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Index

Tribal Rights
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Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and India

OCTOBER, 2015

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Designed by:
Chandan Kumar “Raja”

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Skill Development

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Tribal Rights

TRIBAL RIGHTS
According to D N Majumdar “A
tribe is a collection of families, bearing
a common name, members to which
occupy the same territory, speak the
same language and observe certain
taboos regarding marriage profession
or occupation and have developed
a well assessed system of reciprocity
and mutuality of obligation.” In India
tribes are recognised by the
Constitution of India. There are
various provisions related to
scheduled tribes in the Constitution
of India. The Census of 1971
recorded 36,408,514 Scheduled
Tribes population in India which
increased to 104,545,716 in 2011
Census. Majority of Scheduled Tribes
population are residing in rural areas
of the country. Scheduled tribes
being primitive in nature also face
lots of problems. Human
development indices are often poor
in tribal populations. Tribal
population also face various
exploitations like bonded labour,
indebtedness etc. Problem of
inadequate infrastructure is also
present among the tribal population.
Tribals have been displaced in large
2

numbers on account of various large
development projects like irrigation
dams, hydro-electric and thermal
power plants, coal mines and mineralbased industries.Tribal population
has been provided safeguards within
the various articles of the
constitution. Government also in
order to take care of the tribal
population has enacted various
legislations. Schedule tribes live
across India important among them
are Bhil, Goudu, koya of Andhra
Pradesh; Abhor, Dafla, Mishmi of
Arunanchal pradesh; Chakma,
Dimasa (Kachari), Garo, Hajong of
Mizoram etc.
The term Scheduled Tribes
apperas in the Constitution of India
under Article 366 (25), which
defines scheduled tribes as “such
tribes or tribal communities or parts
of or groups within such tribes or tribal
communities as are deemed under
Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes
for the purposes of this constitution”.
Article 342 says, The President may,
with respect to any State or Union
territory, and where it is a state, after
consultation with the Governor there

of by public notification, specify the
tribes or tribal communities or parts
of or groups within tribes or tribal
communities which shall, for the
purposes of this constitution, is
deemed to be scheduled tribes in
relation to that state or Union
Territory, as the case may be.
Parliament may by law include in or
exclude from the list of Scheduled
tribes specified in a notification
issued under clause(1) any tribe or
tribal community or part of or group
within any tribe or tribal community,
but save as aforesaid, a notification
issued under the said clause shall not
be varied by any subsequent
notification.
Constitution through various
Articles safeguard the interest of the
scheduled
tribes.
Under
fundamental rights Article 15 and 16
protect against discrimination. Article
46 of the Directictive principles of
the state policy says: The State shall
promote with special care the
educational and economic interests
of the weaker sections of the people,
and, in particular, of the Scheduled
Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and

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” The Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Area) Act. Article 330 states: Seats shall be reserved in the House of the People for a. For crimes committed against the members of the Scheduled Tribes under the provisions of the SC/ST Prevention of Atrocities Act. has within itself an inbuilt capacity for conflict resolution. their cultural identity. The Gram Sabha as articulated in PESA. In order to fullfill the objectives provided in the various provisions of the constitution parliament has legislated various legislations. Critical issues such as access to natural resources. of a total pendency of 217 cases. The Gram Sabha is empowered to safeguard and preserve the traditions and customs of the people. • Vanbandhu kalyan yojana Still working of these acts does not bring confidence amongst the tribal population. the Scheduled Tribes in the autonomous districts of Assam. 2003. Important among them includes: • Forest Rights Act 2006. The main objective in enacting PESA was to enable the tribal society to assume control over livelihoods. the Scheduled Tribes except the Scheduled Tribes in the autonomous districts of Assam. 1989.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) was established by amending Article 338 and inserting a new Article 338A in the Constitution through the Constitution (89th Amendment) Act. For working of PESA. These are welcome steps which will help the scheduled tribes of the India. District mineral foundation body was created under the act. The information available indicates that the main objective of PESA has been diluted to the detriment of the tribal population. in general. http://www.com/civilservices/magazine 3 . out of 5621 cases pending trial. at the end of 2006. Sercond ARC states “ A comparative analysis of PESA and the legislations enacted by the States on this subject reveals that the provisions of PESA have been highly diluted in the process of ratification by the States and most of the powers of the Gram Sabha have been given to the district administration or to the Zilla Parishad. Artilce 330 provides for the reservation of seats for the scheduled tribes. • SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. implementors.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.iasexamportal. b. 1955. monitors and evaluators. and c.com/civilservices/courses Tribal Rights shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. have a say in management of natural resources and to protect the traditional culture and rights of the tribals.C. • Protection of Civil Rights Act. trials were completed in only 70 cases and only 2 cases ended in conviction in the year 2006 and as many as 145 cases were pending trial. the Scheduled Castes. 1996 and the Forest Rights Act. Act. 40 cases were compounded by the government. Except this seats shall be reserved for the scheduled tribes in the legislative assembly of states.” Recently in Mines and Minerals development and regulation Act was passed. Second ARC report says “ for crimes committed against members of the Scheduled Tribes under the P. Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act also looks after the rights of local population. It is mentioned that objective and functioning of the DMF should be guided by Constitutional provisions as it relates to Fifth and Sixth Schedules for governing tribal areas. the objectives of PESA have not been realized in any serious manner in any of the states with a large tribal population. only 255 ended in conviction and as many as 4565 cases were still pending trial in the courts at the end of the year 2006. Seats for Scheduled tribes are also reserved in panchayati raj institutions as well as the municipalities. 1996 (PESA) is a landmark legislation that ensures involvement of tribals in their empowerment process not only as active participants but also as effective decision-makers. National commission for ST look after the issues and attrocities faced by the ST population. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition. Section 4 of the Act provides for the establishment of a Gram Sabha for every village. Along with that governor has been provided with the specials powers in administration of areas under schedule 5 and 6. • PESA 1996. 2006 the recommendation states. community resources and the customary mode of dispute resolution. It should also be guided by the provisions of Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act.R. especially the definition and rights over minor forest products remain unresolved and.

and security. MDG’s have played a big role in improving the social indicators in India. education. India has achieved the target of reducing countries poverty levels by fifty percent by Dec. The eight (8) Goals are as under: • Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. generated by the subject matter Ministries/ http://www. committing their nations to a new global partnership by adoption of Millennium Declaration by the General Assembly of the United Nations. This summit committed to reduce extreme poverty and setting out a series of time-bound targets. education.com/civilservices/magazine . • Goal 4: reduce child mortality. • Goal 5: improve maternal health. all these goals target various developmental and human rights issues. which in turn led the governments at national and sub national levels to do better planning and implement more intensive policies and programmes. and exclusion-while promoting gender equality. and environmental sustainability. the national statistical system does not have independent statistical machinery exclusively focused on quantitative monitoring of the MDGs. 2015.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. They are also basic human rights-the rights of each person on the planet to health. • Goal 3: promote gender equality and empower women.iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and India MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS) AND INDIA Millenium Development Goals(MDGs) are the product of the Millennium Summit of September 2000. • Goal 2: achieve universal primary education. In India. like improving the sanitation levels will reduce child mortality as well as improve the maternal health.”The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have helped in bringing out a much needed focus and pressure 4 on basic development issues. • Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development. The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) which is entrusted with the statistical tracking of the MDGs in India. According to United Nations MDG are “quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty. it will also help in combating the malaria etc. Goals of MDGs are inter-linked with each other. • Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS. The MDGs consists of eight goals. shelter. These “time bound targets” are now known as the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). Special emphasis has been given to the effectiveness of Statistics in monitoring development process at national and international levels.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. is monitoring the progress under MDGs on the basis of data-sets available at national level. hunger. malaria. with a deadline of 2015. by specifying measurable indicators for the targets in the Millennium Development Goals. disease. Similarly improvement in education levels as well as it will also improve gender equality as well as help in empowerment of women. lack of adequate shelter. • Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability. At this summit world leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration. and other diseases.

the gap between the likely achievement and the target is expected to be narrowed. progress has been achieved in improving the environment by improving the coverage of forest area. reducing CFC emissions.24% against the target of 50%. no later than 2015 At present. the Maternal Morality Ratio In 1990.5 per cent in 2005-06 (U-DISE) and the NER has increased to 88. in primary education the enrolment is favorable to females as Gender Parity Index (GPI) of Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) is 1.03 in 2013-14. trend reversal has achieved in the fight against Malaria and TB. protected areas. The Country is moderately on track. will be able to complete a full course of primary education. Although more than 200 countries has committed to MDGs but success of MDGs is highly dependent upon how India will perform.08 per cent in 2013-14 (U-DISE). children everywhere. As in January 2015. In order to meet the target the PHCR level has to be 23. In spite of all these successes. the MMR status at all India level is at 167 in 2011-13.00. ensuring the achievement of target of drinking water facility and improving drastically the telephone and internet penetration. preferably by 2005. with the sharp decline in the recent years. the estimated MMR was 437 per 1. while considering the targets of achieving universal education. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education TARGET: Ensure that by 2015. In Secondary education also gender parity has achieved GPI of GER is 1 in 2013-14 and in tertiary level of education. however. However the progress among the goals has been mixed.000 live births in 1990. Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target: Eliminate gender disparity in primary. the PHCR at all India level is 21. achieved the required trend reversal in the fight against HIV/ AIDS. the MMR should be reduced to 109 per 1. Goal 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY TARGET: Reduce by twothirds.000 live births by 2015.89 in 2012-13. MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target: Halve. Target: Halve. In some indicators India has performed exceptionally well. In order to meet the MDG target. which shows that. the proportion of under-weight children below 3 year declined from 43% in 1998-99 to 40% in 2005-06. As per Census 2011. http://www. hunger and sanitation remains a tough challenge for India. As per the latest estimates. reducing child mortality as the sharp decline in the recent years in Infant Mortality and Under Five Mortality are likely to take us very near to the target. the under-five Mortality Rate Under Five Mortality Ratio In India.com/civilservices/courses Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and India Departments. As per the historical trend.9%. The National Family Health Survey shows that. against the target of 27 infant deaths per 1000 live births by 2015. However. the GPI of GER is 0. the proportion of under-weight children should decrease to 26% by 2015.9% by 2015.00. measures have taken to reverse the loss of environmental resources. between 1990 and 2015. Maternal mortality rates have also not dropped to the desired level. Since 2000 India has made progress in all the MDGs. secondary education. the IMR is at 40 and as per the historical trend. while in other indicators lot more needs to be done. The Net Enrolment Rate (NER) in primary education (age 6-10 years) was estimated at 84. At this rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years is expected to reduce to only 33% by 2015. has only 65 women representatives out of 542 members in LokSabha.8% in 1990. Currently the monitoring is limited to the national and State/ UT levels. between 1990 and 2015. and is unlikely to meet the target of universal achievement. though there was some fluctuations in between. the proportion of people who suffer from hunger It is estimated that in 1990. India. the ratio of female youth literacy rate to male youth literacy rate is 0. The nation has already achieved the target of halving the poverty head count ratio.000 live births. As per SRS 2013. the world’s largest democracy. while there are 31 female representatives in the 242 member RajyaSabha and hence presently the proportion of seats in National Parliament held by women is only 12.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.91 at all India level and is likely to reach the level of 1 by 2015. MMR is likely to reach the level of 140 maternal deaths by 2015. and in all levels of education.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. the proportion of underwe ight children below 3 years 52%. India has already achieved the target well ahead of time. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) was estimated at 80 per 1. between 1990 and 2015. the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day The all India Poverty Head Count Ratio (PHCR) estimate was 47. it is likely to reach 39 by 2015. eliminated gender inequality in primary and secondary education. Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target: Reduce by three quarters between 1990 and 2015.iasexamportal. In order to meet the target. boys and girls alike.com/civilservices/magazine 5 .. In 2011-12.

still a lot more is needed to be done to remove the problem of hunger as well as still a lot is desired in reducing the MMR.88 in 2014 (P) but confirmed deaths due to malaria in 2013 was 440 and in 2014 (P). Annual Parasite The Incidence (API) rate – Malaria has consistently come down from 2. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development Target: In co-operation with the private sector.72 per thousand in 2013.km which is 21. Initiatives like MGNREGA. 6 prevalence per lakh population has reduced from 465 in year 1990 to 211 in 2013. make available the benefits of new technologies.32% in 2012-13.com/civilservices/courses Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and India assuming the recent sharper decline is sustained. 578 malaria deaths have been registered.iasexamportal.12 per thousand in 2001 to 0.com/civilservices/magazine . There are various initiative by Indian government during this period which has led to the success in achieving the targets set by MDGs. India is likely to be slightly nearer to the MDG target.61 KWh in 2012-13.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.83 in June 2014. 1549 years. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.89 % in 2005 to 0. especially information and communication.57% in 2014 over 1990 for India.2 % at all India level. Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability TARGET: Integrate the principle of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources. During 2011-2013. the total forest cover of the country is 697898 sq. Malaria and other Diseases TARGET: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS The prevalence of HIV among Pregnant women aged 15-24 years is showing a declining trend from 0. The Carbon dioxide emission showed a percentage increase of 235. making primary education a right etc. Tuberculosis In India. As per assessment in 2013. but slightly increased to 0. there is an increase of 5871 sq. Initiatives for HIV.76%. In 2013. According to NFHS –III in 2005-06 .15 in June 2013 to 20. the percentage annual increase of 8. ICDS.23% of the geographic area of the country. km in forest Per-capita Energy cover. The internet subscribers per 100 population accessing internet through wireline and wireless connections has increased from 16.02. http://www. thus.25 KWh in 2011-12 to 6748. The overall tele-density in the country has shown tremendous progress and is at 76% as on 31st July 2014.%) was only 5. Consumption (PEC) (the ratio of the estimate of total energy consumption during the year to the estimated mid-year population of that year) increased from 6205. have helped Indian government in achieving the above targets. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate (Condom use to overall contraceptive use among currently married women. the estimated CO2 emission (Million Tonnes) for India is 1954.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.

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Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and India

SKILL DEVELOPMENT
India is one of the youngest
nations in the world with more than
62% of its population in the working
age group (15-59 years), and more
than 54% of its total population below
25 years of age. Skill building is
absolutely necessary for such
population to the increase in
productivity of any nation, skill
development also helps in improving
the quality of products. Skill
development will also lead to
increase in growth rate of economy.
At the individual level skill
development helps in economic as
well as social empowerment of the
citizens. Focus on skill development
in India is necessary from the very
reason that it has greater proportion
of working population vis-à-vis China,
Western Europe, and North America.
Based on data from the 68th Round
of NSSO, it is estimated that only 4.69
percent of India’s total workforce has
undergone formal skill training,
compared with 52 percent in the
USA, 68 percent in the UK, 75
percent in Germany, 80 percent in
Japan and 96 percent in South
Korea. This demographic profile

provides unique opportunity to India
for 20 to 25 years’ to reap the benefits
which arre called as “demographic
dividend”. The demographic
dividend is essentially due to two
factors
(a) declining birth rates and
(b) improvement
in
life
expectancy.
The declining birth rate
changes the age distribution and
makes for a smaller proportion of
population in the dependent ages
and for relatively larger share in the
productive labor force. The result is
low dependency ratio which can
provide comparative cost advantage
and competitiveness to the
economy. The “demographic
dividend” accounts for India having
world’s youngest work force with a
median age way below that of China
and OECD Countries.
Demographic dividend can
only be made if the economy or state
has place to ansorb them. As per
estimates global economy is
expected to see a shortage of
manpower to the extent of around
56 million by 2020, this will nicely

compliment the skill development
initiatives of India. Thus, the
“demographic dividend” in India
needs to be exploited not only to
expand the production possibility
frontier but also to meet the skilled
manpower requirements of in India
and abroad. Skill development is also
necessary to bring the connection
between the education institutes and
the working atmoshphere. In order
to develop the skills of the people
governments have taken various
initiatives like opening ITI’s, Creating
a seperate ministry for skill
development etc. Recently
government has launched a skill
development mission to make the
initiatives time bound.
Various plans have taken
initiatives to To reap the benefits of
“demographic dividend”, the
Eleventh Five Year Plan had favored
the creation of a comprehensive
National Skill Development Mission.
Government has taken following steps
as a result of the eleventh five year
plan
recommendation.
A
“Coordinated Action on Skill
Development” with three-tier

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Skill Development
institutional structure consisting of
(i) PM’s National Council
(ii) National Skill Development
Coordination Board (NSDCB),
(iii) National Skill Development
Corporation (NSDC) was
created in early 2008.
Whereas, Prime Minister’s
National Council on Skill
Development has spelt out
policy advice, and direction in
the form of “Core Principles”
and has given a Vision to create
500 million skilled people by
2022 through skill systems.
Similarly twelth five year plan
recommended the following:
• Involvement of industries in the
skill development of people;
• Improve the management of
vocational institutes as well as
training institutes;
• Amendment of the labor laws
to make it easier to hire the
apprentices;
• Vocational training institutes
should be given greater

8

freedom in terms of resource
generation.
Despite all these efforts along
with other efforts like the creation of
the National Skill Development Fund
(NSDF) in 2009, the launch of the
NSDC in the same year, and creation
of the NSDA in 2013, progress to date
has been sporadic. India continues
to face a skilling challenge of vast
proportions. Based on the Census
2011 and NSSO (68th Round) data,
it is estimated that 104 million fresh
entrants to the workforce will require
skill training by 2022, and 298 million
of the existing workforce will require
additional skill training over the same
time period.
Recently government has
launched an ambitious program
named as “Skill development
mission”. The National Skill
Development Mission will provide a
strong institutional framework at the
Centre and States for implementation
of skilling activities in the country. The

Mission will have a three-tiered, high
powered decision making structure.
At its apex, the Mission’s Governing
Council, chaired by the Prime
Minister, will provide overall
guidance and policy direction. The
Steering Committee, chaired by
Minister in Charge of Skill
Development, will review the
Mission’s activities in line with the
direction set by the Governing
Council. Government has also
recently transferred the Training and
Apprenticeship verticals, comprising
of the entire network of Industrial
Training Institutes (ITIs) and
Apprenticeship Training schemes,
from the Ministry of Labour and
Employment to Ministry of Skill
Development and Entrepreneurship
(MSDE). All these recent initiatives
will help in bringing down the gap
between the requirement of skilling
and the present level of skilling in
India.

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We should not try to rewrite the convention. • “We should not forget that what will lapse is the Kyoto Protocol and not he United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). the quakes can be predicted. • In India.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. some chemical changes under the earth’s surface and some physical displacements on the surface occur and hoped if parameters are developed to • India iiiiIhas reiterated its demand and cautioned developed nations to not to make any changes or introduce new agenda at last moments and stick to the plan if the big players want to make the crucial climate change conference in Paris to be held later this year a “success”. no time line has been set for release of the data on caste/tribe as most of the states are yet to submit their report to the Centre on clubbing of various sub-groups of castes. a top official has said. India Working With 27 Countries on Earthquake EarlyWarning System observe.sub-caste names.com/civilservices/magazine 9 . India is working on an ambitious project with scientists. India’s interest in Paris climate conference • Taking a lead. surnames. • India has been conducting experiments in the Koyna river valley in the Western Ghats in Maharashtra. It showed that almost 75% of households earn less than R5. India is also planning to launch a satellite to track the changes that take place on earth’s surface before the tremors. • The Centre’s move comes after opposition parties demanded release of the caste data immediately. clan and gothra names enumerated by the census. synonyms.” said Javedkar at the http://www. moderate and low. 56% are landless and close to 36% of the rural people are illiterate even 68 years after independence. and seismologists of 27 countries to develop an early-warning system for “prediction” of earthquake.sub.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. • Other members of the Panagariya committee would be nominated by the ministries of social justice & empowerment and tribal affairs.com/civilservices/courses National Issues NATIONAL ISSUES Arvind Panagariya to head panel on caste data • Amid the delay in release of caste data collected by the states under the SocioEconomic and Caste Census (SECC). Annexes are part of the convention’s basic structure stemming from historical responsibility of countries. nearly 60% of them are deprived in some way or the other.000 per month. • The government has already released the socio-economic data generated by SECC on rural areas on July 3. and urban explosion and densely populated cities with high-rise buildings makes the quake scenario worse.iasexamportal. study and analyse these changes. the Cabinet on Thursday approved setting up of an expert group headed by Niti Aayog vice-chairman Arvind Panagariya to classify the data and publicise it. high. geophysicists. • However. • Environment Minister Prakash Javedkar appealed to the developed nations that the meeting should not be “rewritten”.castes. • Before earthquakes. • States have yet to complete the consolidation of 46 lakh castes. 22 states are prone to earthquakes of various intensities like severe. • The warning could be the issued some seconds before the earthquake strikes. 2011.

main and interview—to select candidates for the elite Indian Administrative Service (IAS). • The Commission has made public the marks obtained by the successful candidates. • Besides the second Mars mission. There are indications that the United States of America will be working with India in this ‘deep space exploration’. • On contribution of developing countries. among others. got 1. yet differentiated new agreement. • The civil services examination is conducted annually in three stages—preliminary.750 of main and 275 of interview. he added. thus showing the strict pattern of civil services examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission for selecting country’s top bureaucrats. a doctor from Kerala.com/civilservices/magazine . a physically handicapped Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise) officer from Delhi who topped the 2014 exam.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. IAS topper got 53 per cent examination has got about 53 per cent.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. • “Let Paris be an event for celebration of a universal. Now its turn to Venus for ISRO • Following the success of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) and the recent launch of five British satellites. • Second rank achiever Renu Raj. Indian Foreign Service (IFS) and Indian Police Service (IPS). • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is now embarking on a new planethunting endeavour. 10 • “Venus is our neighbor and has many scientific challenges and aspects that need to be studied.com/civilservices/courses National Issues Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate Change at Luxembourg. Mars and even an asteroid. India wants all the developed nations to adhere to pre-2020 action plan that enables developing countries to contribute on their will along with their plan for INDCs. but the new climate meet will allow all countries to commit to some action.61 per cent).43 per cent) out of a total of 2. • He wants Paris event to be a huge success where every country would take their own actions but in accordance with the universal benefit. according to their marks sheet.025— comprising 1. we are looking at Venus and even an asteroid for exploration. • The topper of civil services http://www. Javedkar said that earlier the developing nations weren’t authorized to take any action. got a total of 1.14 per cent) and third-rank holder Nidhi Gupta got 1.082 marks (53.iasexamportal. The mark sheets of the candidates who qualified the civil services (main) examination and those who could not.025 marks (50. Such collective action will address the challenge of climate change • His entire speech was focused on the developed nations introducing new agenda at last hour. Exploring an asteroid is also challenging task. where every country takes action which it determines on its own. A project has to be formulated for this before we chart out a proper roadmap for the explorations.056 marks (52. India plans next possible ‘deep space exploration’ missions to Venus. • Ira Singhal. have also been put in public domain. ISRO Chairman Kiran Kumar was quoted as saying.

the GST rate should not go beyond 20 per cent as standard rate and 14 per cent as reduced rate. then known as Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research. headed by Bhupender Yadav of the BJP. Mr Kumar said. • In its report submitted to the House. which will lead to a quantum jump in agriculture productivity. Arya and Mera Gaon Mera Gaurav (My village my pride).’’ ISRO said. said Union Agriculture Minister Radha Mohan Singh today.’’ ISRO said in an official release announcing the successful tests.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Chief Minister Nitish Kumar is hoping • Though the Opposition forced adjournments in both Houses of Parliament on Wednesday. • The cryogenic engine is being developed as part of plans to enhance India’s capabilities in space programmes by providing more power to launch heavier four tonne category spacecraft. highperformance cryogenic propulsion technology will go a long way in building self reliance for the Indian space programme.‘Indian Agricultural Research Institute’. • The cryogenic C25 stage engine operates on Gas Generator Cycle using extremely low temperature propellants Liquid Hydrogen at 20 Kelvin (-253 degree C) and Liquid Oxygen at 80 Kelvin (193 degree C). Indian capabilites are currently in the two tonne-plus range. • His announcement would be a packaging of the existing ones initiated by me and approved by the UPA. RS panel backs majority of GST Bill proposals • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will release ‘Vision 2050’ for Indian agriculture prepared by the country’s premier agriculture research institute in Patna on July 25. PM Modi to Release Vision 2050 for Indian Agriculture on July 25 for some new announcements. • Assembly elections are due Bihar in a few months. meant to introduce the Goods and Services Tax (GST). • This is also the first time that celebrations of the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) foundation day will be organised outside Delhi. • PM Modi will also inaugurate three new projects . the committee.iasexamportal. • It agreed with the demand of parties such as the Trinamool http://www. ISRO reported.com/civilservices/courses National Issues ISRO tests indigenous cryogenic engine • An indigenous cryogenic rocket engine being developed to power India’s most powerful rocket system.Farmers First. said that to start with.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. • The cryogenic engine which will power the upper stage of the GSLV Mk III was fired for a period that is 25 per cent longer than required in a space flight with a nominal thrust of 19 tonnes and its performance matched prediction made through computer simulation. and ask agriculture scientists from all over the country to speed up the process to provide new technologies to farmers. • Speaking to reporters in Patna. • “The successful endurance hot test of the first high thrust cryogenic engine is the tenth test in a series planned as part of the development of the engine employing complex cryogenic technology.com/civilservices/magazine 11 . “Mastering this complex. with the Rajya Sabha Select Committee endorsing almost all its provisions. was established at Pusa in Samastipur district here in 1905. “There is not much hope of PM announcing anything new in the package he is expected to announce.” • The country’s first agriculture research and education institute . underwent a successful endurance test for a duration of 800 seconds on July 16 at ISRO’s propulsion complex at Mahendragiri. ISRO reported Monday. the GSLV Mk III. ISRO stated. clearing Parliament in the current session brightened. the chances of the Constitution (122nd Amendment) Bill.

facing sexual harassment charges. • A press release issued on behalf of TERI sought to give the impression that the decision had http://www. bringing an end to his uninterrupted reign at the Delhi-based organisation he has been associated with for over three decades. met in Bangalore today and decided to replace Pachauri with Ajay Mathur. • The first draft. accused of sexual harassment by a woman employee. the AIADMK and the Left parties. It suggested that the provision in the Bill that the Centre “may” compensate the States for up to five years for any revenue loss be replaced with a commitment of compensation for five years.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. who is currently director general of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) that functions under the power ministry. it will have to be approved by two-thirds of the members in the Upper House. proposes a monetary policy committee which will be entrusted with the task of deciding the key policy rate and chasing the annual retail inflation target to be decided by the government in consultation with the RBI. As it is a Constitution amendment Bill. • The IFC. was on Thursday sacked as the chief of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). The Bill. which is conceived as an overarching legislation for the financial sector. • TERI’s governing council. Pachauri Remove from TERI chief • RK Pachauri. the RBI “must constitute a monetary policy committee to determine by majority vote on the policy rate required to achieve the inflation target”. submitted in March 2013. • “Inflation target for each financial year will be determined in terms of the consumer price index by the Central government in consultation with the Reserve Bank every three years. including the ‘RBI chairperson’. Naina Lal Kidwai. The committee’s report also contained dissent notes from the Congress. 12 • Besides. on which the ministry has invited comments till August 8. The government will have to depend upon the support of regional parties and allies. comprising prominent corporate names like Deepak Parekh. • As per revised draft. will now have to be taken up for passage in the Rajya Sabha.com/civilservices/magazine .iasexamportal. the governor consults a technical advisory committee.” said the draft. • R K Pachauri. RBI Governor might lose veto Power • In what looks like another sign of increasing differences between the government and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governor.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. was today asked to step down from the position of director general of the The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). Kiran Mazumdar Shaw and Hemendra Kothari. The draft talks of ‘RBI Chairperson’ and not ‘RBI Governor’. there will be three members from the RBI side and four from the Central government thus giving full control to the government on policy rate. which the Lok Sabha has already approved. • Currently. the draft proposed that the all-powerful committee would have four representatives of the government and only three from the Central bank. its composition and whether the governor would have the final say in the form of a veto. but gave powers to the RBI chairperson to supersede the decision of the panel. the revised draft of Indian Financial Code (IFC). released by the finance ministry on Thursday. • The government and the RBI had always disagreed over size of the committee. proposed taking away the chief’s authority to veto the interest rate decision of the Central bank’s monetary policy committee. • Further.com/civilservices/courses National Issues • • • • Congress for full compensation from the Centre for any revenue loss to the States during the transition. where the ruling BJP does not enjoy a majority. too had talked about the committee and majority vote. but does not necessarily go by the majority opinion while deciding on the monetary policy stance.

Mr. was made public on JulRavi Shankar Prasad y 16. Javadekar said action plans will be formulated to tackle the four main focus areas — agriculture. Decision on net neutrality yet to be take • The recent report submitted by the government on net neutrality was not the final one. the Union Environment Minister Prakash Javdekar said. Following that. Last week. In a press conference outside Parliament here.iasexamportal.— Photo: Sushil Kumar Verma Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar on Friday refused to take a stand on whether air pollution in Delhi was indeed causing 80 deaths every day as per his earlier submission to the Lok Sabha on Tuesday. Delhi and Haryana. The governing council is certain that the 1. • The report. The earlier three-month deadline. and said it favoured an end to the free call regime over the internet.com/civilservices/magazine 13 . But he continued to hang on to his position as director-general of TERI and only proceeded on leave when the allegations became public. Pachauri also had to resign from the membership of the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change..” said the press release.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. However. Pachauri had to resign from the chairmanship of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Javadekar had cited a study ‘Epidemiological Study on Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health in Delhi’ published in 2008. a Delhi court that had restrained him from attending office allowed him to visit TERI premises other than the headquarters and the office in Gurgaon where the alleged victim is currently posted. He also cited another study ‘Study on http://www. construction waste. to take proactive measures to tackle Delhi’s air pollution ended on July 22. Pachauri went on leave from TERI after the sexual harassment charge became public in February. set by the Ministry in April.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. almost six months before Pachauri was accused of sexual harassment by a junior colleague. prompting Friday’s review meeting. demolition waste and vehicular pollution. Today’s decision comes five months after the alleged victim filed a police complaint against Pachauri.200 persons working for TERI in different parts of the world would welcome this development and extend all their support towards a smooth transition. months before his second six-year tenure was to come to an end. • • “The committee of officers constituted by the Department of Telecommunications on net neutrality has submitted its report. parliament was informed on Wednesday. Mr. “Air quality monitoring stations will be installed in every state and by every concerned organisation.com/civilservices/courses National Issues • • • • • nothing to do with the sexual harassment case. It said the search for a successor began in September last year. he said the Union Environment Ministry had set itself yet another three-month deadline to tackle air pollution in the capital. • Prasad also mentioned that the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was engaged in a consultation process covering issues related to net neutrality. • • Javadekar non-committal on air pollution-induced deaths • • Air quality monitoring stations will be installed in every state and by every concerned organisation. whose recommendations were awaited. Rajasthan. it is not the final report nor the government has taken any final view. Earlier this week.” he said. at the conclusion of a review meeting with National Capital Region States – Uttar Pradesh. submitted by the panel headed by technocrat AK Bhargava.” communications and IT minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said in a written reply to the Lok Sabha. to state that 80 deaths take place in Delhi every day due to air pollutioninduced illnesses. a global body of scientists. and the final view is still awaited.

In February this year.5% of farmer suicides in Himachal Pradesh were due to crop failure in 2014 and the state also tops the northern region in absolute number of suicides by farmers with 32 such cases. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function of Children in Delhi’ to support the claim in Parliament. Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir there was no suicide due to crop failure.3% due to ‘cancellation/non settlement of marriage’. How long can we continue to take our products to [Moscow’s testing facility] TsAGI or Calspan in the U. Public sector agencies in the strategic areas of aerospace and defence on Friday said it may be a tall order in the near term to reverse the 70 per cent import of military hardware. as per the report. Punjab recorded 3 suicides due to indebtedness which was due to non-agriculture loan. 87. DRDO Director General (R&D Aero Systems). on Friday. the Minister appeared noncommittal on the matter and in a written submission to Lok Sabha said “no conclusive evidence exists that air pollution led to loss of lives of patients suffering from respiratory diseases. • There were a total of 644 suicides ( any cause) in HP in http://www. they have started changing production strategies to meet the challenge. Future military requirements would be high but existing facilities are grossly inadequate.” he said.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. quality and time lines.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. However.S. stressed that its labs developing aircraft and combat products for the military badly need highend testing and other facilities. drug abuse/alcohol addiction and property dispute. said a paradigm shift would be needed to get quality components on time.7 % farmers have committed suicide due to ‘suspected/illicit relations’ and 2. Haryana had 14.5 levels (particulate matter) to be four times the Indian safety limits and 10 times that of the air quality safety standards set by the World Health Organisation. Chairman & Managing Director of Bharat Dynamics Ltd. The cause of 28 of these has been listed as crop failure. “For example. However.com/civilservices/magazine .” Environmental groups are unhappy with the Ministry’s measures to tackle the problem. • Most of the suicides in these states are due to illness. To meet the government’s ‘Make in India’ mandate. figures recorded by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) completely contradict him. Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles and the UAVs for reasons of security and secrecy. • According to the NCRB report.NCRB • Even as union agriculture minister Radha Mohan Singh has blamed love affairs and then impotency for farmer suicides. • In number of farmers suicides. released recently. BDL had outsourced up to 80 per cent of the work for Akash and other missiles. Greenpeace India conducted an air-quality monitoring survey inside five prominent schools across Delhi and found the PM2. Mr.” he said. Javadekar said that the detailed action plan on tackling air pollution will only be revealed on Monday. In recent years. Public and private sectors must work in tandem.com/civilservices/courses National Issues • • • • 14 Ambient Air Quality. • V. Highest farmer suicides HP.? We cannot take some of our development products outside the country — such as the Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft. The private sector must also gear up. the only 4. while there was no suicide in Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir for indebtedness.iasexamportal. Punjab recorded 24. • K. Jammu and Kashmir had 12 while Delhi. we must be the only country doing intensive aeronautical research and trying to succeed without a proper wind tunnel [to test aircraft systems]. public defence manufacturing majors are ready to source more from small and medium industries but suppliers are falling short on facilities. “Now we have to outsource high-end subassemblies. Udaya Bhaskar. Tamilmani. Hyderabad. • In Punjab. Uttrakhand and Chandigarh recorded nil. • In Himachal. was the refrain at the Aerospace & Defence Manufacturing Summit organised by Bengaluru-based Society of Indian Aerospace Technologies and Industries (SIATI).

it used to be much higher — 25 to 40% — in 2008. 83. P-Notes. which is the 4th highest increase rate in the country. Participatory Notes • (P-Notes) are used by large number of foreign investors to invest in equity markets without disclosing their identity to the market regulator Sebi.79 in afternoon trade. irreparable loss for nation • Former President APJ Abdul Kalam. while rupee fell to 64. P-Notes make up mostly 15-20% of the total FII investment in India since 2009. but on the flip side is the route can also be used for round-tripping of black money. • His body was flown to Guwahati in Assam this morning and will be brought to Delhi by a special aircraft. A similar recommendation in 2007 had triggered a major collapse in the stock market. • The SIT had suggested Sebi to put in place regulations to help identify individuals holding participatory notes or offshore derivative instruments (ODIs). However.76% to 27. • The BSE tanked 494. It was Rs 2. • The government has declared a seven-day national mourning as a mark of respect for the man known and loved across the country as the “People’s President”. • He also assured investors that the government will not take any action that may jeopardise investment climate even as the benchmark BSE Sensex tanked close to 500 points on fears of action on the suggestions of the Supreme Court appointed Special Investigation Team (SIT). the renowned missile scientist who played a stellar role in advancing India’s nuclear programme.. died on Monday after collapsing at an event in Meghalaya. • Prime Minister Narendra Modi and all three service chiefs will receive his body at the airport. He said India has recently signed FATCA with the US. besides entered into multilateral agreements on automatic exchange of information and double taxation avoidance agreements.85 lakh crore in May.03 against the US dollar in late morning deals. “My mind is filled with so many memories.com/civilservices/courses National Issues 2014. Arun jaitely about P-notes & IFC • • • Seeking to calm panic-stricken investors. and take other steps required to curb black money and tax evasion through the stock market route. mostly used by overseas HNIs (High Net Worth Individuals). Till a few years ago. but their share has fallen over the years after Sebi tightened disclosure norms and other related regulations.75 lakh crore at the end of June. Demise of APJ Abdul Kalam. allow such investors to invest in Indian markets through registered Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs). learnt so much from him.2 %.com/civilservices/magazine 15 . His funeral is likely to be held in Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu. prompting the then Finance Minister P Chidambaram to announce that no such measures would be taken by the government. Investments through P-Notes into India’s capital market had touched a seven-year high of Rs 2. hedge funds and other foreign institutions. P-Notes used to account for more than 50% of total FII investment. so many interactions with him.617. which had recommended tough measures to check investment flows through P-Notes. This saves time and cost for them. Always marvelled at his intellect. PM Modi had said.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Paying tribute to Dr Kalam last night. • Dr Kalam. where he was born. So.52 points • • • • • or 1. where as in 2013 there were 554. there is a jump of 16. The reading was as high as over 50% at the peak of stock market bull run in 2007.Finance Minister Arun Jaitley today said they need not fear any “knee-jerk” reaction from the government on the SIT report. The Union Cabinet will hold a special meeting in New Delhi today to condole Dr Kalam’s death.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.” http://www. collapsed after a massive cardiac arrest while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management in Shillong last evening.iasexamportal.

• A child of above five years will be given up for adoption 30 days after clearance. 16 and. And WCD minister Maneka Gandhi wanted to a hassle-free adoption process. 3924 children were given up for adoption within the country. has been brought up. and 374 in 2014-15. • The draft talks of ‘RBI Chairperson’ and not ‘RBI Governor’. centralised database of children • A centralised databank of adoptive children. the Gujarat government issued a notification making voting in local body elections compulsory under the controversial Gujarat Local Authorities Laws (Amendment). said a ministry official. • But the Bill. Gujarat becomes first state to ink mandatory voting rule • It is official now. while 3988 children were given up in 2014-15. • The guidelines will be effective from next month. RBI is headed by a Governor. will be connected to the district child protection units.iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses National Issues Indian Financial Code revised draft • Finance Minister Arun Jaitley today said that the government will take a view on the draft Indian Financial Code. • The revised draft of Indian Financial Code (IFC) also proposed that the committee would have four representatives of the government and only three from the central bank. • The revised draft of IFC. after receiving comments from stakeholders. and a child of below five years. • The minimum age difference between child and parent cannot exceed 25 years under the new guidelines. on Monday. an e-governance measure that will hasten the adoption process. 33 district panchayats and more than 150 taluka panchayats. will be given up for adoption 60 days after being cleared for adoption. Act 2009 (2014). released by the Finance Ministry last week. • The revamped guidelines were originally mooted in the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Bill. at present. • Under the new guidelines. a centralised system that collates the data. • The IFC.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. While single mothers can adopt children of either gender. allowing single parents looking to adopt. • The draft had proposed taking away Reserve Bank chief’s authority to veto the interest rate decision of the central bank’s monetary policy committee. headed by Justice B N Srikrishna. • State has recorded 45-50 per cent voting in local bodies http://www. is based on the recommendations of the Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission (FSLRC). around 60 municipalities.com/civilservices/magazine . After dithering for long. • The Central Adoption Resource Information Guidance System (CARINGS). and make it transparent by putting up the data of the adoptive children online. • The notification dated July 17. including the ‘RBI Chairperson’. New adoption guidelines. • In 2013-14. There were 422 inter-country adoptions in 2013-14. which is conceived as an overarching legislation for the financial sector. proposes a monetary policy committee which will be entrusted with the task of deciding the key policy rate and chasing the annual retail inflation target to be decided by the government in consultation with RBI. 2015 will apply to over three crore voters who are expected to cast their franchise in the upcoming civic elections in six municipal corprations. single men can only adopt male children.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • The new guidelines have also made it possible for single parents to adopt. has been pending for a year and a half. 2014. introduced in the Rajya Sabha. • NRIs will be treated on par with domestic adoptive parents. which proposes to dilute powers of the RBI chief. treating non-resident Indians (NRIs) on par with Indian citizens are some of the revamped guidelines of the Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) introduced by the union ministry of women and child development.

P. He also went around the casket with folded hands. Centre returns controversial Gujarat Bill • The controversial Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime (GCTOC) Bill. • The Bill was first introduced as the GUJCOC Bill in 2003 — when Narendra Modi was Chief Minister — with provisions like increasing the period to file charge sheet from 90 to 180 days and strict conditions for granting bail to an accused. • The Home Affairs Ministry. while petrol bunks would stop selling for an hour between 10-11 a. • The funeral of the “Missile Man” was attended by several leaders including Prime Minister Narendra Modi who placed a wreath. 2015. • Following this notification. • In case of failure in voting the registered voter will be declared as the defaulter and against whom the designated authorities will take legal action as prescribed in the rules which will be declared shortly. Abdul Kalam in 2004 and Pratibha Patil in 2008 and 2009.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • The Gujarat House passed the Bill again on March 31 this year. including gun salute and playing of the Last Post as the members of his family and local Jamath lowered his mortal remains into a trench as slogans of “Bharat Mata Ki Jai” rent the air. state government has also issued an ordinance for the addition of a clause the act for declaring the elected representatives disqualified if they do not vote. after it was rejected thrice by two former Presidents — the late A. offered his final salute • and stood in silence in front of Kalam’s body that was draped in national flag. any citizen abstaining from voting in civic elections will be penalized — the punishment could be monetary fine or noneligibility for certain civic incentives — which will be specified once the rules are framed.J. Movie theatre owners too have decided to shut down while fishermen have decided not to venture into the sea. six municipals corporations had recorded average voting of 44 per cent. which sent the Bill for an interministerial consultation. returned it with the objections raised by the IT Ministry. Sanjeev Chaturvedi and human rights activist Anshu Gupta win Magsaysay Award • Whistleblower officer Sanjeev Chaturvedi and human rights activist Anshu Gupta are among the five winners of the Ramon Magsaysay Award this year. In 2010. • • Last adieu to Kalam • • • Thousands of people bid an an emotional farewell to former president APJ Abdul Kalam who was laid to rest on Thursday with full state honours in his home town Rameswaram.iasexamportal.5 acre piece of land earmarked for the purpose at Peikarumbu after being brought from his family mosque where special prayers were offered. Kalam. • The “People’s President” was accorded full military honours.com/civilservices/magazine 17 . who was seated nearby. officials said. as a mark of respect for Kalam. • Sanjeev Chaturvedi is a 2002batch Indian Forest Service officer who is fighting a protracted battle with the http://www.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Political parties like the DMK and the AIADMK have cancelled their functions.000 jewellery shops would also remain closed. Around 30. • Along with the compulsory voting notification. and offered his condolences. • The body of Kalam was buried in the middle of a 1. 83. This means the Bill will not be sent for Presidential assent and cannot become law yet. The Prime Minister later went up to Kalam’s eldest brother 99year-old Mohammed Muthu Meeran Lebbai Maraicker.m. has been sent back to the State following an objection by the Information Technology (IT) Ministry. • Any Bill passed by an Assembly on issues contravening Central laws needs Presidential assent.com/civilservices/courses National Issues elections in the past. passed away on Monday in Shillong after suffering a massive cardiac arrest while delivering a lecture to students at the Indian Institute of Management.

the Corporate Affairs Ministry is to set up the IEPF Authority but it would not cover redressal of investor grievances in the proposed form.iasexamportal. Other winners • Kommaly Chanthavong from Laos has been recognised for her efforts to develop the ancient Laotian art of silk weaving.com/civilservices/courses National Issues Centre over alleged harassment for his tough stance on corruption during his tenure as Chief Vigilance Officer of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences here. excluding investor grievances from the mandate of IEPF Authority “will do no justice to the investors’ fraternity”.” Day every year beginning from year 2015 throughout the country. was being recognised for “his creative vision in transforming the culture of giving in India.” • Mr. • He has been technically without an official assignment for a year. Regarding the Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs (IICA). The panel has also said that setting up of the Investor Education and Protection Fund (IEPF) Authority. 2013. Under the Companies Act. • As per Handloom Census of 2009-10. and in reminding the world that true giving always respects and preserves human dignity. over 43 lakh persons are engaged in handloom weaving and allied activities in India. founder of the nongovernmental organisation Goonj. under the new companies law. the panel said the organisation should redefine itself rather than just being a training institution. Sant Kabir Awards and National Awards for the years 2012. According to the panel.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/magazine . • Kyaw Thu from Myanmar. • • The first National Handloom Day will be launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Chennai on 7 August 2015. • On this occasion. 2013 and 2014 will be awarded and a new India Handloom brand for better market positioning of quality handloom products would be launched. These observations are part of the Standing Committee on Finance’s report on action taken by the government on the recommendations made by the panel on Demands for Grants (2014-15). Parliamentary panel for singlewindow redressal to all investor problems 18 • • • • Beware! NIA may snoop on you personal chat for terror links First National Handloom Day To be observed on 7 August 2015 • Union Government on 31 July 2015 decided declared 7th August as National Handloom • clearancesystem for resolving all investor problems. promote handloom products and lead to increase in income of weavers as well as enhance their confidence and pride. is being recognised for “his generous compassion in addressing the fundamental needs of both the living and the dead in Myanmar. The suggestion comes against backdrop of rising instances of investors getting duped by fraudulent investment schemes and dubious companies. the statement said.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. • The statement said Anshu Gupta. his enterprising leadership in treating cloth as a sustainable development resource for the poor. • To ensure a single-window • In order to keep a tab on the increasing menace of radicalisation of youth by terrorist organisations through social media and other online http://www. a Parliamentary panel has suggested bringing the grievance redressal mechanism under the proposed IEPF Authority. has taken an “unduly long time”. Gupta left his corporate job to start the non-profit organisation in 1999. Ligaya FernandoAmilbangsa from the Philippines for “her single-minded crusade in preserving the endangered artistic heritage of southern Philippines”. • The day will be observed to generate awareness about the importance of handloom industry as a part of our rich heritage and culture.

only intelligence agencies like the Research and Analysis Wing (RA&W) and Intelligence Bureau (IB) were in possession of such tool. space cooperation and climate change. Thus. Often highly encrypted messages are passed. fisheries. Shami Witness was found out to be a guy working in a software company in Bengaluru. • So analysing the data to reach to the proper conclusion is the most key element. NIA is looking to keep a tab on such conversations but in the process personal privacy will unfortunately be a cruel martyr. • On August 21. NIA is looking to up the ante so that they can beat terrorists at their own game. Papua New Guinea. Earlier too there have been several instances where Indian Mujahideen and Lashkar-eTaiba have used the internet to attract youth cadres in their ranks. It has been a long standing demand of the agency to cultivate its own intelligence capabilities so that it can generate information regarding its ongoing investigations. the Lowy Institute of International Policy says China is now the largest bilateral donor in Fiji and the second largest in the Cook Islands.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • In its report “The geopolitics of Chinese aid: mapping Beijing’s funding in the Pacific”. China provided $333 million in bilateral aid to Fiji. • Until now. One of the most vocal proponents of ISIS in the digital space. the special cell is equipped with state of the art software tools to single out conversations in online chatter.com/civilservices/courses National Issues platforms. China’s strong foothold • Even as New Delhi has begun charting out a plan for forging bilateral and regional ties with these island nations. • According to NIA officials. and Tonga. China has significantly expanded its foothold in the region. National Investigation Agency (NIA) has formed a special cell. It is like obtaining a needle from a haystack and NIA is hoping that it will be able to get lucky on occasions to aid their investigations. • A group of Indians left to fight for ISIS after getting radicalised through social media. Samoa. terrorists are also no longer merely using plain messages. India to host meeting of 14 Pacific island nations • After trying to keep pace with China in relations with Africa and Central Asia. Hence. even more than Australia ($252 million) and almost three times that of http://www. • According to a report published in a leading daily. • The report also says that between 2006 and 2013. terrorists have long changed their modus operandi.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. food processing. which is important from an economic and geostrategic standpoint. They no longer operate using phones and are often taking recourse in online mediums to pass on their information. • But now NIA is also armed with similar surveillance software. India is now trying to match it neighbour’s growing footprint in the South Pacific. in what is seen as a first step towards greater engagement with the region. all of which were mentioned as areas of potential cooperation by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his visit to Fiji in 2014. • However. solar energy. e-networks for coordination in telemedicine and tele-education. • The upcoming summit in Jaipur is expected to pave the way for agreements in agriculture. India will host the heads of 14 island nations at the Forum for India-Pacific Islands Cooperation (FIPIC).com/civilservices/magazine 19 . which may be specially significant from terrorism or radicalisation point of view. from increasing business and trade ties to setting up diplomatic missions in each of these countries.iasexamportal. cryptic codes exchanged.

15% of Indians are graduates. Only 8. as provided under the 2013 law. signalling a climb-down by the government. Govt on backfoot over land acquisition bill • A joint parliamentary committee has favoured restoring most of the provisions of the UPA’s 2013 land law into the land acquisition bill the Centre wants to pass. which began as a move to offset Taiwan’s interests in the region.com/civilservices/magazine . while urban India accounts for 80 per cent of all Indian technology and medicine graduates. one of the six GONG (Global Oscillations Network Group) sites in the world. the rate of increase in graduates was faster in rural than in urban India over the last decade. has now the country’s largest telescope to observe the sun. Its new bill will be placed before Parliament. fewer than one out of every 10 Indians is a graduate. • Sources said that even the BJP members on the 30-member panel had favoured scrapping the exemptions that the NDA’s current bill provided from the social impact assessment (SIA) and consent provisions. The 2013 law limits the period to five years.8 crore graduates and above. and fastest of all among rural women. especially among women. • From 26 lakh graduates 10 years ago. had replaced “private company” with “private entity” to make room for NGOs. The current bill exempts national security projects. • Over the weekend. The bill. • Make the SIA mandatory for all projects except for acquisition under the urgency clause 20 • • • • (mainly national security projects). Census data show • Despite a big increase in college attendance. the majority (over 60 per cent) are those who have a non-technical graduate degree. the sum of Chinese aid is second only to Australia’s. industrial corridors and public-privatepartnership (PPP) infrastructure projects.iasexamportal.S. • China’s foray into the South Pacific. and that several states had sought amendments to it. had discussed the amendments suggested by each party and made the following recommendations • Switch back to “private company” in the clause stipulating the consent of 80 per cent landowners for acquisition for private projects. The committee is expected to hand in its report on August 7. which now wants to have economic and strategic engagements with the 14 island nations. is becoming a cause for concern for India. The Centre had been saying that the 2013 law was stalling development projects by making land acquisition extremely tough.com/civilservices/courses National Issues Japan ($117 million). Rural Indians are more likely to have nontechnical graduate degrees than urban Indians. the office of the Census Commissioner and Registrar-General of India released new numbers on the level of education achieved by Indians as of 2011.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Udaipur is second in the world to have the unique multi-application solar http://www. • While rural India accounts for only a third of all graduates. Country’s largest solar telescope • The Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO). • Among those with a graduate degree or above. etc. Revoke the exemption given to industrial corridor and PPP projects from the (70 per cent) consent provision. Ahulwalia. • After China. headed by BJP member S. • They show that with 6. rural electrification and housing. which mirrors the currently enforced ordinance. The panel will discuss the bill’s provision to extend the deadline for return of unutilised land to any length of time specified in the project proposal. proprietorships.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. corporations. new Census data show. while in Samoa and Tonga. India still has more than six times as many illiterates. • They said the panel. nearly 67 lakh rural women are now graduates.

• The date August 7 has been chosen due to its special significance in India’s history. An exhibition showcasing master creations of the awardees is also being inaugurated on the occasion in the adjacent senate building of Madras University.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. the wisdom of the administrative bodies 500 years ago resulted in a system of lakes which were used to store water collected during the monsoon.com/civilservices/magazine 21 . • The Prime Minister will also launch ‘India Handloom’ Brand. developed in-house at USO.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. CTIO in Chile. • This water supply could last for several years during lean monsoons. Unlike other telescopes. decreases the amount of heating of the surface layers. congratulating them for the major achievement. • Built by the Advanced Mechanical and Optical Systems (AMOS) of Belgium. the MAST was tested by Udaipur Solar Observatory for onsite acceptance • The back-end instruments of MAST. who couldn’t make it to the event. an autonomous unit of the department of space. the MAST is capable of capturing three dimensional aspects of the solar magnetic fields. with a large water body surrounding the telescope. • The program is being held in the prestigious Centenary hall of Madras University. Because the rains were scanty in general. situated on an island in the middle of Fatehsagar lake. lakes are associated with abundant rainfall. ISRO chairman AS Kiran Kumar. • Prime Minister Modi will confer the Sant Kabir awards and National awards for the years 2012. • A sophisticated 1. state-of-the-art instrument was installed in Udaipur under the project which monitors the sun automatically and takes digital velocity images of it every minute PM launch National Handloom Day in Chennai • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will on Friday inaugurate the first National Handloom Day at a function in Chennai. they plan to extend the studies to other layers using multiple spectral line diagnostics. In this way. sent his message to fellow scientists. is a part of the PRL. The observatory’s strategic location. • The other sites selected under GONG are the Canary Islands in Spain.com/civilservices/courses National Issues • • • • • • • telescope (MAST) for the detailed study of the solar activities. Udaipur site can boast of more than 250 days of continuous sunshine which allows to observe the sun properly during the day • A milestone was added in the Udaipur Satellite Observatory’s history in October 1995 when it appeared on the world map after being included in the GONG project. However in Udaipur. it was on this day that the Swadeshi Movement was launched in 1905. Hawaii and Big Bear in USA and Learmonth in Australia. • The Handloom Day will be celebrated all over the country in cooperation with state governments. http://www. The scientists here had got many important results earlier using data from other sources. further enabling the scientists to get a better understanding of the solar flares and eruptions taking place in such twisted magnetic fields.iasexamportal. they would get 3D pictures of the phenomena.5 million dollar. Using the MAST. include an adaptive optics system and a narrow band imaging polarimeter • The test results accumulated over a year were examined by a committee of experts and the telescope has now been made operational after 11 years Strategic location of USO • In most places. But those were looking at only one layer of the solar atmosphere. This reduces the turbulence in the air mass and thereby improves the image quality. The observatory. 2013 and 2014 to distinguished handloom personalities. What is MAST • The MAST is an off-axis Gregorian-Coude telescope with a 50 cm aperture and its dome is a collapsible one made of tensile fabric • The scientists had proposed for MAST in 2004 and preparations had been going on since for its installation.

504 cyber security incidents. which call for approvals from grama sabhas under the Forests Rights Act.iasexamportal. leopards or elephants. As a result bidders are likely to face challenges in operationalising these blocks. Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur. spam. 39 critical blocks cover a total forest area of more than 10. • The group’s objective was to 22 establish Nagalim or Greater Nagaland comprising Nagainhabited areas of states neighbouring Nagaland.060. Chhattisgarh.338.com/civilservices/magazine . many village boundaries overlap with the areas of the listed blocks. 2013. the study notes. • An order issued by the Ministry of Coal on December 18. • “MHA is expected to write back saying since there is no change in the ground situation. 71. had identified these 101 coal blocks for auction/allotment. 2006. including phishing. • The Minister said a total of 27. India follows global trends in taking on cyber attacks • The latest survey conducted using Global Information System (GIS) by Greenpeace India shows that of the 101 coal blocks that are up for auction this year. were reported to Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) during the years 2012. Parliament was informed on Friday.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses National Issues Uncertainty over Naga peace accord • The peace agreement with Naga insurgent group Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) or NSCN (IM)seems to have created some confusion with stakeholders knowing little about the “historic peace accord” announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on August 3. respectively. 2014 and 2015 (up to May). • Other than Nagaland. 35 are in the habitats of tigers. Greenpeace India collected GIS data from five • The number of cyber attacks in the country stood at nearly 50.000 during the first five months of 2015. • Sources said following the announcement made by the prime minister of a “peace accord” with NSCN (IM) there has been simmering tension in the states among those opposed to the idea of an accord without their demands being met. • Twenty of these blocks are within 10 km of a protected forest area or within 15 km of an identified wildlife corridor.S. Andhra Pradesh. 2014. Maharashtra. • Sources say that it is only a framework agreement that has been signed and the real accord might take some time. Jharkhand. • Several blocks are already facing legal challenges in various courts. One-third of coal blocks up for auction in wildlife habitats States for 46 coal blocks spread over 10 coal fields. • The state governments.”. 1. • The blocks are spread across eight States . In addition.500 hectares. A total number of 22. Pakistan.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. • Of the blocks up for auction. the Army and the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) are still not privy to the terms of agreement leading to uncertainty. malicious code and website intrusion.” Telecom Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha.481 websites were hacked during the year http://www. scanning.605 and 28. and prior to forest diversion under the Forest Conservation Act 1980.Madhya Pradesh. Orissa.780. • Top government sources told Mail Today that the Army has written to MHA asking for instructions on what is the status and how they need to act on ground.. • Data for the remaining 55 blocks of 101 was not available. NSCN (IM) has also been active in neighbouring Assam. China and Bangladesh. with most of these attacks on computer networks of Indian organisations originating from countries such as the U.30. status quo should be maintained and the protocol that is followed during a ceasefire with an insurgent group should be followed. • “The trend in increase in cyber attacks is similar to that worldwide. and 49. Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal.

• • • Environment Ministry pushes for contentious hydel projects • With the appointment of the third committee of experts by the Union Environment Ministry to review a few contentious hydroelectric power projects in Uttarakhand. development of Dholera SIR and a limestone mining project in Rangpur village of Junagadh. and Bharat Jhunjhunwala. In the year 2014 and 2015 (up to May). In the latest affidavit filed in the Supreme Court. coordinator of the South Asia Network on Dams. drilling of 103 wells in Vadodara by the ONGC.govt cant share any personal information. • Javadekar made the announcement here while referring to recent deaths of 10 Asiatic lions and other wild animals due to floods in Amreli district in June. activists see an attempt to shift the debate away from the danger they pose to • changing their design in tune with the disaster-prone State.com/civilservices/magazine 23 . including the six on which the Supreme Court is yet to give a decision. but the first committee rejected them. the Ministry has also underscored the importance of design modifications. ‘A violation’ • “Not only is this a violation but also a clear indication of your ministry’s malafide intentions to overwrite and compromise the findings of previous committees…It is hence clear that till the time you [Mr. The Ravi Chopra Committee and the Vinod Tare Committee had warned against the projects. almost ruling out the possibility of cancellation of the projects even if they don’t meet the criteria. • The minister also claimed that his ministry cleared at least 35 projects in Gujarat.SC • Aadhar card will be optional for availing various welfare schemes of the government.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. suspecting that the Ministry is forming committee after committee to get the green signal for the contentious projects. senior Supreme Court lawyer Prashant Bhushan. Bhyundar Ganga (24.iasexamportal. regardless of the reality on the ground. the committee has said they should come up with the required modifications. so that they could be implemented once the issues of muck disposal. had written to Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar. The Hindu reviewed the minutes of the two meetings of the newly formed committee held in June and July. impact on biodiversity and disaster mitigation plan were addressed. Javadekar] do not get a report that gives a green signal to these hydropower projects you will continue to form one committee after another. The modifications were discussed last year too. Alaknanda Badrinath (300 MW). which had not been given clearance. • Some of these projects which received environmental clearances include the 800 MW extension at Vanakbori thermal power station. Aadhaar not mandatory. respectively. • On the formation of the third committee. Himanshu Thakkar.323 and 9. the Supreme Court on Tuesday said and ordered that no personal http://www. Javadekar said. E.057. respectively. the number was 32. Theophilus of the Uttarakhand-based Himal Prakriti. Environmentalists have been objecting to the formation of the new committee. Kotlibhel 1A (195 MW). Since the developers again failed to present acceptable modifications.” they said.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. the developers of the six projects presented design modifications to the new committee.8 MW). • He said that sand mining in rivers passing through protected forest land has been banned by the Supreme Court.5 MW) are the projects that will be reviewed again by the new committee. • Centre plans to adopt new sand mining policy for forest areas • Union Minister for Environment and Forests Prakash Javadekar said today the Centre plans to adopt a new policy to allow sand mining in forest areas to stop flood waters from flowing into forests. and Khirao Ganga (4.com/civilservices/courses National Issues 2012 and 2013. Jhelum Tamak (128 MW). At a meeting held in July. a former professor of the IIM-Bangalore. Lata Tapovan (171 MW).

India continues to be a highly important region for Facebook. multi-stakeholder consultation process for finalising its INDC.s voluntary emission reduction targets soon • • India will announce its voluntary emission reduction targets well ahead of the deadline of October 1. which will be held in Paris from November 30.” says a government press release.com/civilservices/magazine .” • Facebook has more than 1.iasexamportal. 2015. challenging Aadhar scheme. which issued a slew of directions. The bench. Seoul and Taipei. The court did not allow the interim plea of petitioners. The bench. kerosene and LPG distribution system. worldwide events.000 worth of free tools and services. kerosene and LPG distribution system. a new programme designed to help 24 early stage mobile startups in India. mentorship and up to $80. “India has been advocating a strong and ambitious outcome in Paris in accordance with the principle and provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change CVC appointment under Supreme Court scanner • The Supreme Court on Thursday sought the Centre’s response to a PIL challenging the appointment of former Central Board of Direct Taxes http://www.” However.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. FB Start provides startups with exclusive community access. also comprising Justices S A Bobde and C Nagappan. New York. given the urgency of hammering out an agreement to do something before it is too late to halt and reverse mankind-caused climate change. the card will not be mandatory. Prakash Javdekar. told Parliament on Tuesday. recorded the statement of Attorney General Mukul Rohatgi that “no personal information of Aadhar card shall be shared by any authority”. which in the forenoon referred to a larger Constitution Bench a batch of petitions challenging the Aadhar scheme and the issue whether right to privacy is a fundamental right. the Union Minister for Environment. It directed that the information received by UIDAI shall not be used for any other purposes. Forests and Climate Change. In India.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses National Issues • • • • • information of the holders of such cards shall be shared by any authority. A major global deal is expected to be negotiated which might say what each country would do and how the efforts will be funded. Of the $50 million in benefits distributed to Asia Pacific startups through FB Start since 2014. headed by Justice J Chelameswar. two months ahead of this year’s climate conference. • • India. It was agreed in the Lima climate conference last year that all countries would submit their ‘intended nationally determined contributions’ (INDCs) by October 1. said. it is hosting these events in Bangalore and Gurgaon. Hong Kong.000 members as part of the FB Start programme and it has held events in London. Mexico City. that the ongoing enrolment process for the Aadhar card be stayed. except in criminal investigation with the permission of the court. • • • Ime Archibong. said. A three-judge bench. more than $21 million went to startups in India. quoting the Minister. India is biggest market for FB after US • Facebook on Tuesday launched FB Start. director of strategic partnerships at Facebook. “UIDAI/ Aadhar will not be used for any other purposes except PDS. said the Centre shall give wide publicity through electronic and print media that the card is not mandatory to avail the government schemes. the court made it clear that even for PDS. •Climate conferences (negotiations) are held each year under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). “Outside the US. This year’s conference is expected to be epochal. India has undertaken “an elaborate.

• A bench of Chief Justice HL Dattu and justices Arun Mishra and Amitava Roy also sought response from Chaudhary and Bhasin on the petition which cast doubts over their “integrity and reputation” and alleged that clouds over their integrity made them ineligible for the top posts in the CVC.com/civilservices/courses National Issues head KV Chaudhary as chief vigilance commissioner and exCMD of Indian Bank TM Bhasin as vigilance commissioner in the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC). said Chaudhary’s actions as CBDT chief and adviser to the SC-appointed SIT on black money was under a cloud. • The NGO also said Chaudhary’s name had cropped up in the Stockguru scam and also in the controversy relating to visitors to ex-CBI director Ranjit Sinha’s official residence. the petitioners alleged that he did not meet the “impeccable integrity” requirement for the CVC post and termed the procedure to select him as arbitrary and illegal.com/civilservices/magazine 25 . http://www. • The petition.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • Although government agencies had given a clean chit to Chaudhary in both cases. filed by NGO ‘Common Cause’ and members of civil society including former Navy chief Admiral L Ramdas.iasexamportal.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.

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org • Facebook has defended its Internet. The Sun .com/civilservices/courses International Issues INTERNATIONAL ISSUES Facebook in defensive mode on Internet. • Ms. the present British monarch’s husband.com/civilservices/magazine . The companies were asked to pay Airtel for joining the platform.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. of which its well-documented links with fascism. the opposition Democratic Progressive Party chairwoman. owned by the Murdoch empire. is a defiantly sensationalist newspaper. With the British media carrying reports of a “livid” Queen Elizabeth ordering an inquiry into the source of the leak of video footage dating back to 1933. The issue has thrown up issues of media freedom vis-à-vis the monarchy — an institution that most Britons of a earlier generation instinctively feel must be shielded from the darker aspects of its past. who supports friendly relations with China. that would allow free access of some websites on it network. the furore over the publication of socalled ‘private’ royal family material is roiling public opinion in Britain. The public response to the latest royal family controversy however suggests that the culture of monarchical exceptionalism in this country is changing. on the other hand. 26 • Internet. will run against Tsai Ing-wen. • “Internet. a historic first signalling acceptance of female leadership. he reportedly asked the women “So whom are you sponging on?” His hosts politely ignored his comment.Tsai leads in opinion polls. Hung. • Net neutrality implies that equal treatment be accorded to all internet traffic and no priority be given to an entity or company based on payment to content or service providers such as telecom companies. It claims it obtained the footage from a ‘legitimate source’ and discussed its publication http://www.org while preparing the report and found that it provided free access for only a few websites until April 2015.org acts as a gateway.” Facebook vice president for Mobile and Global Access Policy Kevin Martin said in a statement.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. and more notably the Third Reich. to internet access by breaking down the cost. Airtel Zero. which is seen as discriminatory. as opposed to a gatekeeper. is a Facebook-led initiative which aims to bring 5 billion people online in partnership with tech giants like Samsung and Qualcomm as well as mobile operators. British monarchy’s comes under attack • When the famously ill-spoken Prince Phillip. • The government panel discussed Facebook’s Internet. • The ruling Nationalist Party on Sunday picked as its candidate Hung Hsiu-chu (in picture).org initiative as a “gateway” to provide low cost access to the internet after a government panel on net neutrality opposed it saying that the social networking giant was playing the role of a gatekeeper.iasexamportal. • Taiwan to elect first woman President • • Taiwan’s top two political parties have each nominated a woman for President in 2016. infrastructure and social barriers that exist today. • • recently visited a community centre. showing her throwing the Nazi salute as a child.org. • The neutrality debate gained momentum in India after telecom operator Airtel launched a platform. who critics say had an eye on the circulation spurt that the publication of such a report would generate. a former teacher and the current deputy legislative speaker. are a part.

EU. after he suffered a major rebellion in his radical-left party Syriza during a vote on a first tranche of bailout measures last week. as well as civil justice reforms designed to speed up legal proceedings and reduce their costs.com/civilservices/courses International Issues editorially for weeks. • The second bill includes an EU directive.” said government spokeswoman Olga Gerovassili.000). as it presented Parliament with more draft legislation on the cash-forreforms agreement.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • Tsipras managed to push the first series of unpopular reforms through Parliament last Wednesday — including sweeping changes to Greece’s taxes. Greek Banks Reopen after a long gap • Greeks queued outside banks on Monday as they reopened three weeks after closing to stop the system collapsing under a flood of withdrawals. • Limits on cash withdrawals have been made slightly more flexible.000 euros ($108. 32 of the party’s 149 MPs voted against the measures. the emergence of the NDB and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) — a China-led initiative to fund infrastructure in Asia — was hastened by the reluctance http://www. • After Parliament has voted on the second bill — which must pass if Greece is to receive the bailout worth up to •86 billion ($93 billion) over three years — the government “will immediately resume negotiations with the (lender) institutions. and also got it cleared from its lawyers. pensions and labour rules — but only with the help of proEuropean opposition parties. • Within Syriza. • However. • Bankers said there may be minor disruptions after the three-week interruption to services but they expected services to resume largely as normal. the first cautious sign of a return to normal after a deal to start talks on a new package of bailout reforms.a situation which German Chancellor Angela Merkel said on Sunday was “not a normal life” and warranted swift negotiations on a new bailout. • The stock market will also remain closed until further notice. • Queues formed outside bank branches in central Athens as people waited to take care of business frozen during the three week-long bank holiday. adopted after the financial crisis in Cyprus in 2013. • However capital controls will remain and payments and wire transfers abroad will still not be possible . pay bills as well as have access to safety deposit boxes and withdraw money without an ATM card. A further six abstained. born out of the Bretton Woods Conference of the forties. including former finance minister Yanis Varoufakis. BRICS bank opens in Shanghai • The Brazil-Russia-India-ChinaSouth Africa (BRICS) grouping has formally opened the New Development Bank (NDB) as a dedicated channel of alternate finance. stressed that the NDB would not rival but complement the western backed International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. that guarantees bank deposits up to 100. which opened on Tuesday in Shanghai. ECB and IMF.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. which will focus on emerging economies and the Global South. Greece braces for next vote • Greek government said on Tuesday that it wants to see a final deal on its international bailout hammered out by August 20. with a weekly limit of 420 euros in place of the daily 60 euro limit previously.com/civilservices/magazine 27 . • Greeks will be able to deposit cheques but not cash.iasexamportal. • Lawmakers are due to vote on a second batch of reforms Wednesday in a fresh test of Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras’ authority. which should take until August 20 at the latest. But Tsipras is eyeing a fresh start and swift talks on the bailout that will keep Greece afloat. • Top officials of the new bank. • The bank closures were the most visible sign of the crisis that took Greece to the brink of falling out of the euro earlier this month.

a former head of ICICI Bank had announced earlier this month. since 2010. Each panel is an equilateral triangle with a side length of 11 meters. while South Africa’s contribution would stand at $ 5 billion. NDB’s first President Kundapur Vaman Kamath stressed that after a meeting in Beijing with the AIIB. staterun Xinhua news agency reported. • The Chinese technicians began to assemble the telescope’s reflector. whose dish has the size of 30 football grounds. you know. which is 300 meters in diameter. The bank is expected to start operations at the end of this year or early in 2016. in the mountains of southwest Guizhou Province to enhance its ability to observe outer space.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.iasexamportal. especially the United States. • Brazil. • With a perimeter of about 1.. whose dish has the size of 30 football grounds. the singleaperture spherical telescope called ‘FAST’ will be the world’s largest. Hotline for closer ties • Rejecting the possibility of a rivalry between the two newly established banks.com/civilservices/courses International Issues by the West. • China today started assembling the world’s largest radio telescope.6 km. Mr Stiglitz observed: “The other institutions have been trying to 28 adapt from the 20th century — 1944 was when they were founded — but.com/civilservices/magazine . has said the NDB is “going to try to be a 21st century institution”. China will pitch in $41 billion to the NDB — the highest within the BRICS group. India and Russia will each pump in $18 billion. who along with economist Nicholas Stern conceptualised the formation of a BRICS-led bank.450 panels. • Wu Xiangping.” • The NDB will have an initial capital of US$50 billion. • The NDB planned to issue its first loans in April next year. which will be raised to US$100 billion within two years. it’s difficult to move these big institutions. Consequently. it will take about 40 minutes to walk around the telescope. director-general of Chinese Astronomical Society. it will have a 39. to grant emerging economies a greater say within the IMF.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.5 per cent share of voting rights. • Once completed. Kamath. the NDB had decided to establish a “hotline” with the AIIB to forge closer ties between “new institutions coming together with a completely different approach”. • Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz. which is 500 meters in diameter and made up of 4. in the mountains of southwest Guizhou Province to enhance its ability to observe outer space. particularly difficult. said that for years Chinese scientists have worked on “second hand” data collected by others and failed to achieve breakthrough. overtaking Puerto Rico’s Arecibo Observatory. China begins assembling world’s largest radio telescope • China today started assembling the world’s largest radio telescope. The giant dish is built upon a naturally-formed bowl-like valley in the southern part of http://www. • The AIIB and the complementary $ 40 billion Silk Road Fund are expected to fund some of projects along Beijing-proposed Belt and Road initiative. In an interview with the website Democracy Now. Mr. aimed at the integration of Eurasian economies.

who now have until October to draft guidelines that outline how the terms of the proposals will be met.com/civilservices/courses International Issues Guizhou. according to reports emerging in its state media. the telescope is an attempt by China (under the project Breakthrough Listen. the diameter of the telescope’s reflector will be 500 meters and will be made up of 4. • A total of 91. the WTO claimed. Sun said. “only” 305 meters in diameter. • However. built in the deep mountains of China’s Guizhou province. • These products include semiconductors.02 was discovered by its planet-hunting Kepler telescope.s Ambitious Search For aliens • China is currently in the process of building the world’s largest single-aperture telescope. telecommunications satellites. • The Karst formation in the local landscape is good for draining rainwater underground and protecting the reflector. said the “landmark deal” should open up new economic opportunities across the globe. • The move marks an expansion of a similar deal waved through by the WTO in 1996. • Furthermore.000 Chinese http://www. the updated arrangement will benefit all 161 members of the WTO. which benefited 81 of the organisation’s members and saw prices fall across a range of products. • With a perimeter of more than 1. of the telescope. As a result.com/civilservices/magazine 29 .450 panels. so in 2012 • • members began work on expanding it.5 km.” with no habitation in the radius of five kilometers and only one county in the radius of 25 kilometers WTO strikes $1.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. in the hope of having them officiated by December 2015.iasexamportal. Roberto Azevêdo. while maintaining a roll-call of products that could be included on the list at a later date. it will take about 40 minutes to complete one round • • • The World Trade Organisation (WTO) has agreed to eliminate trade tariffs on more than 200 technology products. and all of them within the next three years. should lead to tariffs being cut on some of the listed products by 2016. paving the way for price cuts across a range of IT offerings from 2016. easily surpassing Puerto Rico’s Arecibo Observatory. many of the technology products that consumers and businesses rely on today weren’t covered by the 1996 deal. envisioned by American physicist Stephen Hawking and Russian billionaire Yuri Milner) to find signs of alien life after NASA’s groundbreaking announcement that an ‘Earth 2. directorgeneral of the WTO. • The valley in Guizhou has “radio silence. China and India top list of nations whose millionaires move abroad • We may be in the midst of “the Asian century. magnetic resonance imaging machines.3tn deal to wipe out IT trade tariffs China. • Its reflector the size of more than 30 football fields.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. This latest deal was voted for by 54 of the WTO’s 161 members. touchscreens and more. This. FAST.” but a new report shows that many of the wealthiest citizens of the continent’s two fastest-growing economies — China and India — have chosen to leave their countries and settle down abroad. • The construction of the telescope began in March 2011 and is set to finish next year. • According to Xinhua. allowing them to take advantage of dutyfree market access on the 201 listed products when participating in trades with one another. the agreement also sets out a commitment to addressing other barriers to trade in the IT sector. manufacturing tools for printed circuits.

Singapore. Russia. the United Kingdom.. Indonesia. Iranian President Hassan Rouhani called it a good agreement when he announce(d) “to our people that our prayers have come true”.S.com/civilservices/magazine . Nepalese temple authorities on Tuesday announced an indefinite ban on a centuriesold Hindu tradition of mass animal slaughter that attracts http://www. South Africa and Egypt round out the top eight. Australia and Hong Kong. Sharma Oli had also hinted that the term ‘secularism’ would be removed from the new Constitution. They also remain the world’s most populous nations.000. Animal sacrifice banned indefinitely at Nepal’s 300 year old Gadhimai Festival • In a break from tradition. • Earlier on Friday. described it as “a most dangerous irresponsible step”. Obama warned that he would veto a negative decision by Congress. Congress for a mandatory 60-day review.com/civilservices/courses International Issues • • • • • • • millionaires left the country and settled overseas in the past 14 years. France. Those who leave generally cite reasons like “turmoil in home country. Speaker John Boehner slammed it as “a bad deal” that “paves the way for a nuclear Iran” and “vowed to do everything possible to scuttle it” even as Mr. led by former secretary of state Madeleine Albright and former secretary of defence William Perry issued a statement welcoming it as “a landmark agreement unprecedented in its importance. France. released this month. President Barack Obama was the most restrained when he said that the deal “offers an opportunity to move in a new direction”. a Republican presidential candidate. • “Over the past few days.” the report said. • UCPN (Maoist) Chairman Prachanda said on Monday that the term ’secularism’ is not an appropriate one and it would be replaced by a suitable term in the new Constitution. ‘Secularism’ will be vanish from the new Nepal Constitution • The key term of ‘secularism’ may be dropped in Nepal’s new Constitution as it is not considered “appropriate” by many people. security concerns and optimizing education of children. Winds of change in West Asia • There has been no dearth of 30 hyperbole on the nuclear agreement signed last week in Vienna between Iran and the P5+1 (the United States. followed by the U. The report says Indians tend to move to countries like Australia and the United Arab Emirates.” Russian President Vladimir Putin said that “the world heaved a sigh of relief” while German Chancellor Angela Merkel called it “a hugely important success”. The U. sharing a third of the global population. while the exodus of Indian millionaires ranked second at 61. China. CPN-UML Chairman K.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Despite the large-scale departure of millionaires. national security advisers. • Senator Lindsey Graham. • On July 20. U.iasexamportal. a campaign to remove the word ’secularism’ from the Constitution has been gaining momentum. The study. Italy.K.—its capital city London. while Singapore and Hong Kong are popular destinations for China’s wealthy..P. looked at immigration data from 2000 and 2014 indicating applications for a second citizenship or change of domicile (permanent residence)..S.S. while a group of 60 former secretaries. Russia and Germany — along with the European Union).Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. in particular—appears to be the most popular destination for the world’s rich to settle down in. according to a report by consultancies New World Wealth and LIO Global. U. military generals and ambassadors.S. the Agreement was submitted to the U. according to top Nepali leaders. both China and India still have plenty of wealthy citizens who chose to stay back — reflected by their respective positions at fifth and 10th on the list of countries with the most millionaires overall.

said the S-300 air defense missile systems will be upgraded before being delivered to Iran. held once every five years.iasexamportal.com/civilservices/magazine 31 . • • • • Russia Is supporting Iran with Missiles • • Russia is modernizing its S-300 missile system to supply to Iran. sees hordes of devotees from Nepal and India flock to a temple in the Himalayan nation’s southern plains to sacrifice thousands of animals in the hope of appeasing the Hindu goddess of power. But Putin lifted that selfimposed ban in April following an interim nuclear deal between Iran and world powers. • The 300 year old Gadhimai festival will go bloodless in its next edition in 2019. • In 2013.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. allowing for an easing of sanctions on the Islamic republic. • In the last Gadhimai festival in 2014.com/civilservices/courses International Issues hundreds of thousands of worshippers. Vladimir Kozhin. despite a police presence and a SC order to check the illegal smuggling of animals from Indian borders. the UN General Assembly designated July 30 as the World Day to “raise awareness of the situation of victims of human trafficking and http://www. RIA news agency reported. since the original contract was signed a long time ago. while pursuing and prosecuting criminals and their networks. • In his message on the World Day against Trafficking in Persons. • The secretary-general also applauded the donors who have enabled the UN Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons to assist thousands of people and called for greater contributions to help the many million other victims of this crime move forward with their lives. people continued to cross the Bihar border with live cattle. Gadhimai. More than five lakh animals get slaughtered during the festival. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has expressed • UN Secretary-General Ban Kimoon on Thursday urged every country to join the fight against human trafficking as the world body’s agencies and their partners vowed to work together to support and protect victims of this transnational crime. 70% animals are technically smuggled from India. He wouldn’t offer specifics or say when the delivery would take place. the secretary-general flagged the need to crack down on criminal trafficking networks that thrive in countries where the rule of law is weak and international cooperation is difficult. an adviser to Russian President • Vladimir Putin said on July 30. UN urges concerted action to combat human trafficking • The festival. Israel’s “dismay” at Russia’s decision to supply the S-300s to Iran. Russia cancelled a contract to deliver the advanced missile system to Iran in 2010 under pressure from the West.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Moscow is hoping to reap economic and trade benefits now that a more comprehensive nuclear deal between Iran and world powers has been reached. a presidential adviser on military matters. and the United States also has expressed concern.

com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses International Issues for the promotion and protection of their rights. a sensitive issue. urging governments worldwide to take coordinated and consistent measures to defeat this scourge. and adding that time was of the essence. • The White House will release the final version of America’s Clean Power Plan. central to his legacy. one billion people have been added to the planet’s population.” • At least 10 migrants have died attempting the France-to-Britain passage. adding more police and private security • US PRESIDENT Barack Obama will on Monday local time unveil what he called the “biggest.2 billion in 2100.iasexamportal. more fencing and infrared detectors and floodlighting.3 billion in the middle of 2015. • Over the next 15 years.com/civilservices/magazine . the world’s population is projected to increase by a further billion.18 percent. falling to 1. but rather by “reducing the number of migrants who are crossing into Europe from Africa. France on trains or trucks into Britain in recent weeks have often made their way there after first landing in Italy and Greece via Mediterranean boat trips from Africa. fertility rates are down across the world. British Home Secretary Theresa May and her French counterpart.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Not anymore.” • In 2010.7 billion mark before topping 11. France Make New Push to Block Migrants guards. called on other European Union countries and the international community to help curb the flow of refugees from Africa to Europe. even though the planet’s population is projected to grow.5 billion in 2030. the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons. • In 2050. • Plants will have to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 32 per cent from 2005 levels by 2030. • In a joint statement published in British and French newspapers. a set of environmental rules and regulations that will home in on the pollution from the nation’s existing power plants. the most common greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. • Over the course of the past 12 years. • Britain and France say they are bolstering security at the French entry to the Eurotunnel. • The two officials said the thousands of migrants who have sought passage from Calais. wellbeing and security of America. World’s Population Is Set To Surpass 11 Billion • The world’s population reached 7. Much of the coming growth will be attributed to reducing child mortality and raising life expectancy. Bernard Cazeneuve. or 83 million people each year. 32 Britain.” • Power plants account for some 40 per cent of US emissions of carbon dioxide. • In the coming months. • May and Cazeneuve said the crisis should not be addressed by easing immigration policies. Obama is expected to visit Alaska to highlight the impact of climate http://www. it will pass the 9. reaching 8. health. most important step we’ve ever taken” to fight climate change. Obama said in a video released early Sunday: “Climate change is not a problem for another generation. setting limits on power-plant carbon emissions for the first time. Obama to unveil ‘biggest step ever’ in climate change fight • Britain and France said Sunday it was a “top priority” for them to block the onslaught of thousands of migrants seeking passage to England via the Eurotunnel.24 percent a decade ago and this has now started to slow. according to a recent report released by the United Nations. • The annual pace of growth was 1. Interestingly. • Laying out how climate change is a threat to the economy.

It was even more surprising that it managed to build on that momentum in July. with the headline Purchasing Managers Index plummeting to 30. • Politically sensitive • In its initial proposal a year ago. as Italian factories had their best month in more than four years. which described the measures as “overreach”. The World Glacier Monitoring Service has compiled worldwide data on glacier changes for more than 120 years.1.3 from 54. • Climate change is a hot-button issue in American politics. Activity slowed somewhat in Spain.0 separates a contraction from an expansion. • Even as natural gas gains in popularity.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Glacier tongues in Norway have retreated by some kms from its maximum extents in the 19th century. UN sets 2030 as goal to end poverty and hunger • The intense ice loss of the past • The 193 member states of the United Nations have reached an agreement on a new development agenda for the next 15 years that calls for http://www.2. says an alarming study. and cuts are politically sensitive because coal. • The final results of a survey of purchasing managers at eurozone factories released Monday showed activity grew slightly more rapidly than first • • • • estimated. The survey attests to a degree of paralysis not often seen in a developed economy. and roughly in line with June.4. World glaciers melting faster than ever • • • • • • two decades has resulted in a strong imbalance of glaciers in many regions of the world. needed raw materials and other supplies. In this study. but only in France was there an outright decline. According to the team. the Obama administration had set the target at 30 per cent of power plant reductions • The stronger 32 per cent collective reduction drew fierce opposition from the Republican Party. A Level of 50. But the national survey for Greece revealed a collapse in output. as the PMI rose to 55. the lowest level recorded in the 16-year history of the series.iasexamportal. the current rate of glacier melt is without precedence at global scale. This is two to three times more than the corresponding average of the 20th century.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. remains a major US industry. among the dirtiest energy sources. as businesses lost their access to credit. and in June recorded a surprise surge in activity. Germany and the Netherlands. at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history. Italy’s manufacturing sector began to revive at the start of the year. the study shows that the long-term retreat of glacier tongues is a global phenomenon. but that had little impact on other parts of the currency area’s economy. and that had little to do with Greece. and the eurozone measure stood at 52. ahead of natural gas and nuclear Eurozone PMI Survey Shows Collapse in Greek Manufacturing Output • Uncertainty over the country’s future relationship with the eurozone sent Greek manufacturing into a tailspin in July.com/civilservices/magazine 33 .com/civilservices/courses International Issues change and will host Pope Francis at the White House when they are expected to make a collective call for action. “The observed glaciers currently lose between half a metre and one metre of its ice thickness every year.” Exact measurements of this ice loss are reported from a few hundred glaciers only. observations of the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010) were compared to all available earlier data as well as to reconstructions from pictorial and written sources. indicating that glaciers will suffer further ice loss even if the climate remains stable. its highest level in 51 months. “heavy-handed” and said they would have “devastating consequences for our economy”. But there were few signs of Greece’s troubles in the survey results coming in from other parts of the currency area. hundreds of coalfired power plants dotted across the country provide about 39 per cent of the US electricity supply. In addition.

Icann will become an independent entity without US government oversight for the Internet’s domain and address system. achieving gender equality.25 a day located in southern Asia and subSaharan Africa. and any major structural or operational changes to the foundation of the Internet’s addressing system would require approval of the nonprofit organization’s board of directors. and the last generation to prevent the worst impacts of global warming before it is too late. Russia developed suits for safer spacewalks • A gen-next lightweight spacesuit equipped with climate control and unique safety systems for astronauts http://www. noting that the transition is likely to take place between July and September 2016. nonprofit Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (Icann) would create a separate legal entity that would be contracted to handle key technical functions of the online address system. • Icann would remain based in Southern California. In his final report last month on the Millennium Development Goals.com/civilservices/courses International Issues eradicating povertyand hunger.iasexamportal. enabled more girls to go to school than ever before.” SecretaryGeneral Ban Ki-moon said on Monday. Chehade noted that the transition away from US government oversight has been in planning since Icann a nonprofit corporation under contract to the US government was created in 1998. Chehade said.org. the only original goal that was achieved ahead of time was cutting in half the number of people living in extreme poverty. India. with 80% of the people living on less than $1. Nigeria.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Bangladesh and Congo. China. with the transition pushed back by a year to allow time for input from the Internet community and review by the US government and Congress.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. The US government in March 2014 outlined its plan to step away from its oversight role and fully privatize the functions of Icann. • The 17 new. • Agreement on the new goals is the culmination of more than three years of intense and complex negotiations. non-binding goals will succeed the eight Millennium Development Goals adopted by world leaders 15 years ago. and brought unprecedented results 34 in fighting diseases such as HIV/ AIDS. and protecting the environment. • Despite significant progress on all the MDGs. “We can be the first generation that ends global poverty. and that was due primarily to economic growth in China. • The draft agreement reached on Sunday evening outlines 17 goals with 169 specific targets on issues ranging from ending poverty “in all its forms everywhere” to ensuring quality education and affordable and reliable energy. Ban said the effort has helped lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty over the last 15 years.com/civilservices/magazine . where a note said that a public comment period would end on September 8. • Under the plan. Icann Posts Proposal to End US Oversight of Internet • • • • • • The overseers of the Internet on Monday published a keenly anticipated proposal to step out from under US oversight. • Ban stressed inequality remains. The 199 page proposal was posted online at icann. improving living standards and taking urgent action to combat climate change. and 60% in just five countries. Icann president Fadi Chehade said last month that the end of the US role is now set for mid2016. • The document called “Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” will be adopted at a UN summit just before the annual meeting of world leaders at the General Assembly in late September.

Russia.5 hours ahead of GMT. on August 15th. a country of roughly 25 million people. In case of depressurisation. instead of the nine hours used in Korea and Japan today.Org does not follow the net neutrality principle • In justification. A special video produced by the army.com/civilservices/magazine 35 .com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. North Koreans will get to sleep in a half an hour later. The spacesuits will ensure that astronauts. which is contributing to food shortages that are leaving more than 10 million people without • A balloon that read “Long live Egypt” cruised aloft. • Only a new opera was missing from the dedication of the Suez Canal’s younger and shorter sister on Thursday. It is the outcome of several years of research and development by the engineering team at Zvezda NPP. the North Korean government announced on Friday that it would be setting up its own time zone. • After all. The unique new spacesuits for Russian cosmonauts on ISS use materials that substantially extend the useful life of spacesuits.Org in India Facebook completely disagrees with a DoT panel’s report in India which says that Internet. which is sufficient for safe return to the space station.Org in India New Suez Canal &Egyptian President Still in Deep Water North Korea will have Its Own Time Zone • North Korea. depicted • Completed two years ahead of schedule. enough food. the government made the decision to return to the time used in the Korean peninsula before Japan colonized it in 1910. feel absolutely comfortable and safe. due to damage or otherwise the spacesuit has a system that can maintain the required pressure within a spacesuit for as long as 30-50 minutes. • That’s right. The spacesuit was displayed at the annual Innoprom international industrial exhibition held in Ekaterinburg. huge national flags fluttered and the main streets were lit up. which will be 30 minutes earlier than that which it currently uses. • According to the report. Facebook campaigns for Internet. according to a report in the BBC. They spacesuits have been fully tested and are being sent to the ISS this year. the new canal’s true worth is as a national symbol. • Facebook is working hard to gather maximum support of its users for Internet. Even so. • But it’s not all bad news for the folks living in this nation-sized penitentiary. it can’t wash over bigger troubles. which was screened on television. • Even those lucky enough to have enough to eat have to suffer the indignity of living under a hereditary despotism of men with ridiculous haircuts.Org as now there is very little time left in DoT http://www.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. the company explains that though the app provides the users with access to only some websites it does not obstruct the other sites. China remains world’s largest robot market • China has retained its rank as the world’s largest robot market for the second successive year.iasexamportal. even when affected by such aggressive environment as open space.com/civilservices/courses International Issues • • • • • • onboard the ISS has been developed by a Russian company. • Before that time. • Facebook campaigns for Internet. all of Korea was 8. media reported on Friday. is in the midst of a severe drought.

says the UN.Org is unsuccessful in establishing is made available on My Gov website for the people to comment on. and even the federal census. Nepal’s first transgender passport issued to rights activist • There will be no end to world population growth in this century. the company has no intent to violate the net neutrality principle. The Facebook users in India have received messages from Facebook in which they are asked if they support free internet in India for all the people to use.com/civilservices/courses International Issues • • • • • • panel to present the public opinion on its report. According to models of demographic change derived from historical experience.6 billion people by the end of this century. The DoT panel report on net neutrality which says Internet. with a current population of 4.World population set to cross 11 billion in 2100 • • • • • • increase from 7. Once Facebook is able to gather enough public support it would move to the courts for keeping Internet. changing and verifying identity documents. • For Shahi. public bathrooms. Asia. The continent’s current population of 1.com/civilservices/magazine .3 billion people in 2100. risk unduly penalizing transgender persons whose personal appearance and data are subject to change. with its population expected to peak around the middle of the century at 5. activists have fought successfully to have a third category added to citizenship documents. The world population growth will not stop in this century unless there are unprecedented fertility declines in those parts of subSaharan Africa that are still experiencing rapid population growth.2 billion people is expected to rise to between 3. Developing countries with young populations but lower fertility like India face the prospect of substantial population ageing before the end of the century. • Nepal moved towards recognizing a third gender when the Supreme Court in 2007 ruled that individuals should have their gender legally recognized based on “selffeeling” and that they should not have to limit themselves to “female” or “male. • The United Nations special rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism argued that “measures that involve increased travel document security. UN report. The primary driver of global population growth is a projected increase in the population of Africa.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.7 billion in 2050 and 11. such as stricter procedures for issuing. activist Monica Shahi has made history as Nepal’s first citizen to carry a passport bearing a third gender. adding that the world’s population will 36 • In what signals a long-overdue respect for the country’s transgender community.9 billion people by the end of the century.3 billion people to 9. is likely to remain the most populous continent. the report has got very insignificant comments as compared to the messages sent as part of the campaign to establish net neutrality in India.Org is introduced to provide internet access even to those who cannot pay for it.iasexamportal.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.” http://www.4 billion.Org functional in India. As of now.” • Only a limited number of countries recognize more than “male” and “female” on travel documents. which could pose challenges for people like Shahi as they travel. it is estimated the global population will be between 9.5 and 13. Facebook submits that Internet.3 billion and then to decline to around 4.2 billion at the century’s end.” • Since then. The message further guides them to comment to assert their support for the free basic internet cause so that their opinion could be presented at the government level. this means her passport is marked “O” for “other” rather than the traditional “F” for “female” or “M” for “male.4 billion and 5.

But Alphabet is. more breathing space to build their businesses. analytics and machine-learning technologies are reshaping literally every aspect of the world. 140-character limit in Twitter is past • Starting Wednesday. as well as a search engine. It is Google’s ambitious effort to conquer death. a library and a video giant. • Early last year it bought the smart-thermostat maker Nest Labs for $3. would be to think of it as working on everything from A to Z.com/civilservices/magazine 37 . the microblogging site Twitter lifted the 140-character limit for its 300 million-plus users to send direct messages. in addition to its famous search. • But the news might not have surprised one person. and events that unfold on Twitter. as noted earlier. One unofficial. something that investors love.2 billion and that initiative is becoming the base of Alphabet’s work in the area of internet-connected devices for the home. • But these are just three of the many things that the company is today working on. according to Business Insider. Twitter product manager Sachin Agarwal wrote: “If you’ve checked your Direct Messages today. and likely still have some characters left over. • Google has been considering the move for the last four years. • It will also give investors better visibility into the core business of search. an Indian-origin Twitter official has announced. already much more. and it has certainly been setting up and acquiring companies that will now live under the Alphabet rather than Google banner. and their top executives. from Analytics and Books to YouTube and Zeitgeist. Some would have heard about its efforts to build drones that can deliver stuff. rather than prediction or insider knowledge.” • While Twitter is largely a public experience. former CEO of biotech pioneer Genentech. • Search is what today brings in most of the money for Alphabet. given the way its fundamental internet. Alphabet. and will now be folded into a parent company called Alphabet. you may have noticed that something’s missing: the limitation of 140 characters.iasexamportal. leading it. as some have put it. • The search giant has launched a surprise new name. • You can now chat on (and on) in a single Direct Message. • So. movements.com/civilservices/courses International Issues Google’s Alphabet logic • Most would have heard of Google’s self-driving cars. user-generated web tile actually puts together a Google initiative for each letter of the alphabet. and which was reflected in a 6% surge in Google’s share price soon after the announcement was made. • Calico is an anti-aging biotech company that it launched in 2013 with Arthur Levinson. ‘J’ was the only letter for which it could not find something.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. • That’s exactly what Google’s looking to emphasize with the new name — that it is now a phone network. news. a mapping company. and it probably wants to be a lot more. • The post shows the huge array of Google products that now exist. and the Google Glass. Direct Messages let you have private conversations about the memes. • But the alphabet prediction is presumably the result of good luck and coincidence.s Alphabet name predicted • Google’s huge new restructuring into a company called Alphabet seems to have been predicted on Reddit a year ago. including an ambitious biotech effort to “conquer death”. who put together a remarkably prescient image that appears to predict the change. one way to look at its new moniker. • In a post on the official Twitter blog.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Google. http://www. • The new corporate structure — where Google is just one venture among several under the Alphabet holding company — is designed to give the emerging spaces.

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Bangladesh enclave residents get freedom after 68 years • Ending a border dispute. 38 • Making a strong pitch for attracting investment to their continent. Deputy Director and Senior Fellow – Japan Chair at the Centre for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS). India. Kurigram 12 and Nilphamari (4) while all the 51 Bangladeshi enclaves are situated in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal.4 trillion by 2020 from $860 billion in 2008. The Bangladeshi enclaves are now a part of India. South Africa and Tanzania – made a strong pitch for the African continent saying that the economy was now warning up and the 54 countries together could offer vast opportunities in raw material sourcing and product marketing. as does Japan and as does the U.” • The Japanese Cabinet on Tuesday approved a defence white paper for 2015 which sounded alarm over China’s “one sided maritime activities” in the South China Sea. There were 52 cities with a population of over one million. Crackers were burst and people rejoiced as India and Bangladesh exchanged enclaves. • China’s land reclamation in South China Sea has increased tensions in the resource rich region which is contested by several nations.S.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. They may not always align completely.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. covering the 111 enclaves and in return received 7. The 111 Indian enclaves are located in the Bangladesh districts of Lalmonirhat (59). which is projected to expand to $1. Japan and the U. Economic Counsellor. the three diplomats – representing Ghana. History was written as India gave away to Bangladesh a total area of 17. the much-awaited exchange of • • • • • enclaves (Chhitmahals) between India and Bangladesh came into effect at the stroke of midnight on Friday-Saturday. ending the 68 years of stateless existence for over 51. and another 37.000 residing in 111 Indian enclaves in Bangladesh.S. South Africa High Commission said that Africa was now a huge market. have an important role to play. can shape China’s peaceful rise’ Africa sees opportunities in Make-in-India • • Coordination among India.000 people living for so long in 51 Bangladeshi enclaves in the Indian territory.S. I think this element of regional coordination among likeminded states is critical.com/civilservices/magazine . • Keeping on a low key their individual country interests.an organisation that fought for the rights of the enclave dwellers — celebrated the occasion in Mosaldanga enclave of West Bengal‘s Cooch Behar district. now have a country of their own. while the Indian enclaves join Bangladesh.160 acres. on security cooperation and economic ties are essential because they can fundamentally talk about how they can “shape China’s rise in a peaceful way”. African diplomats on Thursday said that the Make-inIndia initiative could very well be utilised to boost trade between the two countries. Around 14. As the clock struck 12.iasexamportal. Japan and U.com/civilservices/courses India & The World INDIA & THE WORLD ‘India. the Bharat Bangladesh Enclave Exchange Co-ordination Committee (BBEECC) . http://www.S.000 enclave dwellers. • Stefanus Botes. said Nicholas Szechenyi. Therefore India. • “India has unique interests with China.110 acres comprising 51 enclaves. Japan and U. but fundamentally if we are going to encourage China’s rise in a way that favours regional stability. Panchagarh (36).

even that leeway was not available for ISRO which aspires to take baby bites in the big global launch service business. according to information from ISRO officials.S. have been working at a bigger accord. to co-develop a radar imaging satellite and launch it from India around 2019-20. the trade name for Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. education. made headlines this month when he announced the company’s intention to set up http://www. signed about two years ago.S. • It also marks the day from which enclave residents on both sides of the border will enjoy the benefits of nationality of India or Bangladesh.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Indian satellite launchers will for the first time put a few U. the CSLA (Commercial Satellite Launch Agreement) which. founder and chairman of the world’s largest contract manufacturer Foxconn. will bring in the business of launching bigger commercial Earth observation or other satellites. Nine U. • ISRO and the U.S. • Until the TSA was signed.iasexamportal. • Most satellites made around the world use some or other U. • Other steps with regard to implementation of the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement and 2011 Protocol are underway in accordance with agreed modalities between the Indian and Bangladeshi governments.made satellites into space from Indian soil. it said.S. 2015 will thus be a historic day for both India and Bangladesh.com/civilservices/courses India & The World • The swapping is in pursuance of the inking and exchange of documents of the Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) on June 6 in Dhaka. it has put into orbit 45 small and mid-sized foreign satellites of 19 nations for a fee. in July 2009.S. • ISRO’s commercial venture Antrix Corporation recently signed contracts to launch nine micro and nano spacecraft separately as small copassengers on the PSLV lightlifter during this year and next. Foxconn may set up a factory in every Indian state in 10 years: Terry Gou • Terry Gou. • The U. as the case may be. • It will be the first synthetic aperture radar satellite in dual frequency. • A micro satellite weighs in the band of 10-100 kg and a nano satellite in the range of one to 10 kg.S. in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Bangladeshi counterpart Sheikh Hasina. components.” said an official statement released by the central government. components. which has done 30 flights with just one failure since 1993.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Ltd. • ISRO’s PSLV launcher. • “July 31.S. and thus access to civic services. has a good record and is considered lowpriced and reliable for small satellites.S. satellites to be flown from Sriharikota • In a small but significant progress in the chequered Indo-U. • The LBA was first inked in 1974 by then Bangladesh prime minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and former Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi.S. The day marks the resolution of a complex issue that has lingered since independence. space equations.com/civilservices/magazine 39 . when sealed. • The TSA leaves the door open for ISRO to launch small noncommercial or experimental spacecraft that are made in the US — or even those of other countries which contain U. healthcare and other facilities provided by the two governments to their respective nationals. • To date. contracts are seen as the first fruit of the Technology Safeguards Agreement (TSA) that the Department of Space signed with the U. Radar satellite • Another positive outcome with the U. is the NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR).

com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. India received $6. In March. Canada. officially called the Broadbased Investment and Trade Agreement (BTIA). • • India received $24 billion in FDI from EU in last 3 years • • • Despite the Free Trade Agreement talks with the European Union being in limbo. Chairman of CANEUS (CANada-Europe-USAsia) headquartered in Montreal. In 2015-16. health-care. • The reason became apparent on Saturday when Gou announced a $5 billion investment in Maharashtra in addition to the agreement with Ghai for media content creation. • The FDI inflow was $8. According to reports.com/civilservices/magazine . energy. a global satellite called as GlobalSat for DRR (a satellite for observation of Earth and Disaster Risk Reduction) will be renamed as UN Kalam GlobalSat in the memory of the worldrenowned rocket scientist. India received $24.5 billion in 2013-14.20 billion in 2014-15. However. APJ Abdul Kalam who died on 27 July 2015. which was a decline of $862 million compared to the year ago period.23 billion in FDI equity inflows from EU in 201213 which increased to $9. • The step is being taken to pay tribute to the Missile Man of India. The last India-EU Summit had taken place in 2012. The two-way commerce between EU and India stood at about USD 99 billion in 201415 while it was USD 101. UN Kalam GlobalSat: Satellite named in memory of APJ Adbul Kalam • Aproposal has been made to name a global satellite after the late former President Dr. many were disappointed. this step of renaming the satellite the will be a tribute to the great man who had contributed a lot in the field science and space explorations. • The decision to rename the satellite after the late Missile Mans of India was made by Milind Pimprikar.iasexamportal. Germany and Canada in April. education. water and weather related problems. fashion and communication founded by filmmaker Subhash Ghai—on Friday.06 billion the next year. during his trip to France. The EU has been India’s largest trading partner and the twoway trade is likely to swell significantly if the countries could firm up the long-pending Free Trade Agreement. the EU had not responded to India’s proposal for a brief visit by Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Brussels. Pimprikar said that the ‘GlobalSat for DRR’ is a United Nation-driven initiative for sharing of technology and ideas to prepare and control the risk of natural disasters. the amount in first two months of current fiscal was $1. • In total. the headquarters of the bloc. • So when Gou cancelled his scheduled press conference in Mumbai where he was to launch the Foxconn Media Lab in association with Whistling Woods International—an institute for film.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. it recently invited him for the India-EU summit just before or after the G-20 summit scheduled to be held in November in Turkey. • He further added that this will also symbolize his World Space Vision-2050 in which nations will join their hands in order to find solution to major problems of mankind including natural disasters. India has received an impressive $24 billion in foreign direct investment from the 28nation bloc over the last three years. India had on Wednesday deferred scheduled talks on the proposed pact later this month which was to resume after a gap of two years after the EU imposed a ban on around 700 generic drugs which were clinically tested by India’s GVK Biosciences on the ground of inaccuracy in data.39 billion. • As per official figures.com/civilservices/courses India & The World 10-12 factories in India over the next 10 years. • While explaining about the satellite. • According to Pimprikar.91 40 • billion in FDI equity inflows from EU between April 2012 and May 2015. • The project was proposed at the third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held http://www.

com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. a statement by the firm said that “as Standard Chartered has noted.China. the delays experienced by Adani in receipt of its project approvals informed the decision.is opposed by green groups and residents. More than 150 nations at the UN session will adopt the GlobalSat in New York in September this year.oppose India. India has maintained that the process to expand the powerful UN body “cannot be seen to be an exercise ad infinitum” and a results-based timeline is crucial to achieve a concrete outcome. US.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.iasexamportal. which has also supported India’s candidacy as permanent member. “Sources told the Press Trust of India that the US opposition to aspects of the reform process can be perceived as a “duplicity” since President Barack Obama has reaffirmed his support for a reformed UN Security Council with India as a permanent member.” Chartered. Russia. • American Ambassador to the UN Samantha Power said in her letter to Mr Kutesa that the US is “open in principle” to a • • • “modest” expansion of both permanent and non-permanent members but the condition that “any consideration of an expansion of permanent members must take into account the ability and willingness of countries to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security and to the other purposes of the United Nations. which should be completed within the next one year. analyzing and reducing the associated with a disaster. within the broad context of sustainable development. • UN General Assembly President Sam Kutesa achieved a breakthrough of sorts by circulating a text to UN members that will form the basis for the negotiations on the reform of the Security Council. Commonnwealth Bank walked away from Adani after the approval was revoked barely a week ago. being commemorated this year.Russia. the US. • Mr Kutesa had appointed Jamaica’s Permanent Representative Courtenay Rattray to chair on his behalf the Intergovernmental Negotiations on Security Council Reform. including the use of the veto. is an appropriate milestone to propel the reform process.the largest coral reef system . • Noting that the company valued the partnership with Standard • • In a setback to India’s bid for a permanent seat in an expanded UN Security Council. has opposed negotiations to reform the powerful UN body.s bid for permanent seat at UN • Australia mine project: Adani. Sources said that India feels that the 70th anniversary of the UN. StanC ties • The Indian mining giant Adani and the Standard Chartered bank have severed their ties after the federal court revoked the environmental approval for Adani’s controversial $16bn coal mine project in Australia.those who support the idea of the UN Security Council’s expansion in both categories and those who http://www. • Disaster Risk Reduction — DRR is a systematic process of identifying.com/civilservices/magazine 41 . refusing to contribute to a text that will form the basis for the longdrawn reform process. said in its letter to Mr Kutesa that the “prerogatives of the current Permanent Members of the Security Council. should remain intact under any variant of the Council reform”. • This is the second big bank after Australia’s largest lender.UN agencies explain DRR as “The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society.com/civilservices/courses India & The World at Sendai in Japan in March 2015. to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards. • The development puts the Carmichael coal mine project in Queensland into further doubt.” • The project to build one of world’s largest coal mines and expanding a port on the Great Barrier Reef. along with Russia and China. Russia said that in the situation when positions of the main groups of states .

remain polar. • With China’s central bank following up on Tuesday’s devaluation of its tightly controlled currency. Yuan devaluation & Indian economy cent cut on Wednesday. one can advance in the negotiating process only by searching for a compromise.com/civilservices/magazine .com/civilservices/courses India & The World do not . India increased the import duty on certain steel products by 2. by 1. • The steel industry is facing profit pressure as prices of imported steel are up to 20 per cent lower than those of domestic products.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. yuan.9 per cent with another 1 per 42 http://www..iasexamportal.5 per cent.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.

• Railways will examine the report and decide the future course of action. • The report estimates that the project where the bullet train will run at a speed of over 300 km per hour will cost Rs 98. the world’s most valuable company that sells the iPhone smartphones. banks likely to gain most • In a move that will attract more overseas inflows and improve the ease of doing business in India. • If work begins in 2017. • The decision. It also suggested that the train fare could be higher than that charged for First AC of Rajdhani Express.805 crore.000 crore. Banks are already reeling under the pressure of rising bad loans and need billions of dollars to meet capital requirements. and defence and other retail companies among others. boosted stocks of banks.com/civilservices/courses Economy ECONOMY Centre eases foreign investment rules. according to a final feasibility report on the project prepared by the Japanese governmental agency. http://www. • It is estimated that by 2023 around 40. chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. a senior rail ministry official involved with the project said. • After the study of the financial feasibility of the line. • Besides banks. it has gone up after taking into account various factors like price escalation and interest. a Cabinet note seeking approval for the project with an outline of the project feasibility and timelines is likely to be prepared next month. • The Cabinet Committee of Economic Affairs (CCEA).Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. foreign portfolio investment (FPI) and investments by nonresident Indians (NRIs). iPad devices and Mac line of computers. Apple grows faster in India than China • India is proving to be quite a strong growth engine for Apple.iasexamportal. • Growth rate in India has surpassed that witnessed in China. the official said. will also benefit from the policy. the final report suggests the fare of the bullet train between Mumbai and Ahmedabad may be somewhere around one and half times more than the fare of the first AC of Rajdhani Express and it would be around Rs 2. • From the initial estimated cost of Rs 65. which will now find it easier to attract foreign capital up to 74%. credit information firms.com/civilservices/magazine 43 . • The Japan International Cooperation Agency(JICA) in its report submitted to the Railway Ministy today envisages a reduction in the travel time on the 505-km long corridor between the two western cities to two hours from the existing over seven hours. it is projected. Bullet train project: costly affair for india • India’s maiden bullet train corridor between Mumbai and Ahmedabad will cost nearly Rs one lakh crore and the first train can run in 2024 if work begins in 2017. which was first announced by finance minister Arun Jaitley in the Budget. • As a follow-up action. the line can be completed in 2023 and made operational in 2024. commodity and power exchanges. • The Mumbai-Ahmedabad corridor is expected to enable trains to run at a top speed of 350kmph.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.000 passengers are expected to avail this service everyday and accordingly it would be a financially viable service. the government on Thursday simplified foreign investment rules by bringing together different categories.800. introduced a composite cap for all kinds of overseas inflows. including foreign direct investment (FDI).

is still a billion-dollar market for Apple. fell 35 cents and was trading in London at $56. • The audit. The closure of each site impacts three to four neighbouring sites and this may lead to increased call drops. especially on mobile call drops. • West Texas Intermediate (WTI). • However. Oil prices slip further on concerns over supply glut • Oil prices slipped.6 billion revenue that the company clocked in April-June quarter. after the American Petroleum Institute (API). India is moving up fast.69 a barrel at mid-day. For Airtel.S trade association for gas and oil. which measures voice quality during calls. have cited lack of spectrum and delay in its allocation as one of the reasons for network-related issues along with hurdles in installing mobile towers due to radiation issues. none of the service providers in Delhi and Mumbai.18 per cent). say distributors and sellers of Apple’s devices. found that Tata (CDMA) in Delhi and Bharti Airtel in Mumbai are the only service providers meeting the benchmark of less than 2 per cent call drops. But. • The Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC).84 per cent).51 per cent). fell by 58 cents to $50.29 per cent). • Crude oil prices have fallen in the last year because of protracted over-supply and weak demand. followed by Airtel (8. meets the benchmark for Rx Quality. the benchmark for European.83 per cent). • India. Aircel (5. Reliance and Airtel among the cell phone service providers failing to meet the quality of service norms in Delhi or Mumbai.56 per cent.com/civilservices/magazine .Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. contributing almost 25% to the $49.19 per cent) and Reliance (2. which will bring Iran’s oil onto the market in a few months. and that too on an annual basis.iasexamportal. • Oil spot prices in July last year were close to $105 per barrel. operators. However. on Wednesday. African and Middle Eastern crude oil prices. the largest U.28 per cent) and Idea (2. TRAI disclose firms faulting on call drop service norms • • • • • The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has named Vodafone. the highest call drop 44 • rate was that of Reliance (17. The situation is no better in Mumbai with Idea registering the highest call drop rate of 5. Vodafone (4.com/civilservices/courses Economy • Sales in India were up 93% in April-June against 87% growth in China. The TRAI said the drive was conducted in view of complaints on call drops and other network issues on June 23 and June 24 in Mumbai and July 9 to 11 in Delhi.04 per cent). The call drop rate for Tata (CDMA) stood at 0. it must be noted that China is many times bigger for Apple in terms of absolute volume and revenue. followed by Tata (GSM) (5. Idea. on behalf of the regulator. As per the audit report. this was 0.84 per cent. Aircel (3. the most prominent U. while announcing quarterly results on Tuesday. on the other hand.S benchmark for crude oil. which is being exacerbated by the Greek crisis and the Chinese stock market fall as well as an expectation that the U.28 a barrel for September deliveries. and prices have fallen more than 10 per cent this month alone. barring Tata (CDMA) in Delhi. the cartel of oil producing nations that includes Iran but is led by rival Saudi Arabia. on their part. published that oil inventories increased by 2.3 million barrels in Cushing. The TRAI report points out that during the last six months around 801 sites in Mumbai and 523 sites in Delhi were shut down due to reasons such as sealing of sites by municipal authorities and radiation-related issues. especially in metros. The number of call drop complaints by mobile phone subscribers has been on the rise. • In Delhi. Brent North Crude for September.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • Excess supply is expected to persist with the Iran nuclear deal.29 per cent). http://www.97 per cent. according to numbers released by the company. S will raise interest rates this year. done by an independent agency in the two metros. Oklahoma. Vodafone (4.

Sources said that nod on issuance of Sovereign Gold Bond could take a while. to launch services by yearend • The Infrastructure Development Finance Company (IDFC Ltd) on Friday declared on it’s website that theReserve Bank of India (RBI) had granted banking licence to the financial company making it the second lender after Bandhan Bank to enter the banking sector after more than a decade. The group said that the oil price dip was likely to be temporary and that demand was likely to pick up. released on Thursday for public comments. • Various proposals including interest rate are at the discussion stage. IDFC gets banking licence from RBI. which proposes to offer tax-free interest to individual on depositing the yellow metal with banks.000 crore with an estimated 20 branches. The monetary policy. Bandhan said in June it would launch banking operations in August. • IDFC and Bandhan Financial Services Pvt Ltd emerged successful out of 25 contenders for new bank licences issued by the RBI in April last year. as well as internal differences in opinion.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Now RBI’s independence. will cease to exist. Of these 15 are expected to be in tier-VI cities with rest of the branches in New Delhi and Mumbai. • YES Bank was the last bank to be set up in 2004. • This means the full control to chart the course of monetary policy will be with the government and not the RBI. • Millions of people in India do not have access to formal banking services.S shale. is in govt’s hand • If indeed the second draft of the Indian Financial Code.com/civilservices/magazine 45 . It will take couple of weeks before approval comes. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governor will have no veto power in the proposed sevenmember Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) that will have a dominant say in setting interest rates and that is not good news for the economy. • This will effectively undermine the independence of the central bank — an institution that has guarded the economy well from the pre-independent days. is implemented in its entirety. as we know it today. including U. The government shouldn’t do the blunder of killing the RBI’s power to have a final say on the monetary policy. Cabinet to take up gold monetisation scheme in few weeks • The Government is likely to consider and approve gold monetisation scheme in the next few weeks.” sources said. • The RBI is probably among the few public institutions India can be proud of with impeccable integrity and proven track record. • “Cabinet note on this (gold monetisation scheme) has been circulated. • The matter of veto power is highly critical given the proposal is that four out of the seven members in the MPC should be from the government’s side. • OPEC’s oil output faces challenges and competition from other energy sources. through multiple crisisphases. sources said. with Iran and other smaller oil producing members requesting a cut back in supply in light of falling prices. • IDFC’s executive chairman.Reuters http://www. The move to grant new permits marked the start of a cautious experiment to create more competition in a sector dominated by state lenders many of which are reluctant to expand into rural areas or towns where banking penetration is low. Bandhan Financial got RBI’s approval last month.iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses Economy announced that it would not cut back on output. Rajiv Lall after receiving the final nof for the banking licence had said that the company plans to start operation from October 1 with an initial loan book of around Rs 55.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.

has already made to the headlines. regardless of the immediate 46 consequences. • The revised draft in twenty parts will strive to regulate financial agencies. the power to decide the country’s monetary policy will be shifted from an independent. • It also mentions the disposal of applications. which will eventually find its way to the Union Cabinet for approval. • The IFC bill is expected to table in the Winter session of the parliament. establishment and structure of the tribunal.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. accountability mechanisms and funding for financial agencies. assessing multiple economic indicators in domestic and global markets and. Compared with the separation of debt management. with respect to the Debt Agency. information and inspections. What is the Indian Financial Code? How does it work? • The Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission (FSLRC) was set up on March 24. such as boards of financial agencies. The final decision. powers and authority conferred upon it. • Under this Act. • In 2013. strength and composition of boards. • The major change as of now is that there will be four members appointed by the central government and three from RBI. however. headed by Justice BN Srikrishna. has batted for sufficient autonomy in its functions in the larger interest of the country. the Council Board for the Council and the Debt Agency Board.com/civilservices/courses Economy • This was clear when the finance ministry tried to cut the central bank down to size by mooting the idea to shift the power of debt management from the institution. 2011. it can run into a serious. credible institution to the political interests of the government. RBI governor will be one of the several members of the committee and the government will dictate the policy. reversed later when RBI put up a stiff opposition. the monetary policy is framed by the central bank after factoring in the recommendations of an expert advisory committee. • Its aim was also to bring about coherence and efficacy in the financial regulatory framework. under the proposed framework. the general direction and management of the financial agencies will be vested in the respective boards — the Financial Authority Board for the Financial Authority.com/civilservices/magazine . submitted its report in two volumes. decision making. the Financial Sector Appellate Tribunal was established to exercise the jurisdiction. which included ‘Analysis and Recommedation’ and ‘Draft Law’. sometimes unpleasant to the ruling government.iasexamportal. denying the RBI the veto in MPC is a much more serious issue. • A part of it discusses the functioning of financial agencies. earlier the ratio was other way around. • The Code deals with the establishment of financial agencies. allocation and regulation of financial services. advisory councils. • According to the Act. • The decision was. The Parliament will finalise the code. finally. as it proposes to dilute the RBI Governor’s power. If the government sticks to the plan. objectives. with respect to the Redress Agency. it is highly critical that central bank enjoys dominance in policy decisions. he may no longer have the power to veto policy rates. rests with the governor. What is the Indian Financial Code?. • In effect. the Corporation Board for the Corporation. the Reserve Bank Board for the Reserve Bank. the commission. • At present. however. • The revised draft of Indian Financial Code. released on 23 July 2015. • To safeguard the economy. • But. • Previous RBI governors D Subbarao and Y V Reddy. for re-writing the Code to regulate the financial sector and introduce principles for financial regulation and the constitution. consulting with the finance minister on the broader policy direction. • The difference is that the RBI undertakes the complex process of monetary policy formulation keeping in mind the long-term good of the economy.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. powers and interaction of financial agencies. the Redress Agency Board. for whom monetary policy will then be among the many tools under disposal to work operate in line with its political agenda. who have preferred to describe the tensions with the governments on policy issues as ‘constructive tensions’. direct face-off with the central bank this time around. investigations and http://www.

com/civilservices/magazine 47 . with annual http://www. • A late rally that day. a stronger dollar remains the topic that dominates discussions in the marketplace. interest rate. miscellaneous. however. the world’s largest gold refining company. slipping to an intra-day low-point of $1. • Nkurunziza’s decision to seek a third term plunged Burundi into its biggest crisis since an ethnically charged civil war ended in 2005.30 by Friday. resolution of financial service providers.iasexamportal. is playing the villain.S. Gold slumped to a five-year low. domestic inflation. is inversely related to the growth prospects of the U. trading and market abuse.100 an ounce. the company said.Reuters • The company was selected after a global search by Valcambi’s existing owners led by Newmont Mining Corp. and schedules. • The deal will help it secure raw material supplies and will add to earnings per share. in an all-cash deal worth $400 million ( Rs 2560 crore). accusing him of violating the constitution by running for reelection. the world’s largest gold jewellery maker said. These financial agencies also have quasi-judicial functions — administrative law. it appears. • A sustained recovery in gold prices. • Nkurunziza won a third term in office on Friday after the opposition boycotted the vote. for the first time in nearly a decade. at least in the near-term.S. financial stability and development council. the State Department said in a statement. • Moreover. calls Burundi election ‘deeply flawed’ • U. enforcement actions. The reasons behind the slipping interest in gold is not difficult to fathom. • The fall of oil could yet prove a rescuer for gold. the dipping global oil prices hold hope for investors in gold. At best. procedure for enforcement actions and penalties. the bearish undertone persists among retail investors. At the moment. only helped to confound the confusion. the Code also clarifies financial consumer protection. price movement is set for an uncertain phase. economy.05 an ounce.com/civilservices/courses Economy offences as executive functions of financial agencies. prudential regulation. to $1. everyone in the international marketplace is wary of gold. public debt management agency. • At the moment.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. weak demand. functions. If there is a serious consequential fallout on U. it helped pare losses from last Monday when the price slid to its lowest since March 2009. Understandably. U. Yellow Signals from gold prices • The yellow metal dominated the world market scene all of last week. the Greek crisis and the Chinese market fall have all come together to pull oil prices down.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. • A protracted oversupply situation.072.S. powers and duties of tribunal. contracts. the oil price fall could slow the Fed’s tightening policy. Rajesh Exports buys world’s largest gold refining company • Jewellery company Rajesh Exports Ltd on Monday said that it has bought Valcambi. • The Comex gold futures for August still ended their fifth consecutive week in negative territory. pushed prices back to around $1. • Will it pull the trigger on rate hikes? Nevertheless. though it was subsequently withdrawn.088. Secretary of State John Kerry on Friday called Burundi’s election “deeply flawed” and urged President Pierre Nkurunziza to hold a “meaningful. Indeed. capital controls. • A looming rise in the U. serious” dialogue with the central African country’s opposition.S. Though the rally suggests that there could be an improvement in market sentiment. development (provisions for review). • An inadvertent release on a rate forecast on the website of the Federal Reserve. offences. show cause notices and orders.S. all eyes are now on the Federal Reserve. • India is the world’s biggest consumer of gold.

According to him. QuantArt. taking charge at a time when the regulator is deciding on crucial matters such as net neutrality and the way to deal with the fast-growing ecosystem of over-the-top (OTT) operators.com/civilservices/courses Economy demand hovering around 900 tonnes per year.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. “He is seen as most experienced for the job. who are mushrooming over the mobile and internet world.36. information & broadcasting secretary Bimal Julka. • The company said that with Valcambi acquisition. a foreign exchange advisory firm.iasexamportal.com/civilservices/magazine . who retired from the job in the second week of May. the RBI Governor’s decisions . is currently the secretary in the department of electronics and information technology(Deity). Moreover. A formal notification is expected over the next few days. Former RBI deputy governor Subir Gokarn was also in the fray. others vying for the post included former defence secretary R K Mathur.” says Samir Lodha. • • • Mixed views on move to dilute powers of RBI Governor • • The Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) Governors always had the privilege of independent decision-making on issues related to monetary policies.sometimes in coordination with the Government and sometimes not in consonance with the government’s views . • Sharma. the economy needs a good booster of rate http://www. As per the new draft of the revised proposal for Indian Financial Code (IFC). “While foreign investors are nervous about politicians preferring loose monetary policies instead of tight policies of independent RBI. sources said. which helped the Indian economy for a long time. Sharma holds a Masters Degree in Mathematics from IIT. There were over 75 applicants for the position and apart from Sharma. the central bank Governor will not have the veto power over the interest rates. the Government will have the power to appoint a majority of the members of the proposed monetary policy committee of the central bank. He replaces Rahul Khullar. Kanpur.500 crore) by refining and selling 945 tons of gold and 325 tons of silver per year. former commerce secretary Rajeev Kher and steel secretary Rakesh Singh.new Trai chairman • • Ram Sewak Sharma is set to be the new chief of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai). which is more than India’s average annual gold demand. • Rajesh Exports said for the last three years on an average per year Valcambi generated revenues in excess of $38 billion (Rs 2.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. There were a number of applicants for the high-profile job that regulates the issues related to the telecom sector and the broadcasting industry. Though the government is trying to clarify that the RBI’s independent decisions on monetary policies would not be diluted. Managing Director. in short. the Government is proposing a bill to have greater say in RBI’s rate decision-making. another school of thought on markets believes differently.The new financial code also proposes a frame-work for inflationtargeting under which the Government and the central bank together will set the target. a job that makes him thorough with matters related to the IT 48 sector and well-versed with crucial telecom issues. which would replace the multiple laws – some of them framed even before the independent India governing the Indian financial sector. • • • Centre appoints R S Sharma.had helped the Nation. a 1978-batch IAS officer of Jharkhand cadre. • Even at times of major financial crisis crippling the global • economy. However. and a Masters in Computer Science from the University of California. REL will become an integrated player covering precious metal refining and gold jewellery making. I don’t see much problem with a good balance between Government and RBI.

Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. job creation etc and also to compete in an environment of slowing global demand. non-reporting of the material change in the information and particulars furnished have also has resulted in violation of the MF Regulations. A sub-committee of Empowered Committee of State Finance Ministers on GST had earlier suggested 27 per cent RNR. Internationally. the Centre will prepare GST laws and a GST Council would be set up to decide on the rates as well as to decide on exemptions and thresholds. The Union Cabinet last night approved amendments to the GST bill to compensate states for revenue loss for five years on introduction of the uniform nationwide indirect tax regime. The GST Constitution Amendment Bill would now be taken up for discussion in the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha Select Committee has suggested that the Goods and Services Tax (GST) rate should not go beyond 20 per cent as higher rates could fuel inflation and erode the confidence of consumers.com/civilservices/magazine 49 . Sahara MF has been asked to “make efforts to transfer the activities of Sahara India Financial Corporation Limited (Sahara Sponsor) and Sahara Asset Management Company Private Limited (Sahara AMC) to a new Sponsor and a Sebiapproved Asset Management Company at the earliest. • He believes that the Government is answerable for employment and inflation and hence “I do not see much problem if there is a balance between RBI and government in monetary policy decision making. • • • • • • • • Finance Ministry today said it is working closely on a “reasonable” GST rate. • In the latest order. • Sebi also directed Sahara Mutual Fund and Sahara Asset Management Company to stop accepting subscription from its existing or new investors with immediate effect. Sebi had also cancelled the portfolio management licence of a Sahara firm. Recently. it would have to compulsorily redeem the units allotted to its investors and credit the respective funds to its investors. The Government proposes to roll out the new indirect tax regime on April 1. 10 per cent and 23 per cent. without any additional cost. respectively. After the bill is passed. Sebi said that it was the responsibility of the Board of Trustees to recognise that Sahara AMC did not fulfil the criteria of ‘fit and proper’ person and shift the responsibility of managing the assets of the Mutual Fund to another entity. FinMin working for a reasonable GST rate:Revenue Sec • A day after Cabinet approved incorporation of changes in the landmark Goods and Services Tax (GST) Bill as suggested aRajya Sabha Select panel.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • Further. • The Sahara group has been engaged in a long-running regulatory and legal battle with Sebi ever since the regulator ordered refund of a massive amount of over Rs 24. capital market regulator Sebi today cancelled the registration of Sahara Mutual Fund saying it was no longer ‘fit and proper’ to carry out this business and ordered transfer of its operations to another fund house. 2016. where the ruling NDAdoes not enjoy a majority.” Sebi cancels Sahara Mutual Fund licence • In a fresh crackdown on Sahara. where the rates are 8 per cent. Sebi directed cancellation of Sahara Mutual Fund’s certificate of registration on expiry of a sixmonth period from today. Australia and Germany. • Besides. However.” • If Sahara MF fails to complete the process of transition within five months.com/civilservices/courses Economy cut to kick-start manufacturing. within a period of 30 days thereafter and wind up the operations of the Mutual Fund. capex cycle. But the rate is being reworked by the sub-committee in view of taxation of petroleum products as also the 1 per cent http://www. infrastructure investments. there are some exceptions like Japan. the GST rate ranges from 16-20 per cent.000 crore by two Sahara entities. • Besides. for passage in the ongoing session of Parliament. as has been suggested by Rajya Sabha Select Committee.iasexamportal.

according to Thomson Reuters I/B/E/S data. They will be put into circulation shortly. compared with expectations of 33.8%. • The inscription Anthar rashtriya yoga divas in Devnagri script is on the left periphery and “international day of yoga” in English on the right periphery is written on this side of the coin. The latter improved its margins to deliver better-than-expected operating profit. eonomic affairs secretary besides the http://www.45bn euros helped by double-digit growth in so-called IP products that help telecom operators handle heavy video data traffic and direct Internet. Alcatel’s second-quarter revenue rose 5% to •3. • While liquor has been completely kept out of the GST. according to an official statement. helped by high-margin software sales and fewer lowpriced contracts. RBI plans to issue 10 rupee coin • The Reserve Bank on Thursday announced plans to put into circulation 10 rupee coins to commemorate the International Day of Yoga. with the inscription Saamanjasya evam shanthi ke liye yog “ in Devnagri script and “yoga for harmony and peace” around the logo. thanks to cost cuts.1%.com/civilservices/courses Economy additional tax which states can levy as part of the GST roll out. Analysts had been expecting second-quarter sales of •3.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Govt names Addl Secretary to RBI board in place of Fin Secy • In an unusual move.47bn and net income of •52. Brazil. additional secretary in the Department of Economic Affairs to the RBI board in place of economic affairs secretary Rajiv Mehrishi. Russia and the United States. • Nokia will buy Alcatel-Lucent for •15. Nokia surprise market analyst with profit • • • • Nokia on Thursday posted a surprise rise in second-quarter profits. • The coins have been minted by the Central government and are legal tender as provided in The Coinage Act 2011. Adjusted operating profit rose 28% to •175mn for a betterthan-expected margin of 5. the statement said.iasexamportal. • The obverse of the coin bears the Lion Capitol of Ashoka Pillar in the centre with the legend Sathyamev Jayate inscribed below. Announced in mid-April.com/civilservices/magazine .6bn in a deal set to close by mid-2016.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. which will have two-thirds of its members from states. petroleum products like petrol and diesel will be part of the new regime from a date to be decided by the GST Council.4mn. • As per the convention. • He will step aside on 50 • • September 1 to be replaced by chairman Philippe Camus until the Nokia deal closes. • Getting to free cash flow positive remains the key goal of Alcatel-Lucent in the turnaround plan launched by chief executive Michel Combes in April 2013. • The coin bears the logo of the International Day of Yoga. the finance ministry has nominated Ajay Taygi. and generated more cash than it consumed in the quarter for the first time in a second quarter since 2006. • At the bottom of the logo the date June 21 is inscribed. The gross margin was 34. Nokia’s acquisition of AlcatelLucent aims to position the company to better compete with market leader Ericsson of Sweden and low-cost Chinese powerhouse Huawei by forging a strong number two in mobile with a more complete product line. • This is flanked on the left periphery with the word Bharat in Devnagri script and on the right periphery flanked with the word “INDIA” in English. according to the statement. but are still waiting on a decision from the Chinese authorities. The companies have secured antitrust approvals in Europe Union. • The Finnish network gear maker is set to buy the FrancoAmerican telecom equipment maker Alcatel-Lucent which posted second-quarter sales slightly lower than expectations. The company posted a net loss of •54mn.1%. narrower than the •298mn loss of a year earlier.

• The hallmarking of gold. thus signalling an escalation of the war between the two companies in a cutthroat market. is a purity certification of the precious metal.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.” a finance ministry notification said. 30 per cent of jewellery is now hallmarked.com/civilservices/magazine 51 .” WGC said in a report.5 billion. • This basically implies more cash burning and chasing of market share rather than profitability by both companies. • India has approximately 220 BIS recognised assaying and hallmarking centres and maximum of them are located in Tamil Nadu (57). Uber’s $1 bn India investment • If your competitors are spending. • “In exercise of the power conferred by clause (d) of subsection (1) of Section 8 of the RBI ACT 1934. the BIS does not have dedicated laboratories for gold hallmarking so there is little capacity for testing jewellery. Even Hallmarked is not pure • Even the Hallmarked gold jewellery varies in purity in India. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). US-based rival Uber has announced plans of pumping in $1 billion (Rs 6. • Mehrishi also holds finance secretary position in the ministry.iasexamportal. the report said. There are relatively few BIS branches too. • Just days after news of taxihaling app Ola raising another $500 million made headlines. the central government hereby nominates Ajay Tyagi. Rajiv Mehrishi name is still part of the central board of directors as reflected on the website. additional secretary (Investment) Department of Economic Affairs Ministry of Finance. it added. • As per the RBI website. which is the largest gold consuming nation in the world. • Following this notification in June 22.com/civilservices/courses Economy financial services secretary is part of Central Board Directors of RBI.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. there are 17 board members including RBI Governor and four Deputy Governors. the World Gold Council (WGC) said on Thursday adding that urgent measures were required for quality control in the country. The distribution of these centres is uneven as South has 153 centres. • Even hallmarked items vary widely in purity because of weak quality control and lack of resources on the part of BIS to enforce its policies. there are concerns about the quality and credibility of some hallmarking centres. so activity varies widely across India. the North has 111 and the West has 65. RBI had a board meeting which would not have been attended by the incumbent finance secretary. it said.400 crore) into India. but challenges still remain. is the administrative authority of hallmarking. it said. • Though under-caratage in gold has reduced to 10-15 per cent from 40 per cent since the introduction of BIS hallmarking in 2000. followed by Kerala (39). Will these http://www. • According to the WGC report. • “Even though. to be director on the Central Board of Directors of RBI with immediate effect until further order vice Rajiv Mehrishi. • While Ola is rumored to soon be valued at $4. you must spend tooThis seems to be the driving mantra in the start-up space these days. • The improvements to the hallmarking system in the country are not only essential to a successful gold monetisation scheme but also help to boost its gold jewellery exports from the existing $8 billion to $40 billion in the next five years. which is voluntary in nature at present. This means the percentage of jewellery hallmarked accurately is expected to be even lower than 30 per cent. Uber’s worth is $40 billion. under the Consumer Affairs Ministry. But such cash-intensive startups are at risk of flopping as they maybe unable to survive in an adverse environment.

for a period of three years. Do not fall into the trap. • According to the global financial services major. Together. which expects the merger of commodities market regulator FMC with it to be completed by next month. Ola too pays extra cash to drivers for doing more rides.0% of GDP while for the current financial year. • Talking to PTI after his election. “India’s current account deficit is likely to widen http://www. He will head the three-member Executive Committee (EC).” • Life Insurance Council is a forum that connects the various stakeholders of the sector. It develops and coordinates all discussions between the Government. on condition of anonymity told Firstpost that each Uber driver in India gets an additional Rs 150 per ride as well as more incentive for ferrying passengers during the day and in the evening. • Sebi. LIC chief Roy elected chairman of apex body of insurers Sandeep Ghosh (Bharti AXA).com/civilservices/courses Economy companies ever make enough money to justify the sky-high valuations? • But it appears Uber’s massive expansion in over 300 cities globally is at the cost of heavy losses. • The three members of the EC elected today were Tarun Chugh (PNB Met Life). all the exchanges clocked a turnover of nearly Rs 60 lakh crore in 2014-15. which is “risky” and requires a lot of technical expertise.iasexamportal. • Announced by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley in his Budget for 2015-16. The Council is now ready to take a call on behalf of its various stakeholders.com/civilservices/magazine . Anup Rau (Reliance Life) and 52 • Ready to regulate commodity trading. including for trading lot sizes. Rau of Reliance Life said “EC is now a well represented body. there are three national and six regional bourses for commodity futures in the country. • Besides. it is likely to remain under control. you can make a lot of money. Arijit Basu (SBI Life) and Deepak Mittal (Edelweiss Tokio). • It has representatives from the 24 insurance companies currently operating in India. Sebi warns to Investors • Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) chief S K Roy was today elected Chairman of the Life Insurance Council. the high-profile NSEL scam has rocked this market in the recent past and the subsequent regulatory and government interventions in this case eventually led to the government announcing FMC’s merger with Sebi. It has got representation from both bancassurance and nonbancassurance partners.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Sebi has cautioned small investors against coming for quick gains through speculation in this market. the full-year CAD is likely to remain within control. from over Rs 101 lakh crore in the previous fiscal. and Uber is burning this cash to buy market share all over the world. but doesn’t pay drivers to keep its app open and nor do they get paid additional money on every ride they undertake.” Sebi Chairman U K Sinha said. • At present.8-2. though the widening of CAD is likely to raise concerns “briefly” over wider trade imbalances. India’s should worried about CAD • India’s current account deficit (CAD) is likely to widen in the June quarter to 1. • “People will come and tell you that with a small margin. the apex industry body of insurers in the country. a key body of the Council. regulatory body and the public. says a DBS report.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. even as he asserted that the capital markets watchdog was fully prepared to begin regulating commodities trading and all necessary safeguards would be put in place to keep the scamsters and manipulators at bay. • Roy was elected in a poll conducted among the 24 members of the Council here. Investors have given a lot of money to Uber. will soon put in place a new set of regulations for this segment and the restrictions. would also be implemented to ensure safety of the small investors. • Other contestants in the fray for EC posts were Rajesh Sud (Max NY). An Uber driver. FMC’s merger with Sebi will help streamline regulations and curb wild speculations in commodities market. while facilitating participation of domestic and foreign institutional investors and launch of new products.

• In northeast China’s Heilongjiang Province.5 billion) in 2014-15 from 1. The summer grain output reached a record high of 141. even though the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is putting a friendly regime for the start-ups to raise finance from the bourses. nearly 30 per cent of China’s rural population were online. In 2014.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • Such innovation is a new trend in Chinese farming. and 70.6 per cent on a yearon-year basis in June 2015. Its internet conglomerate.8% in the June quarter while exports fell 5%. as http://www.iasexamportal. which is the difference between the inflow and outflow of foreign exchange shrank to 1. a shrinking labour population and lack of access to loans have been squeezing farmers’ earnings and dragging down the rural economy.17 million rural Chinese earned an annual sum less than USD 385. Farming in China has been booming for over three decades.7% ($32. musicentertainment. • For Zhang Guoqin.07 million tonnes in 2015 after 11 consecutive years of increases. a welcome change of direction for a rural • • economy that has long been seeking modernisation. an Assocham study on start-ups has pointed out. the official poverty line. China’s largest online shopping platform. • According to the study.720 less than half of that of urbanites. Taobao. the per capita disposable income of rural residents rose 9. the report said.com/civilservices/magazine 53 . India to produce at least dozen billionaires among start-ups by 2020. the CAD. NBFCs prefer raising funds through debt route • Credit off take by non-banking finance companies from the banking system registered a rise of only 1. E-commerce boosting Chinese farmers incomes • • • • • • • Internet aided by e-commerce is boosting income ofChinese farmers and helping in turning the backwardagricultural sector into a lucrative modern industry.3% of GDP ($27.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. agriculture was on the top of the list. has launched an agricultural channel.2 per cent year on year to USD 1. By the end of 2014. • The Reserve Bank of India and the government have been maintaining that the CAD level is comfortable. says Assocham • India is expected to produce at least a score of billionaires and many times millionaires among the start-ups in the next five years with e-commerce. he monitors his rice fields on computer screens.000 new service centres in Chinese villages in the next three to five years to help train farmers in internet use. but will not emerge as a flashpoint for the full-year FY15/16 (April 2015 to March 2016). Alibaba. • As per official figures. • The untapped areas for online business include e-coaching. Along with manufacturing. also ambitiously plans to invest 10 billion yuan (USD 1 billion) into 100. inefficient sales channels.4 billion) in 2013-14. • The DBS report said that on quarter-on-quarter basis imports rose 2. financial services and other technology driven fields generating the maximum interest. medical consultations (with fool-proof safety features) and social networking in the cities.com/civilservices/courses Economy anew in the June 2015 quarter. it would take some time before funds are raised through this channel. • It said the maximum of value creation is expected in the fledgling e-commerce. • The travel arena. the initiative is going to be led by the State sector. Though harvests were good. payment gateways and city transport aggregators such as radio taxis. while in the rural landscape. • He uses a system of sensors and automatisation which takes a lot of the toil and inefficiency out of his business.” DBS said in a research note. growing crops sometimes simply needs a few clicks of the mouse.com. especially in the ticketing and booking has already gained some level of maturity.

a person or entity would be allowed to deposit a minimum quantity of 30 grams of gold in any form.6 per cent in the previous month. 3. the bank will open a ‘Gold Savings Account’ for the customer. but the preference has to be stated at the time of deposit. for one year in a gold saving account.000 tonnes of the metal each year. of course. then. 3. • India is one of the largest consumers of gold in the world and imports as much as 8001.5 per cent in June 2015 as compared to 15. a modest rise in personal loans by 16. Commerce Ministry Moves Cabinet Note on Interest Subvention Scheme • To give a fillip to exports. The outstanding credit as on June 26. Analysts say NBFCs prefer to raise money through debt route rather than relying on banks as the cost of raising funds through debt route is cheaper.2 per cent a year ago. Sequentially also.11. • Last week. stood at Rs.7 per cent in the same period in the previous year. Commerce Minister Nirmala Sitharaman had told Parliament that the interest http://www. according to a statement from the Reserve Bank of India. Customer will have the choice to take cash or gold on redemption. the interest earned on it will likely be exempt from income tax. on maturity he has a credit of 101 gm.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. The banks will decide the interest rate. Non-food credit growth of scheduled commercial banks registered a year-on-year growth of 7. To make the scheme attractive to households. There was. against 13 per cent in June 2014. When the customer produces the certificate of gold deposited at the Purity Testing Centre. will be ‘valued’ in gold. bullion or jewellery. • The stock of gold in India that is neither traded nor monetised is estimated to be over 20. They will be given a certificate by the collection centre certifying the amount and purity of the deposited gold. Under the proposed scheme. Finance ministry moves cabinet note on gold monetisation scheme • • • • • • • • The finance ministry has moved a cabinet note on the proposed gold monetisation scheme that will enable depositors to earn interest on their on their gold accounts. the Commerce Ministry has moved a Cabinet note on a proposal to provide cheaper credit access to exporters from various sectors under the interest subvention scheme. both principal and interest to be paid to the depositors of gold. the growth was less compared to 5. wealth tax and capital gains tax. exporters are provided credit at subsidised rates by banks which are later compensated by the government. • Loans at subsidised rates will help exporters boost shipments as the country’s exports stayed in the negative zone in the past seven months. Before depositing gold into a metal account. customers will have to get its purity checked from the testing and collection centres certified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). • The scheme aims at reducing dependence on import of gold to meet the domestic demand and provide a fillip to the gems and jewellery sector in the country by making gold available as raw material on loan from the banks. Under the scheme.com/civilservices/courses Economy • • • • compared to a rise of as much as 16.000 tonnes. 2014.06.7 per cent in June 2015. • Under the interest subvention scheme. Banks and other dealers would also be able to benefit from the scheme. The proposed scheme also seeks to benefit jewellers who can obtain loans in their metal account. was announced in the 54 • • Budget this year by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley. 2015.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. For example if a customer deposits 100 gm of gold and gets 1 percent interest.com/civilservices/magazine .iasexamportal. which is proposed to be initially introduced only in selected cities. • The gold monetisation scheme.900 crore as on June 27.800 crore against Rs.

India exported 2.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • Data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) shows that most of India’s buffalo meat exports go to Asian countries — Asia receives more than 80 per cent. including the United Nations Food and Agricultural Outlook. Vietnam is the largest recipient. sharing may be permitted where both entities possess spectrum for which market price has been paid. however. 2014. at 45 per cent. down -44. India for the first time earned more from the export of buffalo meat than it did from Basmati rice.3 billion cubic metres (BCM) in 2017-18.86 BCM to be produced in http://www.5 per cent of aggregate gross revenue. India’s exports fell 15. however. the improvement over this year is to be minimal. Chicken consumption. and fetching India as much as $4. sharing of spectrum shall be permitted only if differential of latest auction price and March 2013 auction price on prorata basis on the balance period of right to use the spectrum is paid. It must be noted. up from the 33.S. Brazil. The shortfall of natural gas in the country is set to widen over the next couple of years and then stabilise by 2017-18. government classifies even buffalo meat as beef. according to data presented by the Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas Dharmendra Pradhan to Parliament during the ongoing session • According to the Minister.82 per cent in June to $22. in respect of spectrum in 800 MHz (CDMA) acquired in the auction held in March 2013. However.7 per cent of all the beef exports in the world. which is expected to lead to greater consolidation in the sector. that the U. India on top in exporting beef • India retains its top spot as the world’s largest exporter of beef. and has extended its lead over the next highest exporter.com/civilservices/magazine 55 . with the Ministry projecting only 33. Spectrum usage charge (SUC) will be levied on the entire spectrum holding in a particular band and all access spectrum.8 billion in 2014. show that meat consumption in India is increasing. including traded spectrum. compared to 2 million tonnes by Brazil and 1. This fall in consumption has been taking place regardless of the political party in power. • The previous interest subvention scheme was available up to March 31.4 million tonnes of beef and veal in FY2015. India itself accounts for 23. Department of Agriculture. These three countries account for 58. • Telcos will now be able to share their unused spectrum thereby enhancing network quality and reducing operational costs. the data also shows that beef consumption has been falling over the years. • Several databases. according to data released by the U. • For the seventh month in a row.com/civilservices/courses Economy subvention scheme for various sectors was under consideration of the government. SUC rate of each of the licensees post-sharing shall increase by 0. Last year.iasexamportal. was up 31 per cent in that period. • According to the data. • There was no decision on spectrum trading norms.28 billion. This is up from a 20.8 per cent share last year.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.5 per cent in 2014 from the level it was in 2000. Within Asia. while Africa takes around 15 per cent.S. According to the release. However. will be sharable.5 per cent of global beef exports. • Spectrum sharing would be allowed only where both the licensees have spectrum in the same band and leasing of spectrum will not be permitted. • • • Cabinet cleared spectrum sharing by telcos • • The Cabinet cleared a proposal on Wednesday that had suggested allowing telcos to share spectrum in the same band in order to reduce call drops.5 million by Australia. • India’s buffalo meat exports have been growing at an average of nearly 14 per cent each year since 2011. Besides. India’s natural gas production would touch 46. • However. the statement added.6 BCM achieved in 2014-15.

medical devices and cosmetics and making mobile drug testing laboratories available amongst others. they said. • On a point to point basis. • The three main sources of income are the coupon payments it gets on its holding of government securities. economists said. • India is one of the largest manufacturers of drugs and exports pharmaceutical products to over 200 countries and economies. • Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad became the first in the country to receive approval to implement end-to-end e-boarding for domestic passengers in what will make air travel easier and paperless. nationalized banks & financial institutions’.com/civilservices/courses Economy 2015-16. and 22% more than it paid last year.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. although the shortfall would still remain significant for some time to come. Budget papers showed. • The central government’s move is also seen as another proof of its active support to the government’s initiatives to kick start the slowing economy. • This year’s dividend payment by RBI is also more than the Rs 64.5 per cent by 2017-18 over the levels achieved in 2014-15. http://www. RBI’s dividend payment to the government is up more than four times in as many years. the highest ever from the central bank in its 80year history. provide liquidity to the system so that the rate of interest remains low and also make available funds for the government’s capital expenditure. the central bank transfer a substantial amount to the central government exchequer.com/civilservices/magazine . • The demand data. presented in a separate answer. help meet its fiscal deficit targets. setting up of new laboratories for testing drugs. • The CCEA chaired by Prime MinisterNarendra Modi 56 approved the proposal for strengthening the drug regulatory system at a total cost of Rs 1750 crore which will be spread over a period of three years. RBI paid Rs 66. Supply Data • The supply data shows that natural gas production in the country was to grow 37.500 crore that the finance • Minister had budgeted under ‘Dividend/Surplus of RBI. • The data presented in Parliament shows that the supply of natural gas in India was projected to grow far faster than demand.iasexamportal. the RBI has several sources of income. • The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security. the interest it receives from banks which borrow money from it (repo operations) and also interest incomes on its holdings of sovereign bonds like US treasury bills etc. economists and bond dealers said. • The upgradation and strengthening of the system will also include setting up of new laboratories and training academy for regulatory and drug testing officials. a 0. the central exchequer’s receipts under this head is sure to exceed the Budget estimates by a substantial margin. • Every year. CCEA approves proposal to tighten drug regulatory system • To facilitate domestic manufacture of quality medical products. after meeting its expenses and keeping aside part of its total profits. • The upgradation will include provision of additional equipment and manpower in existing drug testing laboratories.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Since the nationalized banks are in the process of paying dividend to the government.6 per cent improvement over the previous year. gave its approval after assessing a pilot project conducted at the airport during April-June. an agency of the ministry of civil aviation. shows a growth of a much slower 22 per cent in that period. • This payment can help ease the government’s finances.000 crore to the government. • As banker to the central and state governments and the banks in the country.000 crore in dividend • The Reserve Bank of India on Thursday paid a dividend of nearly Rs 66. the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has approved a proposal for strengthening and upgrading the drug regulatory system both at the Central and state level.

which will technically make the airport “absolutely power neutral”. the operator of Hyderabad’s airport. • Under the law the government can appoint two part-time members on the Sebi board with the second slot lying vacant currently.000 fliers travelling via Hyderabad airport availed the e-boarding facility during the pilot. • When the photovoltaics (PV) panels laid across 45 acres near cargo complex become functional. The Atal Bihari Vajpayee government had appointed him a member of the JNPT board.000 units of electricity per day to be consumed for all its operational functions. Coachin airport to be first airport operating on solar power • Cochin International airport limited (CIAL) is all set to become the first airport in the country which would be operating on solar power. Airport Managing Director V J Kurien told reporters here. a senior advocate dealing in tax matters and a former BJP national executive member.com/civilservices/magazine 57 . • Passengers can check-in online and use the QR code received on their registered mobile phones to access common use self service (CUSS) machine at the departure area of the airport. successfully implemented a three-month e-boarding project in collaboration with Jet Airways. http://www. has ventured into the Solar PV sector during March 2013.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.000 to 60. • It would come at no additional cost. • About 7.iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses Economy • GMR Hyderabad International Airport Ltd. • The lawyer. • Kerala Chief Minister Oommen Chandy will inaugurate CIAL’s green initiative—a 12MWp solar power project set up on the premises of the airport on August 18. Delhi and Bengaluru airports are also implementing pilot projects using scanners and e-gates. • Implementation of full scale eboarding will be initiated “soon” for domestic passengers. who is Lok Sabha speaker Sumitra Mahajan’s brother. raising fresh concerns over political interference on the boards of regulatory and financial institutions. like being the pioneer in PPP model in building an airport to introducing a path-breaking rehabilitation package for evictees. • A passenger needs a mobile eboarding card and an Aadhaar number to complete the eboarding process. Cochin airport will have 50. Ex-BJP official named to Sebi board • The government has appointed Arun P Sathe. They validate their credentials by keying in their Aadhaar number and doing a fingerprint scan. had contested against Sunil Dutt from the MumbaiNorth constituency in the 1989 general elections and was the party in-charge for Madhya Pradesh and Assam. CIAL official said today. as a part-time member on the board of the Securities and Exchange Board of India. GHIAL said in a statement. by installing a 100 kWp solar PV Plant on the roof top of the Arrival Terminal Block. • Sathe’s appointment was made late last month although he’s yet to attend a Sebi board meeting. • Mumbai. • CIAL. which has adorned many firsts in its cap.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.

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com/civilservices/courses Science & Technology SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Genes help fish cope with warming oceans • In a first. noted co-author Dr Jonathan Levine from the Department of Physics and Astronomy. bone fossils from at least nine people have been discovered at the Lingjing historical site. the genetic mystery of why some fish are able to adjust to warming oceans has been unlocked. and two almost complete human skulls were dated back 100. dating the Martian meteorite Zagami.000 years old in China • Archaeologists announced that they have discovered two human bones about 100. • A team led by Dr F Scott Anderson from Southwest Research Institute.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • There are several bite marks on the fossils. including old and young. • Researchers examined how the fish’s genes responded after several generations living at higher temperatures predicted under climate change. US. • Higher levels of certain stress and immune genes help fish cope with warming temperature in water over the years. • The project involved rearing coral reef fish at different temperatures for more than four years. but a technique called laser ablation resonance ionisation mass spectrometry can avoid the need for sophisticated sample preparation. Colgate University. • The findings appeared in the journal Nature Climate Change.the Duluth Gabbro . Colorado. has now demonstrated that this technique can successfully date an Earth rock .000 years old in Central China’s Henan province. • Their results imply that events from Solar System history that are recorded on much of the visible face of the Moon can one day be dated directly by instruments aboard a lunar lander. • Using cutting-edge molecular methods the research team identified 53 key genes that are involved in long-term. • Li said the two fossils were discovered not far from each other.iasexamportal. • Fossils from “Xuchang Man” were unearthed at the site. • So far. Boulder. New York. • Dating the Duluth Gabbro was approximately 30 times more analytically challenging than our previous experiment. Li said. http://www. said Li Zhanyang. Hamilton. maybe even the same person. • Many of the techniques used to date rocks on Earth are not practical in spaceflight. and then testing their metabolic performance New Technique Can Reveal Age of Moon Rocks • Researchers are developing instruments and methods for measuring the age of rocks 58 encountered during space missions to the Moon and planets. making it the largest site of discovered human fossils since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. multigenerational acclimation to higher temperatures. who led the excavation. • The limb bones were unearthed in May at the Lingjing historical site in Xuchang. a researcher at the Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology. Archaeologists discovered two human bones about 100. the findings showed.that is analogous to the rocks that cover one-third of the lunar nearside.000 years.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/magazine . Both belong to a young person.

lays out a detailed roadmap for when and how to take the next step for a landing. • In addition to the bone fossils.a process called methylation which regulates how the genes are switched on or off.000 fossilized animals and stone implements have been found at the site. which http://www.com/civilservices/courses Science & Technology • The Xuchang Man fossil consisted of 16 pieces of skull with protruding eyebrows and a small forehead. • The researchers found that clock genes had increased numbers of such DNA marks after sleep loss. • A robotic return to the moon could happen as soon as 2017. members of the commercial spaceflight community and four former NASA astronauts. far less than the cost by the Apolloera Saturn V ($46. • This involves chemical alterations to the DNA molecule such as methyl groups . The study said the space agency can do it all within the existing budget for human spaceflights. By using commercial partners. so that scientists could track the nerves of the Paleolithic ancestor. the Space Launch System (SLS). The way for NASA to do this is to adopt the same method that it is using for resupplying the International Space Station .000 per kilogram) or even the space shuttle ($60. said that previous research had shown that our metabolism was negatively affected by sleep loss. Robotic construction of a permanent base would begin in 2021 in anticipation of landing humans on the moon later that year. SpaceX claims the Falcon Heavy will be as cheap or cheaper per kilogram than the Falcon 9.a public-private partnership with companies like SpaceX. he added. Rovers would scout the lunar poles for hydrogen in • • • • 2018 and prospecting could begin by 2019 or 2020. • Jonathan Cedernaes. The study outlines a plan to again take human missions to the moon. • • Humans can be able to live on moon in next decade: NASA • • According to a NASA-funded study. SpaceX currently charges NASA about $4. as an example in its plans to get to the moon. Sleepless night can cost your body • Scientists have shown that not sleeping for a night can alter the genes that control the biological clocks in cells throughout our body.750 for every kilogram of supplies sent to orbit aboard its Falcon 9 rocket. • The announcement was made on July 20 — the 46th anniversary of the Apollo 11 crew’s first steps on the lunar surface — The Verge (an American news and technology media network) reported. • They also found that the expression of the genes. media reported.000 per kilogram). study. it said.iasexamportal. NASA is already planning to go back to the moon with its next generation rocket.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. undertaken by NexGen Space LLC. the Falcon Heavy. While the study does use SpaceX’s next generation rocket. their current results indicate that changes of clock genes may be linked to such negative effects caused by sleep loss. the study said.com/civilservices/magazine 59 . reducing the cost of the programme while still developing the technologies necessary to support it. Orbital ATK or the United Launch Alliance. but there are no plans to land. • The. and sleep loss has been linked to an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. lead author on the study and a researcher at Uppsala University. more than 1. if NASA were to adopt the plan right away. • Molecular analyses of the collected tissue samples showed that the regulation and activity of clock genes was altered after one night of sleep loss. humans may be able to live on the moon in a little more than a decade from now. • Since ablation of clock genes in animals can cause the disease states. The study was vetted by a 21person independent review team made up of former members of NASA’s administration. NASA could reduce the number of planned SLS launches from 12 to around three.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. The activity of genes is regulated by a mechanism called epigenetics. More astonishing than the completeness of the skull was that it still had a fossilized membrane on the inner side.

com/civilservices/courses Science & Technology is indicative of how much of the genes’ product is made. but also in the important tissues.” Jenkins said.” said Kepler scientist Jeff Coughlin. and that it could occur for these metabolically important clock genes. The planet also could have a thick atmosphere.”Jenkins said. but older. CNG-run vehicles emit dangerous nanocarbon. • It was interesting that the methylation of these genes could be altered so quickly.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. US scientists said on Thursday. he continued.iasexamportal.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. New findings about Stem cell transplantation • A group of medical researchers have recently claimed that using stem celltransplantation to treat patients with a serious but a very rare form of chronicblood cancer Juvenile MyelomonocyticLeukemia (JMML) has shown improved results. with the SETI Institute in Mountain View. NASA mission’s discovery makes Kepler-452b 12th possible Earth twin • A planet believed to be remarkably similar to Earth has been discovered orbiting a distant sun-like star. “That’s considerable time and opportunity for life to arise somewhere on its surface or in its oceans should all the necessary ingredients and conditions for life exist on this planet. If so. not direct evidence. Based on its size. cloudy skies and active volcanoes. like the Earth. Kepler-452b could be about five times as massive as Earth and have gravity that is twice as strong as what exists on Earth’s surface. led by Dr Hisham Abdel-Azim. this planet has a somewhat better than even chance of being rocky. dubbed Kepler452b. The list of potential planets includes 11 other near-Earth twins. • Researchers at the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA). compared to the 4. “ With a radius 60% larger than the Earth.700 candidate planets.030 confirmed planets and identified about 4. • Abdel-Azim said that the lack of transplant-related mortality in the group of children we studied at the Children’s Centre for Cancer and Blood Diseases at the hospital suggested that BUMEL (Intravenous Busulfan and Melphalan) may represent a successful cell transplantation high-dose chemotherapy regimen.” he said. Kepler-452b is positioned about as far from its parent star as Earth is from the sun. scientists believe Kepler-452b should be rocky. At that distance.400 light years away in the constellation Cygnus. looked at the children with Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) who underwent cell transplantation at the hospital and noticed that all of them were alive and in clinical remission. “It’s simply aweinspiring to consider that this planet has spent 6 billion years 60 • • • • • in the habitable zone of its star.6 billion year age of thesun. orbits a star that is about 6 billion years old. completing an orbit in 385 days. It was discovered by astronomers using NASA’s Kepler space telescope and circles a star that is similar in size and temperature to the sun. surface temperatures would be suitable for liquid water. California. • Cedernaes claimed that their research was the first to directly show that epigenetic changes could occur after sleep loss in humans. NASA launched the Kepler telescope in 2009 to survey a sampling of nearby stars in an attempt to learn if planets like Earth were common in the galaxy. which is about 60% percent bigger than Earth. can cause cancer: CSIR study • The compressed natural gas (CNG)-run buses are harmful for humans as they emit “nanocarbon” particles which can cause cancer. Jenkins said. • The planet. nine of which circle sun-like stars. “This is great progress in finding a planet like Earth that is similar in size and temperature around a sun-like star. • With the discovery of Kepler452b. was altered. according to http://www. bolstering hopes of finding life elsewhere in the universe. a condition believed to be critical for life. compared to Earth’s 365-day orbit. is located 1. though that theory is based on statistical analysis and computer modeling.com/civilservices/magazine . • The planet. the telescope has found 1.

parliament was told on Thursday. It was Christmas of 1990. which will be hosted by right-leaning http://www. Lee returned to the CERN as a permanent employee and decided to take a look at the problem faced by CERN – information management. in 1991. which supports the fact that many type of instances similar to natural calamities are occurring in the Himalayan region due to global warming. • On the eve of the Republican debate. for monitoring and prediction of extreme weather events over the Himalayan region. and collaborate over very critical data. CSIR took the findings seriously owing to the health hazard it poses to humans and alerted the central government for further follow up.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Forests and Climate Change Minister Prakash Javadekar told the Rajya Sabha in a written reply. • The main debate. Four years later in 1984. http and HTML. • On December 20. The world’s first website • There is a fine line between the Internet and World Wide Web. • “There is no study reported so far.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • They didn’t have common systems.” Environment. Donald trumps rivals in presidential debate line-up • Property mogul Donald Trump. • “However. Guwahati and Agartala for forecast of natural calamities like very heavy rainfall. Today. and Lee had defined most of the common terminologies as we know them today. 1990. the world’s first website went live at CERN. a wildcard entrant into the race for the presidential nomination for 2016.iasexamportal. the World Wide Web was born! And to understand it more closely. The World Wide Web turns 24 • Though the study was conducted on a very limited sample size in Delhi. • Despite the challenges. Tim Berners-Lee submitted a proposal for a distributed information system at CERN. including URL. • That was 1980. • It was a means to exchange information across computers spread geographically. has seen a surge in popularity at the polls and this has given him the pole position in Thursday night’s Republican Party primary debate in Cleveland. Dehradun. 1989. • There was a need to share files.com/civilservices/courses Science & Technology a study conducted by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Department has established state meteorological sentres at Srinagar. we need to take a closer look at the origin of a project at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). Computing was nascent and evolving. India Meteorological The genesis of the Internet • On March 12. No Study Supports Global Warming Affecting Himalayas • No study has so far supported the theory that global warming was causing natural calamities in the Himalayan region. a contractor at CERN named Tim Berners-Lee saw opportunity. The solution was supposed to be text.com/civilservices/magazine 61 . • In the 1980s. Gangtok. Ohio. And he was just a contract employee. Shimla. But there was a problem. or presentation software. CNN news channel announced that it would host the first Democratic presidential debate in Nevada on October 13. He created the following concept. CERN was undertaking research that involved scientists and researchers distributed across geographies. and was aimed to solved the vital problem that needed to be solved at CERN.

Kentucky Senator Rand Paul. South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham. Mr. New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and Ohio Governor John Kasich. saw the prime slot given to the top 10 Republican candidates as ranked by five polls including Bloomberg. former New York Governor George Pataki.iasexamportal. Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker.m. will literally be positioned front and 62 centre for the evening’s main event. Monmouth University and Quinnipiac University. Jindal and Mr. those who did not make the cut and had to be satisfied with the “undercard debate” at 5 p. The competitors • He will be flanked by former Florida Governor Jeb Bush. Bush. likely organised to accommodate the raft of eclectic candidates who have thus far entered the race. among other things. http://www. possibly based on user inputs.com/civilservices/courses Science & Technology television channel Fox News and will begin at 9 p.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.m.” • In addition to Mr. • As the co-host of the debate. (EDT) were former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum. • Similar to previous years’ debates. • A lower-tier debate. Trump the “default king the other Republicans will have to uncrown. sole woman candidate and former Hewlett Packard head Carly Fiorina. neurosurgeon Ben Carson. Fox News. Facebook will be given the opportunity to introduce a question at 15-minute intervals. his strong views on immigration control and his offthe-cuff remarks on the Hispanic community. and former Virginia Governor Jim Gilmore. making Mr. Trump. who topped the polls and is seen by some as a controversial candidate for. former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee. will include Indian-American Governor of Louisiana Bobby Jindal and former Texas Governor Rick Perry. • In the polls. Mr. Florida Senator Marco Rubio. Texas Senator Ted Cruz.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. CBS News.com/civilservices/magazine . Trump’s closest competitor was Mr. the candidates will be given one minute to answer questions posed to them. Perry. following which the moderators will select other candidates for 30 seconds for rebuttals. (EDT). who trailed him by more than 10 points.

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and then Johnson’s double-wicket maiden immediately after tea cast aside any remaining doubts. were all out for a hapless 103 in 37 overs by late Sunday afternoon. • Shubham blitzed the golf course over the course of three days of the tournament with as many as thirteen birdies during his three rounds. • The hosts. • Both streaks came to a screeching halt at the end of 40 overs on Sunday as Zimbabwe celebrated a famous win. • It started off with the pace bowlers bowling too short and then too wide. • England’s costly habit of losing their top order cheaply was revisited. • This was sangram singh’s first professional fight after a hiatus of three years and he signed a death contract for this fight • His three-day total of sevenunder par 179 was better than rest of the field to become the Junior World Champion in his age category. a 10-year-old son of a milkman from rural http://www. The Zimbabwe batsmen were ready to take on the short stuff but bowlers refused to adjust.com/civilservices/magazine 63 .com/civilservices/courses Sports SPORTS Carelessness cost India the second T20 against Zimbabwe • Zimbabwe had never won a T20 International at Harare before 19 July. while taking four wickets. which proved to be the difference as he was in the joint lead at the end of round 2.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Haryana boy wins Junior World Golf title at age 10 • Shubham Jaglan. • Shubham. set a notional 509 to win after Australia declared on 254 for two shortly before lunch in this second Investec Test. They had lost nine out of nine. • It took some brilliant death bowling from Bhuvneshwar Kumar to restrict Zimbabwe to 145 for 7 as India conceded just 33 runs from the last five overs.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. while India hadn’t. • It was poor running. who had missed out last year with a runner-up finish but through sheer determination. They had learned from their mistakes. Amit Luthra. • Shubham was taken under the wings of the Golf Foundation pioneered by Arjuna Awardee and Asian Games gold medallist. Haryana. Australia level Ashes series 1-1 at Lord’s0 • England descended to an embarrassing 405-run defeat inside four days at Lord’s as Mitchell Johnson hastened their collapse and Australia levelled the Ashes at 1-1. scripted a scintillating one-stroke win at the Junior World Golf Championships at the Welk Resort Fountain Course in San Diego on Friday. Sangram Singh wins WWP Commonwealth Championship • Indian wrestler Sangram Singh made the country proud by defeating Canada’s Joe Legend to win the WWP Commonwealth Championship at Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium in South Africa. irresponsible batting and undisciplined bowling that undid India. Nearly 43 percent of the balls India bowled were short of a good length. They had also never beaten India in a T20I.iasexamportal. he made sure he got the top billing this year. • Five of them came during Friday’s final round. • The foundation saw the potential and have given him their unconditional support to make the game accessible to him and he is repaying their faith with his outstanding results.

rightly. • Several reports on Monday suggested the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has scrapped the traditional tournament for good from the upcoming 2015-16 domestic season. released on Monday. • The 16-nation men’s tournament will be played alongside the women’s event across various venues in India from March 11 to April 3.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Chennai. Mohali. which has been staged across three cities in each of its previous five editions. • “India will play 12 Test matches at home in the next season (2016-17) between OctoberMarch. • Bangalore. In one instance.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. he also asked Zlatan Ibrahimovic to position himself in a particular area — and the striker scored.” the board said in a release on Tuesday.ckey India Eden garden will host World Twenty20 final • The iconic Eden Gardens in Kolkata will host the World 64 Twenty20 final in April next year. • Not once or twice. has lost his job.” • The BCCI on Monday revealed its plans to conduct 900 matches in six months during its 2015-16 domestic season.com/civilservices/magazine . asked Batra to leave the field — team talks were his department — and while the HI chief left the pitch. but for a whole week. The 2015-16 domestic fixtures list. • The BCCI named eight venues for the biennial event. he made sure Van Ass knew that his behaviour was not acceptable. • “BCCI wishes to clarify that this is incorrect and reiterate that the Duleep Trophy remains an integral part of the domestic calendar.iasexamportal. the Indian board said on Tuesday as it announced the venues for the tournament. did not have a place for the Duleep Trophy. • The final schedule will be announced in consultation with the International Cricket Council (ICC). Duleep trophy will be the curtain-raiser for the forthcoming domestic season and provide a platform for the players to stake a claim. hockey. Mumbai. the board said in a statement. Dharamsala. All this was a complete disrespect of the manager’s authority. Van Ass. which will start from October this year and end in March 2016. • India co-hosted the 50-over World Cup in 2011 with Sri Lanka and Bangladesh and went on to win the tournament. Van Gaal was technical director of Ajax then. • The BCCI decided not to hold the Duleep Trophy in the 201516 season in order to accommodate the 2016 World Twenty20 championship. • Koeman may have won that battle with Van Gaal [he used the media to force the latter out] — but another Dutch coach — in another sport. • BCCI president Jagmohan Dalmiya will head a managing committee for the 16-team tournament featuring 10-Test playing nations and six associate teams. Nagpur and New Delhi will be the other venues for the competition. • Paul Van Ass claimed today that he was sacked by Hockey India (SAI and Batra have claimed otherwise — so this is still a subject of some debate). and that the tournament remains an “integral part of the domestic calendar” and will be the curtain-raiser of the 2016-17 domestic season. http://www.com/civilservices/courses Sports Indian hockey coach sacked • Current Manchester United manager Louis van Gaal would sit on a chair when Ajax manager Ronald Koeman would put his team through the paces. Duleep Trophy vanish from BCCI calendar • The Indian cricket board on Tuesday clarified that the prestigious Duleep Trophy has been shelved. This is after Hockey India chief Narinder Batra gave a postmatch team talk to the side after the 3-2 win over Malaysia in the Hockey World League semifinals in Belgium. The last event was won by Sri Lanka in Bangladesh in 2014. • The 2016 event will be the sixth edition of the popular tournament that began in 2007.

obligation or any interest of whatsoever nature. food. To his credit. function of the association or any decision making process or related to any tournament or otherwise. • Last Sunday. • Dhyan Chand was one of the nominees in 2014 for the prestigious Bharat Ratna. directly or indirectly which may in any way affect or provide any financial or any other benefit to me. • On behalf of Dhyan Chand.com/civilservices/courses Sports which will be played in India after the completion of the domestic season in March 2016 winning the IJGA World Stars of Junior Golf event in Las Vegas on Thursday. bias. • Often. kits. who work in an honorary capacity. clothing.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. I shall forthwith disclose the same and refrain myself from being associated with the same in any manner whatsoever or by whatever name described. “In the event of any act. instructing them to to sign a declaration stating they have no conflicts of interest. BCCI takes interest in conflicts of interest • Call it the Justice Lodha Committeeeffect. inclination.iasexamportal. when India won the gold medal in Berlin Olympics. the payout is about Rs 35 crore. According to sources. • Dhyan Chand had helped India win three successive gold medals in Olympics. etc to companies owned by them or to people known to them. refreshments. Board secretary Anurag Thakur has shot off a letter to state associations.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. There have been allegations that some officials. Jaglan had clinched a one-stroke win at the Junior World Golf Championships at the Welk Resort Fountain Course in California.com/civilservices/magazine 65 . Finally.” • The declaration also states that. independence. any conflict of interest do arise. an award which cricketer Sachin Tendulkar and scientist C N Rao eventually received. impartiality and neutrality in any decision making process. • Thakur wants associations to ensure that every official declare the absence of “any personal or family allegiance..” • Every state association receives a generous annual grant from the BCCI. The associations use this money to run the show. http://www. his son and former Indian hockey player Ashok Kumar will receive the award. receive ‘cuts’ from such deals. • In 1936.. acts and conduct relating to or arising out of discharge of my office of president or honorary secretary of (the respective association). officials belonging to these associations award contracts for generators. This is one of the main reasons why officials cling onto their chairs for decades. Shubham Jaglan wins second junior world golf title in two weeks • Ten-year-old Shubham Jaglan added another feather to his cap when he created history by • The son of a milkman from rural Haryana shot a three round score of 106 winning by a fivestroke margin. Hockey magician Major Dhyan Chand to be honoured in British Parliament • Indian hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand will be confered with the ‘Bharat Gaurav’ Lifetime Achivement Award by NRI orgainsation Sanskriti Yuva Sangstha at the House of Commons inside the British Parliament of July 25. he had scored over 400 goals in his international career. water tanks. ahead of two Americans Justin Dang and Sihan Sandhu and Thailand’s Pongsapak Laopakdee for the Boys 9-10 years category title at the Angel Park. The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has finally decided to tackle the menace of conflict of interest. Hitler offered Dhyan Chand to join the German team but he denied the offer. my family or close relations or which may tend to interfere with or affect my objectivity.

iasexamportal. Now. Ireland. winning by a handsome five-stroke margin. The young master already has the next tournament at Pinehurst in his sights. India’s One Day International cricket captain. a charitable society formed by golfers such as Amit Luthra to help talented. as well as http://www. who featured in Aamir Khan’s Satyamev Jayate last year. Shubham.” said Shubham.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. a village in Haryana’s Panipat district. Oman qualify for World Twenty20 for first time • LONDON: Oman qualified for next year’s Twenty20 World Cup in India with a five-wicket victory over Namibia in Ireland.” he told a TV channel. Coached since the age of seven by India’s former top golfer Nonita Lall Qureshi. “It’s a dream come true. My year’s hard work has given me all these titles. considered one of the finest finishers in the game. swung his way to the IJGA World Stars 66 • • • • • • of Junior Golf crown in Las Vegas. the BCCI wants to show the world that it is keen on setting its house in order. have reached a major international tournament. a south Delhi colony. • Thakur acknowledges that the BCCI needs to “protect the reputation and institutional integrity so as to earn broad trust. • Thakur’s concerns are valid. Shubham comes from Israna. “That will be a huge achievement for me. • It will be the first time the Gulf country. Before being spotted by Nonita. the young golfer trained at an abandoned agriculture field and practised his bunker shots from a concrete mixer filled with sand. • Scotland. has been ranked ninth in a list of the most marketable sportspersons in the world. Last week. • Dhoni. the 10-year-old son of a milkman from hinterland Haryana.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. prepared by the London School of Marketing (LSM). • Prodigy Shubham Jaglan.com/civilservices/courses Sports • The BCCI is now trying to address this issue. After all. faith and confidence in all our activities”. coached by former Sri Lanka captain Duleep Mendis. was also placed ahead of football superstars Cristiano Ronaldo and Neymar. 34. • He ranks ahead of the likes of Argentina’s football star Lionel Messi and Jamaican sprint king Usain Bolt. Supported by the Golf Foundation. Hong Kong and the Netherlands will also join the 10 test-playing nations in the 16-team tournament. Thakur’s letter assumes extra significance. He learnt most of his early golf watching pros on YouTube. Winning at Pinehurst would make it a junior grand slam of sorts for him. underprivileged golfers. And this is just the beginning. has won over 100 tournaments so far. Shubham Jaglan: Indian Tiger Woods in the making • NEW DELHI: An Indian tiger cub is prowling the golf courses in the USA. • Afghanistan beat Papua New Guinea by six wickets to claim the other qualifying place and book a spot in the tournament for the fourth time in a row. Both Srinivasan and the board have been pulled up by the Supreme Court for failing to address this issue. the former president whose India Cements Ltd owns the Chennai Super Kings. CSK stands suspended from the IPL for its role in the betting and spotfixing scandal. Dhoni still most marketable sportsperson • Mahendra Singh Dhoni. The BCCI finds itself in this mess largely because of N Srinivasan. And he is hunting trophies by the week.com/civilservices/magazine . he had clinched the IMG Academy junior world championship for the 9-10 age category in San Diego. he now lives with his family in Ashram. • Given that the Supreme Courtappointed Justice Lodha Committee has sought an additional five months to suggest ways and means to improve the functioning of the BCCI. • Thakur writes that the issue of conflict of interest has “caused enough consternation in our organisation” and that the BCCI “needs to collectively address and avoid for the future to come”.

He has 17 Grand Slam singles titles to his credit. the yardstick for making the Olympics cut. World Championship bronze medallist Bajrang. the famous Phogat sisters Geeta and Babita and Commonwealth Games and Asian Games medallist Geetika Jakhar walked the ramp in ‘Spartan-like’ warrior outfits at the launch of the league.com/civilservices/magazine 67 . followed by Rafael Nadal.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. the only two women to make it to the top 20. Around 20 Olympic medallists will represent six citybased franchises. India finish fourth in U-21 hockey meet • India finished fourth after being thrashed 0-3 by England in the men’s Volvo International Under-21 hockey tournament here on Saturday.iasexamportal. • Wrestling icons of the country like two-time Olympic medallist Sushil Kumar. • Coached by Poornima Mahto. while the Germans won the third by a narrow 51-50 margin to make it 3-3. respectively. Sports Ministry forms panel to redraft NSDCI • The Union Sports Ministry has decided to redraft the http://www. Mangal Singh Champia and Jayanta Talukdar however had heartbreak as they squandered a 4-2 lead before losing 26-29 to second seed Italy in a thrilling tiebreaker. It also considered their presence on social media. Maria Sharapova and Serena Williams. • Sushil later said that the league would help country’s grapplers by giving them ‘international exposure’ at home. While compiling the list. along with their current income from sponsorships and the percentage of their total earnings these accounted for. Indian trio of Deepika Kumari. • The Indian women’s trio levelled the second 5-5 to make it 3-1. Elena Richter and Lisa Unruh took away the first set 46-59. New professional league all set to give wrestlers a leg-up • The Wrestling Federation of India joined the ‘league bandwagon’ as it launched the Pro Wrestling League (PWL) on Monday. Laxmi Rani Majhi and Rimil Buriuly showed nerves of steel to bounce back from 1-3 to coast to a 5-3 win and make the last eight. • The PWL. • Banerjee. will witness world’s top 66 wrestlers including eight current world champions. with Djokovic seventh. • India conceded the first goal just seven minutes into the game as Horler scored a field goal. Rio Games while the men’s trio failed to advance after squandering a handsome lead at the archery World Championships. followed by golfers Tiger Woods and Phil Mickelson at the second and third positions. • Edward Horler (seventh and 47th minutes) and Samuel Hatherley (68th minute) scored for England as India struggled throughout the match. the women’s team on the other hand showed tremendous character after Karina Winter. Women’s archery team makes 2016 Olympic cut • India women’s recurve team earned Olympic quota for 2016 • Pitted against seventh seed Germany. respectively. Federer is considered one of the most influential sportspersons in the world. have been ranked 12th and 20th. scheduled from November 8-29. Despite his loss in this year’s Wimbledon final to Novak Djokovic.com/civilservices/courses Sports • • • • tennis players Andy Murray and Serena Williams. • The experienced men’s team of Rahul Banerjee. Tennis stars dominate the list. Talukdar and Champia can still earn individual berths by finishing among 32 when the individual section that gets underway on Wednesday. in Copenhagen on Tuesday. Swiss tennis star Roger Federer was named the most marketable sportsperson in the world. LSM researchers looked at the brand value of the individuals.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.

• Shaun Pollock is the only other South African to pass the 400mark.com/civilservices/magazine . It would also look into the process of streamlining state bodies and preparation of NSFs’ electoral college. • Steyn joined Richard Hadlee as the second fastest bowler ever to take 400 Test wickets. owners of Paytm. the domestic Ranji competition will be known as the ‘Paytm Ranji Trophy’. necessitating more accountability and transparency in the functioning of the sports bodies. The amount per match is 40 lakh more than what Micromax. joining India spinner Harbhajan Singh and England pacer James Anderson. • Steyn. it has been decided to constitute a working group. • He is one of only three currently active cricketers to achieve the feat. gave the Board last year.68 crore and the final price comes to Rs 2.K. To facilitate holding of consultations and prepare a revised draft of the NSDCI. The working group would be headed by retired Delhi High Court judge C.” the Sports Ministry said in a release. who is playing his 80th Test.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Sahara gone Paytm on • One97 Communications. • Steyn is the 13th cricketer to take 400 or more wickets in Test matches. further amendments to the various provisions of NSDCI need to be re-examined and to bring about suitable amendments to relevant provisions of the NSDCI. today acquired the title sponsorship rights for India’s domestic and international cricket matches at home for a period of four years with a bid price of Rs 203. ODIs and T20Is) in India during the upcoming seasons as the rights have been awarded till 2019. which includes all the orders and instructions issued by the sports ministry including restrictions on age and tenure of sports administrators in the country. Besides sports administration. the group would also look into the legal angle and finetune/ revise the same. “Since (2011) a lot of developments have taken place in the sports sector.42 crore per match.website • The base price per match was Rupees 1. • The 32-year-old fast bowler reached his landmark when South African skipper Hashim Amla took a chest-high catch at first slip in Steyn’s third over of the match. • The decision to award the rights to One97 Communications till 2019 was taken at the BCCI’s marketing committee meeting.28 crore. • From now on. who were the only bidders in the 2014-15 season. Hence. • There were only two bidders for the scheduled 84 matches (Tests. came into force from January 31. • The bids were opened at the BCCI marketing committee meeting that lasted for around five hours. Dale Steyn joins 400 Test wicket club • Dale Steyn became the second South African bowler to take 400 Test wickets after he dismissed Bangladesh opener Tamim Iqbal on the opening day of the second Test in Dhaka on Thursday. Unmukt named India A captain for tri-series • Delhi batsman Unmukt Chand was on Saturday appointed India A captain for the upcoming ODI cricket tri-series involving Australia A and South Africa A starting in Chennai on August 5. http://www.com/civilservices/courses Sports • • • • • • 68 contentious National Sports Development Code of India (NSDCI) 2011. forming a working group for the same. The NSDCI. Mahajan and examine the existing NSDCI from every aspect of governance. The group has to submit the revised draft within three months. 2011 even though the code has triggered several controversies over the years in terms of its implementation by the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) and various National Sports Federations (NSFs).iasexamportal. became the 13th cricketer to take 400 or more wickets in Test matches.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. taking 421 wickets before retiring in 2008.

both scoring 29 points each. • Ashwin’s record in the subcontinent is impressive. who won the team gold medal in the Asian Games last year.com/civilservices/courses Sports • However. who had withdrawn from the inaugural edition last year. • Meanwhile. • In the third set. in a little over four months.” he said. • Nadal. Ashwin was not comfortable about a question relating to the future of his Indian Premier League (IPL) franchise. tennis fans in the country will witness two of the best players slug it out in New Delhi during the second edition of the International Premier Tennis League (IPTL). Ambati Rayudu has been picked to lead the India A side in the two-Test series against South Africa A starting August 18 in Wayanad. • The switch took place during the Player Draft that was held in April this year. went down fighting to local favourite Stephan Hansen of Denmark 147-143 in the compound individual final event. Hansen opened up a handy three-point lead with three perfect 10s to net 30 points.Nadal duel to spice up IPTL-2 • A Roger Federer-Rafael Nadal clash is always a treat for tennis fans. but his performance in overseas Tests has been dismal (24 wickets in nine Tests). who was part of the Indian team last year. Rajat Chauhan wins India’s first individual medal in World Archery • Rajat Chauhan created history by winning a silver medal in the World Archery Championships in Copenhagen on Saturday. He has taken 100 wickets in 16 Tests in Asia. • This is India’s first individual medal in the World event. • The women’s recurve team of Deepika Kumari. while Federer. “You tell me the road map and I’ll use it. 1 Novak Djokovic will be turning out for the Singapore Slammers after appearing for the UAE team last year. during the third round of the ATP Miami Masters event in which an 18-year-old Spaniard defeated the Swiss. matching his local rival arrow for arrow to tie the first two sets. • Ashwin.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Chauhan could manage only 27 in that third set. The 20-year-old marksman. has become part of tennis folklore. • Chauhan started well against Hansen. What began in 2004. will be a part of the UAE Royals. Chekrovolu Swuro and Laishram Bombayla Devi had won India a silver medal in the World Championship in 2011. • Karnataka batsman Karun Nair has been appointed Unmukt’s deputy as the All-India Senior Selection Committee picked a 15-member squad. said he is confident about playing a key role on the spin-friendly Lankan pitches. the then world No. reigning world No. where Japan Warriors was unveiled as the fifth franchise in the tournament which already has defending champions Indian Aces. Meanwhile.com/civilservices/magazine 69 . the Singapore Slammers and the Manila Mavericks. the UAE Royals. I don’t know what to say. will represent the Indian Aces. Ashwin gets Arjuna Award • India off-spinner R Ashwin is not too worried about the presence of senior prosHarbhajan Singh and Amit Mishra in the 15-man squad for the three-Test tour ofSri Lanka later this month. • All the matches will be played at the MA Chidambaram Stadium with the final scheduled on August 14. Federer. • Their’s is the marquee match-up — slated for December 12 — that will add spice to the Indian edition of IPTL. the Chennai Super Kings.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. 1. • Now.iasexamportal. who registered a fivewicket haul in the one-off Test against Bangladesh in June. http://www.

Rahul Dravid: Coach. former part-owner of Rajasthan Royals. • If BCCI’s this undertaking is put into effect. a sports marketing agency that has signed on a number of cricketers. he is Mentor. • The Supreme Court-appointed committee. Willis and Trueman. Last commentary assignment was the 2015 ICC World Cup. BCCI’s cricket advisory committee. and contracted to the BCCI as commentator. BCCI’s cricket advisory committee. India U-19 and India ‘A’. investigating the 2013 IPL betting controversy. BCCI’s technical committee. and secretary. including Mumbai batsman Sarfaraz Khan. Agnieszka Radwanska and Fabrice Santoro. Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble among the members who would be dragged in the issue.iasexamportal. Sunrisers Hyderabad. franchisees of CSK and Rajasthan Royals. the committee ordered a life ban on Gurunath Meiyappan. and Raj Kundra. the international retired cricketers will face difficulty in continuing their respective posts in the cricket board. Brijesh Patel: Chairman. Indian cricket team.M. This year’s French Open doubles champion Ivan Dodig and India’s doubles stars Sania Mirza and Rohan Bopanna complete the line-up. Lodha panel seeks five-month extension • The Justice R. respectively.. Lodha Committee. Sanjay Bangar: Coach. • It further issued a two-year ban on India Cements Ltd. in a judgment on “punish first and debate later. Rajasthan Royals. and Jaipur IPL Cricket Pvt Ltd. Mumbai Indians. a team official of Chennai Super Kings and sonin-law of former BCCI president N. BCCI’s new area development committee. has urged the Supreme Court for a five-month extension to recommend reforms in the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and complete its investigation into the alleged involvement of IPL chief operating officer Sundar Raman. and co-founder of Tenvic. Sourav Ganguly: Member. he also coaches Kings XI Punjab. • Here is the list of the BCCI 70 members who may run foul of the undertaking: Sachin Tendulkar: Member. for two years.com/civilservices/magazine . Indian cricket team. Ganguly. http://www. Last commentary assignment was the ongoing Ashes. BCCI’s cricket advisory committee. He is Head (Cricket Operations) for Royal Challengers Bangalore. He runs Professional Management Group. he is Mentor. Botham. a company in the business of sports training and consulting. Ashes 2015: best performance of Stuart Broad • Broad became the fifth England bowler to take 300 Test wickets after Anderson. the members of cricket associations will be denied from having any commercial interests associated with the game. V V S Laxman: Member. IPL governing council. Mumbai Indians. he is Mentor. Karnataka State Cricket Association. Ravi Shastri: Director. has been given six months to complete its mandate. and a broadcaster. comes at a time when the Justice Lodha committee is looking into organisational reforms in the body.com/civilservices/courses Sports • Giving Nadal company at Aces will be Gael Monfils. Tendulkar. Dravid. Srinivasan. • According to a report from The Indian Express. He is Member. Anil Kumble: Chairman. Sunil Gavaskar: Contracted to the BCCI as commentator. he is Mentor. • On July 14.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Laxman likely to be named in BCCI conflict of interest list • The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) that recently asked all the state cricket associations to sign the agreement of conflict of interest has planned to take the process underway very soon and the consequences might see names of the legends Sachin Tendulakar.

game development. they could even climb to as high as third place. three of the associations had joined hands in January this year to claim the affiliation. 15. who has agreed to conduct the BCA elections after a gap of seven years. • A 2-1 win for the hosts. BCCI).Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. http://www. Gujarat Cricket Association) and Ratnakar Shetty (general manager . Five cricket associations in the state have been fighting over affiliation from the central board. Cricket Association of Bengal). Maharashtra Cricket Association). Tripura Cricket Association). • If seventh-placed Sri Lanka whitewash India 3-0 then they will gain eight rankings points and could climb to fifth and India would drop to 89 points. • The cricket politics in Uttarakhand reached its new heights in the last 15 years after the state was bifurcated from Uttar Pradesh in November 2009. • “Fifth-ranked India know that a 3-0 victory can propel them up the rankings table. Goa Cricket Association). the fastest qualifier into the 16-swimmer semifinals • Tareq. according to reports from Kazan. • The BCCI is currently embroiled in a legal tangle with the Bihar Cricket Association (BCA) over a Rs10 lakh payment as remuneration to justice Dharam Pal Sinha. who is also entered in the 50m freestyle that starts Saturday. • Similarly. another panel formed to look after cricket affairs in Bihar will be spearheaded by its chairman Niranjan Shah and will also include Vinod Phadke (secretary.” the ICC said in a statement.iasexamportal. Himachal Pradesh Cricket Association). according to the AP. India eyes third spot in ICC Test rankings.game development.70 seconds behind Sweden’s Sarah Sjostrom. Bharat Zaveri (executive member. said her goal is to eventually qualify for the Tokyo 2020 Olympics. and depending on the final outcome in the ongoing Ashes series. • The decision will pave the way for budding cricketers. A 2-1 victory would see India gain three points. who will now get a chance to play for their respective state teams. Ten-year-old girl competes at World Swimming Championships • A Bahrain swimmer born in 2005 became the youngest athlete to compete at the World Swimming Championships. Vinod Shah (vice-president. KVP Rao (manager .com/civilservices/magazine 71 . • Broad struck five times in his first four overs. Sourav Dasgupta (secretary. Russia. BCCI forms ad-hoc committees for Bihar and Uttarakhand • The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) on Friday formed an ad-hoc committee for cricket administration in Bihar and Uttarakhand. • The five-member committee for Uttarakhand will be chaired by MP Pandove and will also have Vishal Marwaha (secretary.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. • Alzain Tareq.com/civilservices/courses Sports • Stuart Broad described the day as a dream after taking careerbest figures of 8-15 to help England bowl out Australia for 60 on the first morning of the fourth Ashes Test on Thursday. clocked 41. but they fail to impress BCCI officials. 10.13 seconds to place 64th out of 64 swimmers in Friday morning’s 50-meter butterfly heats. claiming his 300th Test victim with the third ball of the match when he had opener Chris Rogers caught at first slip by captain Alastair Cook for a duck. • The Indian cricket team can rise to as high as third in the ICC Test rankings if Virat Kohli’s men whitewash Sri Lanka in the three-match series starting on Wednesday. provided Australia defeats England at The Oval. • Cricket in Bihar has been in shambles due to the absence of a representative body with no first-class matches staged in the state for several years. BCCI). In fact. Subir Ganguly (joint secretary.

000run mark in Test cricket. Meanwhile. as will Sri Lanka trio Kaushal Silva (30th). (Reuters File Photo) • A reactor in southern Japan is set to restart from Tuesday.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. India. Palestine. Twelfth-placed Ravichandran Ashwin. The school was selected to represent India in the festival since it was the winner of the last under-14 Subroto Cup held in 2014. Afghanistan. • The Indian team was adjudged the second best team in their Group after Thailand. Thailand. • The Nuclear Regulation Authority affirmed the safety of the reactor and another one at http://www. fifthplaced Sri Lanka batsman Kumar Sangakarra goes into his final Test series as the highest ranked batsman on either side on 874 points. Uzbekistan. China. with 124 wickets in 25 Tests to date. Dilruwan Perera (27th). 13 points behind Australia’s Mitchell Johnson. while Mathews is Sri Lanka’s best all-rounder in 15th spot. Umesh Yadav (47th) holds an 18-point advantage over his team-mate Bhuvneshwar Kumar (48th). for the first time under new safety requirements following the Fukushima disaster and a milestone for the nation’s return to nuclear power. eight points behind Australia’s Chris Rogers. represented by Nagaland’s Green wood School. Bangladesh. India was in Group B-2 along with three teams of South Korea and a team from China and Thailand each. • Ashwin is also the highestranked all-rounder on either side heading into the series. D. South Korea. Dimuth Karunaratne (32nd) and Dinesh Chandimal (45th). Pakistan. Cambodia. and in that scenario Sri Lanka would gain a point. thus. overtake Kohli’s side. The last time India toured Sri Lanka in 2010. His skipper Angelo Mathews. Japan’s Sendai reactor first to restart under new safety rules Indian under-12 team finishes 2nd in Asian Youth Football • An Indian under-12 team. In the ICC Player Rankings for Test Bowlers. The team was awarded the trophy for being runners up in its group. seven adrift of South Africa’s Hashim Amla.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses Sports • • • • • • 72 meanwhile. Kohli is now 180 runs short of the 5.iasexamportal. Prasad (29th) and Harbhajan Singh (32nd). participated in the event were South Korea.com/civilservices/magazine . in the ICC Player Rankings for Test Batsmen. • Financial assistance for participation of the team was provided from the National Sports Development Fund of the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports. • Kyushu Electric Power Co on Monday said it will restart the No 1 reactor at its Sendai nuclear plant on Tuesday morning. with his opposite number Kohli in 10th position. Ajinkya Rahane (22nd) and Cheteshwar Pujara (25th). sitting a point behind South Africa’s Vernon Philander in third position. while India would remain on 97 points. the series ended in a 1-1 draw. • The side got the second position in their group by winning 3 out 4 matches. Mongolia. breaking a four-and-half-year nuclear power impasse since the 2011 meltdowns at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in northeastern Japan following the earthquake and tsunami. is his side’s leading bowler with Ishant Sharma (21st) looking to break back into the top 20. • The 15 countries whose teams • The Nuclear Regulation Authority affirmed the safety of the reactor at the Sendai plant in September under stricter safety rules imposed after the 2011 meltdowns at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Nepal. lies a single place and 14 rankings points further behind. • A total of 47 teams from 15 countries participated in the event. the Sports Ministry said in a statement. Other batsmen from either side aiming for upward movements include India trio Murali Vijay (21st). The restart marks Japan’s return to nuclear energy. Laos and Tajikistan. Sri Lanka’s left-arm spinner Rangana Herath is the highest ranked bowler heading into the series in eighth place on 752 points. East Timor. who will make his 50th appearance next time out. finished second in the Asian Youth Football Festa 2015 held at Anseong. would see them gain four rankings points and. Other bowlers likely to feature in the series are.

http://www. • Sania won her career’s first ever women’s doubles Grand Slam title with Swiss partner Martina Hingis in July. With its nuclear fuel recycling program still stalled and plutonium stockpiles triggering international concerns.com/civilservices/courses Sports • • • • • • the Sendai plant in September under stricter safety rules imposed after the accident. the Sports Ministry had recommended the Wimbledon doubles champion for the award but had also made it clear that the final decision rests with only the Awards Committee. All of Japan’s nearly 50 workable reactors have been offline for repairs or safety checks. was reportedly competing with squash player Deepika Pallikal and discus thrower Vikas Gowda for the prestigious award. a majority of Japanese are opposed to a return to nuclear energy. The plans call for the second reactor to be restarted in October. Despite the push by the government and utilities for nuclear restarts. “We believe it is important for our energy policy to push forward restarts of reactors that are deemed safe. with hosts Spain beating the visitors 4-1 in the first game of the three-match series. citing potential dangers from active volcanos in the region. French Open (2012) and US Open (2014) and is currently the world’s No.\The score was tied 1-1 at half time. • Sania. • Earlier this month. Veteran player Gurbaj Singh was suspended for nine months by Hockey India after being charged with creating disharmony within the team. • The Indian men’s hockey team’s winning streak in its ongoing tour of Europe came to an end on Monday. but in the second half the home side gave a sparkling performance by scoring three more goals. Rohit Sharma selected for Arjuna award • Sania Mirza today became only the second tennis player to be recommended for the prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna. • Sania also won the gold medal and the bronze medal in the mixed and women’s doubles categories in the 2014 Asian Games. the worst since the 1986 Chernobyl explosion. while star cricketer Rohit Sharma and ace shooter Jitu Rai were among the 17 sportspersons picked for this year’s Arjuna awards. Coach Jude Felix had levelled the charges against Gurbaj in his report following the conclusion of last month’s Hockey World League Semifinals in Antwerp. Sania Mirza to be conferred India. • Meanwhile. who has won three mixed doubles Grand Slams in her career. • Sania had received the Arjuna award in 2004 while two years later she was awarded India’s fourth highest civilian honour — Padma Shri.iasexamportal. Japan is under pressure to use as much of the stockpiles as possible in its reactors. The Sendai No 1 reactor is scheduled to start generating power from Friday and reach full capacity next month. which now relies on imported energy.” Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga told reporters.com/civilservices/magazine 73 . • Sania is only the second tennis player to get the coveted award after Leander Paes in 1996-97. She also became world number one before winning the Grass Court major. Residents near the Sendai plant are also wary of the restarts. 1 ranked doubles player. Belgium.s highest sports award • Sania has also won the mixed doubles titles at Australia Open (2009). the government earlier this year set a goal to have nuclear power meet more than 20 percent of the country’s energy needs by 2030. Under the basic energy plan adopted by the Cabinet last year to sustain nuclear power as a key energy supply for resource-poor Japan.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Times Now reported on Tuesday.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Abe’s government wants as many of them as possible to be put online to sustain the nation’s economy. Hockey: India lose to Spain • Sania Mirza is all set to become the first woman tennis player to be conferred India’s highest sports award Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna.

• Sania is only the second tennis player after Leander Paes to be named for the top award. gymnast Dipa Karmakar. shuttler K Srikanth and boxer Mandeep Jangra.5 lakh along with a citation. • The 28-year-old. discus thrower Vikas Gowda. rising shuttler P V Sindhu. • It is learnt that the committee recommended 17 names for the Arjuna awards.com/civilservices/courses Sports awards come with a cash prize of Rs 5 lakh and a citation. track and field star Tintu Luka. currently ranked world number one in women’s doubles.s 13th title in Snooker Championship • India’s poster boy of cue sports Pankaj Advani on Tuesday clinched his 13th world title after winning the World 6-Red Snooker Championship in a convincing manner. • The recommendations will now be sent to the Sports Minister Sarbananda Sonowal. stamping his authority on the green baize in the final. A 35 break saw the Indian ace adding another feather in his ever-glowing crown. India beat Spain by 4-2. Advani did not allow his opponent to score a single point in the next two. • The final started off with a bang with the Bangalore cueist racing to a rapid 3-0 lead in the bestof-11 final. hockey player P R Sreejesh. • Rohit has been India’s batting mainstay in the ODIs and became the highest individual scorer with a knock of 264 against Sri Lanka last year. Rohit.com/civilservices/magazine .win 3-match hockey series 2-1 • Riding on forward Ramandeep Singh’s two spectacular goals. that too within a minute.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. scripted history by becoming the first Indian to clinch a women’s doubles Grand Slam when she partnered Swiss great Martina Hingis for the Wimbledon trophy earlier this year. But the Chinese found his form and ran away with the next two frames with the aid of a 66 break. athlete M R Poovamma. · Sania. India outplayed Spain 4-2 in the third and last match of the European Tour to win the three-game series 2-1. while the Arjuna 74 Pankaj Advani. and hockey captain Sardar Singh for the coveted honour.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. After a barrage of attacks in the opening minutes. Paes had been bestowed the honour way back in 1996 after his bronze medal in the Atlanta Olympics. • The first quarter started with a brisk pace as both the teams competed to dominate in the early stage of the game. who has won three mixed doubles Grand Slams in her career. beat competition from squash player Deepika Pallikal. He fired in a massive 71 break in the seventh frame to be one frame away from defending his title which he won in Egypt last year. Spain managed to earn a penalty http://www. • The Khel Ratna carries a prize money of Rs 7. wrestling duo of Bajrang and Babita. • Defending champion Advani outplayed Chinese Yan Bingtao 6-2. Bingtao took a healthy 28-5 lead before missing what was going to be his final shot of the tournament as Advani cleared the table with finesse. • In the final frame. • In no mood to give anything away. who will take a final decision. including those of Jitu.iasexamportal.

the NCA Committee has decided to appoint specialist bowling and batting coaches for academy. http://www. • The Sandeep Patilled national selection committee. Literally.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. will shortlist the names for the posts. • Meanwhile. It is learnt that each post has attracted 10 applications.com/civilservices/magazine 75 .com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. National Cricket Academy may be moved to Dharamshala or Mohali • The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)-run National Cricket Academy (NCA) is going north.com/civilservices/courses Sports corner but an alerted PR Sreejesh kept the ball away from the net.iasexamportal. • A meeting of the NCA committee in New Delhi yesterday decided to recommend to the BCCI to move the facility to one of the centres in Punjab or Himachal Pradesh. • The BCCI website has put out an advertisement and the applications will be scanned after August 15. the last date. with assistance from NCA director Brijesh Patel.

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SELECTED ARTICLES FROM VARIOUS NEWSPAPERS & JOURNALS

⇒ A pernicious law
The Union government’s
contention in the Supreme Court that
the provisions in the Indian Penal
Code on criminal defamation do not
have a chilling effect on free speech
will disappoint proponents of
fundamental freedoms. The zeal to
retain a law that the state can use to
stifle criticism is at the heart of the
government’s position. It also goes
against democratic opinion in many
jurisdictions that treats defamation
essentially as a civil wrong, and not
something to be remedied by the
use of the state’s coercive police
powers. The United Nations Special
Rapporteur on freedom of
expression, the Human Rights
Committee of the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
and other international bodies have
called upon states to abolish criminal
defamation, recognising that it
intimidates citizens and dissuades
them from exposing wrongdoing.
The grounds cited by the Centre
now to justify the continuance of
Sections 499 and 500 of the IPC,
which deal with defamation and
prescribe a maximum jail term of
two years, are specious: that in India,
citizens are unlikely to have enough
liquidity to pay damages for civil
defamation; that online defamation
in the Internet age can be
effectively countered only by
making it a criminal offence, and that
the law is part of the state’s
“compelling interest” to protect the
dignity and reputation of citizens.
What it fails to see is that the main
feature of criminal defamation is its
potential for harassment. It is a tool
that can be easily invoked and that
76

enables allegedly defamed persons
to drag anyone to courts across the
country.
Criminal defamation has a
pernicious effect on society: for
instance, the state uses it as a means
to coerce the media and political
opponents into adopting selfcensorship and unwarranted selfrestraint; groups or sections claiming
to have been hurt or insulted, abuse
the process by initiating multiple
proceedings in different places; and,
more importantly, the protracted
process itself is a punishment.
Further, magistrates tend to
mechanically summon defendants
without first assessing whether the
allegedly offending content comes
within one of the many exceptions to
defamation found in the statute.
Criminal defamation should not be
allowed to be an instrument in the
hands of the state, especially when
the Code of Criminal Procedure
gives public servants an unfair
advantage by allowing the state’s
prosecutors to stand in for them
when they claim to have been
defamed by the media or political
opponents. Thanks to past verdicts of
the Supreme Court, the government
and its organs can no more file civil
suits seeking damages for
defamation, yet the pernicious law of
criminal defamation is invoked to
stifle free speech. Even as the court
deliberates the matter, the
government ought to reconsider its
stand and come out against the
criminal defamation law.
⇒ Manipur’s dilemma
The fear of every state with a
predominant indigenous population
was summed up thus by the Naga

leader A.Z. Phizo: “Nagaland cannot
accept the Indian excess population
[as] our country is too small.” Many of
the recent exclusivist outbursts in the
northeastern States, including in
Manipur, can be attributed to such a
fear of losing ancestral land to
“outsiders”. Manipur’s crisis
intensified four months ago when its
Congress-majority Legislative
Assembly passed the Manipur
Regulation of Visitors, Tenant and
Migrant Workers’ Bill, 2015. It was
opposed widely, including by
women’s and students’ groups, and
even by a section of the ruling party.
Eventually the Opposition became
more united in demanding the
withdrawal of the Bill, which failed
to address their key concern of
protecting the land rights of the
original inhabitants. On July 14, the
Bill was withdrawn by the Manipur
government in a nod to the protesters’
demands. The united Opposition
rather underscored the long-standing
demand for the imposition of an Inner
Line Permit system, as in a few other
northeastern States. The ILP regime,
introduced by the British to protect
tribal
populations
from
encroachment into their areas, but
later used to advance commercial
interests, involves a system akin to the
issue of visas to Indian citizens to
enter a State of the Union.
The dilemma of the Indian state
over the ILP is understandable. Can
the Union afford to introduce a quasivisa to its citizens to enter one State
from another State? The question
could be complex for a central party
that advocates the removal of all
speed-breakers when it comes to
citizens’ access to travel and work in
her own country. The dilemma of
Manipur is perhaps even more severe.
The 2001 Census indicated the size

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of the migrant community was nearly
as much as that of the dominant ethnic
Meiteis, thus bolstering the demand
from Manipur’s erudite civil society
to impose curbs on inward
movement. But there has also been
out-migration of the indigenous
people. The demand is sought to be
substantiated by citing many
examples that indicate how
Manipuris are losing land to
“extractive” non-Manipuri industries.
The leasing out of “one-sixth
of the total area” of Manipur for oil
exploration and drilling to
international oil majors, unthinkable
in the other States, is one of many
such examples. In this backdrop, a
half-baked Bill was passed, that
exacerbated the insecurity. The
demand, though, is more
legitimately a consequence of the
hill-valley divide in the State and the
congestion in the valley rather than
any huge influx of outsiders. The
situation is thus complex but not
out-of-control. But the State should
ensure that alien-investor-driven
development does not disrobe its
people. After all, they are supposed
to benefit from the growth
generated out of its own domestic
resources.
⇒ India, and the
Taliban’s changing dynamics
The
first
officially
acknowledged dialogue between
the Taliban and the Afghan
government took place in Murree,
Pakistan, on July 7. Among those
attending were representatives of
Pakistan, China and the U.S. This
comes eight months after Afghan
President Ashraf Ghani’s meeting
with Gen. Raheel Sharif and the
subsequent assurance that Pakistan
would help convince the Taliban to
negotiate. The major outcome,
according to Pakistani media sources,
is that the next round of talks is

provisionally planned for August 15
and 16 in Doha, Qatar. Another
projected win was the reported
“endorsement” by Taliban leader
Mullah Omar on the Taliban website.
Since Omar hasn’t been seen in public
for years now, the authenticity of this
approval is suspect. The Murree talks
were significant in that they
highlighted a shift in the stance of
Taliban’s Qatar office, which has now
emerged as its official voice. While
not formally repudiating the talks, the
Qatar office made a convoluted
pronouncement indicating that
future negotiations needed its
imprimatur for any chance of success.
This suggests that Murree was a
preliminary round of talks about talks,
and is borne out by the
announcement of the Doha round.
The Taliban is no longer the
monolith that it was and many streams
have emerged in the movement.
None of them are watertight
compartments, allowing individuals
and factions to flow from one to
another. Each has several factions that
may or may not have problems with
each other. There are problems
between the Taliban’s political
leader, Akhtar Mohammad Mansour,
considered close to the ISI, who
favours negotiation, and Abdul
Qayum Zakir, Taliban’s military
commander and former Guantanamo
Bay detainee, who is opposed to any
talks. Zakir insists that the Afghan
government lacks legitimacy and it
was the U.S., the occupying power,
which was in control. Zakir’s position
has been reinforced after the Afghan
government signed the Bilateral
Security Agreement with the U.S.,
and he will oppose talks over the
presence of foreign troops.
Yet another line of thought is
the one that is open to talks,
provided it is held on their terms.
This means two things: one, they are
not comfortable with Pakistan
leading the talks and two, they see

escalation in violence as a means to
get to a vantage point before
discussions begin. It is averse to a
ceasefire, as that would allow the
beleaguered unity government to
consolidate its control. This led to
the rejection of the Afghan Ulema’s
call for a Ramzan ceasefire. A third
group is not openly supportive of
talks, as this could drive some
extreme elements into joining
movements like the Daesh, but it
also wants some form of normalcy
and will not oppose talks.
With pressure mounting on
Pakistan, it had thrown its weight
behind the latest round of talks in
Murree. Given the mounting
international criticism that it had
misled the Ashraf Ghani government,
it had to display its earnestness and
influence over the Taliban by
mediating talks on its soil.
India has been on the
sidelines because of its limited
relationship with the Taliban. Though
India has never recognised the
Taliban, what often goes unnoticed
is that there was limited interaction
even during the Kandahar hijacking.
An Indian delegation was allowed in
without visas and the External Affairs
Minister entered into talks with
representatives of a government it
did not recognise. The point person
for all of this was Taliban foreign
minister Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil.
However, times are changing. The
perception that talks with at least
some of the Talibani elements might
bring an end to the imbroglio is
gaining ground in Afghanistan. This,
coupled with the existence of
several lines of thought in Taliban,
allows India to reconsider its position
on Afghanistan. Considering the
social capital that India has built in
Afghanistan, India might, at an
appropriate moment and in
consultation with the Afghan

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Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals
government and other stakeholders,
consider opening a channel to
factions associated with Taliban’s
Qatar office. Diplomacy is often
about picking the lesser evil to serve
the national interest.
⇒ Breaking the ice and
avoiding a refreeze
As Prime Minister Narendra
Modi is discovering, somewhat to his
discomfiture, managing relations with
Pakistan is one thing but managing
expectations about India-Pakistan
relations is a different cup of tea,
because the two often adopt
divergent trajectories. Every Indian
Prime Minister, from Jawaharlal Nehru
onwards, has had to deal with this
challenge. However, it has only
become infinitely more difficult today
with the Indian media (and its
Pakistani counterpart) seeking to
convert every summit encounter into
a limited-overs cricket match. A
diplomatic negotiation only succeeds
if the outcome is perceived by both
sides as a win-win situation but this
requires long-term planning and
careful management. If either side
makes it a zero sum game by firing up
expectations for a quick victory, the
dialogue quickly flounders.
The five follow-on steps
identified in the “Joint Statement” are
precise and modest — the National
Security Advisers (NSA) are to
discuss “all issues connected to
terrorism”; meetings between the
chiefs of the Border Security Force
and Pakistan Rangers and DirectorsGeneral of Military Operations;
releasing fishermen in each other’s
custody; facilitating religious tourism;
and an agreement “to discuss ways
and means to expedite the Mumbai
26/11 attack trial, including
additional information like providing
[Mumbai attack mastermind Zaki-urRehman Lakhvi’s] voice samples”.
Finally, Mr. Modi also accepted Mr.
Sharif’s invitation to visit Pakistan in
78

2016 for the South Asian Association
for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
summit. From all accounts, the
meeting between the two Prime
Ministers developed positively. Mr.
Modi had realised that not engaging
Pakistan was proving unhelpful.
Having abruptly called off the Foreign
Secretary-level talks last August
meant that he had to find a way to
get a dialogue going. The SAARC
summit in Kathmandu last November
came too soon after the cancellation
of talks and the tit-for-tat shelling
across the Line of Control (LoC). After
Indian Foreign Secretary S.
Jaishankar’s exploratory visit to
Pakistan early this year and a couple
of phone exchanges, the decks were
cleared. However, the old format
could not be restored because it
would signal business as usual. The
media and the Opposition would
describe Mr. Modi’s policy as “flipflop” or even worse, a climbdown
under (god forbid) U.S. pressure! So,
the resumed dialogue had to have its
focus on tackling “the menace of
terrorism” and for this, India’s NSA Ajit
Doval would be the most suitable
person. Other issues such as religious
tourism and the release of fishermen
were humanitarian issues and would
resonate well. Mr. Modi had
emphasised the importance of
“regional diplomacy” and even as he
notched up successful visits to
Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and
Bangladesh, he realised that
resuming a dialogue with Pakistan,
and where he could set the agenda,
was necessary for ensuring India’s
leadership in the region and image
as a responsible major power.
The Pakistani response was
predictable. It pointed out that
diplomatic phrases like “all
outstanding issues” and “terrorism in
all its forms” included Kashmir and
state sponsored terrorism. India had
sought the meeting (a victory for
Pakistan), Mr. Modi had committed

to visit Pakistan for the SAARC
summit (a victory for Pakistan), and
additional information was to be
provided by India regarding the
2008 Mumbai attacks (a victory for
Pakistan). However, the genie
refused to go back into the bottle
and the Pakistan Army was unhappy.
Eventually, three days later,
Pakistan’s Foreign Policy and
Security Adviser Sartaj Aziz took the
stage to make it clear that the
outcome at Ufa did not mark the
beginning of a new dialogue
process, and that Kashmir tops the
list of outstanding issues. For good
measure, he added that Pakistan
would continue to provide moral,
diplomatic and political support to its
Kashmiri brethren, the NSAs would
discuss Indian interference in
Pakistan particularly in Balochistan,
additional information would also
cover progress on the investigations
into the Samjhauta Express
bombings in 2007, and there was no
commitment on providing Lakhvi’s
voice samples. The Pakistani High
Commissioner’s Iftar with Hurriyat
leaders that had been postponed
was resurrected as an Eid Milan
event and recent LoC firings have
again raised tensions. The chestthumping protagonists on either side
examined in terms of protocol how
many steps Mr. Modi and Mr. Sharif
each walked to greet the other. The
Ufa moment had become an “ouch”
moment for both sides. Instead of a
win-win, both sides retired hurt and
sulking.
Neighbourhood diplomacy for
a large country like India needs a
lighter touch, and far more attention
to managing expectations than has
been in evidence during the last 12
months. We also need to understand
that as the larger power, the Indian
media resonates loudly in the region,
often reflecting an insensitivity which

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after Ufa. From Mr. ease of doing business. According to CII’s Investment Tracker for May 2015.9 billion into Indian companies as compared to $5 billion in 2013-14. To begin with. the government has put in place a comprehensive set of measures to restore investor sentiments. the high interest rates have been a big deterrent to new investments as projects are rendered unviable. he will also understand the need to manage it in a more productive manner. delays in land acquisition and environmental clearances have led to a bloated pipeline of stranded and delayed projects. Hopefully. this has resulted in stressed bank assets so that banks are inhibited from undertaking additional loan burden for new projects. demand remains muted in the country following three years of high inflation. After last August. 25. including Make in India. with an eye to the domestic political environment while taking into account the larger games being played on the geopolitical canvas. At the same time.5 percentage points. I have personally witnessed how he and his successors and their senior colleagues. As a measure of global confidence in India.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.iasexamportal. A National Asset Management Company may be considered to take non-performing assets off banks’ balance sheets. Modi understood the need for a dialogue with Pakistan. buoyed by proactive reforms and positive macroeconomic scenario. Mr. Additionally. Interest rates. which would unlock lending for investments. ⇒ Stimulated economy. senior officials used to provide background briefings to retired officials and foreign policy commentators so that expectations could be managed in terms of media projection. the concern is that investments are not as forthcoming as expected. However. including for programmes such as Smart Cities and Digital India. growth and employment must be continued at an accelerated pace. despite moderation in global growth and trade. and administrative and environmental clearances. This would both incentivise consumers to purchase durables and make project investments more attractive. ranging across the tax regime. Given that 101 projects worth Rs. in parallel. a stronger dispute resolution mechanism in the infrastructure sector would help unblock funds. The financial sector should shift from a bank-dominated system to a diversified regime with multiple financing options. especially as exports are contracting. used to keep key political leaders. The elevated level of stalled projects has meant subdued demand down the value chain. there is need to drastically reduce interest rates at one go by 1. there is need to shift from a sequential to a simultaneous approval system.3 billion to $31. Renegotiation and Resourcing — need to be addressed to revive projects. On ease of doing business.28 lakh crore to Rs 3. Infrastructure projects require continued attention and Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s monthly interaction under Pragati would help speed up infrastructure construction. There are several reasons for slow investment pick-up. Mr. and Clean Energy. Modi’s media team has yet to understand this. sluggish investments While there are signs that economic growth is reviving.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals generates a backlash.399 crore are stuck in disputes with the National Highways Authority of India. There will be more engagements with Pakistan. http://www. the Smart City mission.com/civilservices/magazine 79 . FDI inflows went up from $25. This ensured that both the pace and the outcome of the dialogue was kept under control. Low profitability of corporates also reduces available resources.44 lakh crore. In turn.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Budget funds allocated for infrastructure need to be speedily implemented.9 billion in 201415 and Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) put in $40. fully briefed. companies had built up high production capacities in anticipation of continued demand. There has been visibly strong improvement in the project pipeline — new project announcements almost doubled in 2014-15 as compared to the previous year and the value of projects completed went up from Rs 3. are on the downtrend with strong expectations of further rate cuts. Foreign Direct Investment limits. business confidence stands at the highest levels in the last three years. and at different levels. A still-vulnerable global economic environment has not contributed to the overall investment scenario in India. Policy action for reviving investments. A number of large-scale initiatives have been introduced to act as magnets for investments. but New Delhi will have to change its tone to ensure that well-crafted diplomatic initiatives do not get reduced to a farce. The 4 R’s — Regulation. Before the global financial crisis. too. and the macroeconomic environment has turned benign.63 lakh crore to Rs 2. the value of stalled projects came down from Rs 3. The investment data is further substantiated by definitive signs of improvement in capital goods production. including the Opposition. particularly for long-term funding. Narasimha Rao onwards. Further. During the last year or so. Risk Allocation.56 lakh crore.

arbitration and conciliation can further help in efficient and time-bound clearance of funds in dispute. which in turn mean more revenues for telecom companies? The recommendation could be flawed on multiple grounds. The suggestion is that such services be regulated “through exercise of licensing powers available under section 4 of the Indian Telegraph Act to ensure a level playing field.The government has taken many positive steps for a progressive tax policy.It’s heartening that the report repeatedly pitches for net neutrality. The report says telecom companies “may become reluctant to invest in expansion of broadband infrastructure” in an environment where apps that provide similar calling services eat into their revenues. Countries such as the U. The more obvious implication is that such applications can’t operate without the government’s permission. including applications such as WhatsApp. and textiles. which might be granted only on the fulfilment of certain conditions or the payment of a fee. The report is laced with quotes. and those who manage what they do not understand.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. under which the user is offered data or access to some sites free of cost. critics have taken the report to task for not recommending a ban on them. The DoT’s report is by no means final and binding. the stated logic behind such a suggestion is open to question. General Assembly’s overall review of the implementation of the World Summit on Information Society outcomes earlier this month. Special attention is required for credit access for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). while provision of utilities to new factories should be streamlined. True. including this one from Archibald Putt: “Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage. ⇒ An unsound recommendation A big let-down amid an otherwise progressive narrative in the Department of Telecommunications’ 80 recent report on net neutrality is its recommendation to bring voice over internet protocol-based (VoIP) domestic calling services. This is true even of its references to zero-rating schemes. Bar this recommendation. This.” It is to be hoped India doesn’t live up to this. A ‘Make in India Technology Venture’ can be set up as a special purpose vehicle under public-private partnership to invest Rs 1 lakh crore in building a knowledge economy. or both. ⇒ Yes to multi-stakeholderism India declared its support for multi-stakeholder governance of the Internet at the ICANN 53 meeting in Buenos Aires and at the first Preparatory Meeting for the U. Dispute resolution mechanisms. Regarding manufacturing. and we recommend that 15 per cent of priority sector lending should be earmarked for SMEs.” and that this may require a process of oversight.iasexamportal. including automotives. Still. as Facebook’s internet. India’s statements at both meetings have drawn attention thanks to the country’s place in the decade-old furious debate still raging over global Internet governance.org does (the report doesn’t seem to be in favour of this). defence. the report does seem to largely reflect a nuanced understanding of the complexities of today’s internet world.N. But there are novel zero-rating schemes where the user is given free data and not a pre-selected bouquet of sites. the principle of data equality that is important to ensure the internet remains a level-playing field. In particular. The NITI Aayog could be designated as the coordination centre for central ministries and States on administrative procedures. selfcertifications and e-governance. in combination with the government’s efforts at consultative policy-making in the context of net neutrality. Certain rules and sections of the new Companies Act impose additional burdens and need to be reviewed carefully.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals Low-risk industries may be exempted from certain clearances. certain focus industries in labour-intensive and advanced sectors should be championed. Don’t telecom companies benefit from the apps that ride on whatever services they provide? Doesn’t more app usage mean more data consumed. But before that. Start-ups should be supported through a suitable scheme. there is a good chance that if the suggestion is implemented the consumer might be worse off for it.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/magazine . Communication Technology and Electronics manufacturing would help reduce imports. At the same time. and Germany have advocated a ‘multi-stakeholder’ http://www. under licensing. it shows pragmatism in saying that “enforcing net neutrality principle is a new idea and may throw up many questions and problems as we go along. The Digital India vision requires simplification of procurement process and a joint government-industry task force to address challenges.” This does not straightaway mean such calls will be chargeable. incentives for Research and Development and Information. may signal the beginning of a more discursive approach to communication policy.S. there is a big question mark over whether differentiating a domestic VoIP call from an international one is possible at all. One. Ease of doing business needs to be tackled for SMEs through single windows.

that would allow Japan to send troops abroad to rescue allies under attack. are now before the upper house.S. The change in India’s stand globally signals potential openness to consultative policy-making. This is in keeping with this government’s overhaul of systems to modern decision-making and accountability systems. the then Minister of Communications and Information Technology. the government’s approach to domestic communication policy may be a good indicator of its intentions for the Internet. Consultative governance of Internet policy will mean significant changes both in the process followed and in our deep-seated attitudes towards governance. Kapil Sibal. For consultations to work. Over a period of seven decades. has been focussed on self-defence. It is a promising start and may be the beginning of consultative decisionmaking that gives citizens more avenues to discuss the best way for them to access information. Abe seems determined to take it forward. in April 2015. This big shift in approach makes the legislation controversial and unpopular. civil society and technical community while making decisions that affect the Internet. The department’s decision to call for public comment and response to the report is commendable. which has tended to confine citizen participation in governance to the casting of the vote. Japan’s security policy. According to recent polls. It is good to see that the Indian government is interrogating this standpoint. But the present bills seek to replace the self-defence doctrine with “collective self-defence”. Following this. If India is serious about consultative decision-making. only a quarter of the Japanese population supports the legislation. At the IGF 2012. which is a habit that will also take time to develop. arguing that this is the most equitable model. and encourages independent inputs that effectively safeguard citizens’ rights. favouring the ‘multilateral model’ in which national governments make decisions through an equal vote. both Japan and the U. First. During Mr.-based corporations.S. This is why our government has consistently supported the traditional Westphalian governance model based on reasoning that a multilateral conversation between governments is likely to be more equitable than one in which international companies that are larger than most countries can dominate. We will need to carefully craft our policies to ensure that the process goes beyond giving industry a voice.com/civilservices/magazine 81 . The bills. it will be worthwhile to build the more ad hoc processes followed for the net neutrality report into a constantlyimproving system. This is mainly because of two inter-connected factors. the government set up an advisory group for the India Internet Governance forum. and frequently invites inputs including in the net neutrality consultation. The recent net neutrality consultations are a step in the right direction.iasexamportal. to revise its security doctrine.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. announced new security guidelines which urged Tokyo to take “more responsibility” in their bilateral http://www. which includes independent regulators that conduct wide consultations and frame policy after accounting for the concerns of various stakeholders. India has opposed this point of view in the past. Since ‘multistakeholder’ governance is an ambiguous term . If the government has to develop the uncomfortable habit of being more immediately responsive and accountable for decisions. industry.S. and a range of citizens made the effort to contribute and engage. shaped under a war-renouncing Constitution following the misadventures of the imperial regime. and we have a lot to learn from other democracies that do this on a regular basis. Abe’s visit to the U. spoke of the India’s support for the multi stakeholder model. especially U. In this context. A clear effort has been made at consultation and responsiveness. India will still need to work out details and build on existing efforts like the net neutrality consultation and the multi stakeholder advisory group. it is worth taking a close look at how the net neutrality policy is being made. This is consistent with these countries’ domestic approach to communication policy. which seek to rewrite the country’s post-War pacifist security policy. especially since the department is under no legal obligation to do this. we the stakeholders also need to take responsibility for our own communication policy.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals model that consults governments. The net neutrality consultation was a promising debut in which the government took the time to listen and respond.S. This has been consistent with India’s domestic command-control communication policy. ⇒ Japan’s security dilemma The security legislation proposed by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration moved a step closer to becoming law when Parliament’s lower house approved it. Japan has come under huge pressure from the U.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. This is not the first time that India has flirted with the idea of multi-stakeholder governance. we will need to provide well-researched inputs and a continued willingness to engage and see other points of view. The TRAI has experience with inputs from public consultations. India’s fears about multi-stakeholder governance have always had their roots in its concerns about decision-making being dominated by corporations. But Mr.

For those not familiar with the history of the Court.H. it might be instructive to understand why. If the latter happens. More images are expected to be sent on by the spacecraft until August next year. The legal question before the Court was whether as a consequence of a presidential order suspending the fundamental right to life and personal liberty (Article 21) during the operation of the Emergency under http://www. certainly rekindled interest in science among students. space exploration has always had the power to hold ordinary people under a spell. almost apologetic language used by the judges confirmed this impression. the nationalist politician that Mr. that has historical dimensions. that would create wrinkles in East Asian stability as the rivalry between China and Japan. the four judges in the majority. For that to happen. This explains why the Prime Minister is in a hurry to get the bills passed despite opposition. fault lines. would worsen.N. Mr. of similar size. Contrary to expectations. and these could contain invaluable information about both Pluto and its moon.com/civilservices/magazine . Much like Pluto.500 metres above it is also less than 100 million years old. in the Kuiper belt. Abe promised U. At a time when basic science appears to have become less attractive. In ADM Jabalpur. it should focus on solving its problems with China bilaterally. Chief Justice A. With exploration being second nature to humans. Unlike other mega-science projects of equal importance. would help Tokyo address its security challenges. the astronomer who discovered Pluto in 1930. the last 82 unexplored world in the Solar System. Australia and India — to counter Chinese influence in the Pacific. and other objects in the Kuiper belt. scientist Neil deGrasse Tyson likened it to “a hole-in-one on a two-mile golf shot”. Without doubt. the dwarf planet is geologically active with an internal heat source that drives the engine.V. A satellite carrying the ashes of Clyde Tombaugh. the best way will be to continue its acclaimed policy of renunciation of war. lawmakers to approve a new defence bill package “by this summer”. and is one of the “youngest surfaces seen in the Solar System”. India’s m`oon mission Chandrayaan-1 and the recent Mars Orbiter Mission Mangalyaan. probably less than 100 million years old. Instead. Given that the consequences of their error were entirely to the government’s advantage. Y.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. the surface is very young. ⇒ Historic fly-by History was made on July 14 when NASA’s New Horizons became the first spacecraft to successfully fly by the dwarf planet Pluto. that the Supreme Court had its darkest hour in this period. Abe has criticised China’s territorial ambitions in the South China Sea. and work towards essential regional stability. Getting as close as 12. But the question is whether the move to reorient the pacifist security posturing. and Tokyo and Beijing have a dispute over islands in the East China Sea held by Japan.. Chandrachud and P. sees it as a necessity to have an outward-looking security policy to contain China’s rise. confirmed Pluto’s pride of place as the largest object in the Kuiper belt: Pluto was demoted to dwarf planet status in August 2006 after the discovery of Eris. its largest moon Charon too has a young surface with geologically diverse features. Bhagwati handed down a judgment that was fatally flawed in law. and the only way to explain this is by rejecting the grand old theory of an inert Pluto made up of ice and rock.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals security arrangement.S. Mr. Abe is. rift valleys and other features underlines the presence of active tectonics. the existence of high mountains. the U.S. which ensured peace over the last seven decades when Japan rose as an economic powerhouse from the ruins of the Second World War.500 km of the dwarf planet after travelling for nearly a decade and covering a distance of nearly 5 billion km is an extraordinary achievement. He had earlier proposed to have a “strategic diamond” of four maritime democracies — Japan. The scientific treasure that has been returned since then by the baby grand piano-size spacecraft has already “dramatically surpassed” expectations. it was widely viewed as the death of an independent judiciary. it is expeditions such as these that awaken curiosity and fire our interest in science. That will not be in the interest of either Japan or Asia. This it did after travelling a distance of nearly 5 billion kilometres since its launch in January 2006. Beg. expeditions such as these could help reverse the trend. Ray and his successor Chief Justices M. The excessively deferential. and it has some yet-to-be deciphered mechanism that refreshes the surface from time to time. the first close-up image revealed that the surface of Pluto was not riddled with any impact craters formed by objects bombarding it. possible volcanoes. Instead. tidal heating can be ruled out as Pluto does not orbit any giant planet. Second.N. and China in the Pacific — one an existing super power and the other a rising super power.iasexamportal. ⇒ A atonement gone too far? It has often been heard during discussions surrounding the 40th anniversary of the Emergency in the last month. Japan should also be wary of joining the great game between the U. a mountain range jutting out 3. or lead to a flareup of tensions in an already volatile East Asia. Similar to the crater-free surface. Similarly.S.

yet another institution in India whose independence lay shattered by the government. However.com/civilservices/magazine 83 . preserving a minimal but significant remit for judicial review to assess whether the legal requirements for detaining a person had been met. it has achieved this at the cost of quality. is evidence of the chain reaction that the Supreme Court’s activist avatar has set off across the judicial spectrum. regulates political advertising. it is a principle of common law that predates the Constitution.e. It was only the dissenting judgment of Khanna J. That neither of these are judicial functions and are being unjustly being usurped by a tribunal that has far exceeded its mandate. the Supreme Court looked all too human. personal liberty and judicial review in the Constitution. there can be no debate on the proposition that the power of judicial review. is considering imposing a congestion charge for cars as well. particularly the latter whose chairpersons are usually retired Supreme Court Justices. whether a detention order under MISA was validly issued in terms of the statute itself is a question that the Court must remain competent to adjudicate on notwithstanding the emergency at hand. The Court monitors criminal trials. discipline and the constitutional role judges are expected to perform. protects the environment. This sets an unhealthy precedent for other courts and tribunals in the country. the power of the Supreme Court to examine the legality of executive action does not depend on Article 21. it would be blinkered to not confront newer challenges that damage the http://www. sets guidelines for adoption. though the intention of the government would not be second-guessed by the Court. that the rule of law in an Emergency would be entirely what the government said it should. This was a delicate balance. Thus. i. The majority held that Article 21 of the Constitution that had been suspended was the sole repository of life. lays down norms for sexual harassment in the workplace. outside the Constitution. it might be time to not single-mindedly harp on the significance of an independent judiciary. as a court of law. its reputation in shreds. the judges were entirely mistaken. To take a particularly egregious example. Today. In legal terms. that spoke truth to power. While it is an arguable proposition whether there is a right to life and personal liberty in natural law. it did not provide a carte blanche to the government. their remit is not legal.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. That all these tasks are crucial but tardily undertaken by government can scarcely be questioned. the National Green Tribunal has banned diesel vehicles more than 10 years old in Delhi and if reports are to be believed. in hindsight as the real rationale of the Emergency became apparent. the Supreme Court was called upon in this case to balance the interest of public order in an Emergency with the right to life and personal liberty guaranteed to every person. is and must remain a cherished virtue. If this genuflection did not look perverse per se. Nine High Courts called upon to perform the same function had found a nuanced answer by which they had held that the right to life cannot be absolutely subservient to public order merely because the government declared so — the legality of detentions could be judicially reviewed. Otherwise. Further. however.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals Article 359 of the Constitution.iasexamportal. supervises police reform among a range of other tasks of government. it was devastating for the image of the Court as an independent institution. while public interest litigation has restored the independent image of the Supreme Court. On both counts. is hardly a creature of Article 21. Judicial independence. With Justice Beg accepting the government’s offer in defiance of convention. Justice Khanna was superseded when by convention he ought to have been appointed the next Chief Justice of India. the rule of ultra vires. At the same time. Second. could challenge their detentions as unlawful in a court of law. detenus who had been put behind bars under the provisions of MISA without any reasons being provided. a government can — and in the case of Indira Gandhi’s government did — round up its opponents in the name of national security. The Supreme Court however reversed this view and made the right to life and personal liberty literally a bounty of the government. As a price for his honesty. that the act of government cannot go beyond the power vested in it by the legislature.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. But for an unelected and largely unaccountable institution such as the Supreme Court to be at the forefront of matters relating to governance is equally dangerous — the choice of issues it takes up is arbitrary. As we mark 40 years of the Emergency and the darkest period in the Supreme Court’s history. under the pretext of the Emergency. On the one hand it did not enquire into the subjective satisfaction of the government as to whether an emergency proclamation was required or whether detention of particular persons was expedient. requiring a degree of technical competence and institutional capacity in ensuring compliance that the Court simply does not possess. their results often counterproductive.

and U. Yet. economic and geopolitical. Another is the spread and reach of exclusivist ideologies such as Wahhabism and Salafism that are being promoted by West Asian state actors.S. there was a confluence of such factors that were in favour of a peaceful solution. leading both sides to hold secret negotiations in early 2013. Mr. a triumph for diplomacy U. And. From the very early days of his presidency. former President Hashemi Rafsanjani had offered a $1-billion oil deal to an American company. ⇒ India and the IS The meteoric rise of Islamic State into a state-like apparatus from the detritus of the civil war and insurgency-riven Iraq and Syria has been well-documented.S. their efforts should be pushed by other factors. This is accurate. Islam in India has generally been spared from the overweening influence of West Asian Wahhabism or the Saudi version of Salafism. on the other hand. ⇒ The Iran deal. President Bill Clinton scuttled the deal. It is in this context that the Union Home Ministry’s decision to formulate a coherent national strategy to take on IS and prevent Indians being recruited by it must be seen. and when compared with the hostility towards Iran advocated by his predecessor. an understated American Gulf ally that has good ties with Iran. through a mixture of brutality. While leaders’ vision and resolve are an imperative. who was President during 19972005. in Oman. Rouhani is not the first Iranian President who expressed a willingness to engage with the West. Reformist Mohammed Khatami. IS practises with virulence even more extreme versions of these.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals credibility of our independent judiciary today — unpardonable delays and overweening judges taking on the mantle of national government by proxy. What is perhaps less understood is how it has managed to draw recruits from all over the world. and Iran. The Obama administration continued with the sanctions. The Indian state’s ability to hold true to its secular fabric and to its Constitution will determine how far it can stem such disaffection. fear and immense money power. seemed to be on a new path of cooperation.S. http://www. even as IS symbols have been seen in places such as Kashmir at rallies led by separatist groups. Iran had even assisted the U. The NDA government and the Prime Minister have gone on record saying that IS has negligible support among Muslims in India. Reports have indicated that less than a dozen Indians have joined IS in the past year. economically. and some of them have linked up with terrorist groups. both Iran and the U.” In the early years of the Bush presidency. following incidents such as the Babri Masjid demolition and the Gujarat riots. as apostates.S. The election of the moderate Rouhani as Iran’s President in August 2013 breathed new life into the diplomatic process. The Supreme Court 40 years on is a different institution — it must be cognisant of its history but not at the cost of being blind to its present. despite the presence of a fundamentalist streak among certain pockets. has also been noted widely. for comprehensive solutions to deep-rooted crises.S.’s] willingness to engage in officially authorized discussions with Iran. Tehran responded positively to this outreach. How the terror group has managed to retain control over territory it holds. after the September 11.S. President Barack Obama and his Iranian counterpart Hassan Rouhani deserve credit. 2001 terror attacks in the U. the possibility of the ideological influence of groups such as IS coming to play in India is limited. But historical enmities do not always get resolved only by the commitment of leaders. Obama had taken a pragmatic view of the nuclear standoff.S. but U. State Secretary Madeleine Albright even “reiterated our [the U. in an apparent readiness to engage with the U. Radical groups have spread their influence in the last decade owing to grievances and disaffection. In the case of Iran.. Mr. had called for dialogue between the peoples of the U. A tentative reason being offered is the radicalisation of some alienated Muslims even in countries that promote multiculturalism and the ease of assimilation of minority identities within the nation-state. notably political. In other words. invasion of Afghanistan and participated in international efforts to establish a new Afghan government. IS’s millenarian and medieval notions of 84 Islam treats Muslims who do not adhere to its ideology.iasexamportal. especially members of other non-Sunni sects of Islam. has a broad syncretic reach. Islam in India. The Clinton administration welcomed this. while at the same time signalling his readiness to engage with the Islamic Republic.S. there is the distinct possibility of IS targeting or influencing disaffected youth among the community. In 1995.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. The threat of IS in India has to be tackled not just by means of a securityoriented response — through coordination among police and intelligence agencies as has been proposed by the Home Ministry — but also by ensuring that the grounds of this disaffection among India’s largest minority community are addressed in a just way.com/civilservices/magazine .S.

But the decision in Iran to get into direct talks with the U. America doesn’t want to send ground troops to Iraq and its aerial campaign alone can’t defeat IS.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals Mr.S. Ahmadinejad’s victory over Green movement leader Mir Hossein Mousavi. On the regional front as well. and the battle for Tikrit in Iraq has shown that American warplanes and Iranian-trained Shia militias can coordinate in attacking IS. but are not restricted to. The administration faced daunting challenges in Asia: stabilising Iraq and Afghanistan. Will the U. Its socalled leadership of the world was in a state of disarray. Khamenei had to make a choice: either continue the same conservative (foreign and domestic) policies and risk public anger (which in Egypt and Tunisia proved fatal for even wellentrenched regimes). ⇒ Constitutional conversations on Adivasi rights Even 67 years after Independence. or adapt to new realities. So the stage is set for greater cooperation. elementary education. Several key cities in the northwest are in the hands of IS. This is because Iran is a spoiler regional power. Milani puts it. hoping to bring the spoiler power to the table of stability. and Iran together. Take the case of Iraq. streets in the Arab world witnessed scenes of protests against dictatorships.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. There was also a vibrant anti-war movement in the U. two of the U. These factors forced the Obama administration to recalibrate the country’s foreign policy. special forces in the 2001 war. but sufficiently powerful to make it costly for the U. suited to its interests. sending alarm bells ringing across the region. There are conservative opponents on both sides to such a rapprochement. the Obama administration chose to engage with Iran. which would not only be a strategic blow. But the road ahead is not easy. In two years.S. ditch the U.S. to achieve its own goals. Iran was particularly vulnerable as the country’s economy was in a bad shape following the sanctions. before effecting any structural change in its foreign policy orientation. drinking water http://www.S. And the deal on the nuclear issue has removed one of the major obstacles in real rapprochement.S. one that is insufficiently powerful to shape West Asia to its own liking. The way ahead was to open the door of diplomacy for Iran.S. On the other hand. the problems of Adivasi communities are about access to basic needs. Public resentment against Mr. The mass protests that broke out after the controversial re-election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2009 were a moment of reckoning for the elite in Tehran. Iran would not like to see the Taliban returning to power in its neighbouring country.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. and from a strategic point of view. both sides have coordinated once in taking on the Taliban.. The Revolutionary Guards had worked with U. the new geopolitical realities in Asia also played a crucial role in bringing the U. which has withdrawn most troops from Afghanistan. For example. all without risking one more major war. the public distribution system. displaying a degree of statesmanship on the issue. be able to withstand their pressure and build a new arena for partnership with Iran? Or will the Iranians. The country was in the midst of an economic crisis. the unprecedented protests had already turned the tables.S. These include. but they couldn’t bring in any meaningful measures those years because of resistance from the conservatives. neutralising terror groups operating from within the region and dealing with Iran. its people were tired of the wars the previous administration fought. There was also a realisation in the administration that one more full-scale war in West Asia would be even more disastrous for the region. now wants Iran’s help in stabilising the country. engage with the outside world and explore ways to unfreeze the country’s real potential. community healthcare. So. Besides the internal dynamics.iasexamportal. It needs allies on the ground. If Baghdad falls. Reformists were very active in Tehran’s power corridors when Khatami was the President. a country that the Americans helped destroy. Iran’s sphere of influence was on the wane after the rise of the Islamic State (IS) and the civil war in Syria. What next? The U. Obama became President at a particular juncture of American history. Besides. with the sanctions removed and economically empowered. as the University of South Florida’s Mohsen M. the U. it would be a setback for both American and Iranian interests in West Asia. would like Iran to no longer be a spoiler power and instead play a stabilising role in West Asia. Though Khamenei endorsed Mr. was taken much later. Iran would seek strategic assurance from Washington that it would not return to anti-Iranism. In Afghanistan.S. Ahmadinejad was overflowing. shares more strategic interests with Iran in Iraq and Afghanistan than any other Asian country. and it was triggered by a silent reformist movement that gradually gained prominence in Tehran. and go to the Russians? Only time will tell. American power was in steady decline.S.S. but also be a direct threat to millions of Afghan Shias. food security.’s key allies in the region — Israel and Saudi Arabia — would resist any attempt to bring Iran into the diplomatic mainstream.S. The U.com/civilservices/magazine 85 . He chose the latter. sustainable livelihood support.

assembly and association in the interests of public morality. we can scarcely forget that the rights of tribal communities in India are protected by the Constitution and special legislations. This. rich in its defence of the rights of Adivasi communities to their homelands. 17 (abolition of untouchability). Article 19 of the Constitution is commonly understood. For them. including full access to the commons. as set out in Article 21 and under Schedules V and VI of the Indian Constitution. decency and integrity and sovereignty of the state — these aspects and their restrictions are what figure most often in animated fashion in debates around Article 19. witnessed the fragmentation of their habitats and homelands and the disruption of their cultures through predatory tourism. The first clause of Article 19 reads as follows: 19(1) All citizens shall have the right (a) To freedom of speech and expression. and other weaker sections) from the Directive Principles of State Policy. 23 (right against exploitation) from the Fundamental Rights chapter of the Constitution and Articles 38 (securing a just social order). In other words. association. the Chenchus of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. (c) To form associations or unions. 39 (guiding principles of policy) and 46 (promotion of educational and economic interests of SCs. when read with existing protections (for instance as set out in Samata or similar cases) offers a core and express fundamental right protection to Adivasis (as distinct from legal/ statutory protection) from a range of state and non-state intrusions in scheduled areas as well as from the perennial threat of eviction of Adivasis from their homelands. (b) To assemble peaceably and without arms. tribal communities. Yet.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Nor can the Adivasis’ unhindered access to land and forests. Clauses 19 (2) to (4) set out the reasonable restrictions to speech. there are some tribal communities that fall within the categories of Scheduled Castes (SC) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) and some that don’t fall into any of these categories. an important part of Article 19 protections have to do specifically with protection of interests of STs (Clause 5) as distinct from other marginalised groups through limitations on right to freedom of movement [sub-cause 1(d)] and right to freedom of residence [sub-clause 1(d)]. as a provision that protects freedom of speech. Entire communities across States have been dispossessed systematically through state action. and infrastructure.com/civilservices/magazine . especially the STs. Within the category of Scheduled Tribes (ST). expression. trade or business. a small cluster of 86 groups that include the Jarawas of the Andaman Islands. (d) To move freely throughout the territory of India. Notwithstanding these complex intersections and overlaps (and exclusions in some instances). be understated. they are in need of special protection even within the larger ST category. or to carry on any occupation. through text and case law. The oft-quoted Samata judgment of 1997. and (f) omitted (g) To practise any profession. evident in their rapidly dwindling numbers. it is important to stress that the values of tribal culture are transmitted in a manner that protects the right of the bearers of knowledge to determine the terms of the transmission without exploitation or commodification. equality of opportunity remains largely unfulfilled. The right of tribal peoples to development through pathways that affirm their autonomy and dignity. I would argue. Clause 5 of Article 19 reads as follows: 19 (5) Nothing in sub clauses (d) and (e) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes. These groups face an acute crisis of survival. and have been reduced from owners of resources and well-knit. It is the interests of STs that are paramount in this fundamental right http://www. While most of these protections are available to groups named in The Constitution (Schedule Tribes) Order 1950. they are. especially in scheduled areas. And indeed. there are over 500 groups listed of whom roughly 70 are part of the subclassification Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups. reasonable restrictions on the exercise of any of the rights conferred by the said sub clauses either in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe (emphasis added). largely self-sufficient communities to wage earners in agriculture and urban agglomerates with uncertain futures. 16 (equality of opportunity). protections in relation to non-tribal communities as well as in relation to other tribal communities. Tribal communities have. 15 (nondiscrimination). residence and calling. STs.iasexamportal.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. is often seen as the core of Adivasi rights. In this context. assembly. over the decades. and the Baigas of Chhattisgarh. posits an inter-reading of Articles 14 (equality). are the subject of special constitutional attention. 21 (life and liberty). Therefore. or prevent the State from making any law imposing. All this has left them shattered and impoverished. movement.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals and sanitation. debt. (e) To reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.

this move only appears intended to undermine the RBI’s autonomy. It provides for the setting up of a Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) to debate on monetary affairs and decide the policy rate. ⇒ A subsidy and some questions The Central government’s decision this week to extend the interest subvention scheme on bank loans given to land-owning farmers at 7 per cent is essentially a welcome move.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. it is not incorrect to allow the government a say in matters of monetary policy.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. namely. Srikrishna. The TAC comprises officials from the RBI besides a few external experts. Prudence suggests that RBI and like institutions must be allowed to function independently. The revised draft circulated for public discussion by the Finance Ministry. its framework and its possibilities in the fullest sense. who charge high rates of interest and often insist on their loans being re-paid first — which forces farmers to divert a part of the subsidised bank loans to repay them. goes by the views of a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) on such issues. ⇒ Give the RBI its independence A new era in monetary policy formulation is set to start with the Union Finance Ministry releasing the revised draft of the Indian Financial Code (IFC). seeks to vest in the government the power to nominate four members to the MPC. weak supervision of credit utilisation and the categorisation of gold loans as agricultural loans are creating significant grey areas and avenues for loan amounts to be used for purposes other than farming. the importance of a cohesive action plan should not be underestimated. the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). has recommended veto power for the RBI Governor. what is less clear is the purpose for which many of these loans are being put to. the need to extend such loans to farmers at low interest levels admittedly exists. Some farmers put the amounts in fixed deposit accounts to earn higher interest than what they pay. which had actually succeeded in insuring the Indian economy against the profligate policies of successive governments. seems to be trying to push too much of government into monetary matters. The revised draft. with the subvention component fluctuating between 1.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals provision. Seen in tandem with its earlier bid to remove from the RBI the public debt management function. This is especially so in a context where there is no real clarity on how the current monsoon will turn out to be. basically offering a sort of agricultural subsidy. submitted by the Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission (FSLRC) headed by former Supreme Court judge B. With an additional subvention component of 3 per cent to encourage timely repayment. Currently. Most farmers do not earn enough to meet http://www. It has also recommended that the government have three nominees in the sevenmember MPC. the RBI Governor has the last word. running at a deficit of 7 per cent as it does currently. It advises the central banker on the monetary policy stance based on macro-economic and monetary developments. however. We may find answers to other questions as well around an idea of justice that we grapple with every day. This scheme. what is the point of giving the RBI Governor the right to a casting vote? Fiscal bosses have fixed tenures. the “sovereignty and integrity of India” or “public order. However. unlike institutions such as the RBI that are not subject to electoral cycles.com/civilservices/magazine 87 . The draft IFC. Perhaps it is time to reinvigorate our reading of the Constitution in the troubled times we live in. the monetary policy regulator. however. The Reserve Bank of India recently initiated an investigation into the apparent diversion of agricultural loans for unintended purposes. however. Understanding the situation of tribal communities is key to understanding the Constitution. If the government is to have majority control in the MPC. has been in place since 2006-07. However. It would appear that farmers’ existing debts to money-lenders. At certain points of the cropping cycle farmers need large amounts of money and they turn to money-lenders. and the financial shenanigans in other economies. 3 lakh at just 4 per cent interest. and the right to veto any decision of the TAC. It proposes that no veto power be given to the Governor.N. Given this.5 and 3 per cent. which is presented importantly as a restriction on an enumerated right that is clear and specific — not a restriction of a general nature.” as is the case with the other constituent freedoms in Article 19. farmers can effectively avail themselves of up to Rs. and that at best he be allowed a casting vote to use in the event of a tie.” “decency” or “morality. In the context of the continuing uneasy relationship between the fiscal and monetary bosses and in light of the changing dynamics of the domestic economy owing to assorted factors falling outside policy controls. With agricultural yield levels and incomes per acre falling or languishing. The FSLRC.iasexamportal. has suggested that the MPC members be appointed after due consultations between the government and the RBI. This move is in line with practices in many of the developing countries where the central banks have pursued the committee approach to address monetary policy issues.

in practice there are two classes of ordinary passports: ECR and ECNR.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals their needs. the time spent in the new country. Subsequently. with the International Organization of Migration predicting that India will also soon emerge as one of the largest migrant-sending countries of the world. This step will have the added advantage of potentially improving the plight of farmers. As members of the Committee set up by the MOIA to draft a migration policy. which did not cover the emigration of people with technical qualifications and professional expertise. airports. how do we coordinate migration? A major drawback of the existing system is the application of the Emigration Act of 1983. were invoked at times. by the protector of emigrants officers. This system needs to be abolished at the earliest because ECR passports can be imaginatively interpreted as ‘Exploitation Compulsorily Recommended’. and departures are managed by the Bureau of Migration of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). and the rehabilitation process after return. The Philippines. Ironically. to society. recruitment agencies. This gives an idea of how much remittances contribute to India’s foreign exchange reserve. the United Progressive Alliance government-I.000 for unskilled workers. and take one of two steps. Unfortunately. about 58 per cent exist only on paper. Of these. ordinary. “The administrative apparatus itself has accentuated corruption as a result of the nexus formed between erring government officials and recruiting agencies. But the Emigration Management Bill is still waiting to be placed in the public domain for debate. Implementing direct transfers to bank accounts and investing in research and development to bolster crop yields should serve the same purpose that the low-interest loans currently serve. emigration flows took place without a proper administrative or legal framework. official and diplomatic. subscribing to the logic of “protection by exception”.439 recruitment agencies as of 2012. pulling in $64 billion. and so these loans serve as an auxiliary source of income.iasexamportal.” said the MOIA in Parliament in September 2007. A look at the governing structure at each stage shows that India is probably the only country in the world where migration is managed by three different Ministries: the passport is issued by the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA). Or it could rethink the manner in which it wants to subsidise farmers. Its High-Level Committee on the Indian Diaspora reported that there were 16 million Indian diaspora. as a matter of convenience. These passport holders are exploited at every stage of migration: at passport offices. although we have data on the number of shoes or cars exported from India. a person migrating from Kerala to Saudi Arabia spent Rs.com/civilservices/magazine . and that they help address actual distress in the field. China doesn’t lag far behind. The government needs to recognise the fact that the system of interest subvention will increasingly finance consumption rather than farming. and to families in India. is urgently required. ranked third. The governance structure needs a complete revamp to make migration easy. As Indian workers. And this figure is only expected to grow. Later.606 — almost four times more than the PGE-approved service charges of Rs. 3 lakh at the time of recruitment. drawing in $70 billion to the country’s economy from its global migrant workforce in 2014. The number increased in the foreword of the report to 20 million. So. The first holistic attempt to estimate the number of migrants was made during the tenure of the National Democratic Alliance-I government. Emigration clearance is managed from just nine locations across India.74. two kinds of passports were created: Emigration Check Required (ECR) and Emigration Check Not Required (ECNR). emigration clearance for Emigration Check Required (ECR) passports comes under the MOIA. we have no clear idea of the number of Indian 88 migrants. the 1983 Act also brought into force a new system of “emigration clearance” under which “no citizen of India” was permitted to emigrate without PGE authorisation. estimated the number to be 25 million. There are three stages in a migrant’s life cycle: the time before departure. though certain provisions of the Emigration Act of 1922. It could instruct banks to step up scrutiny on the use the loan is being put to. Though the Passports Act 1967 talks of only three types of passports. we submitted a draft about five years ago. An inclusive approach that recognises just one category — irrespective of their educational qualifications — who might emigrate safely and through legal channels. which set up the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (MOIA). with an approved 1.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. and emigration and customs officials. India continues to be the leading country in remittances. however. travel agents. both http://www.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Till 1983. gets less than half of what India does ($28 billion) from its migrant population. including consumption expenditure. The soft loans are a good idea that needs to be managed and supervised well in order to ensure that the intended outcomes are ensured. Nurses report that they pay about Rs. Equally bad is the cost of migration. ⇒ Left stranded on strange shores According to the latest World Bank figures. 20. According to the Kerala Migration Survey 2008.

The third problem is the lack of a rehabilitation policy when migrants return. Speaker John Boehner slammed it as “a bad deal” that “paves the way for a nuclear Iran” and “vowed to do everything possible to scuttle it” even as Mr.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals skilled and unskilled. the rest will be shipped out.S.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Two years ago. U. the Agreement was submitted to the U. led by former secretary of state Madeleine Albright and former secretary of defence William Perry issued a statement welcoming it as “a landmark agreement unprecedented in its importance.-backed military strike would succeed in taking out Iran’s entire nuclear capability. Collective economic sanctions had worked up to a point because these were intended to give diplomacy a chance. Russia and Germany — along with the European Union). A covert cyber operation. the costs of migration should be brought down to a minimum or to “zero cost of migration”. China. ⇒ Winds of change in West Asia There has been no dearth of hyperbole on the nuclear agreement signed last week in Vienna between Iran and the P5+1 (the United States. A deal would also bolster Iran’s standing regionally. it had to accept intrusive inspections to give out the reassurance that it was not cheating.S. ‘Stuxnet’. from a lead time of months to a year plus.iasexamportal. U. The Arak heavy water reactor will be redesigned and Iran will not undertake any reprocessing activity. migrants who have worked in the construction sector for about 10 years in Dubai where they would have acquired skills that will be in demand in fast-growing cities such as Kochi. 40 aides per 20 lakh people is not only meagre. The U. Take for instance. widely believed to be a joint U. Another problem is at the destination where workers depend on the Indian Embassies.” Russian President Vladimir Putin said that “the world heaved a sigh of relief” while German Chancellor Angela Merkel called it “a hugely important success”. The nuclear dimension of the agreement is relatively straightforward. France. Iran had to step back from the nuclear threshold. Iran was perceived to be just a few months away from acquiring enough highly enriched uranium to produce a bomb.Israeli effort.S. Iran could accept more intrusive verification provided this right was conceded. which host about 20 lakh Indian migrants each. Iranian President Hassan Rouhani called it a good agreement when he announce(d) “to our people that our prayers have come true”. sanctions relief was necessary for higher growth. President Barack Obama was the most restrained when he said that the deal “offers an opportunity to move in a new direction”. needed to be certain that sanctions could snap back into place in case Iran tried a breakout. the number of centrifuges has been reduced by more than two thirds and enrichment will be restricted to a single facility at Natanz. Senator Lindsey Graham.S. the International Atomic http://www. military generals and ambassadors. negotiations were the only way forward. Further. which could be negotiated.. On July 20.S. while a group of 60 former secretaries.S. but unacceptable to take care of the workers’ problems.com/civilservices/magazine 89 . Equally important for Iran was the narrative that it was within its rights as a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty to build an enrichment capability for peaceful purposes. An effective rehabilitation policy will help migrants use their enhanced skills when they return home.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. in both Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. was convinced that under the circumstances. While the duration of the agreement is 10 years.S.. In both countries. The U. research centre where no fissile material can be introduced. only two labour attaches are available in both the embassies and the consulates. A strong migration policy is the only way forward. damaged a number of centrifuges in 2009-10 but the programme has rebounded since then. national security advisers. Under the JCPOA.6 per cent. the United Kingdom. technology. That meant retaining the capability while accepting constraints on exercising it for a period of time. The remaining centrifuges will be mothballed and the Fordow enrichment facility will be converted into a nuclear. described it as “a most dangerous irresponsible step”. physics. the direct contact for most workers on any issue is the labour attaches affiliated to the Indian Embassy. a Republican presidential candidate. Iran will retain only 300 kg of uranium enriched to a level of 3. While Iran could still sustain the sanctions and survive. It was not an ideal solution but the best under the circumstances. using the worm. There was no certainty that a U. From its existing stockpile of nearly 10 MT of partially enriched uranium. Assuming that each attache has 20 workers to help them handle labour issues. For instance. Do we encourage and offer them re-employment? Do we even know the exact numbers of those who return to India? It is high time India gave its migrants their share of rights in return for the amount we receive in remittances. Congress for a mandatory 60-day review. Obama warned that he would veto a negative decision by Congress. are in demand everywhere.

only helped to confound the confusion. weak demand. This will gradually permit nearly $100 billion of blocked funds to be released and. Gold and oil comprise a large part of India’s imports in terms of value. Before Pluto’s fly-by on July 14. is inversely related to the growth prospects of the U. The reasons behind the slipping interest in gold is not difficult to fathom. for the first time in nearly a decade.iasexamportal.S. everyone in the international marketplace is wary of gold. a bright heart-shaped feature.05 an ounce. and consequently they are major contributors to the country’s trade deficit. it appears. is playing the villain. it helped pare losses from last Monday when the price slid to its lowest since March 2009. slipping to an intra-day low-point of $1. more significantly. the dipping global oil prices hold hope for investors in gold. India’s Chandrayaan-1 and the Mars Orbiter Mission. must be made a lot more simpler and common man-friendly to aid this process. both demonstrating technological prowess and generating scientific interest. An inadvertent release on a rate forecast on the website of the Federal Reserve. Its vastness enables fundamental experiments. There is a flipside to this. The fall of oil could yet prove a rescuer for gold. a 24-day time frame is provided for adjudication by a joint commission to be set up under the JCPOA. for example. A sustained recovery in gold prices.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Though the rally suggests that there could be an improvement in market sentiment. the government has to go the extra mile to coax them to park idle gold in banks and earn interest. If there is a serious consequential fallout on U. To an extent. and depends on imports to meet its entire demand. pushed prices back to around $1. The proposed gold monetisation scheme. however.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals Energy Agency verification provisions will remain in effect for an additional five years. a stronger dollar remains the topic that dominates discussions in the marketplace. ⇒ All eyes on Pluto The enhanced images of Pluto that were recently released by Nasa’s New Horizons team were truly dazzling. Indeed. In case of a dispute. ⇒ Signals from gold prices The yellow metal dominated the world market scene all of last week.S. A strengthening dollar could nullify the impact of the fall in gold prices. at least in the near-term. But why is there such increased interest among scientists in Pluto. and its best images — showing an immense dark band called the Whale. What does the fall in gold prices portend for India? The country consumes 800 to 900 tonnes of the metal annually. Nuclear-related imports are permitted but will be channelled through a designated procurement channel. http://www.8 billion kilometers from the Sun and at the edge of the solar system? Part of the excitement stems from the fact that space is an ideal laboratory for scientists. Indians have traditionally attached a sentimental value to gold. The Comex gold futures for August still ended their fifth consecutive week in negative territory. all eyes are now on the Federal Reserve. At the moment. there is a provision for seeking inspections if treaty violating activity is suspected. interest in existence of life beyond Earth was rekindled by the findings from the Mars rover ‘Curiosity’ and Asteroid Mission Rosetta. At best. Will it pull the trigger on rate hikes? Nevertheless. all nuclear related sanctions will be lifted. evenly spaced dark spots stretching for approximately 1.072. permit Iranian banks and financial institutions to resume their international engagement. the bearish undertone persists among 90 retail investors. A protracted oversupply situation. price movement is set for an uncertain phase. domestic inflation.088. to $1. showing red and orange shades of the dwarf planet. and a recently found polygonal feature — were taken using the Hubble Space telescope.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. though it was subsequently withdrawn. flowing ice in its heart-shaped feature. some smooth plains and some mountains and craters. A number of institutions and individuals will be taken off the sanctions list. Understandably. orders of magnitude more accurate than on Earth. A late rally that day. At the moment. In return. Given this. The situation is tailor-made for the Central government to exploit this to its advantage. the fall in gold prices could moderate the import bill in the near-term. While defence related sites like Parchin have been kept out of the nuclear related facilities.S. the oil price fall could slow the Fed’s tightening policy. economy. though. Restrictions on designing and the production of new centrifuges will remain in force for 20 years while monitoring of uranium mining and milling will continue for 25 years and verification covers the supply chain of nuclear related components.100 an ounce.com/civilservices/magazine . Gold slumped to a five-year low.600 kilometres across the equator. also inspired the younger generation in the country to choose a career in science.30 by Friday. interest rate. Pluto was observed with ground and space-based telescopes. A looming rise in the U. located 5. the Greek crisis and the Chinese market fall have all come together to pull oil prices down.

with diameters ranging from 50 kms to almost 2. As the planet moves farther away and cools. Twenty years after its discovery. and other objects in the Kuiper Belt. planetary scientists are keen to learn more about Pluto and its moons. containing evidences of the distant past. Pluto has a thin. The International Astronomical Union in 2006 chose to classify Pluto and the recently discovered large Kuiper Belt Objects as dwarf planets.com/civilservices/magazine 91 . making Earth suitable for life.400 kms. Interestingly. That Pluto was discovered in 1930 as the ninth planet of the Solar system is well-known. tenuous atmosphere that expands when it comes closer to the Sun and collapses as it moves farther away — similar to a comet. Pluto is about 40 times farther away from the Sun than Earth. in which Pluto itself was a member. Pluto’s surface gravity is about 6 per cent of Earth’s gravity and its estimated surface temperature is about (-) 233°C.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. with indistinct markings. as the solar system was coalescing from a whirling disk of gas and dust. It is a rocky icy planet with 35 per cent by mass being ice. Astronomers are keen to study the formation of Pluto and its moons. and hence the study of Pluto and Charon could help scientists understand the history of our own planet.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. A similar collision theory is also in place to explain the creation of Earth’s moon. and orbits the Sun once every 248 Earth years. Nix. and that were left over from the birth pangs of the planets. Because of this. a long-range telescopic camera for high-resolution surface images. when scientists used computer modelling to simulate the formation of KBO. which is intriguing if they had a common birth. Its closest approach to Pluto was on July 14. a process called hydrodynamic escape. Its atmosphere comprises mainly nitrogen. Pluto may have the most complex seasonal patterns in the solar system. As a result of this and also because the planet rotational axis is tilted by 28°. a visible and infrared camera/spectrometer to obtain high-resolution colour maps and surface composition maps. And while Pluto has an atmosphere. considered to be a captured planet from the Kuiper Belt. Pluto’s density. There is a sharp contrast in the surface characteristics of Pluto and Charon. methane and carbon monoxide — that regularly transition between solid and gas state — and is extremely rarefied. The same may have been responsible for the rapid loss of hydrogen from Earth’s atmosphere early in our planet’s history.500 km from Pluto’s surface at a velocity of 14 km/s. the closest point being 12. The size of the Kuiper Belt and its shape and general nature appear to be much like belts seen around other stars.000 KBOs.380 kms. seismic noise and other interactions. Additionally. Charon (the largest). launched in 2006 from Florida.iasexamportal. and surface composition are strikingly similar to Triton. and much of the debris from this impact went into orbit around Pluto and eventually coalesced to form Charon. astronomers postulated the presence of the Kuiper Belt. have provided extremely valuable scientific data on the formation and evolution of planets and their moons. The first dedicated spacecraft platform to explore Pluto at close quarters was NASA’s New Horizons. Charon’s surface is far less reflective. 2015. Its atmosphere is also over 50. The prevailing theory of the formation of Pluto system is that Pluto collided with another large body. The Kuiper Belt contains a sizable supply of ancient. Furthermore. they found that the ancient Kuiper Belt may have contained at least 10 times more mass than what it is today to give rise to Pluto and Charon and the other KBOs. Pluto has a reflective surface with distinct markings that indicate polar caps. Charon is not known to have an atmosphere.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals eliminating the influence of gravity. over the years. Pluto is the only place in the solar system where we can study hydrodynamic escape on a planetary scale today.000 times less dense than Earth’s atmosphere. Scientists believe that Pluto’s atmosphere loses a lot of mass into space. comprising a vast collection of icy objects beyond the orbit of Neptune. Styx. particle spectrometers to measure http://www. icy and organic material that are held in deep freeze. These astronomical observations help us learn about the microscopic and macroscopic structure of the universe. size. The first Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) was discovered in 1992 — throwing doubt over Pluto’s status as planet — and since then observers have found more than 1. Kerberos and Hydra. It has seven scientific instruments comprising an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer to probe atmospheric composition and surface structure. Neptune’s largest satellite. The thermal energy of typical molecules in the upper atmosphere is sufficient to escape Pluto’s gravitational hold. has a diameter of about 2. Pluto’s surface temperature varies greatly because of the planet’s eccentric orbit and polar tilt. Lunar and planetary missions. the average surface temperature is expected to drop and most of the atmosphere will freeze out on the surface. atmosphere. It is estimated that there may have once been enough material to form another planet the size of Uranus or Neptune in the Kuiper Belt.

and an overlap period for an understudy for a month should be provided to the incoming official to ensure continuity. PSBs account for a substantially large share of stressed assets in mining. especially when tax payers have to provide resources for recapitalisation. the performance of PSBs is not inferior to that of PRBs. wood.9 per cent of advances followed by services at 7. there is the need to ensure that top positions of PSBs are not left vacant for prolonged periods. By measuring the effects of atmospheric refraction on the radio beam as it travels to the spacecraft. textiles. The sectoral analysis based on latest available data for December 2014 from the Reserve Bank of India reveals that industry continued to record high stressed assets at 17. In addition to the issues raised in the Nayak Committee Report (RBI. like a drop in an ocean. Most importantly. while stressed assets were 30. glass and glassware. 2015) such as tenure of the chairman.5 per cent. The sluggish demand in slowing Western economies and deteriorating competitiveness against China and Bangladesh has led to restructuring of loans by the textile industry. The retail sector. the areas of major stressed assets are precisely those where policy paralysis and episodes of stalled projects were most dominant. nearly 8 lakh serving officials in PSBs. ⇒ Benchmarks for banks Public sector banks (PSBs) have been critically evaluated in the last few months because of stressed assets including rising nonperforming assets (NPAs). Illustratively. density and composition profile of the atmosphere all the way to the surface can be estimated.iasexamportal. the economic slowdown is clearly transmitting through waves and ripples across different sectors of the economy. the temperature.2 per cent. textiles. relatively. vehicles. is very quickly impacted by the slowdown. This will aim to pass through Pluto’s atmosphere and reach the spacecraft’s.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals solar wind charged particles in and around Pluto’s atmosphere. a powerful radio beam will be sent from Earth. The airlines industry. Further. Valuable insights into the origin of the outer solar system and that of planet and satellite systems are expected to be discovered from the data sent by NASA’s New Horizons. which only PSBs have the wherewithal to provide. filtered through a rigorous procedure. iron and steel. to transform the working environment in PSBs. it deserves recognition that PSBs responsibly supported and significantly partnered with the government in containing the impact of the global meltdown since 2008. the sub sectors referred to previously generally require a large amount of resources. the current critical situation should be used for introspection and undertaking structurally corrective measures. which will be softly illuminated by the moonlight from Charon. 2014).6 per cent of advances to infrastructure as compared to 8. when granularly analysed. NASA plans to turn around the spacecraft once it passes Pluto and try to map the planet’s night side. infrastructure and aviation are the major contributors to stressed assets. In general. There is a need to critically review the performance of PSBs and the factors that are responsible for such high stressed assets. PSBs account for 17. followed by food processing.9 per cent compared to 18. iron and steel. If carefully analysed. In fact.4 per cent of the PRBs. Similar are the results when comparison is extended to other stressed sectors. specifically in India. bank boards and an overarching banking investment company. The sub-sectoral analysis reveals that mining. This would be more useful than recruiting a few management graduates from elite institutions at high salaries every year. and in addition. The dumping of steel in India by China is now clearly emerging as an issue and the survival of domestic manufacturers with implications for employment is the most critical factor for continuation of financing of the steel industry.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. namely mining and infrastructure. a detector to measure masses of space-dust particles and two copies of a radio science experiment to examine atmospheric structure. following the Gopalakrishna Committee Report (RBI.com/civilservices/magazine . paper. and construction. Also. engineering. in which private 92 banks (PRBs) have a dominant share. surface thermal properties and the planet’s mass. the demise of a prominent domestic luxury airline was understandably a major factor for the stressed assets in aviation. infrastructure and aviation as compared to PRBs because of substantially larger exposure to these sub sectors. Thus. This will raise scientific fervour all around. a waiting list should be readily maintained. Thus.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. The government’s proposal to try senior officials from PRBs to chair PSBs can be expected to yield positive results and should be http://www. should be skilled through high-quality training to ensure enhanced efficiency in operations. globally. respectively. Though India has weathered a significantly higher ratio of stressed assets during the initial period of reforms in 1993-94 and a similar ratio of about 13 per cent in 2001. At this time. The one-way time for communication is 4 hours 25 minutes. recorded the lowest stressed assets at 2 per cent.

com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals experimented in a few banks initially before scaling up to many more. PSBs were created to pursue social objectives and focus on banking the unbanked. on Monday. and the nonimplementation of the Basel banking norms by the U. remains undeterred in its policy of “weakening India through a thousand cuts”. placed in public domain to ensure accountability. these PSBs would have deployed all their resources at the cost of other activities. Several months of relative peace from terrorist attacks appear to have lulled both the government and the security apparatus into a sense of complacency.S. July 27. to be fair to the PSBs. Rather. This has raised the spectre of a possible linkage between Khalistani terrorists and jihadi outfits. after the Khalistan movement had been effectively put down in the 1990s. Interestingly. regular wage-hike fixation and incentives should not be industry-wide but only restricted to the performance of the respective banks. Consequently. and pension and insurance. citycentric PRBs needs to be revisited. previously attempted but without success. there is http://www. followed by more in 1969 and 1980. Consequently. are competing well on various financial parameters with PRBs. will again need active support of geographically widespread PSBs. notwithstanding the occasional shifts and changes seen when a civilian government is in power in Islamabad. Therefore. Hence. Therefore. after years of declining levels of violence. General Raheel Sharif.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. comparison of socially oriented PSBs with profit-oriented. The ISI holds the key to any change in Pakistan’s attitude towards the conduct of relations with India. either. In contrast. PSBs. Finally. The latter. this attack outside Jammu and Kashmir is a wake-up call for India. The concerns are genuine as both militant groups pay obeisance to a common master viz. Further. there is no evidence whatsoever of a change in the ISI’s thought process. Therefore. should India not offer an alternative set of benchmarks for its time-tested and faithful PSBs? After all. the norms and benchmark for these unique financial creatures typical to India have to be designed.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. and involves initiating actions. globally. has not impacted financial markets.. by a three-member crossborder fidayeen unit on the Dinanagar police station in Gurdaspur district. especially for PSBs. without seeking additional manpower. subsumed in the belief that the rhetoric and aggressive mien of the new government would act as a deterrent to provocations from Pakistan. given the acceptability of transparency in operations. There are heightened concerns. Instead. speculation that the ISI is working behind the scenes to actively foster close links and cooperation between jihadi militants and Khalistani elements cannot be disregarded. PSBs have been at the forefront in rural areas and have been relentlessly pursuing implementation of government welfare schemes o in terms of priority sector lending.iasexamportal. Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). as militancy in Jammu and Kashmir intensified in the 1990s. Since the first nationalisation of State Bank of India in 1955. as Jammu and Kashmir is again witnessing a spike in militancy. Hafiz Sayeed’s call for an “all out war” against India. the owner and regulator should take cognisance of the fact that in opening 16. efficient and experienced officials from PSBs are regularly poached by PRBs. calling off National Security Advisor (NSA)-level talks would hardly matter in so far as the ISI is concerned. should PSBs and PRBs be evaluated on similar norms? Illustratively. the proposed capitalisation of PSBs should not be offered as a matter of routine but made conditional on strict performance criteria and a specific roadmap for recovery. To ensure that every employee is made aware of the responsibility of their collective action. Hence.com/civilservices/magazine 93 . Punjab. the organisation seems to be further hardening its approach. Nothing could be further from the truth. despite pursuing social objectives. that Kashmir is “the unfinished business of Partition”. and the Lashkar-e-Taiba chief. As it is. encouraged by the statements of Pakistan’s Army Chief of Staff. levels of violence in Punjab began to decline. it would encourage further provocations. especially the Make in India campaign. The incomplete growth and welfare-based agenda of the new government. peace moves and dialogues will not constrain the ISI. irrespective of the consequences of such actions. has reignited concerns about the revival of terrorism in the Punjab region. But the authorities need to consider that in the absence of a level playing field. ⇒ Borders vulnerable beyond J&K The terror attack. Rather. PRBs only opened 68 lakh Jan Dhan accounts. the world does accept different standards. and comparison and contrasts of performance evaluated among themselves. The ISI construct is essentially that of deviating from the “theory of compellence” of economist Thomas Schelling. However.5 crore Jan Dhan accounts within six months. including those recently announced. admirably.

albeit after an intervention by an international tribunal.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. not only in the border areas but also in the hinterland. Border security has become critically important.com/civilservices/magazine . The enclaves on both sides were exchanged quickly after the required formalities by the midnight of July 31. The system that exists on the Jammu and Kashmir border — including the concept of an intelligence grid — needs to be extended to the other border States like Punjab and Rajasthan. we need a system with multilevel indication and warning windows. And as if to mark its anniversary. exploiting chinks in the international border (as “distinct from the Cease Fire Line”/ Line of Control) in Jammu and Kashmir and now in the Punjab. as also to enlarge the arc of terrorist violence within the country. The digital world has been both a positive and a negative factor and it is important that counter-terrorist agencies remain ahead of the curve. justice and peace’. the use of the Global Positioning System and modern gadgets to attack preselected targets including police stations. accompanied by considerable support from members of the community — in short a citizen intelligence network.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Instead of being relegated to merely dealing with infiltration. was one of these. Now. Better knowledge of technology is important to enable counter-terrorist agencies to deal with the growing complexity of communication methodologies being exploited by terrorist groups. Police stations. to deal with the current crop of terrorists. Punjab is the camphor needed to reignite the “jihad” in Jammu and Kashmir. specially in Europe and the United States. Jammu and Kashmir has a three-tier system in place. Now the questions of citizenship and legality can be redefined. The enclave question was tossed around for too long and was never seriously acted upon. the Khalistan Liberation Front and the Khalistan Tiger Force already have links with Pakistan’s Lashkar-e-Taiba. disrupt and destroy sources of threat ahead of any such action on their part.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals confirmed intelligence of increasing cooperation and coordination among Sikh radical groups abroad. especially Kashmiri militants. In short. in a sense. Indeed. Settlement of inter-country disputes — especially those that involve sacrifice of territory — are always the most remarkable of achievements. The settlement of the dispute related to the maritime boundary with Bangladesh in July 2014. that recognises ‘equal and inalienable rights’ of the ‘human family’ to ‘freedom. security installations and high profile targets. In addition. all carry the hallmark of planned and properly calibrated actions drawn up by counter intelligence specialists belonging to the ISI. the enclave issue involved the denial of the right to freedom and justice to many. the longrunning land boundary dispute was buried in July. There is also intelligence about their growing “tilt” towards joining hands with other anti-India elements. since they. From now on. This will include interception and monitoring of communications and analysis of metadata. and while it is not foolproof and may need further strengthening. So settling a dispute that involved issues that ran counter to the very opening lines of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations. Jammu and Kashmir is far better protected than other border States. is a creditable achievement. The main imperative should be to significantly upgrade the ability of intelligence agencies and security forces to detect. on what can and needs to be done. the ISI seems intent on exploiting what it perceives as an element of “strategic confusion” that prevails in India on what is the right approach to be taken towards Pakistan. the diplomats’ responsibilities are less than those of the local administrative authorities. This apart. it would call for a major change in approach on the part of the political leadership and those in-charge of the intelligence and security 94 establishment. The ‘illegal http://www. The Babbar Khalsa. dealing with this will need a great deal of heart-searching. howsoever cordial their relationships might be. it is time for the state to set up the infrastructure as quickly as possible to mitigate the trauma of citizens who lived without a country for decades. ⇒ Freedom after many midnights Even the sternest of critics of Indian foreign policy will find it a tough task to question some of the diplomatic feats that New Delhi has managed to notch up of late. This will provide greater defence in depth. in addition to training and equipping Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaishe-Mohammad cadres and those belonging to other pro-Pakistani terrorist outfits. provide intelligence and vigil at the bottom of the pyramid. It had its roots in Partition.iasexamportal. The obfuscation of justice helped none. It would entail a drastic overhaul of the existing security system. Hence. should be suitably mobilised and their capacities enlarged. The ISI is also known to have undertaken the training of some of the Khalistani foot soldiers. as the national flags of the respective countries fly in the 162 former enclaves. border guarding forces also need to be involved to a greater degree in the effort to garner ground level intelligence. The modus operandi — terrorists dressed in military fatigues.

To be sure. More important. Infosys Ltd. Maybe what we need now is not a powerful state or a diplomat. have been over the last 60-plus years to make our society and the world a better place. Is there one invention from India that has become a household name in the globe? Is there one technology that has transformed the productivity of global corporations? Is there one idea that has led to an earth-shaking invention to delight global citizens? Folks. Murthy asked the students to realise the ideals of the founders. Narayana Murthy had lamented. these ideals have evolved based on interpretations by the then leadership. While it managed to bring back some 100 nurses who were held by Islamic State in Iraq a year ago. 2015. who was in many ways a unifying force. therefore. Even while being mindful of the livelihood concerns involved. The national security establishment should actively cultivate ties with influential actors in the region. people living in extremely dangerous areas such as Sirte and Mosul should be persuaded to return. it is under the hold of different militias.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals Bangladeshis’ of the enclaves — predominantly those from the minority community — have become ‘legal’ because the states felt the time was conducive to award the ‘inalienable right’ to the poorest of the poor. leaders or diplomats in both the national capitals. “The Lament and the Lash”.” ⇒ Challenges of conflict diplomacy The abduction of four teachers in Libya by militants is another reminder of the dangers facing Indians working in crisis zones abroad. it was a report on how Chairman Emeritus. “Historians are like deaf people who go on answering questions that no one has asked them. Tata and the Mysore Maharaja. In turn.com/civilservices/magazine 95 . N. Perhaps if there were different sets of political parties. driven by their need for financial sustenance. For in the words of Tolstoy. they turned against one another. the enclavedwellers would still have been considered ‘a security threat’ and arrested across the line. But its track record in rescuing its citizens from kidnappers has been a mixed one. But such chaos should not hold India back from opening and sustaining diplomatic and security channels. In the recent past. “… let us pause and ask what the contributions of Indian institutions of higher learning particularly IISc and IITs [Indian Institutes of Technology]. India cannot afford to leave such cases unresolved as many of its citizens will continue to work in conflict zones abroad. It needs to have a contingency plan to deal with such situations. to help solve issues such as kidnappings.. had hoped that the institute would contribute to the “material benefit” of society.” were his words. For http://www. New Delhi should prudently stay out of the conflicts in the Arab world. on the security situation there through advisories. However. that India has not produced a single invention that became a global household name.R. Libya.. on July 15. After Muammar Qadhafi. where those abducted last week were working. some realignments may be needed. including in extremely dangerous places such as Sirte.N. Murthy’s focus on the value that could be created for society by the outgoing class of 2015 is not misplaced. However. IISc’s founders. and no central authority could exercise control. Mr. Its stakes are high as millions of Indians are working in the WANA region. while delivering the convocation address at the Indian Institute of Science. made waves recently. from secularists to moderate Islamists to hardline Salafists. But a substantial number of them are still there. the reality is that there is no such contribution from India in the last 60 years…. This fractured political landscape makes Libya a dangerous place for both work and diplomacy.iasexamportal. particularly in West Asia and North Africa (WANA). Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Mr. The antiQadhafi rebellion in 2011 involved a wide range of them. ⇒ Revampi g India’s scientific ecosystem A newspaper headline. It should frequently and systematically update its citizens working overseas. Interestingly. Thousands of Indians who were in countries such as Syria. it is not easy to sustain diplomatic and other security channels up and running in such contexts. J. India was one of the worstaffected by the chaos and instability in the Arab world in recent times. Iraq and Yemen were brought home following civil strife or wars. today.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. as was being done until just last week. which are otherwise bound to be forgotten. India clearly needs to be more proactive in its conflict diplomacy to ensure its citizens’ safety. Once the regime fell. Libya is a case in point.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. India has done a commendable job in evacuating its citizens from conflicthit countries. Two of those taken from the outskirts of Sirte last week are still in captivity. There are more people now crossing continents and concertina wires for survival — more often than not without statestamped papers — and thus it may well be the time to recollect and record the memories of our nationals who suffered just for being born in the enclaves. but a historian to document the plethora of personal narratives on both sides. much the same way those who were in Yemen or Syria were brought back. the fate of 39 other Indians abducted by militants in June 2014 from Mosul is still unclear.

“Science the endless frontier” in July 1945. President Roosevelt had challenged Bush. The Bayh-Dole Act (1980) allowed individual researchers and universities “to leverage funded research output as intellectual property that could be taken forward. The truth is that the government provided the right help at the right time and did not over-regulate the sector — a fine example of directed public policy in technology.V. electronics. avail tax holidays and access free connectivity to the Internet. Boston and the Bay Area in the U. as Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. The bets were on translation and commercialisation of federally funded research output. He talked about Vannevar Bush. Vikram Sarabhai.S. The http://www. solutions and private companies”. India chose a new alignment which might be considered a conservative and almost retrograde pivot. the possibility of a new growth engine that has more enduring value seems within reach. This synergy needs a new alignment around the theme of “translational research” — a concept easy to describe but hard to execute as it disturbs the order. build companies and hand off to professionals to scale and build value.V. India did experience a great period of development driven by the passion to create and innovate for the “material advancement” of the nation. Raman proclaimed that “vast powers are placed in the hands of man by successful research which opens up a vista of possibilities for its beneficient application in the relief 96 of the fundamental ills of humanity. The drumbeat on innovation and entrepreneurship has been rolling for over a decade in India. learned to hire lawyers. was going through a major realignment. feted and given awards based on these metrics. began to bustle with high technology companies that sprouted at regular intervals. Institutes of higher education were bound tightly to purist academic metrics — “publish in high quality journals. Some correction in the quality of research may have been warranted. The image of IISc created by scientist-engineer Satish Dhawan to drive important initiatives in space. Clusters formed around the hotspots of scientific research and “regional advantage” in Saxenian terms took root. In contrast. Google executive chairman Eric Schmidt reasoned why the United States continues to hold the innovation advantage — its outstanding centres of higher education and the clusters of enterprises around them. attract investors. The Department of Electronics identified “software led exports” as a segué for Indian export promotion in 1972 and provided resources to buy computers and get the private sector up to speed. science and higher education in the U.iasexamportal. place your postgraduate students in centres of excellence and ensure that the most tutored young scientists entered the campus”. many new IITs. Over the last three decades. poverty and disease. The leg up that industry received in these two decades is often overlooked in the facetious praise of “benign neglect by the government” as the reason for the IT sector’s success. Software technology parks in the 1980s and 1990s enabled industry to import equipment at competitive prices. the engineer. in 1947.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. machine tools. If we could connect this enthusiasm with excellence in basic and applied research in our higher educational institutions. inventor. we have seen similar tasks being presented to Homi Bhabha. Incidentally. C. there is a massive wave of entrepreneurial energy coursing through the nation’s arteries. He was not advocating “applied” over “basic” research. Publications seem to be showing a hockey stick growth in numbers and many young and senior doctoral students in the diaspora are returning home as universities improve. Raman by Jawaharlal Nehru. In post-Independent India too. to make a plan for the post-war period. At SelectUSA 2015. Committed leadership was present through those years.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals example.com/civilservices/magazine . For example. Overnight. licensed or commercially exploited to create new products. It must be noted that basic research leads to new knowledge and provides scientific capital.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. New products and processes do not appear in final form as if by magic. This was manifested in the public sector undertakings as there was no real capital available from the private sector for this kind of institution building.S. negotiate with universities. Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research and Indian Institutes of Management have come up. founder of Raytheon and science administrator par excellence. The National Centre for Biological Sciences and the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research in Bangalore were exemplary new additions to the “Science City” and within proximity to IISc and the Raman Research Institute. Bush then penned the now classical declaration. In the late 1970s and 1980s. the Indian IT industry owes a great deal to visionaries in the government in the 1960s and 1970s. namely hunger. Meghnad Saha and C. For example. but are painstakingly developed by scientific enquiry.” For perhaps the first three decades after 1947. aviation and rural technologies remains its legacy. professors transformed themselves from “geeks into suits”. There was a culture of “singular focus on excellence in research”. who had enabled this in the postWorld War II era. We were promoted.

then members of the NNC. Indian security forces responded with counter-insurgency operations. The Club submitted a memorandum to the Simon Commission in 1929. as a Google search will show. the volume and velocity of impact is still quite disappointing. with grass roots and business innovators. accelerators and entrepreneurs coming up in every corner. 1958. Naga National Council (NNC). Phizo. “In the name of the Naga National Council and on behalf of the people and citizens of Nagaland. which resulted in the imposition of the Assam Disturbed Areas Act on the Naga Hills on August 27. which shaped the idea of a ‘Naga nation’. The wartime knowledge motivated the few who came in contact with the European battlefield to politically organise themselves as a distinct ethnic entity. India now has the world’s second largest number of entrepreneurs. Also. another effort at peace was attempted with the signing of the Shillong Accord in 1975. Sir Akbar Hydari and the NNC.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals virtues of innovation are being written and spoken about. and soon we would be a nation transformed. It is important to note that several efforts were made to resolve the Naga issue. in which the Nagas’ right to freely develop themselves was respected. The ceasefire by NSCN (I-M) attained greater significance after NSCN (K) abrogated its ceasefire on March 27. Yet. Where the NSCN (I-M) has succeeded while groups like NSCN (K) have failed is in establishing a presence across all Naga-inhabited areas.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. interpreted the Shillong Accord as a complete sellout and revolted. with the collaboration of eight other Nagas.Z. who had served in World WarI in Europe. Phizo. However. the Nagaland State was established. as most Naga inhabited areas were left outside the purview of the new State. With incubators and seed capital becoming accessible.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.iasexamportal. and as such.S. who now heads NSCN (K). “The Governor of Assam as the Agent of the Government of the Indian Union will have a special responsibility for a period of 10 years to ensure the observance of the agreement. In a 1951 speech. where the NNC members agreed to give up violence and accept the Indian Constitution. We shall continue to do so”. and the larger Naga civil society across States. NSCN (I-M) under Muivah and Swu have held to the ceasefire since its signing in 1997. However. We are a democratic people. a handful of start-ups attempting to translate research are visible. Khaplang. In 1963. 2015. whose leader Khaplang has failed to maintain unity within the group. This later became the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act. we have been struggling for a Separate Sovereign State of Nagaland in a democratic way through constitutional means as it is so called. It has achieved this by holding regular People’s Consultative Meetings (PCMs) with groups such as the Naga Hoho. 1947. going on to form the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) in 1980. the insurgency continued. Naga Students’ Federation. S. This would require great focus on translation of research while extending support for excellence in research in the basic and applied sciences. 1947. This history of the struggle is important as a backdrop to understand the significance of the Naga peace accord signed on August 03. incubators. a Nagaland Peace Mission was created and a ceasefire agreement was signed that lasted till 1968. 1955. Developing on this. was formed under the leadership of A. On June 27-28. the NSCN (I-M)’s leaders and cadres have stayed with it since 1988.com/civilservices/magazine 97 . It also aroused in them a feeling of Naga nationalism. ⇒ Nagaland: a long road to peace The ethnic Naga movement began its journey in 1918 with the formation of the Naga Club by 20 Naga members of the French Labour Corps. There is a rapid conversion of demographic dividend into a “hungama” of entrepreneurship. Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu. unlike NSCN (K). The PCMs have reinforced the much-needed local social networks that are the http://www. we need to blend the emerging entrepreneurial ecosystem with centres of excellence in higher education. This was interpreted by the NNC as terminating in sovereignty. was a member of the unified NSCN that split in 1988 to form the two divisions: NSCN (I-M) and the NSCN (K). In 1946. further amended in 1972. In 1964. After years of violence. the Akbar Hydari Agreement was signed between the then Governor of Assam. declared Naga independence on August 14. Clause 9 of the Hydari Agreement created divisions as it stated. Localised versions of the Bayh-Dole legislation have been doing the rounds of Parliament and institutes of higher education. The NNC took to arms in 1955. I wish to make our stand and our national position clear. as a mechanism for conflict resolution. Forum for Naga Reconciliation. a successor to the Naga Club. While the trends are right. at the end of this period the Naga Council will be asked whether they require the above agreement to be extended for a further period or a new agreement regarding the future of Naga people arrived at”. in which it stated that the people of Naga areas and those of mainland India had nothing in common between them and hence the Nagas should be left alone. Phizo argued.

leave alone being world-class.000 that are over a hundred years old in the railway system. It is imperative that the government pays sufficient attention to the question. maintenance of infrastructure has been hit. use of materials and build quality.iasexamportal. However. the mechanism to review safety should be made statutorily independent. dependable and comfortable railway system on the one hand. For now.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. The order was withdrawn no sooner than it was sought to be enforced. But this process will involve determining the age of those featured. It is notable that the NSCN (IM) has shown flexibility in relegating the sovereignty clause to the background and bringing to the fore the issue of Naga identity — a more negotiable factor with the Central government. Again. what becomes evident is the absence of a safety protocol to handle operations during extreme weather. The Kakodkar Committee concluded that with constant pressure on finances. The immediate reaction of some sections of civil society appears to be that any ban on watching pornography encroaches on citizens’ http://www. However. sites that show child pornography will remain blocked. To serve the objective better. The decision to release water from a dam. cannot be taken without heed to the downstream consequences. But. The details of the Accord are yet to be made public. On the question of safety. Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu has said preliminary information pointed to floodwaters from a dam washing tracks away. are far from modern. If that is true. and aspirations to move to flashy bullet trains on the other. is the core issuefor the Nagas — a recognition of their history. 98 negligence on the part of the railways was not responsible for the horror that visited the Janta Express bound for Mumbai and the Kamayani Express proceeding to Varanasi. India’s train coaches. Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur will be negotiated. for instance. Design of coaches plays an important part in reducing death and disability due to accidents. the biggest breakthrough is that the group has agreed to give up violence and resolve all issues peacefully. bringing joy mixed with poignant memories to my friend from Zunheboto… and that matters the most. prima facie. modernising on a short time-scale should not be difficult. especially on how the NSCN (I-M)’s complicated political demand for a ‘Greater Nagalim’. It may be argued that. particularly at vulnerable points such as bridges — of which there are over 35.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals mainstay of any insurgent group.com/civilservices/magazine .Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. In a fast-developing country with an enormous reserve of manpower. this Accord has ushered in hope. accident victims must have access to medical facilities. up to June 2015. ⇒ Between prurience and pragmatism The government’s flip-flop on the issue of banning websites that carry pornographic content highlights both policy confusion and the difficulty involved in having a policy on it. his emphasis on restoring a sense of dignity. prolonged neglect of the public health system in most States offers little hope that things can be turned around quickly. State governments must bear responsibility for the safety and monitoring of the physical terrain through which trains run. there have been 15 derailments. as the 97-year-old Naga struggle will tell you. comprising areas in Assam. dignity and culture. In its zeal to address the concerns of the Supreme Court over the menace of child pornography the government asked Internet service providers to block 857 websites. The onus may now be on intermediaries to ensure that elements of child pornography are not mixed in general pornographic content. it needs to be emphasised that the railways cannot exist in a vacuum. they require a paradigm shift in terms of ergonomics. In the current year. however. These derailments once again turn the spotlight on many things that are wrong and need urgent attention. and institute a specialist safety agency of the kind suggested by the Kakodkar Committee. pride and respect to the Naga people stood out. This. This largely representative structure has also kept violence in check and created an accountability mechanism where aspirations for Naga dignity and pride have taken centre stage. and be prepared to handle disasters. and the numbers have shown a rising trend over the last couple of years. As the national mobility lifeline — used heavily by the ‘uncomplaining millions’ as Mahatma Gandhi called less affluent passengers — it is vital for the railways to make safety the top operational priority. ⇒ Deficient on the safety front The deadly derailment of two trains in Madhya Pradesh presents the sorry dichotomy that marks India’s rail ambitions: the inability to run a safe. tasked with the preparation of a time-bound action plan to avert derailments and collisions. as I read through the Prime Minister’s speech at the signing ceremony that set the framework for a peaceful resolution to the Naga insurgency. Consequently.

Turkey hardly did anything when it was steadily on the march in Syria. On the flip side.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. it may be argued that it is no crime if adults consent to be videographed during sexual acts and the footage is uploaded from outside the country. the latter point is now somewhat mitigated by the fact that petrol and diesel prices have been decontrolled. There is a law that prohibits indecent representation of women. Russia. Even the question of what constitutes pornography may be open to misinterpretation. one of the biggest consumers of oil. the most pragmatic way for a government to deal with it will be to be vigilant against child pornography while moving against other alleged violators only in specific cases. making pornographic films involving children or in a manner that represents women indecently is illegal. there are enough legal provisions to bring pornographic content under the ambit of criminal law. This comes on top of OPEC output in July hitting its highest levels in recent history. The country imports about 75 per cent of its oil needs. Enforcing such a body of law is not easy. The World Bank has warned that the Russian economy would shrink by at least 0.S. for Ankara’s main goal was to see the fall of the Bashar al Assad government in Syria. Despite pressure from the U. loses about $2 billion in revenues for the fall of every dollar in oil prices. The ongoing fall in prices stems largely from simple demand-supply mechanics. Some estimates predict that a 10 per cent fall in oil prices could lead to a 0. however. publishing and watching pornographic material. and a parallel contraction in demand in the major consuming nations. Section 292 of the Indian Penal Code makes distribution of obscene material a crime.iasexamportal. while IS has grown in strength in eastern Syria. unless one falls back on known definitions drawn from various legal provisions — something that appeals to the prurient interest. watching such content in the privacy of one’s home can be no crime. so cheaper oil benefits it directly by easing the current account deficit while simultaneously lowering the government’s petroleum subsidy burden. Also. allowing it to again supply oil to the world. And several international events are likely to further boost supply to levels far exceeding demand. is a hands-off policy on online pornography in consonance with the legal position? While there is no single law that criminalises the gamut of making. has 70 per cent of its export income coming from oil and gas. are not likely to recover anytime soon. However. a cyber ban may be counter-productive as technological means to bypass such restrictions are available. Saudi Arabia is moving strongly to increase refinery capacity. Yet. Now. Uploading such content on the Internet is an offence too. for example.7 per cent this year if oil prices do not rebound. Will that question be addressed anytime soon? ⇒ Turkey’s complicated war Turkey has finally joined the war against Islamic State. this contracting demand has been compounded by slowing economic growth in China. beset by poor growth and low inflation as they currently are. It has also allowed access for U. thus. Otherwise. are likely to keep prices low. or tends to corrupt or deprave.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. which will further add to global supplies. and that what they should or should not watch inside their home ought not to be anyone’s concern. compounding the current glut. but pretty bad news for others. distributing. Notably.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals right to privacy. have hit the Russian economy hard — the country. the increased supply has been met by recessionary or slow-growth conditions in most industrialised countries. In addition. Falling oil prices. The shale revolution in the United States has drastically increased the supply of oil. European economies are likely to welcome falling oil prices. In the circumstances. Falling oil prices serve as good news for some. The month of July saw two separate cuts in the prices of petrol and diesel — although the question that really needs to be asked is why petrol and diesel prices are not being cut commensurate to the fall in global prices.S. It has started bombing the terror group’s locations in the Syrian border region. On the demand side. Therefore. already lower than they have been in six months. and other countries to “do more” against IS. A further increase in supply. IS attacks on Kurdish towns on the Syria-Turkey border have brought the Kurdistan Workers’ Party http://www. going by market conditions. But Mr. ⇒ The meaning of cheaper oil World oil prices. and the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act makes using children in pornographic acts and storing such material for commercial purposes punishable. Section 67 of the Information Technology Act makes it an offence to publish or transmit obscene material in electronic form. it may be difficult to stem the tide of intrusive enforcement. However. India is one of those countries that stand to benefit significantly from falling prices. Assad still controls Damascus.1 per cent increase in output for them. which have greatly moderated their consumption since the economic crisis. it is reported. the nuclear deal between Iran and the West has further depressed prices owing to the expectation that sanctions on Iran would soon be lifted. In any case. departing from its long-held position. aircraft to two of its airbases.com/civilservices/magazine 99 .

it is necessary to identify the key issues. would help it make sure no future air cover is provided to Kurds. This makes the Turkish strategy a dangerously complicated one.S. In addition. Between 1996 and 2008. 18 per cent for Hindus and 30 per cent for Christians. caste and ethnic and religious belonging. By targeting Kurds. The problems that confront education today are low rates of enrolment. There are also related issues to grapple with. Also. I discuss some of these issues and offer suggestions. The first challenge to be overcome is to increase the present rate of enrolment of 20 per cent. has been another reason for the propagation of disparities. as updated in 1992.com/civilservices/magazine . air strikes were successful only when they were supplemented by ground attacks. the People’s Protection Units.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals (PKK) and its Syrian affiliate. Nobody denies the utility of research in teaching.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. 1986. We have only 722 universities. But despite this. Another challenge that confronts India is in the disparities in access to education. as against an all-India enrolment rate of 17 per cent. gender.65 per cent yearly. The corresponding decline in government and private-aided institutions. a two-fold strategy that was in place helped ensure this to an extent — there was an increase in the number of new institutions. private institutions expanded every year at the rate of 10 per cent. and in the intake capacity of existing institutions. build on the earlier efforts (especially initiated after studies by the University Grants Commission) and then take a step ahead. poor quality of infrastructure and lack of relevance. Its decision to join the war against IS should be seen against this background. The decision instead to give up the peace process and bomb the Kurds raises questions about Turkey’s real intentions in the war against IS. The last major initiative on the development of higher education was during the 11th Plan (2007-12). claiming that both the Kurdish rebels and IS are “two sides of the same coin”. the break-up for these categories was 7 per cent for Scheduled Tribes (ST). Now that there are new moves on the policy front. Any resumption of the war against the PKK could take Turkey back to violence. 11 per cent for Scheduled Castes (SC). ⇒ A blueprint for higher education The National Policy on Education (NPE) that was adopted by Parliament in May 1986 and Programme of Action (POA). Surprisingly. For 2013. Their increasingly effective resistance against IS even forced U.500. with its aim of commercial intent. The aim should be to arrive at a proper estimate of universities and undergraduate institutions in order to plan a strategy for the next 20 years or so. That would have strengthened the anti-IS war. we need more quality teaching institutions at the undergraduate level. It has started bombing PKK centres. into direct conflict with the terror group. it was 9 per cent for Muslims. are perhaps the last government policy statements on higher education and which have guided actions since the mid-1980s. as against the National Knowledge Commission recommendation of 1. the bombing of the Turkish city of Suruc by IS last month killed at least 33 people. But this strategy overlooks the fact that the Kurdish rebels were the most effective forces against IS on the ground. The influence of academicians on policies and the obsession with a flawed notion of excellence in terms of it being only about research have undermined the focus of having good teaching institutions. unequal access. by 1. 28 per cent for Other Backward Classes (OBC) and 47 per cent for higher castes. Air Force cover being offered to Kurdish militants. During the 11th Plan. Even the U. known as YPG. but it should not be forgotten that imparting knowledge is equally important. Given the low rate of enrolment. data from the Ministry of Human Resource Development http://www. It ought to have focussed on its military operation against IS while taking forward the ceasefire with Kurds in order to build a sustainable peace plan.S. In a comparison of disparities between the poor and the affluent and in terms of income levels. The expansion of the private. our institutional capacity is still low. After all. Turkey runs the risk of weakening the battle against IS. while addressing 100 internal problems.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Turkey was alarmed. Kurdish militias pushed IS back from several border towns. resulted in the share of students in the private.S. The goals remain the same — expansion with inclusion and ensuring quality and relevant education. self-financing sector increasing from about 7 per cent in 1996 to about 25 per cent in 2008. especially in terms of economic class.iasexamportal. self-financing education sector. the promised joint operations with the U. It can be argued that there is a realisation among the elites in Ankara that IS poses a threat to Turkey’s interests and that triggered its participation in the war. Ankara might assume that by launching a two-phase attack it could weaken both enemies. But Turkey did not just decide to attack IS. it was 6 per cent for the bottom 20 per cent of society as against 37 per cent for the top 20 per cent. In 2008. In this article.

freedom and fraternity.iasexamportal. justice. about 360 are of private. This is a new and the next challenge. of extending educational loans from banks with interest subsidy by the MHRD. their involvement in policy making at the Centre is a must. There are two ways to deal with it. this will help in enhancing capabilities as far as curricular and pedagogical practices. which the present government has taken to greater heights by creating a Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. superstition and fatalism. to care and to act in ways that will develop and foster knowledge and skill needed to participate in effective action. Infrastructure can be improved with an increase in financial allocation.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. this is countered by some who argue that the presence of a few quality institutions is hardly the solution as far as the majority of rural and poor students are concerned. One way. based on the models in Australia and Canada. Professor. poverty. violence. and as a one-time effort. does not help the poor. However. The alternative would be to extend ‘poor-friendly’ financial assistance by setting up a government finance organisation. However. it still persists. The American educationist. is to enforce the University Grant Commission’s (UGC) teacher-student ratio for each State. and on multiple aspects. a popular view is to allow global universities to set up campuses in India. We need to emulate the model in the United Kingdom which has an institute for education statistics. Kothari Commission in 1965. James A. out of the 712 universities. here in India. In the case of universities. the chances of this happening are slim. of the total share of students in private institutions. Banks. The alternative is to allow foreign educational institutions to enter into collaborations with Indian institutions on a large scale. Unfortunately. given the political economy of private institutions. state and of deemed status. I feel the UGC should have a dual structure — a governing body and a general body. In contrast to the situation in India. education should foster universal and eternal values. Apart from these. said: “the role of education in the 21st Century is to prepare students to know. The share of ST and SC students accounted only 4 and 10 per cent respectively as against 45 per cent by OBCs and 41 by Others. Such value education should eliminate obscurantism. but also have had no review of higher education for the last 50 years. public and private aided institutions must be strengthened and expanded and the expansion of self-financing private institutions restricted to a reasonable level. In 2012. In this. As more than 65 per cent of our universities and about 90 per cent of colleges are in the States. academic reform and ensuring adequate faculty. While attempts have been made in the past. courses by choice. education has been a great leveller in Europe. the last one having been the D. We are faced with a situation where we not only do not have reliable data. the 11th Plan recognised three areas for interventions — physical infrastructure. The high cost of private education has affected access by the poor to education. religious fanaticism.S. the top 20 per cent (in terms of consumption expenditure) cornered more than half the number of seats. A solution demands joint efforts being put in by the Centre and States.com/civilservices/magazine . The last government took the initiative by setting up a National Skill Development Corporation (it brought the government and corporate sector together to frame a demand based curriculum). Farreaching changes have taken place in higher education in the last 50 years. In turn. as policy making with reliable data has a high propensity towards success. The quality of higher education is an equally serious problem. However. unequal opportunities have developed unequal human capabilities and converted education into an instrument to further economic inequalities. The present method. and examination reform — is a process which should be advanced only after the prerequisites are met. http://www. undemocratic practices and reiterating commitment to upholding equality. oriented towards the unity and integration of our people. In this area.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals (MHRD) put the share of private undergraduate colleges and students at 59 per cent and 37 per cent respectively. several steps were effected in the 11th Plan. there is the issue of ensuring the access of Indian education to global frontiers. and ensure that the financial requirement of additional faculty is shared by the Centre and States. In the case of faculty. which is an issue that has assumed serious proportions. But similar efforts are lacking in social education. We desperately need a review.” This requires youth and children to be sensitised about the problem of inequities. First. Enabling an education that is relevant to the economy and society is another challenge. and student-faculty exchanges go.” Another issue relates to reform in the UGC. The framing of successful policies requires reliable data. The 1986 policy required that: “In our culturally plural society. The bottom 20 per cent got only 4 per cent. The development of human resources for the economy has been translated into action through vocational and professional education.com Academic reform — which includes semester and credit systems. 101 Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.

Thus control of inflation has emerged as the dominant objective of monetary policy. While many central banks have set up monetary policy committees. If they are full time. the Reserve Bank of India and the Government of India entered into an agreement on a new monetary policy framework. The Reserve Bank of India under the agreement shall be seen to have failed to meet the target if inflation is more than 6 per cent for three consecutive quarters for the financial year 2015-16 and all subsequent years and less than 2 per cent for three consecutive quarters in 201617 and all subsequent years. the Committee could have a majority of members nominated by the Reserve Bank of India. They also affect the borrowings http://www. Since 2005. the inflation target is set at 4 per cent with a band of +/. First. it holds extensive consultations with banks. there is no uniform organisational structure regarding policy making. chosen from outside central banks. Even among central banks across nations that have adopted inflation targeting. It can be argued that even such a committee can be held accountable and responsible for fulfilling the inflation mandate. the responsibility for the decision rests with the Governor. even though the Federal Open Markets Committee plays a critical role. However. The third alternative is one in which the majority of the committee comprises of external members. there are important exceptions.iasexamportal. This will help to fix the responsibility squarely on the shoulders of the Reserve Bank of India for keeping inflation within the agreed limits. there are differences among countries that have taken the route of instituting such a committee. Ultimately. It discusses the various alternatives with the Government. a technical advisory committee comprising of experts. In this case. The members can be either full time or part time. this does not really exhaust the functions of the MPC. There are three possible alternatives. The Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission in its report in 2013 recommended the setting up of a Monetary Policy Committee. what should be its composition? The key issue is the proportion of external members to Reserve Bank of India representatives in the Committee. The question that arises is whether. The second alternative is to have parity between the members nominated by RBI and the external members. Before any major policy decision is taken. If there is a tie.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. It is however.e. This is a welcome step. The Urjit Patel Committee endorsed the idea but had a different view on its composition. If they are part time. the accountability of RBI can be established only if the Governor is given the power of veto. The clarity with respect to the objective establishes the accountability of the central bank. On the composition and strength of monetary policy committees also. They act as signals from the central bank. in the context of the new policy framework. economists and various market participants. If the Reserve Bank fails to meet the target. accountability gets diffused. It keeps its ears open. The U. This also implies that the government will not interfere with any action that Reserve Bank of India may take to keep inflation within the limits. which became the model for others to follow. The Board of the Reserve Bank of India is not involved in the specific policy decisions. If the veto power is not given. care has to be taken in choosing members so that they are not connected even distantly with any institution which can benefit from policy decisions.S. has been set up to advise the Reserve Bank of India on policy matters. The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is identified with its suggestions on the policy rate. has no committee with external members.2 per cent beginning 2016-17. the accountability of Reserve Bank of India holds good. industry associations. it will have to send a report to the central government giving the reasons for its failure to achieve the target and the remedial measures that would be taken by the Reserve Bank. an old institution and its membership reflects the federal character of the central banking system.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. In fact. What is the process of policy making currently in the Reserve Bank of India? The Reserve Bank of India is not an insular institution. Under this framework. These committees do have external members i. The crux of the issue is accountability. If we were to set up a Monetary Policy Committee in India. Even in this set up. a pioneer in the adoption of inflation targeting. However. In February 2015. the broad contours of 102 monetary policy are discussed at the meetings of the Central Board. particularly with respect to changes in the policy rate. New Zealand. But this would be really difficult. The Committee remains advisory in character and the majority view is not binding. a change is called for in the process of policy formulation. can have a casting vote. the Chairperson who is the Governor. has not formally announced an inflation target. Changes in policy rate do play an important role.com/civilservices/magazine . the ‘external’ character gets diminished.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals ⇒ Accountability with autonomy Discussions have shifted from objectives of monetary policy to the appropriate mechanism for formulating monetary policy. The best option is either alternative 1 or 2. The membership comprises of either representatives of the Fed Board or the heads of the regional Feds. the tenure of the Governor is at stake if the inflation target is violated.

From the beginning it was clear that making Aadhaar a mandatory requirement would evoke resentment and cause hardship to various sections. There were even reports that some police stations asked for Aadhaar numbers before registering first information reports. It has allowed the authorities to link the supply of goods under the Public Distribution System and cooking gas cylinders with Aadhaar numbers.com Bank of India. the direction of policy is clear. However even this task is going to be difficult because of many structural features. However. control of inflation becomes the exclusive concern of the Reserve http://www.iasexamportal. The recent monetary policy framework. there can be differences of opinion as we are witnessing today. entered into between the Reserve Bank of India and the Government. If inflation is allowed to be at the upper band of 6 per cent for 12 years. it is natural that the government would want an identification mechanism to authenticate beneficiaries and consumers of its services and welfare measures. with policy interest rates hovering near zero level in the developed countries. strengthen the hands of Reserve Bank of India to deal effectively with inflation. After all. it becomes easy for the central bank to take care of other objectives. Imperceptibly. On this. The reference will also cover the issue of the citizens’ right to privacy. the rate changes can at best have only an announcement effect. is an important land mark in the evolution of monetary policy in our country. In its pursuit of better management of and greater efficiency in the delivery of services. Nothing should be done to dilute the authority that goes with this responsibility. the direction and extent of change in policy rate depends on the assessment of inflation trajectory and the overall economic environment. lead to changes in other rates. They must adjust the liquidity in the system such that changes announced are effective. when inflation stays within the comfort zone. By clarifying the objective of the Reserve Bank of India.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals of banks from the central bank. ⇒ Choice. the government must be relieved that to this extent its identification programme has obtained the court’s approval. overall liquidity is a relevant variable. however.S. This is not necessarily so.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Central banks cannot act as King Canute. It. on the other hand. the Federal Open Markets Committee (FOMC) became important. We should actually work towards a much lower level of inflation. Any mechanism that we create such as a Monetary Policy Committee should not weaken but. we have moved away from ‘price stability’ to ‘inflation stability’ as the objective. has not brushed aside the relevance of the Unique Identification Number programme. prices will double. which involves determining the very validity of the scheme. it has enhanced its autonomy. Ultimately. They cannot simply order the interest rate. the court has protected the right of the people to make their own choice in the matter. Even though money supply does not figure much in recent policy statements in India. It is only when inflation goes beyond the limits. By making it clear that no person should be in a position of disadvantage on account of not possessing an Aadhaar number. So long as inflation stays within the agreed zone. identity and privacy The Supreme Court has once again made it clear that the government cannot insist on the possession of an ‘Aadhaar’ card or number as a precondition for citizens to avail of specified benefits and services.com/civilservices/magazine . the question arising out of the scheme is not limited to whether it should be voluntary or mandatory. quantity and price are interrelated. Without corresponding action on the liquidity in the system. That is why in U. However. Can a government force citizens to enrol in an identification programme that involves submitting personal information and biometric data? The question. has now been referred to a Constitution Bench. Some authorities caused alarm by indicating that people would stand to lose benefits or be denied routine services unless they enrolled themselves. Thus the MPC must focus not only on policy rate but also other important ingredients of monetary policy. There is some concern whether the pursuit of the objective of price stability compromises its ability to take care of other objectives. For all its exertions. such a mechanism would have posed a technological challenge. In the earlier days any announcement in the change in the bank rate by the Fed was accompanied by suitable instructions to the FOMC. One of the key points in the legal challenge is that collecting biometric data without enabling legal provisions and without clear norms 103 Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. central banks are more focused on ‘quantitative easing’. in turn. and that certain educational institutions tried to make it a prior requirement to apply for some courses. It has now become a political and moral question.. Previously. It is true that when inflation stays outside the comfort zone. The court has been forced to reiterate its earlier order to this effect as more and more entities are trying to link their services with Aadhaar. In fact the agreed inflation target of 4 per cent with a band of ± 2 per cent is really liberal. which. Adopting inflation targeting does not make the task of formulating monetary policy any easier. most notably growth.

Added to this has been the recrudescence of cross-border incidents. It is more so in the case of Pakistan.com/civilservices/courses Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals to protect the data from misuse and theft may violate constitutional rights. and came out with a litany of new complaints about “Indian interference”. especially on the Pakistani side. India and Pakistan should strengthen the 2003 agreement by negotiating a new and more robust ceasefire agreement. detractors would tend to nitpick about the absence of issues that matter. of course those that are dear 104 to them. Recently. On the other hand. or cavil over the controversial clauses by overemphasising them.iasexamportal. These then beg the question whether the agreement as it stands is a dead letter. given patterns seen in the past. adviser on foreign affairs to Mr. It is unfortunate that within days of the Ufa statement. Sharif. This time. Ideally. The two governments must work toward a robust media and political strategy to explain any agreements — such as in Ufa — to its domestic political opposition and even the noisy media in order to cushion themselves from the theatrics that inevitably follow a thaw. Anything short of that will leave the citizen short-changed. have also not been possible. the present set of incidents clearly represent the political fallout of recriminations following the Ufa agreement. for example.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Clearly. where the civilian government has hardly any leeway in working out its relations with India given the overhang of the security establishment. Sartaj Aziz. while Pakistan has complained that India sent in a drone and also started firing across the border. ⇒ That familiar pattern The ink had hardly dried on the joint statement issued in Ufa after the meeting between Prime Ministers Narendra Modi and Nawaz Sharif when accusations.com/civilservices/magazine . But even that would not do. The routine has included. setting up conversations between the respective border security forces. This pattern has just played out again. and even shooting across the Line of Control began. resulting in casualties. http://www. the Attorney General caused considerable disquiet by arguing in the same matter that privacy is not a fundamental right. What the country needs is not only a safe means of digitising citizens’ identity particulars but also a comprehensive law to protect their privacy and personal data from unauthorised surveillance and misuse. While many of the violations have been a consequence of “infiltration bids” by insurgents aided by Pakistan Rangers. which are clearly violative of it. Not that such an upshot was entirely unexpected. recriminations. following any statement of intent. indeed conforming to the pattern of the recent past. according to India. India has accused Pakistan of infiltration attempts in the Jammu sector. Attempts to follow the standard protocol for such situations. phases of commentary and political wordplay from the respective establishments that would go around chest-thumping about short-sighted “victories” for either side. Hundreds of such incidents have occurred since both countries signed a ceasefire agreement in 2003. The cross-border incidents in themselves represent a major issue bilaterally. backtracked from the terms of the joint statement by reiterating the centrality of issues such as Kashmir.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. maturity and better management of the domestic constituencies and core establishments are sorely needed.

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Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Important among these missions are: Rosetta Mission Rosetta mission which will orbit comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made a landmark by becoming the first man-made object to land on a comet to trace the origins of life on earth.com/civilservices/courses Space Missions SPACE MISSIONS Regularly missions from one or the other institute of the world try to uncover mystery associated with the planets. and meteorites have been known to contain amino acids. security benefits as well as various other technological benefits as well. JUNO NASA launched Juno in 2011 as part of its New Frontiers program. There are various benefits which are associated with these missions. Various missions have been sent by NASA in the past and recently ISRO also joined this list with the sending of Mars orbiter mission. the spacecraft used Jupiter’s gravity to sling it into space with a bit more speed. So studying the composition of comets significantly increases our understanding of the origins of our planet and our solar system. Advantages It is considered that the comets delivered enormous quantities of additional water to inner planets and it was only earth which could retain large amounts of water. Juno will also look for the relation between Jupiter and the solar system. Jupiter is key to understanding how this happened because it was likely the first planet to form. which features 12 instruments.com/civilservices/magazine . with nine additional instruments. CASSINI Cassini arrived in the Saturn system in May 2004 and started collecting data on the planet and its 105 Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. In 2007. New Horizons New Horizons launched in 2006. The Philae lander landed on the comets surface on 12 November 2014. and the Philae lander. Second. There are various other benefits which include economic benefits. New horizon has also taken the images of asteroid 132524 APL. Another reassuring aspect of this mission that has succeeded in finding a needle in an interplanetary “haystack” is that it increases our confidence in being able to meet and divert any asteroid or comet that might collide with Earth and wipe us all out. Pluto was one of the planets when the mission was launched. More detailed analysis of comets will help answer questions about the origins of life on Earth. The spacecraft consists of the Rosetta http://www.iasexamportal. It is thus made of the same material as that nebula. this mission was designed to reach Pluto. Juno’s mission is look at the material of the jupiter as well as how the planet was formed. during this time New Horizons captured four months’ worth of Jupiter imagery and atmospheric data. comets are known to include organic molecules. the building blocks of life. It was launched on 2 March 2004 from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana on an Ariane 5 rocket and reached the comet on 6 August 2014 becoming the first spacecraft to orbit a comet. Major benefits include the uncovering the mystery of life and solving the big question how it all started.com orbiter.

Some of the most famous and recognizable 106 photographs of Jupiter and Saturn came from Voyager 1’s cameras. http://www. any star system)—the first manmade object to do so. At $73 million.iasexamportal. the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) launched the Mars Orbiter Mission (or MOM) and became the fourth space agency to reach the Red Planet.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. the spacecraft made a daring run at Enceladus and discovered that the Saturnian moon is venting geysers of water and ice into space. Voyager 1 was designed. to study the outer planets. and it collected samples from Enceladus’s geysers. It will still be registering and returning data on life in the interstellar medium untill 2030. In 2005. Cassini also launched a probe into the Titan.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. satellite of the Saturn. MOM is expected to remain in orbit until at least March 2015. this mission precisely shows the level of technology and sophistication which ISRO has developed in low budget. the mission has been an astonishing success. • And the surface diameter of Titan. in 2011. • Voyager 1 took the first “family portrait” of the Solar System. 2012. and a lowcost one at that. Jupiter’s moon. On August 25.com/civilservices/courses Space Missions moons. One of the major goals of ISRO is to test everything from deep space communication to contingency systems. including the famed “pale blue dot” photograph of Earth. In many ways. Cassini continued collecting data and stunning imagery of Saturn and its moons. • the atmospheric composition of Saturn. It was launched in 1977 to study the Jupiter and saturn. VOYAGER 1 Voyager 1 was among the first to reach the outer planets. There are numerous discoveries which Voyager1 has made: • Discovery of the volcanoes on Io. So far. This probe to Titan is known as Huygens. scientists decided to test Voyager 1’s maneuverability. Voyager 1 entered interstellar space. placing it outside of our star system (indeed. Huygens holds the record for the farthest distance we’ve safely landed a spacecraft. Thirty-three years after its launch.com/civilservices/magazine . In 2008. Cassini’s mission was extended. Mars Orbiter Mission In 2013. and sent. MOM is the least expensive Mars mission ever mounted.

” This act of 1881 defines the cheque. • Filing of cases only in a court within whose local jurisdiction the bank branch of the payee.com/civilservices/courses Space Missions NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS (AMENDMENT) BILL Investopedia says “A negotiable instrument is a written order or unconditional promise to pay a fixed sum of money on demand or at a certain time. this was defined as a cheque containing the exact mirror image of a paper cheque and generated in a secure system using a digital signature. Under the Act. Act also defines the bill of exchange as an instrument in writing containing an unconditional order. • Providing that where a complaint has been filed 107 Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. 1881. A negotiable instrument can be transferred from one person to another.iasexamportal. Act defines cheque as a bill of exchange drawn on a specified banker and not expressed to be payable otherwise than on demand and it includes the electronic image of a truncated cheque and a cheque in the electronic form. In order to ensure promptitude and remedy against the defaulters of the Negotiable Instrument a criminal remedy of penalty was inserted in Negotiable Instruments Act. The definition has been amended to mean a cheque drawn in electronic medium using any computer resource. 1881 by amending it.com to the bearer of the instrument. where cases of cheque bouncing can be filed.com/civilservices/magazine . where the payee delivers the cheque for payment through his account. bill of exchange or cheque payable either to order or to bearer. 1881. or electronic system. Important among them are given below. “A negotiable instrument means a promissory note. In order to make it competent to the time. these changes are also notified through the Presidential ordinance. is situated. or to the order of. government has made variouschanges to the act. a certain person or http://www. promisory notes and other instruments in various sections of the act. and clarify the appropriate area of jurisdiction of courts. Once the instrument is transferred. Like before 1988 there being no provision to restrain the person issuing the Cheque without having sufficient funds in his account.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. The Bill seeks to modify the definition of a cheque in electronic form. Although for the Dishonoured cheque there was and still is a civil liability present. Further changes were bought in 2003 Cheque truncation through digitally were also included and the amendment Act. directing a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to. Negotiable Instruments act was passed in colonial era. which is signed in a secure system with a digital signature and asymmetric crypto system (pair of a public key and private key to create a digital signature). signed by the maker. except in case of bearer cheques. the holder obtains full legal title to the instrument. The Bill also amends the definition of ‘cheque in the electronic form’. There are various other important amendments which are sought through a bill to the Negotiable Instruments act. In order to remove the still persitant problems government has bought the ordinance to the Negotiable Instruments Act.” While the section 13 of the Negotiable Instruments Act 1881 defines negotiable instruments as.

com/civilservices/courses Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Bill against the drawer of a cheque in the court having jurisdiction under the new scheme of jurisdiction.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. all subsequent complaints arising out of section 138 of the NI Act against the same drawer shall be filed before the same court.com/civilservices/magazine . upon the said fact having been brought to the notice of the court. • All cases regarding cheque bouncing which are pending in any court. irrespective of whether those 108 cheques were presented for payment within the territorial jurisdiction of that court. • if more than one prosecution is filed under section 138 of the NI Act against the same drawer of cheques before different courts. will be transferred to a court with appropriate jurisdiction. the court shall transfer the case to the court having jurisdiction as per the new scheme of jurisdiction.iasexamportal. http://www.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. before this Bill comes into force.

It is he. (ii) Spiritual freedom is superior to political freedom. As he saw it. Vivekananda anticipates Gandhi in yet another aspect and that lies in his prioritizing social amelioration to political work.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.iasexamportal.“Human soul being free. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) (b) Only (ii) (c) Both (i) and (ii) (d) Neither (i) nor (ii) 3. India’s message to herself and to the world. With reference to the passage. who even before Gandhi. (ii) and (iii) 2. For Vivekananda. What can be inferred by the statement. Your answers to these Items should be based on the passages only.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. It was the Vivekanand’s consistent desire to bring back India’s pride of place in the assembly of nations. 1. there is the love that Vivekananda consistently exhibited for the socially marginalized and oppressed. consider the following statements: (i) Vivekananda was the first to state the role of spiritualization in our lives. (iii) Human soul cannot be put in bondage. (ii) Vivekananda considered Indian National Congress as an elite organization. suggested Vivekananda. it was Vivekananda who first emphasized that our everyday lives would become more meaningful only when spiritualized. more than compensated for the loss of political freedom. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) and (ii) (b) Only (ii) and (iii) (c) Only(i) (d) (i).com/civilservices/magazine 109 . cosmopolitanism and compassion. Then. Like the Gandhi again. The human soul being free.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 MOCK PAPER For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 Directions for the following 7 (Seven) items: Read each of the following two passages carefully and answer the items that follow each passage. In this sense. Which of the following traits about Vivekananda are true http://www. PASSAGE -1 In modern India. mutual kindness and compassion between man and man was more important than that coming from a distant God. reinvented and effectively used the older religious idiom of God especially residing in the lowly and the poor. more than compensated for the loss of political freedom”? (i) There are several dimensions of freedom. he insisted on first closely acquainting himself with the people of India before launching any schemes of social or political work. his critique of the Indian National Congress representing only a handful of privileged men anticipates later day criticism. this was tantamount to men and women locating greater self-belief in themselves. this spiritual self-realization led to people more fully realizing their own potentialities. as it were. It was in this spirituality that he re-discovered. Vivekananda fully believed in universality. Especially in the context of a colonized society like that of 19th century India.

This was necessary under a recovery pact with the IMF or International Monetary Fund.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 with reference to the passage? (i) He was a humanist.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. Globalization stands for the consolidation of the various economies of the world. 1947. Privatization refers to the participation of private entities in businesses and services and transfer of ownership from the public sector (or government) to the private sector as well. (iii) He was an intern ationalist Select the correct answers from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) and (ii) (b) (i). (ii) and (ii) (d) Only (i) 7. Following its freedom on August 15. the Republic of India stuck to socialistic economic strategies. The economic liberalization in India denotes the continuing financial reforms which began since July 24. the International Monetary Fund necessitated India to assume a sequence of systematic economic reorganizations. What were the immediate factors behind the balance of payments crisis in 1991? (i) Socialist Economy (ii) Gulf War (iii) Downfall of erstwhile Soviet Union. However. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (iii) (b) Only (i) and (ii) (c) (i). (ii) Like Gandhi.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. Vivekananda believed in the utility of mass participation in political.iasexamportal. Privatization and Globalization model. In 1991.1991. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) (b) Only (ii) (c) Both (i) and (ii) (d) Neither (i) nor (ii) 6. (iv) The economic restructuring measures of the 1980s were not sufficient. 110 manufacturing. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the LPG or Liberalization. (ii) Until 24 th July 1991. (iii) Reducing the government’s stake in the industries. started a number of economic restructuring measures. (ii) and (iii) (c) Only (i) (d) None of the combinations is correct 4. the Committee formed by the prime minister did not put into operation a number of reforms which the International Monetary Fund looked for. (ii) and (iii) (b) Only (iii) (c) Only (ii) and (iii) (d) None of these PASSAGE-2 The economy of India had undergone significant policy shifts in the beginning of the 1990s. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner. The primary objective of this model was to make the economy of the seventh largest country in the world the fastest developing economy in the globe with capabilities that help it match up with the biggest economies of the world. Consequently. The chain of reforms that took place with regards to business. Liberalization refers to the slackening of government regulations. Government in the 1980s. With reference to the passage. Select the correct answers from the codes given below: (a) (i). India stuck to socialistic economic strategies. The country had to make a deposit of 47 tons of gold to the Bank of England and 20 tons to the Union Bank of Switzerland. consider the following statements: (i) India accepted the conditionalities of the IMF in lieu of bailing out its economy from balance of payment crisis. http://www. What have been the components of economic reforms since 1991? (i) Integrating the Indian economy with the world economy. the country experienced a balance of payments dilemma following the Gulf War and the downfall of the erstwhile Soviet Union. 5. (ii) Making the Indian economy more competitive.. Furthermore. and financial industries targeted at lifting the economy of the country to a more proficient level.com/civilservices/magazine . (ii) He was a nationalist. According to the passage how is Vivekananda akin to Gandhi? (i) Belief that compassion between men is more important than that coming from God. activities than that of elite politics. the then government initiated ground breaking economic reforms.

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Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016
Select the correct answer from
the codes given below:
(a) Only (i), (ii) and (iii)
(b) Only (ii) and (iii)
(c) Only (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(d) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
8. Students will receive Ph.d
only after passing all their tests
and submitting all their
papers. Out of 300 students,
250 passed all their tests and
215 submitted all their papers.
How many students received
Ph.d?
(a) at least 215(b) no more
than 185
(c) Exactly 215(d) at least
165
9. The distance between points
x and y is 400 meters. The
distance between points y
and z is 300 meters. Now, the
distance between points x
and z is necessarily.
(a) 100 meters
(b) 50 meters
(c) 700 meters
(d) It is impossible to
determine from the
information given.
10. A box contains 9 balls,
numbered 1 through 9. Three
balls are removed at random
from the box, one after
another, and are not replaced.
The balls that were removed
are placed on a table. How
many different possible
combinations are there of the
balls on a Table?
(a) 504
(b) 243
(c) 84
(d) 729
11. “If Tribhuvan buys a red Chess
board, then Aryaman buys
green Chess board.” Which
statement below is logically”
consistent?

(a) If Aryaman does not buy
green Chess board, then
Tribhuvan does not buy a
red Chess board.
(b) If Tribhuvan does not buy
a red Chess board, then
Aryaman does not buy
green Chess board.
(c) If Aryaman buys green
Chess board, then
Tribhuvan buys a red
Chess board.
(d) If Tribhuvan buys a red
Chess board, then
Aryaman does not buy
green Chess board.
12. A, M and C went bird
watching. Each of them saw
one bird that none of the other
did. Each pair saw one bird
that the third did not. And one
bird was seen by all three. Of
the birds A saw, two were
yellow. Of the birds M saw,
three were yellow. Of the birds
C saw, four were yellow. How
many yellowbirds were seen
in all?
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 5
(d) 6
13. Five competitors A, B, C, D
and E enter a swimming race
that awards Gold, Silver and
Bronze medals to the first
three to complete it. Each of
the following compound
statement about the race is
False, although one of the
clauses in each may be True(i) A didn’t win the gold, and
B didn’t win the Silver,
(ii) D didn’t win the Silver,
and E didn’t win the
bronze,
(iii) C Won a medal, and D
didn’t,
(iv) A won a medal, and C
didn’t,

(v) D and E both won
medals.
Based on the above
conditions, which of the
following winning pair is
correct?
(a) A = Gold, B = Silver, D =
Bronze.
(b) A = Gold, D = Silver, C =
Bronze.
(c) B = Gold, D = Silver, C =
Bronze.
(d) D = Gold, C = Silver, B =
Bronze.
Directions (14-17): Professor Tthan
Tthan Gopal works only on
Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays,
Friday, and Saturdays. He perforins
four different activities. Lecturing,
conducting workshops, evaluating
workshops and working on Business
consultancy. Each working day he
performs exactly one activity in the
morning and exactly one activity in
the afternoon. During each week his
work schedule must satisfy the
following conditions.
(i) He conducts workshops on
exactly three mornings.
(ii) If he conducts workshops on
Monday, then he does not
conduct a workshop on
Tuesday.
(iii) He lectures in the afternoon
on exactly two consecutive
calendar days.
(iv) He evaluate workshops on
exactly one morning and
three afternoons.
(v) He works on business
consultancy on exactly one
morning.
(vi) On Saturday, he neither
lectures nor conduct
workshops.

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Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016
14. One Wednesdays, the
professor could be scheduled
to?
(a) Work on a business
consultancy in the
morning and conduct a
workshop
in
the
afternoon.
(b) Lecture in the morning
and evaluate workshops
in the afternoon.
(c) Conduct a workshop in
the morning and lecture
in the afternoon.
(d) Conduct a workshop in
the morning and work
on business consultancy
in the afternoon.
15. Which of the following
statements must be true?
(a) There is one day on
which he evaluates
workshop both in the
morning and in the
afternoon.
(b) He works on the business
consultancy on one of the
days on which he lectures.
(c) He works on Business
consultancy on one of the
days on which he
evaluates workshops.
(d) He lectures on one of the
days on which he
conducts workshops.
16. If the Professor conducts a
workshop on Tuesday, then
his schedule for evaluating
workshops could be:
(a) Monday
morning,
Monday afternoon,
Friday morning, Friday
afternoon.
(b) Monday morning, Friday
afternoon, Saturday
morning.
Saturday
afternoon. “
112

(c) Wednesday morning,
Wednesday afternoon,
Friday
afternoon,
Saturday afternoon.
(d) Wednesday afternoon,
Friday
afternoon,
Saturday
morning,
Saturday afternoon.
17. Which one of the following
must be a day on which
professor lectures?
(a) Monday (b) Tuesday
(c) Wednesday(d) Friday
Directions (18-19): In the given
grid, if we replace numbers 1 to 8
instead of Alphabets in such a way
that no consecutive numbers may
appear next to each other either
vertically, horizontally or
diagonally. Also, each number
should only be used once.

18. What can be the possible value
of (A + B) after we replaced
these Alphabets with
numbers from 1 to 8?
(a) 6
(b) 9
(c) 10
(d) 7
19. What all numbers can be
their in place of alphabet D?
(a) l or 8
(b) 3 or 5
(c) 3 or 7 (d) 2 or 7
20. 3 men were travelling in a
railway compartment. One of
them was a very wealthy
businessman. The other two
had food with them and
invited the businessman to

join them in their meal. One
man had brought 5 chapati
and other had 3. Three of
them ate together and the food
was shared equally. On
parting, the businessman gave
8 gold coins to them, and told
them to share the coins in
proportion
to
their
contribution of food. The
man who brought 5 chapatis
should get how many gold
coins?
(a) 8
(b) 7
(c) 6
(d) 5
21. A farmer went to his banker
to borrow money to buy
livestock. The banker made a
deal with the farmer. He told
the farmer that he would give
him Rs. 100, and that the
farmer would not have to pay
back the money if he could buy
exactly 100 head of livestock
for exactly Rs. 100.
The only rule was that at least
one of each kind of livestock
cows, goats and sheep has to
be purchased. Each cow cost
Rs. 10. Each goat cost Rs. 3.
And each sheep cost Rs. 0.50.
How many of each kind of
livestock did the farmer buy?
(a) 5 Cows, 1 Goat and 94
Sheep.
(b) 4 Cows, 4 Goat and 92
Sheep.
(c) 6 Cows, 2 Goat and 92
Sheep.
(d) Cannot be determined.
22. A poor man died and leaves
Rs. 10,000 in his will. There
are 6 beneficiaries; his 3 sons
and their wives. The 3 wives
receives Rs. 3,960 of which
Priyanka gets Rs. 100 more
than Tanu and Neha gets Rs.

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Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016
100 more than Priyanka. Of
the sons, Pramod gets twice
as much as wife, Tushar gets
the same as his wife, and
Prashant gets 50% more than
his wife. Who is married to
whom?
(i) Priyanka is married to
Prashant.
(ii) Tanu is married to Tushar.
(iv) Priyanka is married to
Pramod.
(iv) Pramod is married to
Neha.
(v) Tushar is married to
Neha.
(a) Only (i) and (ii)
(b) Only (ii) and (iv)
(c) (i) and either (ii) or (v)
(d) (i), (u) and (iv)
23. Green, Bolt and Lewis race
each other in a 100 meters
race. All of them run at a
constant speed throughout
the race. Green beats Bolt by
20 meters. Bolt beats Lewis by
20 meters. How many meters
does Green beat Lewis by?
(a) 64 meters
(b) 30 meters
(c) 36 meters
(d) 20 meters
24. Four people need to cross a
dark river at night. They have
only one Torch and the river
is too risky to cross without
the torch. If all people cross
simultaneously then torch
light wont be sufficient. Speed
of each person of crossing the
river is different. Cross time
for each person is 1 min, 2
mins, 7 mins and 10 mins.
What is the shortest time
needed for all four of them to
cross the river?
(a) 13 Minutes

(b) 17 Minutes
(c) 19 Minutes
(d) 21 Minutes
25. At the recent sports festival,
the 100 meters heats were
closely monitored. Each
contestant had to run in two
races so that the average place
be determined. Only one
runner finished in the same
place in both races. A was
never last and C always beat
D. B had at least one first place.
A finished third in at least one
of the races. Both D and C had
a second place.
What were the results of two
race?
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
26. Read the events and mark your
answer as(a) If ‘A’ is the effect and ‘B’ is
its immediate and
principal cause.
(b) If ‘A’ is the immediate and
principal cause and ‘B’ is
its effect.
(c) If ‘A is an effect but ‘B’ is
not its immediate and
principal cause.
(d) If ‘B’ is an effect but ‘A’ is
not its immediate and
principal cause.

Event A: The PM has
announced
that
the
‘Government will take
measures to remove subsidies
on fertilizers in a phased
manner.
Event B: Subsidies on
fertilizers result in loss of
revenue to the government.
27. Each question is followed by
two arguments numbered (I)
and (II). You have to decide
which of the arguments is a
strong argument and which is
weak argument. Then decide
which of the options (a), (b),
(c) and (d) is the correct
answer.
Give Your Answer as:
(a) If only argument (I)
strong.
(b) If only argument (II)
strong.
(c) If either (I) or (II)
strong.
(d) If neither (I) nor (II)
strong.
Statement:

is
is
is
is

For proper utilization of
National resource and to
increase administrative
efficiency shall more
autonomy be given to the
states in India?
Arguments:
(I) Yes: By giving more
autonomy, states will
have more freedom in
utilising their resources
for the benefit of theirstate.
(II) No: By giving more
autonomy, the central
government is likely to

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newsprint. tin. 33.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 lose its control over the states. (d) Only Center 3 recycles tin. (ii) Every kind of material that Center 2 recycles is also recycled at Center 1. Your answers to these Items should be based on the passages only. Center 2: glass. plastic. wood (c) Center 1: glass. newsprint. tin. it yields better returns in the long term by saving on power bills While building a house or doing it up. newsprint. (iii) Only one of the recycling centers recycles plastic. In fact. A race consists of three stretches X. Center 2: glass. If he took fifty percent more time than the previous record to complete the race. Center 3: newsprint. thereby weakening the Union. plastic. Directions: There are exactly three recycling centers in Rivertown: Center 1. If each recycling center in 31. Center 2. If Center 3 recycles glass. Each recycling center recycles at least two but no more than three of these kinds of material. 30.iasexamportal. Center 3: plastic. newsprint. wood. Center 2 and Center 3. then Rivertown recycles exactly which one of the following three kinds of material. Raja Kanjoos Singh travelled at the slowest speed on stretch X and took the same amount of time to travel on stretch Y as he took on stretch X. and wood. 28. Directions for the following 9 (Nine) items: Read each of the following two passages carefully and answer the items that follow each passage.com/civilservices/magazine .com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. The previous record was ten minutes to complete the race. Center 2: glass.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. and that recycling center does not recycle glass. tin (d) Center 1: glass. then which one of the following kinds of material must Center 3 recycle? (a) glass (b) newsprint (c) plastic (d) tin (b) Only Center 3 recycles newsprint. Center 3: glass. Directions: Read the information given below and answer the questions that follow. The following conditions must hold: (i) Any recycling center that recycles wood also recycles newsprint. Seth Banwari lal travelled at the minimum speed by Car and at the maximum speed over the stretch Y What should be his maximum speed over stretch Z to beat the previous record? (a) 15 Kmph (b) He cannot beat the previous record. Center 3: newsprint. newsprint. tin. plastic. The modes of coverage and maximum and minimum speed possible in each stretch are: Stretch Mode Minimum speed (Kmph) Maximum speed (Kmph) X Car 40 60 Y Motorcycle 30 50 Z Bicycle 10 20 Speed in any given stretch remains constant. wood (b) Center 1: glass. wood 29. (c) 20 Kmph (d) None of these. Which one of the following could be an accurate account of all the kinds of material recycled at each recycling center in Rivertown? (a) Center 1: newsprint. plastic. PASSAGE -1 Setting up an environment-friendly house is not expensive. newsprint. tin. we http://www. tin. tin. tin. what was his speed on the stretch Z? (a) 10 Kmph (b) 15 Kmph (c) 20 Kmph (d) None of these. Exactly five kinds of material are recycled at these recycling centers: glass. (c) Only Center 1 recycles plastic. Y and Z of 2 km length each. wood. wood. then kinds of material must Center which one of the following 2 recycle? could be true? (a) glass (b) newsprint (a) Only Center 2 recycles (c) plastic (d) tin glass. 32. If Center 2 recycles three 114 kinds of material.

it will actually provide better returns in the long run. While designing your home. (b) A 100-litre rain water harvesting system will costRs. we tend to think that being eco-friendly is expensive. (ii) Low-volatile organic compounds. Also. large verandas and balconies are extremely useful. Bricks made of fly-ash .000 litre. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i). bedsheets and other furnishings. Also. But most of us ignore questions like is it energy efficient. Similarly.you design a house that is energy efficient and uses rainwater harvesting. With reference to the passage. With reference to the passage. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct? (a) It is the duty of pol icy makers. If . We prefer to leave these things for policymakers. (ii) Being eco-friendly is not expensive. (iii) and (iv) (c) Only(iv) (d) Only (ii) 36. fly-ash cement can be used for most houses. Use mud from the construction site itself. There are many more simple ways to make your home ecofriendly.(ii) and (iv) (b) Only (ii). 34. Select the correct option from the codes given below: (a) Only(i) (b) Only(il) (c) Neither (i) nor (ii) (d) Can’t be Generalized 35. (ii) and (iii) (d) Only (hi) 38. buy furniture made of recyclable material like rubber or bamboo. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) (b) Only (ii) (c) (i).com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. invest in a rainwater harvesting system. and save on your power bills as well! If you are buying a ready-to-move-in flat. or what will be its carbon footprint. fans and airconditioners. especially with local varieties. will it cause pollution. check out whether a flat roof or a sloping roof works best for your region. make sure there are large windows that let in natural light and breeze and reduce your dependence on electric lights. (ii) Use of low-VOC paints (iii) Opt for fabric with natural dyes for curtains. (iv) Large verandas and balconies. For curtains. You can do your bit to help these little birds. which can cost as little as 110. big corporates or hotel chains. even if you have just a tiny balcony or a window box. If that is not possible. Go for furnishings made of natural fibre like cotton or jute. it will be very difficult to make eco-friendly alterations to the structure. (c) Both are correct.are as durable as regular bricks. 37. (d) None is correct. 1000. to take care of the environmental impacts of the building constructions.000 for 1. Install solar panels that can stand in for electric geysers at least when the sun is shining.the residue from coal-based power plants . use materials that are available in the surroundings. Use retractable khas-khas curtains in your balconies and verandas to keep you cool in summers. That is not necessarily the case. consider the following statements: (i) Low-VOC paints are non-toxic (ii) Solar Panels can provide water heating when there is no electricity http://www. Which of the following is/are eco-friendly?. In our tropical climate. more environment friendly. Grow a garden. House sparrows are fast disappearing from urban centres. If you are building your own house. opt for fabric with natural dyes. Low-flow showerheads and dual-flush toilets use less water. How one can achieve cooling in his house while being ecofriendly? (i) Having Large verandas and balconies. Turn your vegetable waste into compost that can be used in the garden. Normal paints have volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are toxic.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 spend all our time and energy worrying about how it looks. Invest in energysaving lighting like CFL. Also. take some time to pick efficient models. While choosing fittings for your home. therefore. Use low-VOC paints that use water instead of petroleum solvents and. (iii) House sparrows.com/civilservices/magazine 115 .iasexamportal. Build a box from wood slabs or plywood with a sloping roof and a small hole into which only a sparrow can squeeze in.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. (i) Sloping roof. But you can still do your bit by picking up furniture that are certified environment-friendly. consider the following statements: (i) Being eco-friendly is expensive.

(d) All are correct. 42. predicting and adapting to these issues could be the most important of all possible issue for humans to deal with. in Argentina in many circles there is no difference between ecology and agriculture. Tiwari? (a) Mrs. There are many professional ecologists.iasexamportal. then considerable pleasure can be derived by studying the environment around us. but lives somewhere to the right of the glass bungalow. What are the benefits of understanding ecology? (i) To appreciate better the aesthetics of nature. Who lives in the house made of straw? (a) Mr. In this case ecology and environmentalism can be the same. wood. Understanding. Mrs. 39. agriculture. while the first bungalow is not made from straw. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only(i) (b) Only (ii) (c) Both (i) and (ii) (d) Neither (I) nor (ii) 40. Second. (ii) and (iii) Directions (43-45): There are four bungalows in a row. Upadhyay owns a straw bungalow and Mr. Mrs.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. (c) Studying Ecology can help us to mitigate changes in the environmental system. Wilson (d) Not possible 44. Which of the following is/are the components of applied ecology. the food and fossil energy flowing through our society. human societies can often be understood very clearly from an ecological perspectives as we study. Who lives second to the right of Mr.com/civilservices/magazine . and so on to provide us with the food and fiber we need. Sharma’s bungalow is somewhere to the left of the wooden one and the third one along is brick. Which one of the following statements is incorrect? (a) An expert of history may better appreciate art. Upadhyay (d) Mrs. Upadhyay (c) Mr.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) (b) Only (ii) (c) Both (i) and (ii) (d) Neither (I) Nor (ii) PASSAGE-2 There are usually four basic reasons given to study and as to why we might want to understand ecology: first. human economies are in large part based on the exploitation and management of nature. the population dynamics (demography) of our own species. (iii) In the management of nature. since all of us-live to some degree in a natural or at least partly natural ecosystem. straw. for example. Sharma 45. humans appear to be changing aspects of the global environment in many ways. Applied ecology is used every day in forestry. Who live/lives adjacent to Mrs. Sharma? http://www. (i) Human economies (ii) Forestry (iii) Environmentalism Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (ii) and (iii) (b) Only (ii) (c) (l). They are made from these materials.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. consider the following statements: (i) In Argentina there is no difference between ecology and agriculture. Third. range management. Tiwari (b) Mr. Wilson lives in the fourth bungalow. 43. For example. who believe that these apparent changes from human activities have the potential to generate enormous harm to both natural ecosystems and human economies. (b) Economy is closely related to ecology. Mr. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) and (iii) (b) Only (ii) (c) Only (iii) (d) (i). Just as one might learn to appreciate art better through an art history course so too might one appreciate more the nature around us with a better understanding of ecology. Tiwari does not live at either end. and how we might intervene in either human 116 economies or in nature to try to mitigate or otherwise alter these changes. brick and glass. Fourth. what the implications might be for various ecosystems. With reference to the passage. Sharma (b) Mrs. Ecology can be very useful to help us understand what these changes are. which is essentially the ecology of crops and pastures. fisheries. (ii) To understand global climate change. Wilson (c) Mrs. (ii) and (iii) (d) None 41. (ii) Human activities have done enormous harm to natural ecosystems.

reducing infant mortality.” the World Bank (2001) calls for policies to address gender imbalance in “rights. second column? (a) Blue (b) Green (c) Blue or green (d) Red Directions for the following 9 (Nine) items: Read each of the following two passages carefully and answer the items that follow each passage. of course. By the end of the 20 minute workout. Those focusing on the first have argued that gender equality improves when poverty declines. many emphasize the second relationship. 2005). Interestingly. 47. each path is one third of a mile in length. be adopted. (i) One red card must be in first row or second row. rights. in the other direction. Tiwari and Mr. development alone can play a major role in driving down inequality between men and women. Empowerment can. including eliminating poverty. (ii) Two green cards should be in third column.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. How many yellow cards are available for arrangements? (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 3 or 4 (d) Cannot be determined 48. Kofi Annan. in other words. http://www. continuing discrimination against women can. and policies should aim to achieve that goal. accelerate development. but also because they are necessary to accelerate development. 2011) adopts a much more nuanced message. and voice. Wilson (b) Mrs. while seeking.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 (a) Mr. These measures are justified. with speeds of six. nine. to maintain a level playing field for both genders. (iii) Yellow cards must be in the 3 corners only (iv) Two blue cards must be in the second row. earning opportunities. and eliminating the gender gap in education by 2015 (United Nations. Yellow. for example. C2. and political participation. (Red. Upadhyay (c) Mrs. as Amartya Sen has forcefully argued. such as girls’ scholarships and quotas for Women in parliament. Blue and Green) in a way such that. how many times will they have simultaneously returned to the spots where they started? (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 3 (d) 15 Directions (47-48): A 3 × 3 grid is given in which R1. has argued that achieving gender equality is a “prerequisite” to achieving the other Millennium Development Goals (MDG). PASSAGE -1 There is a bi-directional relationship between economic development and women’s empowerment defined as improving the ability of women to access the constituents of development in particular health. but without adopting specific strategies targeted at improving the condition of women. the 2012 World Development Report (World Bank. The Secretary General of the United Nations. In its report. Policy makers and social scientists have tended to focus on one or the other of these two relationships. education.” and recommends that institutional structures be overhauled to promote equality. R2. 46. Upadhyay and Mr. and C3 depicts 3 column. Wilson (d) None of these. twelve. “Engendering Development. from empowerment to development. While it emphasizes the “business case” for women empowerment. (v) At least one green card should be their in each row. and that specific measures. hinder development. Which colour card should be there in first row. you have to arrange 9 cards of 4 colours. In contrast. according to the report.com/civilservices/magazine 117 . Your answers to these Items should be based on the passages only. R3 depicts 3 rows and C1. Now. They start simultaneously at the black spots. not only because they promote equity. They argue that policymakers should therefore focus on creating the conditions for economic growth and prosperity. resources. Four athletes exercise around separate circular paths. achieving universal education.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. and fifteen miles per hour. In one direction. it mainly takes it as given that the equality between women and men is a desirable goal in itself.iasexamportal.

which began to gain popularity in the 1980s.2 Deconstruction is a philosophy applied to literary criticism. The field of deconstruction arose partially in reaction to the literary theories of structuralism. determined very much by each reader’s own subtexts and definitions. deconstruction can be helpful in unmasking huge contradictions present in a text. At its best. With reference to the passage. however. 53. To reduce and reduce the meaning of a work may ultimately make it purposeless. (c) Economic development would lead to empowerment of women. Structuralism posited that when words could be understood within the context of a society of readers. What are the recommendations of UN and World Bank regarding empowerment of women? (i) Achieving millennium development Goals. for those who are confused. It is true that reading a deconstruction of a text can be similar to attempting to decode a secret message. (ii) UN and World Bank emphasize on ‘empowerment to development’ relationship. Deconstructionists like Jack Derrida deliberately choose confusing and lengthy words to derive a multiplicity of meanings from their interpretation.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. as well as to criticism of the other arts. (d) None of the above. They believe that confusion should be the result of reading a deconstruction of a text. To those who use deconstruction. say some critics. What is the essence of the passage? (a) The concept of Women empowerment is multidimensional. (ii) and (iii) 118 52.com/civilservices/magazine . With reference to the passage. Deconstruction eschewed the concept of one possible meaning for a text.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 49. it means that: (i) Only a few can http://www. then one could point to the specific meaning of a text. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) (b) Only (ii) (c) Both (i) and (ii) (d)Neither (i) nor (ii) 50. suggesting that traditional “readings” of a text often ignore underlying value structures in direct opposition to what is taught. (d) The meaning is not clear from the passage. What does the “business case” for women empowerment imply? (a) Equality between women and men is a desirable goal in itself. the answer to this criticism might be: “How does one define value? What is meaning?” Though this answer may frustrate critics of deconstruction. Underlying a text is the subtext. (ii) Structuralism supports one specific meaning of a word. Deconstruction is elitist. (b) Relationship between economic development and . (ii) Emphasizing on participation of women in political process. Deconstruction also evaluates the way in which texts in the traditional literary canon are taught to students. (b) Empowerment of women would lead to economic development. though. In some ways.iasexamportal. (iii) Maintaining a level playing field between men and women.women’s empowerment. a set of values that must be evaluated to see if the text is really contrary in nature and hence somewhat without meaning. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) and (ii) (b) Only (ii) and (iii) (c) Only (i) and (iii) (d) (i). Many literary critics abhor deconstruction. PASSAGE .Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. this makes deconstruction elitist and inaccessible to many readers. The deconstructionist cares not. 51. it points to the way in which deconstructionists see the text as a source of multiple meanings. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) (b) Only(ii) (c) Both (i) and (ii) (d) Neither (i) nor (ii) 54. stating that deconstructing a text deprives the text of meaning and ultimately dismisses the value of anything it touches. consider the following statements: (i) Deconstruction is against any specific meaning of a word. and instead suggested that meanings of a text are multiple and contradictory. (c) Empowerment of women. consider the following statements: (i) Women’s empowerment is a multidimen­sional concept.

(ii) It leads to the culture of a private language where each construes his own meaning of a given text. Beeru. (d) None of these. 2 white balls and 4 black balls.Post-Graduate] Considering the above diagram which of these statements are true? (a) Number of students in http://www. (a) 10 11 5 21 1 (d) 9 (b) (c) 11 21 63. (c) B started slowly but finished the learning process before A. The chance that exactly 2 of them are black is.iasexamportal. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) and (iii) (b) Only (i) and (ii) (c) Only(i) (d) (i). What are the functions of deconstruction? (i) Bringing out the contradictions present in a text.Graduate / PG . Which of the following is correct? (a) Deconstruction is ‘valueneutral’ (b) Reader’s background may affect their meaning of a text. Which of these conclusion can be drawn according to given learning curves? (a) A started slowly but finished the learning process before B. [G . who is a chef.com/civilservices/magazine 119 .12 and 14 thousands dollars per year. Chetan could not remember what salary he started on.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. (ii) and (iii) 55. 58. The salaries in question were 8. Ajay earned more than Beeru and the doctor earned more than Deepak. learning a mathematics lesson by two students in a particular time. (i) Seeking the underlying philosophy of a text. (ii) Making the language of a text clear so that it can be understood in the right perspective.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. (ii) Unmasking the underlying value structure of a text. (iii) Proving that a text is contradictory and hence meaningless. How many letters are in English Alphabet whose water image are identical to the letter itself ? (a) 18 (b) 14 (c) 11 (d) 9 61. Four balls are choosen at random from a group of 3 red balls. 56.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 understand its implications. (b) B started slowly and finished the learning process after A.000 dollars nor did Deepak. What is/are the feature(s) of deconstruction. four men were discussing their starting salaries. (ii) and (iii) 57. Of course the member of parliament earned the most. Who is member of Parliament? (a) Ajay (b) Beeru (c) Either Ajay or Beeru (d) Cannot be determined 59. 3 4 4 then a+b+c is equal to? c (a) (b) (c) (d) 7 2 1 Cannot be determined 62. 60. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only(i) (b) Only(ii) (c) Both (i) and (ii) (d) Neither (i) nor (ii) Directions: During a recent school reunion. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: (a) Only (i) (b) Only (ii) (c) Only (i) and (iii) (d) (i). Percentage of sex (Male Female) and education level (Graduate and PostGraduate) data of a college. (c) Critics of deconstruction cannot present any logical criticism of deconstruction. (d) All are incorrect. If a b b = = . the lawyer. Following graph shows. did not start on 10.10. (iii) It is confusing .

com/civilservices/magazine . (b) Number of PostGraduate students in male category is 37. Sharma’s attention. (d) All of the above. Sharma while interacting with Mr. Sharma was not completely hearing during interaction. (b) Employees of the office are not decision maker. (b) You will give some days to recover.2 times of number of students in post-graduate in female category. (ii) Mr. His shirts are always wrinkled. due to which most citizens are not able to pay the property tax. Reading this what will you predict? (a) Employees of the office are disciplined. Verma is unable to sustain Mr. (b) Ask your colleague to be sorry in front of the senior (finance secretary). Please attempt all the items.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. You feel you need to approach him. Being a District collector http://www. (d) It is an office that is micro-managed by Mr. his hair is messy and other officers have privately complained you about his errant behaviour. The responses will be evaluated based on the level of appropriateness for the given situation. Entering into an Income Tax office you find a statement on the noticeboard “Do not open the computer without the Administrative Officer Mr. 64. The maximum number of colours required to paint all the sides of a cuboid given below such that no two adjacent faces may have the same colours is (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 Direction for the following 7 (Seven) items: Given below are seven items. What will you do in this situation? (a) Try to make your senior (finance secretary) understand that your colleague was right. Each item describes a situation and is followed by four possible responses. Verma had to say. Mr. Choose Only one response for each item. Which of the above possibility/posibilities is/are correct? (a) Only(i) (b) Only (i) and (iii) (c) Only (iii) (d) All of the above 68. (c) You will meet him separately and talk at length and try to know the root of his problem. (iii) The topic during interaction might be unofficial or personal. You know that he was not wrong.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.iasexamportal. 67. You are Police Commissioner and one of your subordinate (Sub-inspector) named Rakesh was very good officer over past few months but now you notice that his appearance 120 has changed. 65. was glancing and nodding as he continued listening to what Mr. we notice that. (d) Criticize your senior infront of your peer and console him. Kulkarni’s permission”. There is no penalty for wrong answers for these seven items. How would you deal with it? (a) You will call him to your chamber and admonish him on his untidy appearance. There is a drought in a district.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 graduate level in male category is approximately 3. 69. One day your peer is suspended by the finance secretary. (c) It is a well controlled office. (c) Advise your peer to go to the court against the decision of the senior (finance secretary). both because you fear something might be wrong and you worry about the effect his untidy appearance would have on his relationship with his colleagues. In the above interaction. 66. Indicate the response you find most appropriate. (c) The ratio of male and female graduate is 1.5% of total number of female students. (i) Mr. Kulkarni. (d) At a personal level you may empathize but ask him to take a tranfer as soon as possible.3:1. Verma and standing at an angle. Gupta is posted as an IAS officer (allied) in the ministry of finance. You and your peer Mr.

These came crashing to the floor. (d) The final or last date to deposit property tax will be extended. In this case what will you do? (a) You will immediately close down all the factories in the city.com/civilservices/magazine 121 . (c) Asked the citizen to deposit the property tax as much as possible. 72. my family and I went to a popular restaurant for breakfast. Just as we were about to begin our meal. (b) You will provide leverage. (b) You will ask the government to restrict the issue of fresh licences to factories and automobiles. (d) You will directly go to the spot where lady has been molested and investigate the situation.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. He even told them that they could have their meal for free. We obeyed him and Finished our food within minutes. Some of them had not even finished heir breakfast. The proprietor apologized repeatedly to the angry customers and tried to pacify them by offering to replace their food. Fearing that a brawl would ensue. You are a district magistrate in a city. our food came. a young waitress showed us to a table. They sat down again and continued their breakfast. Read each passage and answer the items that follow. His companion. I could not help stealing a glance at hem. You find that the lady was drunk and wore an indecent dress. 71. The commotion affected the business of the restaurant. He banged his fist on the table and swept the plates and cups off it.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 what will you do in this situation? (a) You will try to collect the property tax any how. “What is this ? A dead fly in my food!” a man with a deep scar across his face roared angrily. stared angrily at the proprietor who stood nervously in front of the two gangsters. You are a senior police officer and visited a police station. My father told us to eat our food quickly and not to look at the two angry men. I saw that the proprietor had managed to pacify the wo angry customers. Fresh food and drinks were brought to their table. The word These refers to the (a) tables (b) cups and plates (c) two angry customers (d) dead fly and the food 73. Direction: The following nine items are based on three passages in English to test the comprehesion of English language and therefore these items do not have Hindi version. PASSAGE -1 One Sunday morning. many customers quickly paid for their meals and left the estaurant hurriedly. 70. we heard someone shouting for the proprietor. the waitress who had shown us to our table earlier swept up the broken china. (c) You will avoid the situation because you think that lady is not descent.iasexamportal. After some time a lady came into police station and shouting because of being molested by some local boys. As soon as we walked into Restaurant Happy Meal. a huge man with a tattoo on his arm. The word ensue can best be replaced by (a) occur (b) debut (c) initiate (d) take off http://www. The first paragraph tells us that the owner of the restaurant was (a) sorry for what had happened (b) angry with the two customers (c) unsure of what to do to calm the two customers (d) disappointed that the men created problems in the restaurant 74. breaking into pieces. Although my father warned us not to look at the two unruly customers. Meanwhile. You find that any further increase in the pollution level in the city by way of industrial effluents and automobile exhaustions would pose a severe threat to the inhabitants. We ordered our food and soon after. What will you do in this case? (a) You will order your junior officer to solve the problem immediately and lodge a complaint. (d) You will not be worried about it because it is a universal problem. (c) You will try to impose Only environment friendly vehicles. That was probably the quietest and fastest breakfast my family ever had. (b) You will say to lady “madam first be in your limit then blame other people”.

(c) 57. (d) 35. (a) 12.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. (a) 43.000. (d) 44. it can be inferred that the settlement agreement can be reached if (i) each of the three companies agrees to pay a little more money (ii) one of the companies is willing to pay an extra Rs. The plaintiff has agreed to accept Rs. (d) 68. (d) 20. (a) 48. (b) 72. (d) 61. The line That was probably the quietest and fastest breakfast my family ever had tells us that the writer and his family (a) often talked while they ate (b) ordered a lot of food each time they ate out (c) often ate silently and that day was no exception (d) usually did not like to be disturbed while they ate 76.(ii). (b) 29. (d) 5. 10.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. (d) 41.000. (c) 11. (b) 21. (c) 60. (c) 13. (d) 54. Now the lawyer must convince the the companies. (a) 25. The following statements are true except (a) the two customers did not have to pay for their food (b) the writer and his family ate then food without a word (c) one of the waitresses cleared up the mess on the floor (d) many customers ran out of the restaurant without paying 77. 78. (b) 78. (b) 53. (b) 19. (d) 67. (c) 73. and (iii) 80. The lawyer claims that this lawsuit is like a giant jigsaw puzzle. (*) 79. (c) 30.com/civilservices/courses Mock Paper For GS Paper-II Preliminary Examination 2016 75. (b) 52. (a) 76. Which word describes the atmosphere at the restaurant when the angry customer found a dead fly in his food? (a) Sad (b) Tense (c) Happy (d) Distracted PASSAGE-2 In this lawsuit. (*) 122 http://www. Based on information in the passage. (d) All of the above. (iii) the plaintiff reduces the amount of money he or she is willing to accept. (b) 46. (a) 71.000. (b) 2. the lawyer who represents three different insurance companies against one plaintiff is seeking a settlement agreement. (d) 36. (a) 42. (d) 65. (a) 39. (a) 63. (b) 8.000 that it is in their interest to pay enough so that the total reaches Rs.iasexamportal. (b) 51. 3. (a) 26. (a) 74. (d) 6. (a) 22. (d) 34. (b) 58. (d) 9. (d) 10. (a) Only (i) (b) Only (i) and (ii) (c) Only (ii) and (iii) (d) (i). (a) 59. (c) 15. (c) 50. (c) 66.com/civilservices/magazine . (a) 38. (c) 7. The lawyer claims that “this lawsuit is like a giant jigsaw puzzle” mostly because it (a) cannot be solved (b) is a source of frustration and anxiety for the lawyer (c) has pieces that must fit together in a certain way (d) is too difficult for the lawyer to handle 79. (c) 47. (c) 55. (c) a petitioner. (*) 80. (d) 49. none of which wants to pay more than Rs. (b) 33. (a) 27. (d) 37. (c) 64. (c) 45. What do we mean by the word ‘Plaintiff ’? (a) A person who brings a case against someone in a court of law. (c) 24. 1. (b) 14. (d) 77. (d) 17. (b) 18. (b) 32. (d) 23. (b) A party or someone involved in litigation. (d) 16. (a) 69. Answers 1. (a) 28. (d) 31. (b) 62. (b) 4. wherein the plaintiff agrees to drop the lawsuit in exchange for a certain amount of money. 10. (d) 70. (d) 40. (c) 3. (a) 75. (d) 56.

The Supreme Court of India does not have original jurisdiction in the settling of disputes (a) between the Government of India and any State of the Union (b) between two or more States (c) between the Government of India and one State on one hand and other States on the other hand (d) arising out of any trreaty or agreement 5. The special status of the State of Jammu and Kashmir (a) does not prevent the Union Government from making changes in the name and boundaries of the State (b) does not prevent the President from exercising his right to suspend the constitutional machinery of the State on the ground that the State Government has failed to carry out directions of the Union Government (c) does not prevent the Union Government from making any international agreement affecting the State without taking the consent of the State Legislature (d) prevents the Union Government from making any alteration in the name and boundaries of the state (c) reserving seats for them in the Indian Army (d) authorising the President to nominate two members of the community in the Lok Sahha 4. The Parliament can make laws with respect to J&K (a) only in subjects in the union list (b) only on subjects in the concurrent list (c) only regard to subjects in the union as well as concurrent list (d) on subjects included in all three lists. The President can make a proclamation of emergency in the state of J & K (a) with prior consent of the parliament (b) with the concurrence of the CJ of India (c) with the concurrence of the state legislature (d) with the concurrence of the state governor.com/civilservices/magazine 123 . Governor of a Union Territory (a) can issue an ordinance only after obtaining instruction from the President (b) can issue ordinances on the recommendation of Legislative Assembly.com/civilservices/courses Current Affair Objective Questions CURRENT AFFAIR OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. When can a President refer a matter to the Supreme Court for its opinion? (a) When the Cabinet is not functioning properly (b) When emergency has to be promulgated (c) When a matter is of public importance (d) Whenever the President feels like it 6. The Constitution seeks to protect the interests of the Anglo­Indian community by (a) reserving seats for them in the defence forces (b) reserving seats for them in the services as well as legislatures 9. 2. 3.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. For the protection and promotion of the interests of the backward classes (scheduled castes and scheduled tribes-seats have been reserved for them: (a) in public services (b) in the defence services (c) in none of the above (d) in public services as well as Legislatures 8. What is meant by Judicial Review? (a) Parliament’s right to ask the Judiciary to review judgements (b) Judiciary’s as power to pronounce upon the constitutionality of laws passed by the Legislature http://www.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. if any (c) can issue ordinances of his own discretion (d) cannot issue any ordiance 7.iasexamportal. The Lt.

When the President refers a question of law or fact Supreme Court for its 124 opinion.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.com/civilservices/courses Current Affair Objective Questions orders issued by the Executive. The phrase ‘procedure established by the law’ means (a) the judges in India cannot question the fairness or validity of a law. The High Court enjoys the power I. (a) The Court should do as directed by the President (b) the Court may decline to consider the matter (c) the Court has to express its opinion (d) the Court may report its opinion to the President 13.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. if it has been made in accordance with the procedure established by law (d) The Supreme Court cannot declare unconstitutional a law passed by the Parliament 16. Which of the following is not correct? (a) The Supreme Court cannot interfere with the delimitation of the constituencies (b) The Supreme Court cannot question the decision of the Speaker as to whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not (c) The Supreme Court cannot question the detention or arrest of a person or an Act. (c) The President’s right to seek the opinion of the Supreme Court on the constitution of a law passed by the Parliament. While interpreting the Constitution the courts are expect (a) resolve the conflict between the Directive Principles and Fundamental Rights (b) ignore the Directive Principles. while i n t e r p r e t i n g Fundamental Rights (c) give precedence to the Fundamental Rights over Directive Principles (d) Interpret the provisions of Fundamental Right and Directive principles as harmoniously as possible 11. To exercise superintendence over the working of Courts and Tribunals under its jurisdiction III. To make general rules and prescribe forms regulating the practices and proceedings of Courts under its jurisdiction http://www.com/civilservices/magazine . Who can be appointed as an ad hoc judge of the Supreme Court? (a) A retired judge of the Supreme Court (b) A sitting judge of a Hight Court duly qualified for appointment as a Supreme Court Judge (c) An acting judge of the Supreme Court (d) A person fully qualified for appointment as a judge to the Supreme Court 12. To issue writs for the enforcement of rights conferred on the citizens of India II. Mark the true statement (a) The High Court is the highest Court of Law and Appeal in the State (b) Appeals from all the lower courts need not be taken to the High Court but directly to the Supreme Court (c) High Courts are not established in all the States (d) All the above are true 17. (d) Judiciary’s right to review judgements passed by lower courts 10.iasexamportal. provided it is within the limits of the Constitution (b) judges in India can question the fairness or validity of an undue law even if it is within the limits of the Constitution (c) judges in India can declare a law invalid simply because in their opinion the law is not due or is unjust (d) None of the above 15. The privileges of the judges of Supreme Court: (a) cannot he modified to their disadvantage during their tenure of office (b) can be modified to their advantage or disadvantage during their term of office (c) can be modified by the Parliament only by twothirds majority (d) can be modified only with the approval of the Chief Justice of India 14.

When does the State law have precedence over Central law on the Concurrent subject? http://www. The ordinary Judges of the State High Court are appointed by the President on consultation with I. II and III 19. A Proclamation of Emergency is in force II. The salary and other allowances of the Judges of the High Courts are charged to (a) the Consolidated Fund of India (b) the Consolidated Fund of the State (c) the Consolidated Fund of India and the State on fifty-fifty basis (d) the Contingency Fund of India 21. The Judges of the High Court can be removed from their office during their tenure: (a) by the President on the basis of a resolution passed by the Parliament by two-thirds majority (b) by the Governor. (b) and (c) 27. The Chief Justice of the High Court II. by two-thirds majority (c) by the Chief Justice on the recomme-ndation of the Parliament (d) by the Chief Justice on the advice of the President 20. Two or more States make a request to the Parliament to make a law on a subject III. The jurisdiction of the Finance Commission does not extend to (a) recommendation of the allocation of funds among the various heads of expenditure in the Union and State budgets (b) recommendation of the distribution between the Union and the States of the net proceeds of taxes (c) recommendation of the allocation to the States of the respective shares of such tax proceeds (d) recommendation of the principles which govern the Grants-in-Aid of the revenue of the States out of the Consolidated Fund of India. The Chief Justice of India III. 24.com/civilservices/courses Current Affair Objective Questions (a) (b) (c) (d) I I and Ill II and III All of them 18.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. The provisions regarding division of taxes between Union and the States : (a) can be suspended during financial emergency (b) can be suspended during national emergency (c) cannot be suspended under any circumstances (d) can be suspended only with the consent of majority of the State Legislatures 26. if the State Legislature passes a resolution to this effect.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal.iasexamportal. In case of conflict between the central and state law on a subject in the concurrent list (a) the law which was passed first (b) the law of the state prevails (c) the law of the centre prevails (d) both laws stand nullified 22. What can the President do if the States fail to comply with the Directives of the Central Government? (a) The President can send reserve police to the State to secure compliance (b) The President can declare the breakdown of Constitutional machinery in the State and assume responsibility for the governance of the State (c) The President can dissolve the State Legislature and order fresh election (d) The President cannot do any of the things mentioned in (a). In case of a clash between the laws made by the Centre and a State on a subject in the Concurrent List (a) the State Law prevails (b) the Central Law prevails (c) both the Laws prevail within their respective jurisdictions (d) the Supreme Court has to intervene to decide 25. The Parliament can make a law on a subject in the State List when I. Rajya Sabha passes are solution that such subjects have acquired national importance (a) Only I (b) I and II (c) II and III (d) All of these 23. The Governor of the State (a) I (b) I and II (c) II and III (d) I.com/civilservices/magazine 125 .

The independence of the Election Commission has (a) by making the removal of the Chief Election Commissioner difficult (b) by not permitting any change in the salary and other service conditions of the Election Commissioner during his term (c) both the above provisions (d) by none of the above provisions 34. Which of the following are the members of Zonal Council? (a) The Chief Ministers of the States included in that Zonal Council (b) All the ministers of those States (c) The Governors of those States (d) All the above mentioned 30. 1978 (d) 52nd Constitutional Amendment Act. When and by which Act. The Zonal Councils which aim at ensuring cooperation amongst various States are: (a) provided in the Constitution (b) created by the States Reorganisation Act 1956 (c) (a) and (b) (d) None of the above 29. On account of multi-party system in India we find a close resemblance in the policies and programmes of various Political Parties. 1976 (b) Administrative Tribunal Act.f o u r t Constitutional Amendment Act. (c) The Organizational elections of Political Parties in India are held at regular intervals (d) Most of the Political Parties in India do not hold organisational elections at regular intervals.iasexamportal. or corrupt or illegal practice. 3. direction and control of the conduct of elections is vested in (a) Parliament (b) District Administration (c) State Government working through the District-Magistrates (d) Election Commission 31. 32. Consider the following statements: 1. Of late the regional Political Parties are planning more important role in the India polity than the national Political Parties. The power to set up a Administrative Tribunal for the adjudication of disputes relating to elections vested in: (a) p r e s i d e n t i a l proclamation (b) the appropriate legislature (c) special ordinances made for the purpose (d) any law made by the Election Commission 35. 1985 33.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. In India the superintendent. the Central Administrative Tribunal was set up? (a) 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. The national Political Parties in India are truly speaking not national in character because most of the national parties are not spread over the entire country. The Political Parties in India have tended of http://www. 36.com/civilservices/magazine . 1985 (c) F o r t y . 2. Which of the following is not one of the qualifications prescribed in Article 326? (a) He should not be less an twenty-one years of age 126 (b) He should be citizen of India (c) He should not hold any office of profit under the Government of India (d) He should not be otherwise disqualified on the ground of unsoundness of mind. Which one of the following feature regarding organisation of Parties in India has been wrongly listed? (a) The Political Parties in India are not wellorganised (b) Most of the Political Parties in India are organised around certain leaders. 4.com/civilservices/courses Current Affair Objective Questions (a) if the State law was passed earlier (b) if the law passed by the State was approved by the President before enactment of law on the same subject by the Parliament (c) if the Supreme Court so advises (d) In no case 28. crime.

39.iasexamportal. or place of birth. 43.com/civilservices/courses Current Affair Objective Questions suborging their narrow interests to national interests due to development of nationalists sprit. 2 and 4 are correct (d) 1. caste. Article 26 1. Match the following: List-I List-II Articles Provisions for Minorities A. Which of the following functions are correct about National Commission for 45. 44. 41. Article 30 (1)3. and 3 are correct (b) 2. Provision discrimi-nation on grounds of religion. Article 29 2. its use beyond this period was permitted through (a) an amendment in the constitution (b) an act to Parliament (c) all ordinance of the President (d) a Judgement of the SC. Codes : A B C D (a) 2 1 3 4 (b) 1 2 3 4 (c) 3 2 4 1 (d) 1 2 4 3 42. 38. race.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. 3 and 4 are correct (c) 1. Code : (a) 1. One of the following is not a part of Panchayati Raj? (a) District Board (b) Town Area Committees (c) Village Block (d) Panchayat Boards http://www. Which one of the following statement about the Political Parties in India is correct’? (a) It is obligatory for Political Parties to get registered under the representation of the Peoples’ Act (b) A Political Party which applies for registration has to include a specific provision in its constitution professing allegiance to the constitution and principle of secularism and democracy (c) the Political Parities in India register themselves with the Election Commission (d) All the Above. research and analysis on the issues relating to socioeconomic and education development to minorities (d) All of the these. Though originally the use of English for official purpose was permitted for a period of 15 years from the commencement of the constitution. A Political Party in India can acquire the status of a registered Party if it secures­ (a) at least 2 per cent of votes in state (b) at least one per cent of votes in state (c) at least three per cent of votes in state (d) None of the above. whether based on religion or language shall have to right to establish and administer educati-onal institution of their choice D. (d) Both (a) and (b) 40. The members of Panchayat Samiti are (a) directly elected by the people (b) elected by the members of the panchayat (c) nominated by the district officers (d) recruited through an open competition. Recognition of a political party can be withdrawn by the Election Commission (a) on account of failure of the party to observe the model code of conduct (b) on account of failure of the party to follow lawful directions aid instructions of the Election Commission (c) with the prior consent of the SC of India. When was the Panchayati Raj introduced in India? minorities (a) evaluate the progress of the development of minorities under the union and states (b) monitor the working of the safe guards provided in the constitution (c) conduct studies. 2. Article 15 4. Protects the interests or minorities C. 3 and 4 are correct 37. Provides that all “ minorities.com/civilservices/magazine 127 .com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. sex. Provides for freedom to manage religions affairs to all majority as well as monitory communities B.

(d) 17. (a) 14. operates at (in descending order of tiers) (a) Zilla Parishad. (d) 42. (d) 49. (b) 21. (a) 24. (d) 40. (b) 4. (d) 128 2. (b) 36. (a) 12. (d) 15. (b) 34. (d) 35. Village Panchayat 50. The lowest unit in the Panchayati Raj institutions is (a) a village panchayat (b) the Panchayat Samiti (c) Zilla Parishad (d) the Gram Sabha 48. Who is known as the ‘Father of Local Government in India’? (a) Lord Curzon (b) Lord Wellesly (c) Lord Mayo (d) Lord Ripon ANSWERS 1. Gram Panchayat. (c) 9. (a) 33. (a) 8. (d) http://www. (d) 32. (d) 20. The Committee on whose recommendation Panchayati Raj was introduced in the country was headed by (a) Jivraj Mehta(b) Ashok Mehta (c) Balwant Rai Mehta (d)None of these 47. (c) 11. (c) 31. (b) 47. (b) 5. (b) 6. (d) 28.Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams http://iasexamportal. (d) 10. (d) 22. (c) 18. (d) 27. (c) 7. (d) 48.com Click Here to Subscribe PRINT COPY of Civil Services Mentor Magazine http://iasexamportal. (b) 3. The original scheme of Panchayati Raj introduced in 1959. (d) 25.com/civilservices/courses Current Affair Objective Questions (a) 1950 (c) 1952 (b) 1959 (d) 1962 Panchayati Raj administration is: (a) to work for rural development (b) to ensure the upliftment of Harijans (c) to arouse in the people continuous interest in the community development programmes (d) to increase agricultural production through the involvement of the people in extension programmes 46. (a) 23. (b) 19. (b) 38. (d) 13.com/civilservices/magazine . (a) 26. (b) 37. Zilla Parishad (c) Gram Sabha. Panchayat Samiti. Gram Sahha (b) Panchayat Samiti. Zilla Parishad. (c) 45. Samiti. (d) 44. (d) 16. (b) 30. (a) 29. (c) 41. (b) 50. The primary aim of the 49. (a) 39. (c) 43. Village Panchayat (d) Zilla Parishad.iasexamportal. (d) 46.

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