for its self wt. and wt of approach slab

Design slab base as a spread footing.

Footing is designed for maximum BM and maximum one way shear at the critical sections of footing.

Carry out detailing of reinforcement [Refer cl. 16.3, IRC 112}

Vertical Reinforcement

Dia. of bar≥ 12mm

Total area steel of vertical bar 0.0024 to 0.04 of area of concrete

area of bar in one face ≥ 0.0012

Spacing of vertical bars ≤ 200 mm

Horizontal Reinforcement

Area of horizontal reinforcement ≥ 2.5% of total area of vertical bars

≥ 0.001 of concrete area

Spacing of horizontal bars ≤ 300 mm

Dia of bar≥ 8mm or one fourth of vertical bars

Transverse Reinforcement

If the area of load carrying vertical bar in two faces > 0.02 × area of

concrete theses bars should be enclosed by stirrups

Reinforcement of Abutment

… A A Cross Section
A
A
Cross Section
Reinforcement of Abutment … A A Cross Section Section at A-A … … … Longitudinal Section

Section at A-A

… … …

Longitudinal Section