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Jitendra Tyagi, CPM, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation,
Mohan Gupta, Divisional Director, Mott MacDonald Pvt Ltd,
Ashit Shah, Project Director, Mott MacDonald Pvt Ltd,
Y. H. Krishna and B.C. Kanth, Keller Ground Engineering India Pvt. Ltd.

Metro rail construction is planned and is underway in several cities in India, including New
Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bengaluru. In New Delhi, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
(DMRC) has successfully completed and commissioned the 1st phase of the metro network
covering 65 km. As part of its 2nd phase, construction of about 121 km of metro network is
almost complete. This includes an exclusive “Airport Metro Express Line”, which is under
final phase of commissioning. As part of the Airport Metro Express Line, an underground
metro station is planned next to the existing New Delhi Railway Station, which required deep
excavations in range of 11 m to 19 m. A retaining wall system comprising of soldier pile walls
and multi-level ground anchors was adopted to support the deep vertical excavation., A
different geotechnical challenge was faced at one of the underground metro corridors near
Saket Station. Here the presence of loose sandy silts along an abandoned Nallah channel
posed problems with regard to effective soil arching, which is necessary for tunnel
construction using the proposed NATM method. Compaction Grouting was used to increase
the stiffness in the in-situ soils and to enable effective soil arching above the tunnel crown.
This paper presents the construction methodology, QA/QC measures and performance
testing results related to Ground Anchors and Compaction Grouting.

the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) was adopted for tunnel construction. (b) the free (or un-bonded) length and (c) the fixed (or bonded or grouted) length. The presence of loose sandy silts along an abandoned Nallah channel posed problems with regard to effective soil arching. which is under final phase of commissioning. compaction grouting was chosen to increase the stiffness of the in-situ soils to allow effective soil arching above the tunnel crown. This includes an exclusive link. construction of about 121 km of metro network is almost complete. Fig. at one of the underground tunnel section (near Saket Station. 1) connecting Central Secretariat and Qutub Minar. As a part of this project. To address this problem.1. a multi-level car park and a cut-andcover tunnel have been constructed. Fig. (b) temporary non-retrievable anchors or (c) temporary retrievable anchors. INTRODUCTION Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) has successfully completed the 1st 65 km phase of metro network in New Delhi. As part of its 2nd phase. 2. 1: DMRC network showing Airport Metro Express Line and Saket Station On the link connecting Central Secretariat Station with Gurgaon. CASE STUDY 1: GROUND ANCHORS AT NEW DELHI METRO STATION 2. The designed retaining wall system includes soldier pile walls and multi-level ground anchors to support the vertical deep excavation. which required 11 m to 19 m deep excavation. which is required for safe tunnel construction. 1 shows part of the DMRC network and the location of the Airport Metro Express Line. Depending on the application. The basic components of the anchor include (a) the anchorage. . an underground metro station. the anchors may be classified as (a) permanent anchors. Fig.1 Introduction to Ground Anchors A ground anchor is a structural element installed in soil or rock that is used to transmit an applied tensile load (as a result of horizontal earth pressure) into the ground. namely the “Airport Metro Express Line”.

In general anchor capacity and performance are influenced by four main factors. (b) ground characteristics. (c) installation techniques and (d) workmanship attained in the field. 1989). 2 illustrates the schematic of the types of anchors according to method of installation (BS 8081. 3) describe the general stratigraphy with respect to varying depth of bedrock. namely (a) the number of strands to achieve the desired structural capacity. (c) Post grouted anchors (d) Underreamed anchors. Fig. 2: Type of Anchors according to method of installation (BS 8081. 1989). 2.2 Soil conditions In general site consists of silty clay (Delhi Silt Alluvium) with depth of bedrock varying from as low as 5m to as deep as 18m.Fig. 3: a) Typical soil profile at New Delhi Station b) Typical soil profile at cut & cover tunnel site . (b) Straight shaft pressure grouted anchors. (a) (b) Fig. The rock can be described as highly to moderately weathered Quartzite. especially shear strength. The following profiles (Fig. (a) Straight shaft gravitygrouted anchors. to achieve the desired geotechnical capacity.

The site is next to the existing New Delhi Railway Station and is surrounded by other structures like hotels and hospitals.3 Geotechnical problem For the construction of the underground metro station. 4 shows the layout of station building & car park location. a retention system comprising of soldier pile walls in combination with multi-level soil and rock anchors was proposed. 4: Layout showing station building and multi-level car park To retain the soil of the 11 m to 19 m deep vertical excavation. an 11 m to 19 m deep excavation was required. Where the rock level was high. 5 shows the schematic of the three levels of soil anchors and rock anchors. Fig. Therefore. deep vertical excavations were necessary. 5: a) Schematic showing three levels of soil and rock anchors at New Delhi Station site b) Schematic showing one level of strut followed by rock anchors at cut & cover tunnel site . Fig. multi-level car park and cut-and-cover tunnel on Airport Metro Express Line stretch.2. (a) (b) Fig. Fig. Two to three levels of ground anchors (60 tons and 80 tons) were installed depending upon the depth of excavation. only a single level of anchors was installed.

5. L Geotechnical capacity of the anchor = 9. Fixed Length in Type C Anchorages Considering. of strands = 6nos (say) Total Structural capacity of the anchor = 18.7mm dia. 2m additional buffer length) Fixed length of the anchor.815 kN ~ 182T Factor of safety against geotechnical capacity of the anchor = Theoretical capacity / design capacity = 182 T / 80T = 2.m) for Sandy Silts having Consistency Index.3.4.1 Structural Capacity To achieve the desired structural capacity of the anchors i.3 > 2 (as per BS 8081: 1989) Total length of the anchor = Free length + Fixed length = 12.4 Structural and Geotechnical Capacity of Anchors 2.5m (incl. clause-II.74 T (As per IS 14268:1995 For 7 ply.4 (as per BS 8081: 1989) 2.2.41 > 1.m The ultimate geotechnical capacity of anchor = (π x 0.152 x 9..4 T / 80T = 1. Dia of drill hole = 0. say 80 tons. of each 12. were used as per the following calculations: Design capacity of the anchor = 80 T Capacity of each strand of 12.74T x 6nos = 112.5m (say) = π x D x L x τf (Sandy silt) D.4. theoretical skin friction τf (Sandy silt) = 400 kN/sq. 12. clause II) No.7mm diameter steel strands (7 ply) LRPC confirming to IS: 14268-1995.2 Geotechnical Capacity The main components of the geotechnical capacity of the anchor are free and fixed length. clause 6. Ic=1.5) x 400 = 1.5m + 9. which are arrived at based on the following calculations: Design Capacity of the anchor = 80T Length of anchor in the active wedge zone = 10.2.7 mm nominal dia.44T Factor of safety against STRUCTURAL capacity of the anchor = Theoretical capacity / design capacity = 112.152m τf (Sandy silt) is theoretical skin friction (> 400 kN/sq.25.e. LRPC strands.5m (as per to failure wedge analysis) Free length of anchor = 12. the anchors are fabricated using 6 Nos. according to BS 8081: 1989. = 18..5m = 22m .

6 shows anchor installation works in progress and construction of underground New Delhi metro station in full swing after the successful excavation to the desired depth. Fig. Every anchor was tested to confirm the respective design capacities. each and every anchor was tested / pre-stressed using a 100 ton multi-strand pre-stressing jack.2. The working loads were 60 tons at station building and 80 tons at cut-and-cover tunnel location. The anchors are stressed to a test load of 1. (a) (b) Fig.5 Installation method Installation of ground anchors consists primarily of drilling.1 times of the working load. cement grouting and finally by pre-stressing after a curing period of 7 to 10 days. 7 shows the stressing activity in progress.6 Testing results After a curing period of 7 to 10 days. Fig. 7: Pre-stressing using 100T capacity multi strand jack . Fig. 6: a) Installation of ground anchors using Casagrande C6 Hydraulic drill rig b) Construction of underground New Delhi metro station after successful excavation to the desired depth (New Delhi railway station is also seen in the back ground) 2. installation of fabricated anchor.

All the ground anchors were pre-stressed (100% frequency) .1 times the design load . The compaction grouting method may be used for the improvement of non-cohesive soils.Elongation of steel were recorded and checked to be under acceptable limits .Staged loading and deformations were recorded 2.All anchors were tested to 1. forming grout bulbs. Excavation was completed successfully in before the middle of 2010. during the installation of anchor: • Drilling . A very viscous (low-mobility).1 Introduction to Compaction Grouting The compaction grouting technique uses displacement and compaction to improve ground conditions. thus improving the load bearing behaviour of the soil. with SPT N values between 20 & 30 to about 26 m depth. especially in cases.Volume of the grout pumped in and the flow rate was recorded • Secondary Grouting . aggregate grout is pumped in stages.Components such as fixed length. length of grout pipes. The abandoned Nallah channel was excavated and filled with locally available sandy silt to level the ground. 3. free length. where soils of loose to medium density are encountered. SPT N values in the sandy silt fill were in the range of 4 to 17. a total of 600 ground anchors were installed.7 Quality Assurance and Control State-of-the-art of anchor installation includes appropriate QA-QC procedures throughout the construction process. multi-level carpark and cut-and-cover tunnel. Significant improvement can be achieved by correctly sequencing the grouting work from primary to secondary to tertiary grids. CASE STUDY 2: COMPACTION GROUTING FOR NATM TUNNEL AT SAKET 3. which displace and densify the surrounding soils.2 Soil conditions The soils at site generally consist of sandy silt fill to 5m depth. indicating loose to medium dense. This method is also used in fine-grained soils in order to install elements of higher strength and bearing at which the grout is pumped was recorded • Pre-stressing .) • Anchor fabrication parameters . etc.8 Performance of Ground Anchors For the New Delhi Railway station excavation.Volume of the grout pumped in and the flow rate was recorded . were checked before the anchor was installed in the drill hole • Primary Grouting . . The following QA-QC parameters were monitored and recorded on site. 3.Drilling logs consisting of type of soil encountered with depth were kept .Grout pressures (> 20kg/sq. Any significant deviations would trigger a design review.(It must be ensured that the soil / rock encountered is not significantly different from the assumptions made during the design. This is underlain by moderately weathered Quartzite bedrock.2. This was followed by medium dense to dense Delhi Silt alluvium layer.

But the pre-improvement soil conditions (loose to medium dense sandy silt/silty sand) was not expected to allow effective arching. Fig. it was necessary to carry out a combination of shallow and deep ground treatment by compaction grouting.4 Geotechnical Requirement Hence. Z is depth. Fig.3 Geotechnical problem Tunnel excavation by NATM was proposed at a depth of about 9 m below existing ground level.3. thus the supporting formations will themselves be part of this supporting structure. where. Fig. The soil above the tunnel crown is fill material (along the Nallah alignment) consisting of sandy silt/silty sand in the top 5 to 6 m. An theoretical SPT ‘N’ value profile between 10 and 18 with respect to depth was proposed by using the correlation. SPT N = 10 + 1. to form effective soil arching during tunnel construction. This was followed by Delhi silt alluvium down to the tunnel crown. 3. in order to permit safe and stable NATM tunnel excavation and primary lining construction. 8 illustrates the layout of the NATM tunnels and the alignment of Nallah channel. the required and existing SPT N values are plotted on the right . 8: Layout of the NATM Tunnels and abandoned Nallah channel NATM is a method where the surrounding rock or soil formations of a tunnel are integrated into an overall ring-like support structure. Fig. 9 illustrates the proposed NATM tunnels under a filled up soil strata at abandoned Nallah channel location along with the existing and required SPT N value profile. 9: Schematic of the NATM tunnels under an abandoned Nallah channel.75Z.

the grout mix was pumped through the stinger rods. A truck mounted hydraulic drill rig was used to drill a nominal diameter hole of 90 mm to a depth of about 8 m through the over burden soils. After drilling. a low slump cement with a mix proportion of 1:3. Trials were carried using 2 m and 4 m square grids. Fig.5 m each) from bottom to the top of the working platform.3. For compaction grouting.6 Testing results Field trials were carried out to establish a suitable grid pattern to achieve the intended post compaction grouting SPT ‘N’ values. 11: Layout illustrating the compaction grouting grid – 2 m and 4 m . in stages (0. to form a bulb like element in the loose soils. installation of stinger rods and pumping the low slump grout mix from the bottom of the treatment depth to the working platform in steps. 10 shows the compaction grouting works at site. 11 illustrates the typical layout of the compaction grouting – 2m and 4m square grid: Fig. 10: a) Picture illustrating the progress of compaction grouting works at site b) Measurement of slump as QA-QC procedures 3.5 Installation method Generally construction consists of drilling. water-cement ratio of 0.5 and admixtures like Bentonite and Glenium are used as a plasticizer to increase the workability of grout mix. The slump value of grout mix is about 120 to 150 mm. Fig. Pre and post compaction grouting SPT ‘N’ values were recorded and analysed. (a) (b) Fig.

cm) Mortar is overflowing from same grout hole collar Excessive ground heave is measured i.. proper quality assurance and quality control (QA-QC) procedures were adopted. 0.e.Pre and post treatment analysis are also done to find the strength of the improved ground. etc. Termination of particular grouting stage was considered when one of the following conditions achieved: – – – – Pre-determined grout volume is achieved (in accordance with bulb diameter i. Both 2 m and 4 m grids were generally able to achieve the required design SPT N values. greater than or equals to 15 mm Working parameters (grout volume.8 Performance of improved ground A total of 296 grout points were drilled with over 420 m3 of grout pumped. Fig. . Comparision of Design SPT values with Pre and Post SPT Values 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 0 Depth (m) 2 4 6 8 10 12 SPT N values Design SPT Idealised Pre-SPT Idealised Post SPT on 4m grid Idealised Post SPT on 2m grid Fig.e. depth. 12 shows the Comparison between Design SPT values with Pre and Post-improvement SPT values. The working parameters (e.5 m) Pre-determined grout pressure is achieved (in accordance with depth of treatment i.7 Quality Assessment and Control As with other ground improvement techniques. 12 kg/sq. The NATM tunnel excavation was successfully completed in the middle of 2009. 19 preimprovement and 17 post-improvement SPT boreholes were drilled. heave etc) were maintained and recorded at each stage of compaction grouting process to determine the appropriate termination point. grout volume. Post treatment SPT ‘N’ values in the filled up soil increased and ranged between 20 & 30. which are recorded and printed real-time during the installation of the compaction grouting to 18 kg/sq. pressure.g depth. pressure.e. 12: Comparison of Design SPT values with Pre and Post SPT Values 3. 3.) were monitored using automated quality control systems.

4. CONCLUSIONS Soldier pile walls in combination with ground anchors as a retention system was successfully carried out to support the 11m to 19m deep excavations for the underground station and tunnelling works Delhi Metro Rail Project sites. This was for the first time Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has constructed a tunnel in loose deposits using NATM method. 13: Pictures illustrating the regular traffic movement over completed underground a) New Delhi Metro Station Building b) Cut & Cover Tunnel at Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital Similarly. Bureau of Indian Standards. This retention system facilitated the space for construction activities of the underground station and cut & cover tunnel. References BS 8081: 1999. “Specification for uncoated stress relieved low relaxation seven ply strand for prestressed concrete”. . British Standards Institute. “British Standard Code of Practice for Ground Anchorages”. Compaction Grouting proved to be effective in densifying the loose silty sandy deposits above the tunnel crown. The construction of these underground structures is now complete (Fig. New Delhi. 13). (a) (b) Fig. London. This facilitated the construction of tunnel by NATM method as the loose silty sandy soils densified after the compaction grouting there by forming self arching which is required for NATM method of construction. IS 14268: 1995.