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Key technologies for composite structures in ecomobility and transport industries

Presented by
Prof. A.S. Herrmann

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Composites Australia CRC-ACS Confrence 2015
Game on! Winning with Composites
Gold Coast 23rd, April 2015

Content
 Reason for Lightweight Demand



Aircraft
Automotive
Truck
Railway

 Part Portfolio Trend
• Aircraft-Industry
• Automotive-Industry
 Common Technology Needs
 Technology Solutions
• Industrialisation
• Simulation
• Hybrid
• CFK Valley Network
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Reason for Lightweight Demand
Lightweight potential of reinforced plastics in the mobility sector
Vehicle

operating time

Airplane

~ 60.000 h

Car

~ 6.000 h

Train

~ 75.000 h

Truck

~ 25000 h

benefit

example

1 kg less weight saves 2 t of kerosene

A380 max. take off weight:
560.000 kg!

100 kg less weight leads to 0,35 -0,5 l / 100km less

Golf I: 780 kg

fuel consumption

Golf VI: 1142 kg

-> 8,8-12,5 g/km less CO ² emission

+ 25%

Significant reduction of energy consumption

Reduction of journey-time HH

(on subway trains) – faster acceleration

to M: up to 20 Min.

Lightweight trailer saves up to 25 % fuel

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

270.000 l instead of
350.000 l diesel consumption

Aircraft traffic will double in the next 15 years

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

20-Years demand for 31.358 new passenger and
freight aircraft

4,6x 10 18

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Sustainable Aviation
Flying green
Innovative solutions to reduce the environmental
Impact throw-out aircrafts entire life circle

Advisory Council for
Aviation Research
and innovation in Europe

Vision 2020

Flight Path 2050

-50% CO2

-75% CO2

-80% Nox

-90% Nox

-50% noise

-65% noise

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Reason for Lightweight Demand – Aircraft
 New regulations (green, external funding)
 New market needs (services, demand)

Cash Operating Costs
Operations*

Increase revenues from
operation without penalising the
affordability of the product

Recurring Costs
Fuel

Equipment

Fuselage

Integration & FAL
Crew

Maintenance

Wing

* : Ramp & pax handling / Catering / Nav, landing and noise charges

100 Kg weight reduction leads to 200 t less fuel burn during Life-Time

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Part Portfolio Trend – Aircraft Industry
High Volume

1st generation composite fuselage

2nd generation composite fuselage
+ wing

Typical Frame

Typical Frame

 potential rate: 13 a/c per month

 potential rate: 40-50 a/c per month

 high level of variants

 low level of variants

 ~ 50.000 frames/year
 ~ 800 km stringer/year

 ~ 140.000 frames/year
 ~ 1000 km stringer/year
 ~ 2000 wing cover/year

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Technology Driver

• In the past the competition was driven by getting the best
performance of an Aircraft, in Future the competition will be
driven by getting the best productivity

• A Ramp up in production is needed
• Secure a Sustainable Aviation
Reduction of Costs and lead time

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Common Technology Needs
 Low cost structures
 Out of autoclave technologies
 Automation and industrialization
 New curing processes
Continuously processes
 Thermoplastprocesses

 Short manufacturing cycle
 New fast curing resin systems
 No shimming
 Quick / Jigless assembly
 Rivetless structures
 Global and rapid NDI methods

Design for Future Factory
•design to cost
• design to manufacturing capabilities
•design to automate
•design to more Functionality

Fly to buy ratio
Recycling

 Robust prozesses and Robust fast Ramp Up
 Process and factory Simulation

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Integration
Infusion of large scale parts:





One-shot of complex fuselage shell
Scale 1:1
incl. T-Stringer
incl. door cut-out,
incl. Door-surrounds reinforcement
interleaved thougened textile used

Source: CTC-GmbH

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

3D-Profile Preforming
Automated patch integration
(“local patches”)

Continuous production
of variable profil geometry
Automated variable curvature

Automated integration of large
area reinforcements
(“global patches”)

Source: T. Witte, CTC-GmbH

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Technology Solutions - Industrialisation
HD-RTM: Development and
Enhancement of high pressure RTM
technology for aircraft and automotive
application
 Targets
 Aerospace: process time reduction from
currently 3hrs to 15min
 Automotive: process time reduction to less than
5min
 Scope
 Flow path optimized injection
 Automated docking system
 Fast Curing 2K resin
 Application of internal release agent
 High pressure tools for hollow-body parts

HD-RTM - Plant

Shop-Floor

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Direct Dry
Dry-Fibre Placement for complex, double-curved geometries

Gantry-based dry fibre lay-up

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Robot-based dry fibre lay-up

Advantages:
•Cheap material
•No ondulations /
minimal waviness
•Excellent laminat quality

Multi head (Combined ATL&AFP)
• Suitable for curved parts
• Lay up rate: depending on number of robots (has to be

investigated)
Medium invest (in combination with industry robots)

Deposition

GroFi multi-head facility

Page 16
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Reason for Lightweight Demand – Automotive
Challenges of fleet fuel consumption

USA

Europe

China

CO2 legislations on fuel consumption
are market specific and very
inhomogeneous in the realisation!

CO2 is a central issue concerning all markets.
Source:
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Part Portfolio Trend – Automotive
High Rate

BMW i3

Medium Rate

Audi R8 Spyder

Lamborghini
Aventador LP700-4
McLaren MP4-12C

Low Rate
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Improvement of Economic Efficiency
Production Cost
Material Costs

Small Series

100

80

60

40

Mass Production

- 90%
20

0

Small Series
Production

Mass

- 50%

X.000/a



© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

New/modified materials
New/modified processes
Additional functions

X00.000/a

Volume

• Epoxy resins are mass products
 DOW Chemical for instance produces
70.000t epoxy resin per year
at a price of 3-4 €/kg

 Cure time can be reduced drastically,

Curing time [min]

Development Potential of Thermoset Resins

DOW has already tested resin systems wich cure
in ~90s

Curing time of thermoset 2K resins

 But: todays resins are oil-based, making its
price depending on the crude oil price

Plastixx Index (pts.)

Crude Oil Dubai ($/bbl)

2000

• Development: Biopolymers
 Biodegradable resins are already available
 To date, their mechanical properties are
insufficient

 Fundamental research is still required, ~10 years
to maturity

 High costs
 Smaller Carbon Footprint
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

 120.00

1800
1600

 100.00

1400
 80.00

1200
1000

 60.00

800
 40.00

600
400

 20.00

200
0

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Dependency of polymer and crude oil price

Carbonfiber costs are dominated by the
PAN–Precursor

Need to develop a Carbon-Fibre based on Lignin for automotive industry

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Composite Raw Material Costs
• Material costs for a Structure with a fibre volume content of 60% (assuming constant oil prices)


Today:

12 €/kg

(Fibres 15€/kg, Resin 4 €/kg)

Medium term:

10 €/kg

(Fibres 12€/kg, Resin 3,5 €/kg)

Long term:

6 €/kg

(Fibres 7€/kg, Resin 3 €/kg)

Medium term:
- No significant reduction of material costs possible
- Technological advances are compensated by increasing oil prices
- Reduction of the carbon footprint!

Long term (later than 2030):
- Reduction of ~50 % possible (Lignin,Polyolefin…)

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Common Technology Needs

Efficient & Economic Lightweight-Construction requires
„right material for right application“
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Hybrid Processes
Hot Pressing of Fibre Reinforced Thermoplasts

Integration of textile reinforcements
into the casting process

Hybrid Textiles
Fluid Injection
Cycle
duration:Technique
74-93 sec

Window Frame (Airbus Deutschland)
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Reinforcement Elements Aligned with the
Direction of Forces for Load Transfer
Pressing

Injection

Raw Materials

Hybrid-Preform
Manufacturing

Consolidation
of Inserts

Integration and
Forming in LFRT

Funded by: AiF under the programme for promoting collective industrial research
and development (IGF project17656 N/1) funded by the Federal Ministry of
Economics and Technology. Therefore we would like to express our thanks.
Contact Person at FIBRE: Katharina Arnaut| arnaut@faserinstitut.de
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Hybrid Composite Processes- SMC
with Endless Fibres

2. Juni
2015

Complex Shape and
Freedom of Design
Integration of Functions
Hybridisation of Metal and
CFRP
Possibility to use recycled
Carbon Fibres
 exzellent Buy-to-Fly-Ratio

1
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Combined Compression
and Curing Crocess

Cargo Foot
Step

Battery Case as automotive supporting structure

battery Case as automotive supporting
structure

maximum use of FRP light weight potential

high level of function integration

observance of part specific requirements

weight reduction and increased structural
rigidity

demonstration of manufacturing feasibility

rate of 20 000 parts/year

Page 27
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

[ OEM Reference Design Phase I ]

June
2013

Weight Reduction Phase I
metal panel

+

steel frame
Reference Design

Density = 3,58 kg/dm³

33 kg + 20 kg = 53 kg

25 kg
CFK-Valley Concept Body Structure

composite panel

+

composite frame
- 37 kg

- 13 kg

- 68 %

- 50 %

Density = 1,9 kg/dm³

11 kg + 5 kg = 16 kg

Page 28
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

12 kg

Simulation Side Crash

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Truck
 small series of 15 built trailer for ALDI
currently in regular fleet operation
 serial production targeted for 2016
 need for suitable production process
to
manufacture 10 Units per day and
tool

Source: TTT – The Team Technology

Page 30
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Septembe
r 2012

Truck
2010: CFRP Reefer Trailer
 CFRP monocoque structure
dimensions: 13.6 x 2.6 x 0.75m
 reduced weight, improved
aerodynamics
 weight saving 3-4 tons
 reduces fuel consumption
up to 25%
 integration of functions,
e.g. pallet carrier, side protection
 increased load volume
 improved insulation
 reduction of life cycle costs
Source: TTT – The Team Technology
Page 31

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Masterproject: Paddlebike
Specifications
Authors: K. Eggemann, M. Meyer-Coors

• Brakes: 2, acting separatly

Motivation

• Maximum speed: Over 19 mph

• Training machine for the winter

• Length: 10.5 ft
• Width: 3.6 ft
• Height: 2.3 ft
• Weight: 88 lb

Manufacturing of the beam
• Modified vacuum-infusion-process
• 3 mm layer stack
• PU-foam core

contact: kai@uni-bremen.de
s_un7wv8@uni-bremen.de
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Thank you for your attention
Innovative Composite Technologies

Page 33
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

June
2013

Function Integration
battery module

foam core

battery case
temperature control
battery module fitting

temperature control

Page 34
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

corrosion protection

June
2013

Design Phase II
B-B

1

Phase I body structure
2

Phase II body structure
1.
2.

3

3.

contoured foam core
=
circumferential beam
Phase I replacement

Reduced number of cross
beams
Integrated circumferential
beam
Pure Sandwich panel

B-B

Integrated
0° plies

Page 35
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Summary
• A Holistic Material Design approach is
necessary to enable widespread application of
CFRP in tomorrows high volume production
scenarios

• Highly automated and continuous
Manufacturing processes are mandatory for
reaching economic targets and allowing steep
production ramp up

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

PRTM

ACROSOMA

Continuous production
150 m² / hour or 250.000 m² / year
Source: ACROSOMA

Page 37
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Acrosoma Carbon Fibre Panel

January 2013

Research at CTC- Examples
Comprising competencies from Design, Production and Testing
Vertical tail plane
new generation

Design of 
production 
systems

Complex
CFRPFrame

Industrial Scenario

Large infusion part

38
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A350 XWB
Testpyramide

January 2013

Technologies at CTC- Examples
Expertise and exclusive technologies for
the production of composite parts

Automated
stringer
integration

• Automated Fibre Placement 
(AFP with Thermoset and Thermoplast & ATL)

• Automated Handling of semi‐fabrics
• Automated Pulltrusion Technology (PRTM)
• High pressure RTM
• Automated “Vakuum‐bagging” (Auto‐VAC)
• Integration of dry‐fibres (NCF / Infusion technology)
• Production of large components (prototypes)
• Digital reference and simulation of whole process‐chain
• TP Compression Technologies
• Lab for Aalysis
• … and further more technologies and developments…
39
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Tyfudem Side Shell Left

Reason for Lightweight Demand – Aircraft
2nd Generation CFRP Structures





Cost reduction
Weight reduction
Reduction of Lead time
High Rate
Reduction in Development Costs
Process chain for Family concept

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

20%
20%
only 6 days FAL
50AC/month
- 30%

Continuous production of Sandwichplates

 3 dimensional stitched panel
 Combination of Tufting and
Pultrusion
 Production in continuous mode
 Basic material for large light weight
structures
Source: ACROSOMA
Page 41
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„Diversification“
Activities and projects to gain a broader footprint in rapidly growing mobility and
renewable energy branches
Initiation of joint project „RoHyb“ with NORDEX, DLR, IFAM, Dow, Spitzner Engineers,
HDE Consult and CTC GmbH
Integration of multiple wind energy OEM (GE, Sulzlon, Nordex…) in CFK-Valley
Applied development of resin systems for rotorblade manufacturers within CFK NORD
INNOVATION DAY Wind Energy

„“

Integration within Open Hybrid Labfactory joint project in Wolfsburg
Founding of CFK-Valley project office in Wolfsburg
Initiation of joint projects related to thermoplastic processing of CFRP

„Automotive“

Cooperation with railway operator Deutsche Bahn and German Railway
Association
Initiation of FRP-Feasability study for railway systems

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

„Transportation“

Reason for Lightweight Demand – Aircraft
Aircraft CO2 Saving

1994
1st flight 2013
*: estimated scenario

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Assembly Station @ Fraunhofer IFAM
CFK Nord Stade

Source: Fraunhofer IFAM
Page 44
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Common Technology Needs
Example for Successful Aerospace Cost Assessment
Manual Prepreg Production – Reference [€/kg]
100%
Prepreg Process Automation
Reduction ~47%
~ 53% of Reference
Discontinuous Dry –Fibre Process
Reduction ~50%
~ 25% of Reference
Current Dry –Fibre Development
< 25%
Compared to Reference

Airbus A350 XWB

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

LCF Spant

International CFK-Valley Stade CONVENTION

International Congress with focus
on CFRP-Lightweight Structures
approx. 450 Visitors
40 Exhibitors
Composite Innovations Award
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Topic 2015
8th

CFK-Valley Stade
CONVENTION

June 24th & 25th 2015

„Industry 4.0 for Composites”

Ecological Aspects of FRP in Automotive
Engineering
• Usage of FRP in automotive engineering is ecologically worthwhile due to the fact
that the main energy consumption of a vehicle occures during its utilisation phase

• Cars with a high fraction of FRP consume more energy during the production
process (CED*1), but consume less energy during utilisation as a result of their
lower weight
„Credit“
by use of
Recycling

CFK

Stahl

Production

Usage

After132.000 km
energetic Break-Even *2
is reached – from this
point onwards a car
made of CFK causes
less impact on the
environment than a car
made of steel

Recycling
Mileage [km]
Break-Even
at ~160.000 km

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

*1

Cumulated Energy Demand
I. Verpoest: „Life cycle analysis of carbon fibre composite cars: strong, light and gree
JEC Forum on Recycling & Life Cycle Management 13 April 2010

*2 Source:

January 2013

CFK-Valley Technology

CFK Valley Stade Technology covers all necessary 
competencies for CFK production under one roof

CTC GmbH is the major leaser of CFK Valley 
Stade Technology

1.800 sqm of project‐oriented offices 
+ 2.500 sqm of air conditioned workshop 
for efficient collaboration

2.500 m² air-conditioned workshop
48
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January 2013

CTC - Enabling Efficient Production

CTC GmbH is a 100% subsidiary of
AIRBUS Operations GmbH

)integrated in the Airbus Technology Program

cooperation with suppliers and development 
partners within the "CFK‐Valley“, 

Technology development of large CFRP‐parts 
for:

Scientific
knowledge

science
+ research

CFRPindustry

 Aeronautic
 Windenergy
 Automotive industry
 Building construction
 ...

EN 9100 and ISO 14001 certified

49
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Industrial applicability

CTC – Enabling Efficient Manufacturing
• CTC GmbH is a 100% subsidiary of AIRBUS


Our Mission:
Development of highly
automated composite
production processes

Scientific knowledge



Operations GmbH
founded in 2001
Integrated in the Airbus Technology Program
Cooperation with suppliers and development
partners within the “CFK Valley“ Stade
EN 9100 and ISO 14001 certified
Certified as Airbus extended workbench

Science +
research

CFRP
Industry

Industrial applicability

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Facts & Figures
Competence network for CFRP-Technology
Founded in 2004
Over 30 years of experience in CFRP technology
More than 3.000 employees dedicated to CFRP in
Stade region
Today 112 members

Diversification
Internationalization
Creation of regional added value
Our mission: to support the development of new and innovative composite applications

Process automation
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Industrial applications

Automotive

Aerospace

Competencies along the entire value chain
CFRPeducation

research

technologydevelopment /
-engineering

manufacturing

BOLLE & CORDS

recycling

Elektrotechnik GmbH

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Infrastructure of the CFK-Valley Stade

SERVICE
TECHNOLOGY
C F K N O R D large scale research centre

INFOPOINT
CAMPUS

© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

RECYCLING

CONVENTION

Large scale research center CFK NORD

EADS
Innovation
Works (IW)

Stade
manufacturing single
parts
virtual composite
product development

assembling technology

textile technology

joining technique

process engineering

prototype assembly

lightweight design

20.000 m² for R&T-Projects and partners on location
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Dow
Chemical
application development
(e.g. new resin
systems)

CTC Innovations over the product life cycle
CTC Innovations over the product life cycle
Development

Serial Production

End of life

TRL1-TRL6

• End user oriented
research and
development
• Funded projects
• Project
management and
coordination




© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Training
Trouble-shooting
Serial manufacturing support
Realisation of developed
technologies

• Solutions for
recycling of
composites
• Development of
closed product life
cycles

CTC Motivation and Objective

 Preproduction lines to mature technology solutions before
transitioning into production especially at high production rate

 Design for Future Factory ( design to cost , design to manufacturing
capabilities , design to automate )

 Accelerated Technologies for more automation, smart production ,
world class computer driven production technologies

 Knowledgetransfer Industries outside Aviation

Page 56
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Cost Reduction

• New Build concepts

 Higher degree of integration
…
• Functional Integration
 Structural integration of Glasfibers for SHM and Communication
 Integration of structure and cabin
 …….
• Hybrid processes and Hybrid materials
 Merge different manufacturing technologies
 ….
• Reduce Buy to Fly Ratio
 Reduce waste
 Re-use of material
 …..
© AIRBUS Operations GmbH. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.