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INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

SIMO (Simultaneous-Motion Cycle) Chart: Meaning, Method to Improve and Construction!
“SIMO” stands for simultaneous-Motion Cycle chart. It is one of micro motion study devised by Gilbreth and
it presents graphically the separable steps of each pertinent limb of the operator under study. It is an
extremely detailed left and right hand operation chart.
It records simultaneously the different therbligs performed by different parts of the body of one more
operators on a common time scale. The movements are recorded against time measured in “Winks” (1
wink= 1/2000 minute). These are recorded by a “Wink Counter” positioned in such a location that it can be
seen rotating during filming process.

Improving the present method:
Therbligs in the SIMO chart are critically examined to explore the possibility of:
(i) Removing or eliminating the unproductive Therbligs such as find, select and avoidable delay etc.
(ii) Resequencing of the productive therbligs such as assemble and disassemble etc.
A micro motion study analysis sheet or a left hand-right chart is drawn in Fig. 4.12 for the following
information’s.
Operation: Finish hand filing copper work piece.
Time for searching, lifting and holding work piece to the vice.
Table by left hand = 0.2 min
Time for opening the vice by right hand = 0.2 min
Holding the work piece in the vice with both hands = 0.4 min
Time taken for lifting and holding file by right hand = 0.2 min
Time taken for hand filing with both hands = 1.00 min
Time for bringing the micrometer by right hand = 0.2 min
Time taken in checking dimension with both hands = 0.8 min
Time for opening the vice by right hand = 0.2 min
Time taken in removing work piece with left hand = 0.2 min
Micro motion Study
Dept……………………………………………. Film No……………….
Analysis Sheet
Operation: Finish hand fillings
Charted By……………….
Date……………………………………………………………………………….. Operator…………………

Construction of “SIMO” Chart:
The SIMO chart for left hand and right hand analysis sheet inform about the degree of participation of both
the hands. The time for each Therblig recorded on the analysis sheet may be shown to scale by means of
a SIMO chart. Either the SIMO chart may be prepared independently or the chart may be constructed from
the data available on the analysis sheet.
SIMO CHART (Corresponding to Fig. 4.12)
Department: …………………………………. Film No…………………
Operation: Finish hand filling
Charted By……………..
Date………………………………………………………………………………. Operator………………..

A SIMO chart is beneficial since it allows very accurate and detailed analysis. The work cycle form the film
can be studied, easily, peacefully and away from the disturbing surroundings of the actual work station.
SIMO chart is critically examined in order to grasp a picture of complete cycle in total details and assists in
working out better combination of the desired motions.
For improving the methods following procedure is followed:
(i) The places in the workstation having non productive Therbligs such as search, select position and plan
etc. are re-examined with a view to eliminate these basic elements as far as possible.
(ii) Attention is concentrated towards productive Therbligs like transport loaded, disassemble, assemble
and use etc., which may be re-sequenced in order to reduce total cycle time and fatigue incurred to the
operators.
(iii) Laws of Motion Economy help in improving the existing technique of performing an operation.

Predetermined Motion Time System

A predetermined motion time system (PMTS) may be defined as a procedure that analyzes any manual activity in
terms of basic or fundamental motions required to perform it. Each of these motions is assigned a previously
established standard time value and then the timings for the individual motions are synthesized to obtain the total time
needed for performing the activity.
The main use of PMTS lies in the estimation of time for the performance of a task before it is performed. The
procedure is particularly useful to those organizations which do not want troublesome performance rating to be used
with each study.
Applications of PMTS are for
(i) Determination of job time standards.
(ii) Comparing the times for alternative proposed methods so as to find the economics of the
proposals prior to production run.
(iii) Estimation of manpower, equipment and space requirements prior to setting up the facilities and
start of production.
(iv) Developing tentative work layouts for assembly lines prior to their working in order to minimize the
amount of subsequent re-arrangement and re-balancing.
(v) Checking direct time study results.
A number of PMTS are in use, some of which have been developed by individual organizations for their own use,
while other organizations have developed and publicized for universal applications.
Some commonly used PMT systems are:

Work factor (1938)

Method Time Measurement (1948)

Basic Motion Time (1951)

Dimension Motion Time (1954)

.Advantages and limitations of PMTS
Advantages
Compared to other work measurement techniques, all PMT systems claim the following advantages:
1. There is no need to actually observe the operation running. This means the estimation of time to perform a
job can be made from the drawings even before the job is actually done. This feature is very useful in
production planning, forecasting, equipment selection, etc.
2. The use of PMT eliminates the need of troublesome and controversial performance rating. For the sole
reason of avoiding performance rating, some companies have been using this technique.
3. The use of PMT forces the analyst to study the method in detail. This sometimes helps to further improve the
method.
Limitations

There are two main limitations to the use of PMT system for establishing time standards. These are: (i) its application
to only manual contents of job and (ii) the need of trained personnel. Although PMT system

Work Measurement: Techniques of Work Measurement
International Labour Organization(ILO) defined work measurement as ‘die application of techniques
designed to establish the work content of a specified task by determining the time required for carrying it
out at a defined standard of performance by a qualified worker’. Conventionally, it is known as time study,
which is primarily carried out to determine the standard time required to perform a specific task. Such time
standards are used for planning and scheduling work, for cost estimating or for labour cost control.
Otherwise, it may serve as the basis for a wage incentive plan. But we find it has wide application in
deciding a wage incentive plan.

Techniques of Work Measurement:
1. Time study
2. Ratio-delay study (Statistical Sampling Technique)
3. Synthesis from standard data
4. Pre-determined motion time standard
5. Analytic estimating
Out of all these, only the time study technique is widely used because others are complicated in nature.
Here also, we will discuss in detail the time study only, while simply defining the other techniques.

Time Study:
ILO defined time study as ‘a technique for determining as accurately as possible from a limited number of
observations, the time necessary to carry out a given activity at a defined standard of performance’. For
carrying out a time study, equipment’s such as stopwatch, study board, pencils, slide rule, etc. are
required.
The different types of stopwatches include:
1. Stopwatches that record one minute per revolution by intervals of one- fifth of a second with a small
hand recording 30 minutes.
2. Stopwatches that record one minute per revolution, calibrated in one- hundredth of a minute with a small
hand recording 30 minutes.
3. Decimal-hour stopwatches recording one-hundredths of an hour with a small hand recording up to one
hour in 100 divisions.
The following steps are necessary for carrying out a time study for the measurement of work:
a. To collect and complete all available information about the job, which should also include the
surrounding conditions and also the attributes of the operators, which are likely to affect the work
b. To record the details of the methods and also to break down different operations into their elements
c. To record the time taken by the operators to perform the operation (element-wise) measuring preferably
with a timing device such as a stopwatch
d. To assess the working speed of the operators by comparing the same with a predetermined normal
speed

e. To convert the observed time to normal time
f. To decide the rate of allowances that may be given over and above the normal time of the operation
g. To determine the allowed time for operation

Short Answers

Wages:

Cost of using labor as opposed to cost of using capital or land. As a price of labor, it is subject
to the forces of demand and supply in the labor market, which in turn is affected by productivity levels
and ability of the employers to substitute labor with other factors of production such as machinery.
See also wage.

Incentives: Inducement or supplemental reward that serves as a motivational device for a
desired action or behavior. The manager motivated his employees to achieve the highest sales in the
company by giving them season passes to their favorite team as an incentive if they succeeded in
breaking sales records.