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Trease and Evans

Pharmacognosy

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For Elsevier
Commissioning Editor: Pauline Graham
Development Editor: Janice Urquhart, Fiona Conn
Project Manager: Gail Wright
Design Direction: George Ajayi

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Trease and Evans

Pharmacognosy
William Charles Evans BPharm BSc PhD DSc FIBiol FLS FRPharmS

Revised with the assistance of
Daphne Evans BA MA

SIXTEENTH EDITION

Edinburgh London New York Philadelphia St Louis Sydney Toronto 2009

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© 2009, Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.
First published 1934
Sixteenth edition 2009
Fifteenth edition 2002
Fourteenth edition 1996
Thirteenth edition 1989
Twelfth edition 1983
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic
or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system,
without permission in writing
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http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
ISBN 978-0-7020-2933-2
International Edition ISBN 978-0-7020-2934-9
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress
Notice
Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience
broaden our knowledge, changes in practice, treatment and drug therapy may become necessary or
appropriate. Readers are advised to check the most current information provided (i) on procedures
featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended
dose or formula, the method and duration of administration, and contraindications. It is the
responsibility of the practitioner, relying on their own experience and knowledge of the patient, to
make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take
all appropriate safety precautions. To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the Editor
assumes any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to
any use of the material contained in this book.
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Printed in China

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Contents
Preface

Part 3
Principles related to the commercial
production, quality and standardization
of natural products 81

vii

Contributors

ix

Part 1
Introduction 1
1. Plants in medicine: the origins of
pharmacognosy 3

8

Part 2
The plant and animal kingdoms as
sources of drugs 13
4. Biological and geographical sources of
drugs 15
5. A taxonomic approach to the study of
medicinal plants and animal-derived
drugs 18
6. Pharmacological activities of natural
products 45

11. Production of crude drugs

87

93

13. Plant cell and tissue culture; biochemical
conversions; clonal propagation 98
14. Phytochemical variation within a
species 106
15. Deterioration of stored drugs
16. Quality control

117

121

Part 4
Phytochemistry 133
17. General methods associated with the
phytochemical investigation of herbal
products 135
18. Basic metabolic pathways and the origin of
secondary metabolites 148

7. Synergy and other interactions in
phytomedicines 53
E. M. Williamson
8. Traditional plant medicines as a source of
new drugs 62
P. J. Houghton
9. Discovering new lead compounds in
pharmaceutical research and
development 75
M. J. O’Neill, J. A. Lewis

83

12. Plant growth regulators

2. The scope and practice of
pharmacognosy 5
3. Plant nomenclature and taxonomy

10. Commerce in crude drugs
R. Baker

Part 5
Pharmacopoeial and related drugs
of biological origin 169
Introduction

171

19. Hydrocarbons and derivatives

173

20. Carbohydrates 194
21. Phenols and phenolic glycosides

219

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CONTENTS

22. Volatile oils and resins

36. Asian medicine
S. E. Weston

263

23. Saponins, cardioactive drugs and other
steroids 304
24. Miscellaneous isoprenoids

2

37. Chinese herbs in the West
S. Y. Mills

333

353

Part 7
Non-medicinal toxic plants and
pesticides 521

27. The search for naturally derived
anticancer agents 416
28. Antiprotozoal natural products
C. W. Wright

504

38. Plants in African traditional medicine—some
perspectives 511
A. Sofowora

25. Cyanogenetic glycosides, glucosinolate
compounds, cysteine derivatives and
miscellaneous glycosides 347
26. Alkaloids

498

428

39. Hallucinogenic, allergenic, teratogenic and
other toxic plants 523

29. An overview of drugs with antihepatotoxic
and oral hypoglycaemic activities 436

40. Pesticides of natural origin

30. Antibacterial and antiviral drugs

Part 8
Morphological and microscopical
examination of drugs 537

31. Vitamins and hormones

451

32. The plant nutraceuticals
G. B. Lockwood

459

Introduction

33. Colouring and flavouring agents
34. Miscellaneous products

445

477

485

539

41. Plant description, morphology and
anatomy 541

471

Part 6
Plants in complementary and
traditional systems of medicine 483
Introduction

533

42. Cell differentiation and ergastic cell
contents 551
43. Techniques in microscopy
Index

563

571

35. Herbal medicine in Britain and Europe:
regulation and practice 487
S. Y. Mills

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Preface
Pharmacognosy embraces a number of scientific and
other disciplines providing a unified and comprehensive treatment of medicinal plants. There are constant
advances and changes affecting all areas of the subject
and, as in the past, this 16th edition addresses these
new developments while at the same time maintaining the fundamental concepts required for the teaching of all aspects of the subject. It should continue
to be of value not only to those of a pharmaceutical
and medical persuasion but also to scholars of other
disciplines who have an interest in natural products.
Over 60 crude drugs, recently included in editions of the European and British pharmacopoeias, have now been given separate entries in Part 3.
Cognizance has been taken of the shift away from
material collected in the wild, which results in the
endangerment of species, towards cultivation under
controlled conditions. The implementation of legal
requirements for the quality control of herbal drugs
and medicines has given an even greater significance
to the development of additional standardization and
analytical procedures; similarly for traditional Asian
and Chinese medicines.
Subsequent to the publication of the 15th edition of
this book, many new phytochemicals, their structures
and pharmacological activities, have been reported,
especially from those plant materials having current
interest. In this respect, a new chapter covering plant
nutraceuticals gives emphasis to the attention now
being given to this diverse group of pharmacologically active food constituents. Genetic fingerprinting,
now widely used by plant taxonomists, is becoming
increasingly important for the characterization of

closely related species of medicinal plants and for
the recognition of chemical races with variable pharmacological properties; a number of examples will
be found throughout the text.
As previously, I am much indebted to the contributors, who have given of their time and expertise to
provide new or revised chapters on topics of current interest. It is with much regret that I record the
death of my former colleague Dr Mohammed Aslam,
who with characteristic enthusiasm had initiated and
continued to update the chapter on Asian medicine,
Thanks are due to Dr R. Hardman, Dr K. Helliwell,
Dr L. W. Levy and Prof. J. D. Phillipson for aspects
concerning current developments, and to Seven Seas
Limited, Marfleet, for kindly updating entries on fish
oils. Library facilities were made available by the
Universities of Bath, Bristol, Exeter and Reading,
the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain,
the Secretariat of the European Scientific Cooperative
for Phytotherapy and the Taunton Public Library.
Daphne, my wife, has assisted me throughout
by providing miscellaneous contributions to the
text, carrying out literature searches and helping
with the organization of the manuscript; without
her dedicated help, this edition would not have
been possible. Miscellaneous practical support
afforded by other family members is also much
appreciated.
I am grateful to the publishers in Edinburgh for
their usual helpful assistance and understanding.
W. C. E.
2009

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Contributors
Robin Baker
RoA Services Ltd, Harwich, UK
Peter J. Houghton BPharm PhD FRPharmS CChem FRSC
Department of Pharmacy, King’s College London,
London, UK
Jane A. Lewis BSc PhD
Medicines Research Centre,
GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, UK
G. Brian Lockwood BPharm PhD MRPharmS
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Simon Y. Mills MA FNIMH MCCP
Centre for Complementary Health Studies,
University of Exeter, Exeter, UK

Melanie J. O’Neill BPharm PhD MRPharmS
Medicines Research Centre,
GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, UK
Abayomi Sofowora BPharm PhD
Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo
University, Ife-Ife, Nigeria
Samantha E. Weston BPharm MRPharmS
School of Pharmacy, University of Reading,
Reading, UK
Elizabeth M. Williamson BSc PhD MRPharmS FLS
School of Pharmacy, University of Reading,
Reading, UK
Colin W. Wright BPharm MSc PhD MRPharmS
School of Pharmacy, University of Bradford,
Bradford, UK

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