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1:

In an n-type

type silicon, which of the following statement is true:

Electrons are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

Electrons are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

Holes are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

Holes are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

Answer

**The correct statement is (c).
**

In an n-type

type silicon, the electrons are the majority carriers, while the holes are the

minority carriers. An n-type

pe semiconductor is obtained when pentavalent atoms, such as

phosphorus, are doped in silicon atoms.

Question 14.2:

Which of the statements given in Exercise 14.1 is true for p-type

p type semiconductors.

Answer

**The correct statement is (d).
**

In a p-type

type semiconductor, the holes are the majority carriers, while the electrons are the

minority carriers. A p-type

type semiconductor is obtained when trivalent atoms, such as

aluminium, are doped in silicon atoms.

Question 14.3:

Carbon. holes diffuse from the p-region p to n-region region because free electrons in the n-region region attract them. silicon and germanium have four valence electrons each. Answer The correct statement is (c). they move across the junction by the potential difference. (Eg)Si and (Eg)Ge. These are characterised by valence and conduction bands separated by energy band gap respectively equal to (Eg)C. The energy band gap of these elements are related as: (Eg)C > (Eg)Si > (Eg)Ge Question 14. the energy band gap of carbon is the maximum and that of germanium is the least. . n All the above. hole concentration in p-region region is more as compared to n-region.4: In an unbiased p-nn junction. Which of the following statements is true? (Eg)Si < (Eg)Ge < (Eg)C (Eg)C < (Eg)Ge > (Eg)Si (Eg)C > (Eg)Si > (Eg)Ge (Eg)C = (Eg)Si = (Eg)Ge Answer The correct statement is (c). Of the three given elements.

the p-region region has greater concentration of holes than the n-region. Hence. emitter and collector regions should have similar size and doping concentrations. Answer The correct statement is (c). When a forward bias is applied to a p-n p n junction. Question 14. it lowers the value of potential barrier. The base region must be very thin and lightly doped. Question 14. lowers the potential barrier.6: For transistor action. The emitter junction is forward biased and collector junction is reverse biased. holes diffuse from the p-region to the n-region. None of the above. In the case of a forward bias. n Hence.The diffusion of charge carriers across a junction takes place from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. In this case. Answer . Both the emitter junction as well as the collector junction are forward biased.5: When a forward bias is applied to a p-n p junction. the potential barrier across the junction gets reduced. it raises the potential barrier. which of the following statements are correct: Base. reduces the majority carrier current to zero. in an unbiased p-nn junction. the potential barrier opposes the applied voltage. region.

What is the output frequency of a full-wave full wave rectifier for the same input frequency.8: In half-wave wave rectification. (c). It is low at high and low frequencies. the voltage gain remains constant for all frequencies. is high at high and low frequencies and constant in the middle frequency range. Answer The correct statement is (c). For a transistor action. is low at high and low frequencies and constant at mid frequencies.The correct statement is (b).7: For a transistor amplifier. Also. None of the above. the junction must be lightly doped so that the base region is very thin. Question 14. what is the output frequency if the input frequency is 50 Hz. Question 14. the emitter junction must be forward-biased forward and collector junction should be reverse-biased. The voltage gain of a transistor amplifier is constant at mid frequency range only. Answer .

if the base resistance is 1 kΩ. the output frequency frequency is equal to the input frequency. ∴Output Output frequency = 2 × 50 = 100 Hz Question 14. the audio signal voltage across the collected resistance of 2 kΩ is 2 V. RB = 1 kΩ = 1000 Ω Input signal voltage = Vi Base current = IB We have the amplification relation as: Voltage amplification .9: For a CE-transistor transistor amplifier.Input frequency = 50 Hz For a half-wave wave rectifier. Answer Collector resistance. find the input signal voltage and base current. the output frequency is twice the input frequency. β = 100 Base resistance. V = 2 V Current amplification factor of the transistor. Suppose the current amplification factor of the transistor is 100. RC = 2 kΩ = 2000 Ω Audio signal voltage across the collector resistance. ∴Output frequency = 50 Hz For a full-wave wave rectifier.

Vi = 0. Question 14. V1 = 10 Voltage gain of the second amplifier. calculate the output ac signal. Answer Voltage gain of the first amplifier. the base current of the amplifier is 10 μA. The first amplifier has a voltage gain of 10 and the second has a voltage gain of 20.10: Two amplifiers are connected one after the other in series (cascaded).01 volt.e.01 V.Therefore..01 V Output AC signal voltage = Vo The total voltage gain of a two-stage two stage cascaded amplifier is given by the product of voltage gains of both the stages. V = V1 × V2 = 10 × 20 = 200 We have the relation: . the input signal voltage of the amplifier is 0. i. V2 = 20 Input signal voltage. Base resistance is given by the relation: Therefore. If the input signal is 0.

Eg = 2. λ = 6000 nm = 6000 × 10−9 m The energy of a signal is given by the relation: E= Where. Question 14.8 eV Wavelength. Can it detect a wavelength of 6000 nm? Answer Energy band gap of the given photodiode.01 = 2 V Therefore.626 × 10−34 Js c = Speed of light = 3 × 108 m/s E = 3. the output AC signal of the given amplifier is 2 V. h = Planck’s constant = 6.11: A p-n n photodiode is fabricated from a semiconductor with band gap of 2.V0 = V × Vi = 200 × 0.313 × 10−20 J .8 eV.

6 × 10−19 J = 1 eV ∴E = 3. Hence. which is less than 2.12: The number of silicon atoms per m3 is 5 × 1028. Question 14.But 1.8 eV − the energy band gap of a photodiode.99 × 1022 Number of holes = nh In thermal equilibrium. Calculate the number of electrons and holes. Given that ni= 1. N = 5 × 1028 atoms/m3 Number of arsenic atoms.5 × 1016 electrons/m3 Number of electrons. nAs = 5 × 1022 atoms/m3 Number of indium atoms.313 × 10−20 J The energy of a signal of wavelength 6000 nm is 0. the concentrations of electrons and holes in a semiconductor are related as: nenh = ni2 .207 eV.5 × 1016 ≈ 4. ne = 5 × 1022 − 1. ni = 1. nIn = 5 × 1020 atoms/m3 Number of thermally-generated generated electrons.5 × 1016 m−3. This is doped simultaneously with 5 × 1022 atoms per m3 of Arsenic and 5 × 1020 per m3 atoms off Indium. the photodiode cannot detect the signal. Is the material n-type type or p-type? p Answer Number of silicon atoms.

2 eV The temperature dependence of the intrinsic carrier-concentration carrier concentration is written as: Where.99 × 1022 and the number of holes is about 4. the number of electrons is approximately 4. What is the ratio between conductivity at 600K and that at 300K? Assume that the temperature dependence of intrinsic carrier concentration niis given by where n0 is a constant. Answer Energy gap of the given intrinsic semiconductor.2 eV. Question 14.51 × 109. Eg = 1.13: In an intrinsic semiconductor the energy gap Egis 1. the material is an n-type type semiconductor.62 × 10−5 eV/K T = Temperature n0 = Constant . Its hole mobility is much smaller than electron mobility and independent of temperature. kB = Boltzmann constant = 8. Since the number of electrons is more than the number of holes.Therefore.

Initial temperature. the ratio between the conductivities is 1. V is the voltage across the diode and is positive for forward bias and negative for reverse bias.6 V? . If for a given diode I0 = 5 × 10−12 A and T = 300 K. the current I can be expressed as where I0 is called the reverse saturation current.6×10−5 eV/K) and T is the absolute temperature. and I is the current through the diode. Question 14. T2 = 600 K The intrinsic carrier-concentration concentration at this temperature can be written as: … (2) The ratio between the conductivities at 600 K and at 300 K is equal to the ratio between the respective intrinsic carrier-concentrations carrier at these temperatures.14: In a p-n junction diode.09 × 105. Therefore. then What will be the forward current at a forward voltage of 0. kBis the Boltzmann constant (8. T1 = 300 K The intrinsic carrier-concentration concentration at this temperature can be written as: … (1) Final temperature.

0256 A. we can write: .6 × 10−5 eV/K = 1.376 × 10−23 J K−1 V = Voltage across the diode Forward voltage. V’ = 0. I0 = Reverse saturation current = 5 × 10−12 A T = Absolute temperature = 300 K kB = Boltzmann constant = 8. I Therefore.7 V? What is the dynamic resistance? What will be the current if reverse bias voltage changes from 1 V to 2 V? Answer In a p-n junction diode. the forward current is about 0.7 V.6 V ∴Current. For forward voltage.What will be the increase in the current if the voltage across the diode is increased to 0. the expression for current is given as: Where. V = 0.

15: You are given the two circuits as shown in Fig. This is shown in the following figure. Show that circuit (a) acts as OR gate while the circuit (b) acts as AND gate. Answer A and B are the inputs and Y is the output of the given circuit. Δ ΔI = I' − I = 1. The left half of the given figure acts as the NOR Gate.Hence.44.257 − 0.23 A Dynamic resistance If the reverse bias voltage changes from 1 V to 2 V. the increase in current. the dynamic resistance in the reverse bias will be infinite. 14. Hence. Question 14. then the current (I) ( ) will almost remain equal to I0 in both cases. the output of the NOR Gate = .0256 = 1. while the right half acts as the NOT Gate. Therefore.

Hence. Answer A acts as the two inputs of the NAND gate and Y is the output. Hence identify the exact logic operation carried out by this circuit. Question 14. A and B are the inputs and Y is the output of the given circuit. this circuit functions as an OR Gate. It can be observed from the following figure that the inputs of the right half NOR Gate are the outputs of the two NOT Gates. Its output will be =A+B ∴Y = A + B Hence. 14.16: Write the truth table for a NAND gate connected as given in Fig. this circuit functions as an AND Gate. as shown in the following figure.45.This will be the input for the NOT Gate. the output of the given circuit can be written as: Hence. .

46. which consist of NAND gates. the output can be written as: The truth table for equation (i) ( can be drawn as: A Y 0 1 1 0 This circuit functions as a NOT gate. Identify the logic operation carried out by the two circuits. A and B are the inputs and Y is the output. 14. as shown in the following figure. The output of the left NAND gate will be . .17: You are given two circuits as shown in Fig. The symbol for this logic circuit is shown as: Question 14.Hence. Answer In both the given circuits.

18: Write the truth table for circuit given in Fig. performing. 14. the output of the combination of the two NAND gates is given as: Hence. AND. this circuit functions as an OR gate. NOT) which this circuit is performing.) Answer . as shown in the following figure. the output of the combination of the NAND gates will be given as: Hence. is the output of the upper left of the NAND gate and of the NAND gate.Hence. Similarly work out the values of Y for other combinations of A and B. is the output of the lower half Hence. (Hint: A = 0. Compare with the truth table of OR. this circuit functions as an AND gate.47 below consisting of NOR gates and identify the logic operation (OR. B = 1 then A and B inputs of second NOR gate will be 0 and hence Y=1. NOT gates and find the correct one. AND. Question 14.

NOT) performed by the two circuits. .48 consisting of NOR gates only. 14. It can be observed from the following figure that the inputs of the second NOR gate become the out put of the first one.A and B are the inputs of the given circuit. Hence. Question 14. The output of the first NOR gate is . Identify the logic operations (OR. the output of the combination is given as: The truth table for this operation is given as: A B Y (=A A + B) 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 This is the truth table of an OR gate. Hence.19: Write the truth table for the circuits given in Fig. AND. this circuit functions as an OR gate.

By using the result obtained in solution (a). this circuit functions as a NOT gate. A and B are the inputs and Y is the output of the given circuit. we can infer that the outputs of the first two NOR gates are shown in the following figure. Hence. as . Hence.Answer A acts as the two inputs of the NOR gate and Y is the output. the output of the circuit is . as shown in the following figure. The truth table for the same is given as: A Y 0 1 1 0 This is the truth table of a NOT gate.

. Hence. the output for the circuit can be written as: The truth table for the same can be written as: A B Y (=A A⋅B) 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 This is the truth table of an AND gate.are the inputs for the last NOR gate. this circuit functions as an AND gate. Hence.

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