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GEOLOGIC MAPPING

2014 EVENT OVERVIEW

PRESENTED BY:

MARK A. VANHECKE
NATIONAL SCIENCE OLYMPIAD
EARTH-SPACE SCIENCE EVENT CHAIR
mvanhecke@comcast.net

PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES:
Identify event parameters for the 2014
Geologic Mapping Event
Identify the basic features of geologic
maps
Use a geologic map diagram to
construct a cross section and project
map features
Interpret a block diagram and order
rock strata from oldest to youngest

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING

EVENT OVERVIEW

2014 EVENT OVERVIEW
Identify basic features of geologic
maps
Interpret geologic map features
including intrusions, subsurface
geometries, deformation features and
subsurface depositional features
Identify folds, fault types and erosional
patterns
Construct fault sections, topographic
profiles, projections of mapped
features

true dip and orientations of planes from point . basins.2014 EVENT OVERVIEW Identify structural elements shown in geologic maps including synforms. antiforms. monoclines. domes and saddles Determine bed thicknesses.

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING WHAT IS A GEOLOGIC MAP? .

WHAT ARE GEOLOGIC MAPS? A geologic map shows: Mappable Rock Layers Mappable sediment layers that cover up the rocks Geologic structures including folds. faults and intrusions ‘Mappable’ rock layers are recognized consistently across a landscape .

WHAT ARE GEOLOGIC MAPS? Mappable units of rock and sediment may be identified using letter symbols .

WHAT ARE GEOLOGIC MAPS? Mappable units of rock and sediment may also use colors. patterns or combinations of letter symbols and colors/patterns .

GEOLOGY AND GEOLOGIC HISTORY .

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS .

NATURAL RESOURCES .

GEOHAZARDS .

GROUNDWATER .

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING BASIC FEATURES OF GEOLOGIC MAPS .

GEOLOGIC MAPS .

colors/patterns .BASIC FEATURES OF GEOLOGIC MAPS The basic features of a geologic map are the map itself and the legend or key used to explain the symbols.

STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMNS .

CROSS SECTIONS .

BLOCK DIAGRAMS .

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING DRAWING A CROSS SECTION .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION A geologic map identifies different rock types and where they can be seen on the surface .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION A cross section of a geologic map is a vertical slice of the Earth’s surface that shows what the underlying geologic structure at that location looks like .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION A cross section of a geologic map also shows the boundaries between different types of rock found on the surface .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION A cross section of a geologic map also shows the orientation of rock layers where they intersect the surface. . The orientation or direction of rock layers is expressed as Strike and Dip.

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION Strike refers to the compass bearing (direction) of a line formed by the intersection of a horizontal plane and an inclined layer of rock. the larger line refers to the Strike . N NE Angle of the strike is from NE to SW SW In a strike-dip symbol.

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION Dip refers to the angle between a horizontal plane and the inclined stratum of rock. fault or fracture e rik t S Horizontal Plane 45º ne Li Dip Direction .

the smaller line indicates Dip 45 .DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION In a strike-dip symbol.

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION The location of the dip line in relation to the strike line indicates the direction of the dip. 24 Rock layer dips to the west 45 Rock layer dips to the east .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION Solve the strike and dip problems given on Worksheet 1 Section 1 .

WORKSHEET 1: SECTION 1 ANSWERS East Strike East Dip 40 40 35 West 35 SE 40 NW SE .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION Strike and Dip is usually expressed in bearings (Quadrants) .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION Writing strike and dip coordinates Strike= N45ºW 24 Dip= 24ºSW 43 Dip= 43ºN Strike= N90ºE .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION On Worksheet 1 Section 2 measure the angle of strike and write out the bearings for the strike and dip measurements given .

WORKSHEET 1: SECTION 2 ANSWERS 38 52 Strike = N44ºW (or S44ºE) Dip= 52ºSW Strike= N82ºE (or S82ºW) Dip= 38ºNW .

draw a horizontal line just below the diagram as shown below .DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION STEP 1 On Worksheet 2.

.DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION STEP 2 Transfer all available information from the diagram as shown to the line you just drew.

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION STEP 3 Indicate the locations of boundaries between layers on the horizontal line as shown .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION STEP 4 Use a protractor to measure the direction and angle of the dip and draw a small line on the horizontal line for each as shown .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION How are different outcrops of the same layer connected? How do dip angles and directions change above and below the surface? .

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION STEP 5 Connect the boundary lines for each layer as shown .

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY .

.

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM .

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM Block diagrams show different rock strata and changes that have been made over time to their layering .

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM Original Horizontality Superposition Fault Igneous Intrusion Nonconformity .

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM .

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM OLDEST YOUNGEST .

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM Disconformity Original Horizontality Superposition Angular Disconformity Igneous Intrusions Nonconformity Faults .

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM .

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM OLDEST YOUNGEST .

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING RESOURCES .

gov/parks/gmap/gmap3. An excellent discussion of strike and dip.html USGS Geologic Maps.com/watch?v=ZZHgxlh0PQ4 Excellent Video Series I used for the Block Diagram Activities (three parts to series) http://www.com/college/geo/geolab/animations.youtube.wwnorton.aspx This web-based Norton Publishing Lab Manual for Introductory Geology is filled with animations that show the movements of geologic features that are identified on many maps http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vgo8Z63n60g Excellent description of drawing a Cross Section I used for this activity .usgs. http:// www.RESOURCES http://geomaps.wr. It also provides a good introduction to map keys.