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US 20130312349A1

(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2013/0312349 A1
Hileman et al.
(54)

(43) Pub. Date:

INSULATED CONCRETE FORM

(52)

NOV. 28, 2013

U.S. Cl.
CPC ............ .. E04B 2/8647 (2013.01); E04G 21/02

(71) Applicant: SYNTHEON, INC., Leetsdale, PA (U S)

(201301)
USPC

........................................ .. 52/421; 52/742.14

(72) Inventors: Blain Hileman, New Castle, PA (US);
Michael T. Williams, Beaver Falls, PA

(US);
(US);
(US);
(Us);

Justin D. Rubb, Coraopolis, PA
Tricia G. Guevara, Jasper, GA
Shawn P. Jarvie, Monaca, PA
Ginawati Au’ Ahqulppa’ PA (Us)

_

(57)

ABSTRACT

A concrete Wall forming system including interconnected
mold units that include a top surface containing a ?rst portion

(21) Appl' NO" 13/926’418

bond beam form, a ?rst top ledge, a ?rst top lip seal portion,

(22)

a second top ledge, and a second top lip seal portion; a bottom
surface containing a second portion bond beam form, a ?rst
bottom ledge, a ?rst bottom lip seal portion, a second bottom
ledge’ and a Second bottom hp Seal port1on; and two or more

Filed;

Jun_ 25, 2013
Related U-s- Application Data

(63) Continuation of application No. 11/521,179, ?led on

Sep' 143 2006’ now abandoned'
Publication Classi?cation
(51)

Int. Cl.
E 043 2/86
E 04G 21/02

(2006.01)
(2006.01)

column forms extendlng from the top depression to the bot

tom depresslon. The ?rst top 11p seal port1on and ?rst bottom
lip seal portion and second top lip seal portion and second
bottom lip seal portion are adapted to form a seal between tWo
mold units such that the bond beam form portions are com
bined to form a bond beam form. The system can be used to
form an insulated concrete Wall.

204

202

200

Patent Application Publication

Nov. 28, 2013 Sheet 1 0f 10

US 2013/0312349 A1

@

M14

8
24 4O 58
48

FIG. 4

44 k42

.

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2013 Sheet 4 0f 10 US 2013/0312349 Al N.wE . 28.Patent Application Publication Nov.

IO 50:[ 78 62 _ 74 ' 52 / /76 f 72. 9 . A/58 60“ ii ) \ \ 94 96 64 FKG. 56 q V _6_O 56 52 N 52 l l 90 FIG. 28. 2013 Sheet 5 0f 10 5011 50:4 68 7O 62 1g 80 82 5f‘.Patent Application Publication US 2013/0312349 A1 Nov. 8 88 \ 64 FIG..

.

2013 Sheet 7 0f 10 US 2013/0312349 A1 [70% r-1 wk. 28. .Patent Application Publication Nov. q@ ()5:GQQQOOUSO“ 1-1 FIG.

52 56/ lg 48 46\\ ' Q 206 —‘ 46fk24s M202 44 // N 200 g 44r “42 H6. 48 46\\\\ 434 H 219 f<~42 (‘54 581. {5 . 28.Patent Application Publication 201 Nov. 2013 Sheet 8 0f 10 56 US 2013/0312349 A1 32 N 383:1 ‘[f34 2Q N204 g.

FIG. 2013 Sheet 9 0f 10 US 2013/0312349 A1 l6 FIG.Patent Application Publication Nov.I? . 28.

Patent Application Publication . 28. 2013 Sheet 10 0f 10 NON DON US 2013/0312349 A1 .VON Nov.

[0021] The present invention also provides a Wall that includes one or more roWs (or courses) of the above-de scribed concrete Wall forming system. the ?rst end. and the ef?ciency gained by retaining the form Walls as part of the second end. The large amount of horiZontal and vertical joints that require bracing to correctly position the blocks during a concrete pour. Wait until the concrete cures. Field of the Invention [0002] The present invention is directed to a concrete Wall [0011] HoWever. and a second bottom lip seal portion. [0003] 2.e. Which is a non-structural support. The mold units include a generally rectangular foamed plastic body having a ?rst side.. Which in turn extends from the second bottom ledge to the bottom depression. This prior art technique. Other systems create hot Wire cut opposing foamed plastic panels mechanically linked together in a secondary operation utiliZ and the second top lip seal portion and second bottom lip seal portion are adapted to form a second seal betWeen tWo mold units such that the ?rst portion bond beam form and second portion bond beam form are combined to form a bond beam form. therefore. remain in place after the concrete cures. the materials of the form Walls often [0016] The ?rst top ledge extends lengthWise along the body from the top depression to the ?rst top lip seal portion. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This prior art technique has draWbacks. The concrete Walls made using this technique can be stacked on top of each other many stories high to form all of a building’s Walls. and loW cost. a ?rst bottom ledge. hoWever. Current existing manufacturing technology has limited this increase to 24 inches in height and eight feet in length. The modular form Walls are set up parallel to each other and connecting components hold the tWo form Walls in place relative to each other While concrete is poured there betWeen. The form Walls. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 INSULATED CONCRETE FORM ing metal or plastic connectors. partial bond beam forms and column forms in the mold units. and a second top lip seal portion. [0014] The top surface includes a ?rst portion bond beam form. engineered Wall construction applications. [0015] The ?rst portion bond beam form extends into the of foam insulating material. In addition to the body lengthWise and is de?ned by a top depression extending transversely to the length of the body. long lay-out times. shore and apply ?nishes in a block system seriously restricts the use of such systems When compared to traditional concrete construction techniques. a ?rst bottom lip seal portion. these members provide thermal and sound insulation func tions and have long been accepted by the building industry. (2) high density plastic. a bottom surface oppositely opposed to the top surface. [0010] One approach to solving the problem of straight and true Walls on larger layouts has been to design larger blocks. are a permanent part of the build ing after the concrete cures. . Which in nents used in the prior art to hold the Walls are constructed of turn extends from the second top ledge to the second side. Which use a foam insulating material. labor-intensive process. block. Even so. provide adequate insulation for the building. permanent structure. The highly skilled labor force that is required to place. Wall penetrations such as WindoWs and doors require the body lengthWise and is de?ned by a bottom depression extending transversely to the length of the body. i. That is. and take doWn the forms.Nov. techniques have developed for form ing modular concrete Walls. the form Walls. forming system and insulated concrete Walls formed using the Wall forming system. The column forms extend from the top depression to the bottom depression. [0020] The ?rst top lip seal portion and ?rst bottom lip seal results in a more expensive Wall that is not suitable for larger portion are adapted to form a ?rst seal betWeen tWo mold units skillfully prepared and engineered forming to Withstand the pressures exerted upon them during concrete placement. restricts their use to shorter Wall lengths and loWer Wall heights. a second end oppositely opposed to the ?rst end. [0008] Thus. the builder then removes the forms. a ?rst top lip seal portion. and the second end. and at least tWo column forms. [0006] Accordingly. a second side oppositely opposed to the ?rst side. After the concrete hardens. leaving the cured concrete Wall. [0009] The characteristics present in current block forming systems require skilled labor. once the concrete cures. a ?rst top ledge. This along the body from the second side to the second bottom lip seal portion. a top surface. the ?rst end. The second bottom ledge extends lengthWise blocking and shoring and non-traditional ?nishing skills. Which in turn extends from the ?rst bottom ledge to the bottom depression. [0001] 1. [0019] The ?rst bottom ledge extends lengthWise along the body from the ?rst side to the ?rst top lip seal portion. Which are constructed [0013] The present invention provides a concrete Wall forming system that includes a plurality of interconnected mold units for forming a Wall by receiving concrete therein. Description of the PriorArt [0004] Concrete Walls in building construction are most often produced by ?rst setting up tWo parallel form Walls and pouring concrete into the space betWeen the forms. variations to achieve improvements With this technique. a second top ledge. 28. [0012] Thus there is a need in the art for composite pre formed insulated concrete forms that are relatively inexpen sive. or (3) a metal bridge. easy to assemble and install and that are not prone to bloWout. is an expensive. none of the approaches described above adequately address the problems of form bloWout at higher Wall heights due to pressure exerted by the poured concrete. Formation of the concrete Walls is inef?cient because of the time required to erect the forms. current insulated concrete form technology requires the use of small molded foam blocks normally 12 to 24 inches in height With a standard length of four feet. The connecting compo The second top ledge extends lengthWise along the body from the top depression to the second top lip seal portion. [0017] The bottom surface includes a second portion bond beam form. [0018] The second portion bond beam form extends into (1) plastic foam. [0005] fast and easy construction With an unskilled labor force. a ?rst end. These panels are normally 48 inches in Width and 8 feet in height and do not contain con BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION tinuous furring strips. a second bottom ledge. Where concrete is poured into and set in the bond beam forms. the connecting components serve no function. drawbacks still exist for each design. [0007] Although the prior art includes many proposed Which in turn extends from the ?rst top ledge to the ?rst side.

” “loWer. the various numerical ranges speci?ed in this application are approximations. Wherein the vinyl aromatic monomer is present in at least 50% by Weight of the copolymer. that is. attached claims are approximations that can vary depending particularly polystyrene. Because the disclosed numerical ranges are continuous. At the very least. It is also to be understood that the speci?c devices and processes. the numerical values set forth in the speci?c examples are reported as precisely as possible. 2 is a top plan vieW ofa mold unit according to the invention. Particularly suitable for use are Hence. The expanded polymer matrix is typically molded from expandable thermoplastic particles. non-limiting examples being divinylbenZene. [0042] NotWithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of the invention are approximations. acrylonitrile. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0040] For the purpose of the description hereinafter.” “top. 15 is an end elevation vieW of a three-course Wall forming system according to the invention. isopropylstyrene. [0032] FIG. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0022] FIG.” the like. etc. unless indicated to the contrary. such as the corresponding alkyl esters often referred to as acrylates and (meth)acrylates. homopolymers. other suitable polymers .4-hexa diene). the terms “(meth) acrylic” and “(meth)acrylate” are meant to include both acrylic and meth acrylic acid derivatives. [0037] FIG. 16 is a perspective vieW of a three-course Wall forming system according to the invention. [0046] As used herein. hoWever. “outer”. [0045] As used herein. a range of “l to 10” is intended to include all sub -ranges betWeen and including the recited minimum value of 1 and the recited maximum value of 10.” “horizontal. [0030] FIG. each numerical parameter should at least be construed in light of the number of reported signi?cant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques. the term “polymer” is meant to encompass. having a minimum value equal to or greater than 1 and a maximum value of equal to or less than 10. [0025] FIG. Which the term “(meth)acrylate” is meant to encompass. 1. [0027] FIG. 1 is a perspective vieW of a mold unit according to the present invention. 10 is a mold end elevation vieW of a corner mold unit according to the invention. In an embodiment of the invention. and [0039] FIG. [0031] FIG. 14 is a top plan vieW of a continuous Wall system according to the invention. [0044] As used herein. 6 is a bottom plan vieW of a comer mold unit according to the invention. illustrated in the be produced by expanding an expandable polymer matrix. as Well as copolymers prepared by the copolymer iZation of at least one vinyl aromatic monomer as described above With one or more other monomers. shall relate to the invention as oriented in the draWing Figures. 5 is a top plan vieW of a corner mold unit according to the invention. Which the present invention desires to obtain. [0033] FIG. 18 is a cut aWay perspective vieW of an insu lated reinforced concrete Wall according to the invention.Nov. [0038] FIG.” and derivatives thereof. [0034] FIG. 28. [0035] FIG. Any numerical values.” “ver tical. HoWever. and Accordingly. [0041] Other than Where otherWise indicated. alpha-methylstyrene. considered as limiting the invention. [0048] The moldunits are made of a foamedplastic that can alternate variations and step sequences except Where expressly speci?ed to the contrary. the terms “upper. tert-butylstyrene. homopolymer or copolymer. reference Will be made herein to the draWings in Which like numerals refer to like features of the invention. 3 is a bottom plan vieW ofa mold unit accord ing to the invention. 11 is a top plan vieW of linked linear and corner mold units according to the invention. 8 is a Wall end elevation vieW of a corner mold unit according to the invention. “right.and 2.” “inner”. all numbers or expressions referring to quantities.” “left. the term “expandable polymer matrix” refers to a polymeric material in particulate or bead form that is impregnated With a bloWing agent such that When the particulates and/or beads are placed in a mold and heat is applied thereto.3. 13 is a top perspective vieW of linked linear and corner mold units according to the invention. distances. copolymers and graft copolymers. the numerical parameters set forth in the folloWing speci?cation and maleic anhydride. [0043] Also. 17 is a perspective vieW of a concrete Web formed in the three-course Wall forming system of FIGS. [0028] FIG.” “bottom. inherently contain certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective measurement methods. In describing the embodiments of the present invention. and ments. alkyl acrylates. 7 is a top perspective vieW of a corner moldunit according to the invention. styrenic polymers are used. they include every value betWeen the minimum and maximum values. [0047] The present invention provides a concrete Wall forming system that includes a plurality of interconnected mold units for forming a Wall by receiving concrete therein. 12 is a bottom plan vieW of linked linear and corner mold units according to the invention. 9 is a corner side elevation vieW of a corner mold unit according to the invention. Unless expressly indicated otherWise. it should be understood that any numerical range recited herein is intended to include all sub-ranges subsumed therein. [0036] FIG. Without limitation. For example. isoprene. [0023] FIG. and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims. evaporation of the bloWing agent (as described beloW) effects the formation of a cellular structure and/or an expanding cellular structure in the particulates and/ or beads and the outer surfaces of the particulates and/or beads fuse together to form a continuous mass of polymeric material conforming to the shape of the mold. These expandable ther attached draWings and described in the folloWing speci?ca moplastic particles are made from any suitable thermoplastic tion. 15 and 16 according to the invention. HoWever. is an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. it is to be understood that the invention may assume upon the desired properties. 4 is a side elevation vieW of a mold unit accord ing to the invention. conjugated dienes (non-lim iting examples being butadiene. [0026] FIG. chlorostyrene. [0024] FIG. [0029] FIG. or measure nuclear methylstyrenes. alkyl methacrylates. used in the speci?cation and claims are to be understood as modi?ed in all instances by the term “about. speci?c dimensions and other physical characteristics homopolymers derived from vinyl aromatic monomers related to the embodiment disclosed herein are not to be including styrene.

mold release agents. sion and molding operations. other cases up to 5 lb/ft3. Japan can be used As used herein. Japan.027 and 6.5 mm. inorganic pigments such as carbon black. [0052] As used herein. When expanded in a mold. [0056] The impregnated thermoplastic particles can be foamed cellular polymer particles as taught in Us. 10/021. Without limitation. dyes. available from NOVA Chemicals Inc.25 mm. up to 2. Nos.242.242. or radiant heat. antioxidants.303. graphite. hot air. the density of the impregnated pre-expanded particles situations up to 1 mm. granules. or alter natively by re-suspending the polymer particles in an aqueous medium and then incorporating the bloWing agent as taught in Us. in some situations up to about 3.5 lb/ft3. The pre-expansion step is con [0051] The average particle size and size distribution of the expandable resin beads or pre-expanded resin beads can be ventionally carried out by heating the impregnated beads via any conventional heating medium.757 and Us. The Weight percentage of Water for use as the bloWing agent can range from 1 to 20%. stabilizers.75 lb/ft3. and 6.160.33 mm. Conventional bloWing agents include ali pylene). and in other cases ranging from about 2. pentanes. and so on. typically expressed as cc/g. evaporation of the bloWing agent (as described beloW) effects the formation of a cellular structure and/or an expanding cellular structure in the particulates and/or beads. Application Publica tion 2004/0152795. or other particles convenient for the expan can also be used. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 can be used. A non-limiting example of inter polymers that can be used in the present invention include those available under the trade name ARCEL®. ultraviolet light absorbers. As used herein. in some cases up to 2. One generally accepted method for ment can be any value or can range betWeen any of the values vide a Weight average value.540 in these patents.027.716. Nos.16 inches the sole bloWing agent as taught in Us. a Model LA-910 Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer available from Horiba Ltd. in some instances at least 0. Pa.023. in other situations up to about 3 mm. in some situations at least 0.5 mm and in other Also. [0055] The impregnated thermoplastic particles are gener ally pre-expanded to a density of at least 0. in other instances 6. but not to their maximum expansion factor and Whose outer sur faces have not fused.160. mold prevention agents.. The foamed cellular par ticles can be polystyrene that are pre-expanded and contain a volatile bloWing agent at a level of less than 14 Wt %. [0049] In a particular embodiment of the invention.” “pre-expanded resin beads. Water can be blended With these ali phatic hydrocarbons bloWing agents or Water can be used as hereinbeloW. 6. in some situations up to 1. in some cases at least 0. hot determined using loW angle light scattering. 6. titanium dioxide. the relevant portions of Which are herein incorporated by reference. Mixtures of these aliphatic hydrocarbon bloWing agents rene (EPS) particles. Ltd.2 mm) to about 0. available from Sekisui Plastics Co. No. Any gaseous material or material Which Will produce gases on heating can be used as the can be up to 12 lb/ft3.175. as Well as organic pigments such as quinacridone reds and violets and copper phthalocyanine blues and greens. and iron oxide. in some cases ranging from about 2 Wt % to about 7 Wt %. Whichboil at a temperature beloW the softening point of the polymer cho sen. and mixtures phatic hydrocarbons containing 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the molecule.5 mm. Pat. Pat.35 mm. in some situations less than 8 Wt %. g.303. [0057] The thermoplastic particles according to the inven tion can include an interpolymer of a polyole?n and in situ polymerized vinyl aromatic monomers.25 lb/ft3. The texts of Us. . and P10 CELAN®. in some instances up to 2 mm.. in other cases at least 1. polycarbonates. No. the terms “expandable thermoplastic particles” or “expandable resin beads” refers to a polymeric material in particulate or bead form that is impregnated With a bloWing agent such that When the particulates and/ or beads are placed in a mold or expansion device and heat is applied thereto. such as steam. polyphenylene oxides. Which can pro Water. 28. Pat.” or “prepuff” refers to expandable resin beads that have been expanded.127. colo rants. These particles canbe screened so that their size ranges from about 0. The resin beads used in this embodi recited above. Particles polymerized in an aqueous suspension process are essentially spherical and are useful for molding the mold units and/or forms described [0054] Alternatively. such as pigments. 2. Also. and the halo thereof. No. Non-limiting examples of such interpolymers are disclosed in Us.5 Wt % based on the Weight of the polymer. resin beads (un expanded) containing any of the polymers or polymer com positions described herein have a particle size of at least 0. [0053] The expandable thermoplastic particles can be impregnated using any conventional method With a suitable bloWing agent. and in some instances at least about 1. and in accomplishing the pre-expansion of impregnated thermo plastic particles is taught in Us. the impregnation can be achieved by adding the bloWing agent to the aqueous suspension during the polymerization of the polymer.5 mm.540 are incorporated herein by reference. zinc oxide. the resin beads can have a particle size of up to about 4 mm. Pat.4 mm. Pat.439. in other cases up to 2 mm.756 and 4. 3. the term “expansion factor” refers to the volume a given Weight of resin bead occupies. Pittsburgh. (4 mm). polyethylene. e. 4. Typical pigments include. in other situations at least 1. such as butanes. the outer surfaces of the particulates and/or beads fuse together to form a continuous mass of polymeric material conforming to the shape of the mold. the expandable thermoplastic particles are expandable polysty genated hydrocarbons.5 lb/ft3..75 lb/ft3. in some cases up to 10 lb/ft3. Tokyo. the teachings of Which are incorporated herein by reference. polypro bloWing agent.5 Wt % to about 6.Nov.127. agents are used. Pre-expanded resin beads can be further expanded in a mold Where the outer surfaces of the pre-expanded resin beads fuse together to form a continuous mass of polymeric material conforming to the shape of the mold. These particles can be in the form of beads. in some cases at least 0. As a non-limiting example. such as polyole?ns (e. CFC’ s and HCFC’S. in other cases at least 0. patent application Ser.008 inches (0. The density of the impregnated pre-expanded particles can be any value or range betWeen any of the values recited above.692. As a non-limiting example. Water-retaining Nos.0 lb/ft3.983. 6. plasticizers.. [0058] The expanded polymer matrix can include custom ary ingredients and additives.45 mm and in other instances at least 0.439. Kyoto. [0050] In an embodiment of the invention.2 mm. in some situations at least 1. g. expandable graph ite. hexanes. the terms “pre-expanded thermo plastic particles.

?rst end 18 includes a ?rst extended portion 47 and a ?rst recessed por tion 49 and second end 20 includes a second extended portion corner surface 62. a ?rst end 18. a top surface 22. in some cases at least about [0075] Top corner surface 62 includes a ?rst portion top corner bond beam form 68 and a second portion top comer extends into the body lengthWise and de?ned by a lengthWise top depression 70 extending transversely to the length of body 52. [0070] Top depression 30 and bottom depression 40 can be combined to provide any suitable cross-sectional shape that Will provide a concrete Web having desired properties. As such. a non-limiting example of such a cases up to about 10 lb/ft3 .75 lb/ft3. a bottom corner surface 64 oppositely opposed to top form are combined to form a bond beam form. 5-10. ?rst end 18.75 lb/ft3. [0065] Bottom surface 24 includes second portion bond beam form 38 extending into body 12 lengthWise and de?ned by a bottom depression 40 extending transversely to the length of body 12. the minimum dimension can be optimiZed to minimiZe the amount of concrete used With mold 10 and therefore maximiZe the volume of foamed plas tic. a top comer surface 62. [0064] Top surface 22 of mold unit 10 includes a ?rst por tion bond beam form 28 extending into body 12 lengthWise and de?ned by a top depression 30 extending transversely to the length of body 12. Which in turn extends to bottom depression 40. corner unit 50 include a gen to form a second seal With second top ledge 36 and second erally rectangular foamed plastic body 52 having a ?rst comer bottom ledge 46 respectively. a second side 16 oppositely opposed to the ?rst side 14.5 cm) and in other cases up to about 9 inches (23 cm) depending on the overall dimensions of mold unit 10 and the desired characteristics of the insulated concrete Wall to be formed. a second comer side 56 oppositely opposed to ?rst to form at least tWo seals betWeen tWo moldunits such that the corner side 54. in some cases at least about 6 inches (15 cm) and in other cases at least about 7 inches (18 cm) and can be up to about 15 inches (38 cm). Minimum dimension 41 can be any value or range betWeen any of the values recited above. Which includes a top Wall ledge 64 and a top Wall lip seal portion 66. 1). a non-limiting example of such a mate 0. Thus the mold units are adapted side 54. and second end 20. square.0 lb/ft3. 28. Weight and concrete usage. and in other instances at up to about 1. available from BASF Aktieng esellschaft Corp. mold units 10 can be used to form a Wall by receiving concrete therein. hexagonal. in some situations at least about 1. In some embodiments of the invention. top depression 30 and bottom depression 40 each have a concave shape. and Wall 72 at second end 60. Germany. Which extends to bottom depression 40. body 12 can contain an expanded polymer matrix. triangular. top depression 30 and bottom depression 40 each have a cross sectional shape that provides a matching portion of a desired concrete beam cross-sectional shape. In other embodiments of the invention. [0062] In another embodiment of the invention. [0068] In an embodiment of the invention. [0066] Column forms 26 extend from top depression 30 to bottom depression 40. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 [0059] In a particular embodiment of the invention the pig ment is carbon black. The comer units can be right facing or 32 and ?rst bottom ledge 32 respectively. [0071] Non-limiting examples of desired cross-sectional beam shapes include circular. the present con crete Wall forming system includes a plurality of linear mold units 10 as described above and one or more comer units as portion 44 are adapted to form a ?rst seal With ?rst top ledge shoWn in FIGS. 1-4. [0067] First top lip seal portion 34 and ?rst bottom lip seal in some instances up to up to about 3 lb/ft3. material being NEOPOR®. LudWigshafen am Rhein. While staying beloW deformation thresholds and straini fracture points. The density of the impreg nated pre-expanded particles can be any value or range betWeen any of the values recited above. in other cases at least about 1. a ?rst corner end 58. In an embodi ment of the invention. pre-expanded particles can be up to about 12 lb/ft3. and second end 20. de?ned herein as the distance betWeen top depression 30 and bottom depression 40 at their closest point or proximity to each other (see FIG. Which is a mirror image of a right facing comer unit. in some cases up to about 12 inches (30. elliptical. and at least tWo column forms 26. or elliptical cross-sectional shape. top depression 30 and bottom depression 40 have a generally curved shape and have a minimum dimension 41. Second portion top corner bond beam form 74 extends into body 52 crossWise and de?ned by a crossWise top depression 76 . available from NOVA Chemicals least about 1. Second top lip seal portion 38 and second bottom lip seal portion 48 are adapted left facing. the density of the impregnated Inc. First bottom ledge 42 extends lengthWise along body 12 from ?rst side 14 to ?rst bottom lip seal portion 44. and at least tWo corner column forms 66. As such. oval. [0061] The pre-expanded particles or “pre-puff’ are usu ally heated in a closed mold to form the present mold units. oval.5 lb/ft3. [0073] In an embodiment of the invention. ?rst end 58. in some [0060] In another particular embodiment of the invention the pigment is graphite.Nov. Second bottom ledge 46 extends lengthWise along body 12 from second side 16 to second bottom lip seal portion 48. [0069] As indicated above. Referring to FIGS. Mold units 10 include a generally rectangu lar foamed plastic body 12 having a ?rst side 14. a bottom surface 24 oppositely opposed to the top surface. rectangular. and in other situations at rial being EPS SILVER®. and octagonal. 45 adapted to be received by ?rst recessed portion 49 and a second recessed portion 43 adapted to receive ?rst extended portion 47 to facilitates a union betWeen corresponding mold units 12. [0072] In embodiments of the invention. ?rst end 18. such as strength. body 12 can have a den bond beam 74. Also. each of top depression 30 and bottom depression 40 have a concave cross-sectional shape that pro vides a concrete beam having a circular.25 lb/ft3. First portion top corner bond beam form 68 sity of at least about 0.. [0074] In embodiments of the invention. As such. in other cases up to about 5 lb/ft3 .5 lb/ft3. First top ledge 32 extends lengthwise along the body from ?rst side 14 to top depression 30 and includes a ?rst top lip seal portion 34. 5-10. the mold units can have a male “tongue” edge and a female “groove” edge that facilitates a “tongue and groove” union of tWo matching mold units. [0063] In embodiments of the invention shoWn in FIGS. minimum dimension 41 can be at least about 5 inches (13 cm). a second comer end 60 ?rst portion bond beam form and second portion bond beam oppositely opposed to ?rst comer end 58. a second end 20 oppositely opposed to the ?rst end 18. Second top ledge 36 extends lengthWise along body 14 from second side 16 to top depression 30 and includes second top lip seal portion 38. the mold units can have overlapping lip ends adapted to join matching mold units together.

The vertical height of mold units 10 and corner units 50 is determined by the intended number of courses of mold units 10 and comer units 50 to be used in an overall insulated portion 102 are adapted to form a ?rst seal between two mold concrete wall design. hexagonal. 11-13. and octagonal. As such. wall 72 at second end 60. bottom depression 40. top depression 30. (51 cm) and in other cases up to about 16 in. The length of mold units 10 and comer units 50 can independently by any of the values or range between any of the values recited above. [0077] Second top ledge 84 extends lengthwise along body 52 from ?rst side 54 to lengthwise top depression 70 and includes a second top lip seal portion 86.2 cm). and crosswise bottom depression 96 are aligned to form a continuous top beam form. about 3 feet (0. [0082] First top lip seal portion 82 and ?rst bottom lip seal (41 cm). and in other cases up to about 40 in2 (258 cm2). circular. When mold units are arrayed as shown in FIGS. the cross-sectional shape of the bond beam is circular having a diameter of at least about 2 inches (5 cm) and in some cases at least about 3 inches (7. as shown in FIGS. [0087] Mold units 10 and comer units 50 can have a vertical height of at least about 4 in. (10. and/or second portion top comer bond beam form 74 and second portion bottom comer bond beam form 94 can have any suitable cross-sectional shape so long as the resulting concrete beam can provide desired strength characteristics. [0090] In embodiments of the invention. [0086] Mold units 10 and comer units 50 can have any suitable width based on the design properties of the desired insulated concrete wall to be erected. square.6 m). The Vertical height of mold units 10 and units and the second top lip seal portion 86 and second bottom corner units 50 can be any value or range between any of the lip seal portion 106 are adapted to form a second seal between two mold units such that the ?rst portion top corner bond beam 68 and ?rst portion bottom bond beam form 88 and second portion top comer bond beam form 74 and second portion bottom bond beam form 94 combine to form a comer bond beam form. second end 20 or ?rst corner end 58 to second comer end 60 [0076] First top ledge 80 extends lengthwise along body 52 respectively of from at least about 2 feet (0. in some cases up to about 20 in.5 inches about (19 cm). (15. ?rst side 54 and a terminal portion 98 of a ?rst bottom ledge 100. The cross-sectional area of the bond beam can be any value or range between any of the values recited above. The [0079] First bottom ledge 100 extends lengthwise along width of mold units 10 and corner units 50 can independently by any of the values or range between any of the values recited above. lengthwise bot tom depression 90. ?rst portion top corner bond beam form 68 and second portion top corner bond beam 74. [0081] Column forms 66 extend from top depression 70 bottom depression 90. lengthwise top depression 70. 14. in some cases up to about 7 inches (18 cm) and in other cases up .5 cm) and can be up to 7. [0085] Mold units 10 and comer units 50 can have any suitable length that allows for ease of manufacture and trans portation. (15. in some cases at least about 6 in. in some from second side 56 to lengthwise top depression 70 and from crosswise top depression 76 to ?rst end 58 and includes ?rst cases at least about 2. which includes ?rst bottom wall and comer units 50 can independently have a width measured from ?rst side 14 to second side 16 or ?rst comer side 54 to lip seal portion 92. Similarly.2 cm). Second portion bottom comer bond beam form 94 extends into body 52 crosswise and is de?ned by second comer side 56 respectively of from at least about 4 in.2 in) and in crosswise bottom depression 96 extending from lengthwise other cases at least about 7 inches (18 cm) and can be up to about 24 inches (61 cm). wall mold system 170 includes a plurality of evenly spaced column forms 26 and 66. [0080] Second bottom ledge 104 extends lengthwise along body 52 from ?rst side 54 to bottom depression 90 and from ?rst end 58 to crosswise bottom depression 96 includes a second bottom lip seal portion 106. First corner end 58 includes a ?rst comer extended portion 91 and a ?rst recessed corner portion 89 and a con nection portion 99 where crosswise top depression 76 meets [0088] The bond beam formed by combining ?rst portion bond beam form 28 and second portion bond beam form 38. triangular. oval.8 m). in some cases up to about 20 inches bottom depression 90. rectangular. unit 120. [0084] As shown in FIG. ?rst comer side 54 includes second corner extended portion [0089] 95 adapted to be received by ?rst recessed portion 49 of mold by combining ?rst portion bond beam form 28 and second portion bond beam form 38. (61 cm). in some cases at least about 6 in. and second portion top comer bond beam form 74 and/or second portion bottom corner bond beam form 94 column forms 34 is determined based on the load bearing design of the resulting insulated concrete wall. (51 cm) and in other cases up to about 16 inches (41 cm). mold units 10 and comer units 50 can The cross-sectional area of the bond beam formed beam form 68 and second portion top comer bond beam 74. mold units 10 and corner units 50 can be arranged sequentially from a ?rst unit 172 to a last unit 174 such that the ?rst end 176 of ?rst unit 172 is in contact with the second end 178 of last unit 174 to form continuous wall mold system 170. in some cases up to about 60 in2 (387 cm2). in some cases at least about 12 in2 (77 cm2) and in other cases at least about 16 in2 (103 cm2) and can be up to about 80 in2 (516 cm2).2 in) and in other cases at least about 8 inches (20. the cross-sectional shape can be selected from U-shaped. in some cases up to about 8 feet (2.5 feet (0. [0078] Bottom corner surface 64 includes a ?rst portion bottom comer bond beam form 88 extending into body 52 lengthwise and de?ned by a lengthwise bottom depression 90 extending transversely to the length of body 52. As shown. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 extending from lengthwise top depression 70.4 cm) and can be up to about 24 in. The cross-sectional area of the bond beam forms can be at least about 8 in2 (52 cm2). body 52 from second side 56 to lengthwise bottom depression 90 and from wall 72 to ?rst end 58 and a ?rst bottom lip seal 102 extends along ?rst bottom ledge 100.76 m) and in other cases at least top lip seal portion 82. ?rst end 58. 28. (10. elliptical. 11-13. wall 72 at independently have a length measured from ?rst end 18 to second end 60 and a terminal portion 78 of ?rst top ledge 80. mold units 10 and wall 72 at second end 60. As such.4 m) and in other cases up to about 6 feet (1. [0083] In an embodiment of the invention. trapezoidal. ?rst portion top comer bond unit 10 and a second comer recessed portion 97 adapted to receive ?rst extended portion 47 of mold unit 10 to facilitates a union between a corner mold unit 50 and a mold unit 10.91 m) and can be up to about 10 feet (3 m). linear mold units 10 and corner mold units 50 are adapted to ?t together and form continuous comer wall values recited above. and crosswise top depression 76 are aligned to form a continuous bottom beam form.Nov. As such.

For a circle. bottom partial bond beam form 206. the present invention provides a Wall that inches (16. 17. circular. both terminating at the edge of the ellipse. ?rst concrete beam 234 formed Within ?rst bond beam form 208. 28. As used herein. ?rst top lip seal portion 34 and ?rst bottom lip seal portion 44 are adapted to form a ?rst seal With ?rst bottom ledge 42 and ?rst top ledge 32 respectively.5 cm) and can be up to 7.3 and the aspect ratio can be up to about 3. The continuous seal that is formed is held in place by the Weight of the concrete poured Within mold unit forms and provides improved concrete leakage prevention When compared With prior art systems. perpendicular to the major axis and passing through the center of the ellipse. Second top lip seal portion 38 and second bottom lip seal portion 48 are adapted to form a second seal With second bottom ledge 46 and second top ledge 36 respectively. 2 and 3. in some cases up to about 2 and in other cases [0099] Proper alignment of mold units 10 provide for the bond beam forms. [0103] As shoWn in FIG. Proper values recited above. bottom partial concrete beam 232 formed Within bottom par tial bond beam form 206. triangular. [0104] As those skilled in the art Will appreciate.5 cm) and can be up to about 16 inches (41 cm). [0106] Embodiments of the invention provide a continuous Wall that includes the above-described concrete Wall forming bearing-design of the resulting insulated concrete Wall. and octagonal. 15 and 16. 15-17 can be implemented in the continuous insulated con column forms.5 cm) and in some cases at least about 6. one or more courses of mold units 10 and corner units 50 can be used to . hexagonal. As a non limiting example. [0094] Each of column forms 26 and 66 can independently have any suitable cross-sectional shape so long as the result ing concrete column can provide desired strength character istics.75.5 crete Wall system layout shoWn in FIG. [0098] In embodiments of the invention. an ellipse is an oval shape de?ned by a major axis and a minor formation of three course column forms 214 and a series of axis. bottom value or range betWeen any of the values recited above. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 to about 6 inches (15 cm) based on the load bearing design of the resulting insulated concrete Wall. corner units 50 can be aligned using bumps 224 and indents 226. 38.2. rect angular. oval. The aspect ratio of the ellipse-shaped bond knoWn in the art. and/ or second bottom lip seal portion 48 and second top ledge 36. and in other cases up to about 40 in2 (258 cm2). the cross-sectional shape can be selected from trapezoidal. ?rst bottom ledge 42 and second bottom ledge 46 include bumps 220 that align With indents 222 in ?rst top ledge 32 and second top ledge 36 respectively alloWing a ?rst mold units 10 to only sit ?ush on a second mold unit When bumps 220 and indents 222 are in alignment. the cross-sectional shape of the bondbeam is that of an ellipse. spray foam.5 cm) and can be up to 7. and in other cases at least about 1 . elliptical. [0091] In embodiments of the invention. con crete Web 230 is formed. can be used to ?ll any gaps. in some cases up to about 7 inches (18 cm) and in other cases up to about 6 inches (15 cm) based on the load bearing design of the resulting insulated concrete Wall. ?rst bottom lip seal portion 44 and ?rst top ledge 32. ?rst bond beam form 208. [0097] In embodiments of the invention. second bond beam form 210. in some cases at least about 1. various insulated concrete Wall system layouts can be designed With one or more courses of mold units.5 inches about (19 cm). The major axis is the longest segment that passes through the ellipse. square.1. in some cases up to about 60 in2 (3 87 cm2). multi-course Wall form system 201 includes three courses of Wall units 10. proper alignment of mold units 10 provides for three course column forms 214. The diameter of the circular column forms 26 and 66 can be any value or range betWeen any of the values recited above. As such the column forms can be at least about 4. Also. course 200. if the surface that multi-course Wall form system 201 rests on is uneven resulting in less than a ?ush interface betWeen ?rst top lip seal portion 34 and ?rst bottom ledge 42. beam form can be any value or range betWeen any of the [0101] As Was mentioned above. The cross-sectional area of column forms 26 and 66 can be any value or range betWeen any of the values recited above. in some cases at least about 12 in2 (77 cm2) and in other cases at least about 16 in2 (103 cm2) and can be up to about 80 in2 (516 cm2).5 inches (11. [0092] The major axis can have a length of at least about 2 inches (5 cm) and in some cases at least about 3 inches (7. The cross-sectional area of col umn forms 26 and 66 can be at least about 8 in2 (52 cm2). and top partial bond beam form 212. and top partial concrete beam formed Within top partial bond beam form 212. in includes one or more roWs of the concrete Wall forming some cases up to about 15 inches (38 cm) and in other cases up to about 13 inches (33 cm) on center based on the load systems as described above Where concrete is poured into and set in the bond beam forms. as is up to about 1. molds 10 and 50 are designed so column forms 26 and 66 are evenly spaced as de?ned by the distance betWeen the centers of each adjacent alignment of mold units 10 is provided by the design of lip seal portions 34. second top lip seal portion 38 and second bottom ledge 46. [0095] The cross-sectional area of column forms 26 and 66 is determined based on the load bearing design of the result ing insulated concrete Wall. various numbers of courses can be used to provide a plurality of concrete beams and columns according to the invention. 36. second course 202 and top course 204. Concrete Web 230 includes concrete columns 240 formed Within three course column forms 214. [0093] The aspect ratio of the ellipse-shaped bond beam form can be at least about 1.Nov. Which also orients and aligns column forms 26. partial bond beam forms and column forms in the mold units. the cross-sectional shape of column forms 26 and 66 is circular having a diameter of at least about 2 inches (5 cm) and in some cases at least about 3 inches (7. the three course Wall system of FIGS. the aspect ratio is 1. [0102] Similarly. As such. [0105] As such.5 inches about (19 cm). When concrete is poured into multi-course Wall form system 201 and alloWed to set. 42 and 46. [0096] In embodiments of the invention. Referring to FIGS. 14. The ellipse can be characteriZed by the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis (aspect ratio). second concrete beam 236 formed Within second bond beam form 210. 44 and 48 and ledges 32. [0100] As noted above. In embodiments of the invention. As a non-limiting example shoWn in FIGS. The length of the major axis of the ellipse-shaped bond beam form can be any value or range betWeen any of the values recited above. The diameter of the circular cross-sectional shape of the bond beam can be any provide a concrete Wall forming system. in some cases up to about 7 inches (18 cm) and in other cases up to about 6 inches (15 cm) based on the load bearing design of the result ing insulated concrete Wall.

and/or formaldehyde. aramid ?bers. Wire.5 cm). but are not limited to homopolymers and copolymers of styrene. [0111] Fiber reinforcing materials that can be incorporated into the thermoplastics and/or thermoset resins include. and urea. polyesters. glass ?bers.I. [0113] In certain embodiments of the invention. [0117] In an embodiment of the invention. clays.5. etc. as non-limiting examples. reinforced insulated concrete Wall 260 includes horiZontal rebar 250. DACRON® avail able from Invista Nor‘thAmerica S. The hydraulic metal ?bers. rope. in other cases up to 32. in order to add strength to an insulated con crete Wall system. Which can lead to stress concentrations at the from E. poZZolana cements. composite ?bers.4 cm) to about 14 inches (35. phenolic resins. Suitable thermoset resins include. and fabric containing combinations of the above-mentioned ?bers. carbon ?bers. in some cases at least 7. N. the pressure at Which deforma tion and/or failure occurs is increased.3 cm). calcium carbonate. and height of from about 10 inches (25.2 cm). in some cases about 12 inches (30. silicon car bide. melamine resins. In this embodiment. [0107] Often. but are not limited to glass ?bers. [0112] In an embodiment of the invention shoWn in FIG. Where concrete is poured into and set in the partial bond beam forms and column forms in the mold units. and includes a hydraulic cement composition.5. from TechFab. Thermoplas tics include polymers and polymers made up of materials that can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened again on cooling. and slag cements. With diols. the term “?ber reinforced polymer” refers to plastics that include. [0115] Any suitable type of concrete can be used to make the concrete Walls and concrete Wall systems described herein. Anderson. At intersection 254. polyester resins.7 cm) to about 6 inches (15. titanium dioxide. ?ber reinforced polymer.5 inches (14 cm) and an aspect ratio of from about 1. more ?llers. non-limiting examples including carbon black. TWARON® available from Teijin TWaron B. polyols. homopolymers and copolymers of C2 to C20 ole?ns..3 cm) on center. in some cases about 8 inches (20. gypsum cements. metal ?bers and combinations thereof. du Pont de Nemours and Company. graphite. [0110] Suitable thermoset resins are resins that When heated to their cure point. The cement mixture can include the hydrau lic cement composition at any of the above-stated levels or at levels ranging betWeen any of levels stated above. MorristoWn. horizontal rebar 250 is placed at approximately the center of the cross-section of ?rst bond beam form 208 and second bond beam form 210 and vertical rebar 252 is placed at approximately the center of the cross-section of three course column forms 214. in some cases about 8 inches (20. urethane resins.5 cm). concrete reinforcing products are placed Within the bond beam forms. Which can be crosslinked by reaction. and can optionally include one or tions selected from Portland cements.5 inches (14 cm) spaced apart by about 7 inches (18 cm) to about 9 inches (23 cm).3 cm). Which can be placed in three course column forms 214. and in some instances up to 30 volume percent of the cement mixture. By eliminating the stress concentrations in the . KEVLAR® available the internal column form surfaces are designed as cylinders so that the lateral pres sure from the concrete is as evenly distrib uted Within the mold unit as possible. aramid ?bers. the rebar can be secured into position using appropriate ties. The bond beam cross sectional shape is an ellipse having a major axis of from about 5 inches (12. [0118] Non-limiting examples of ?bers that can be used in 10 and 50 are designed to minimiZe stress concentrations in order to reduce the risk of deformation and fracture When the invention include MeC-GRID® and C-GRID® available concrete is placed in the mold units.375. [0108] In embodiments of the invention. Woven fabric or structures of the mentioned combinations thereof. Ultimately. The speci?c type of concrete Will depend on the desired and designed properties of the concrete Walls and concrete Wall systems. the cement cement composition can be present at a level of at least 3. silica cements. but are not limited to carbon ?bers.. but are not limited to reinforced thermoplastics and reinforced thermoset resins. in some cases about 1. 18. in some cases up to 35. metal and combinations thereof as Well as fabric containing the above-mentioned ?bers. mold units 10 and 50 are designed to optimally meet International Residential Code standards for screen grid ICFs. polyvinylchlorides. and VECTRAN® available from Hoechst Celanese corners.25 to about 1. Corp. Suitable thermoplastic polymers include. SPECTRA® available from Honey Well International Inc. As such the column forms of mold units 10 and 50 are cylinders having a diameter of from about 5 inches (12. As such.5.A.Nov. Which can be placed in ?rst bond beam form 208 and second bond beam form 210 and vertical rebar 252. [0114] In particular embodiments of the invention. this alloWs the ICF to be made from loWer density foam (for the same performance as a higher density With another design) and subsequently at a loWer cost.. the concrete includes one or more hydraulic cement composi ?bers. mold units [0116] In an embodiment of the invention. rebar can be added to the concrete Wall and Wall forming system shoWn in FIGS. triols. Am heim. In many embodiments of the invention. V. present Wall forming system. carbon ?bers. in some cases about 48 inches (122 cm). glass ?bers. the concrete rein forcing product can be selected from rebar. In these embodiments. the concrete mixture can optionally include other aggregates and adju vants knoWn in the art including but not limited to sand. polyetherimides.J. plasticiZers and/or ?bers. This is an improvement over prior art all-foam ICFs. Wilmington Del. polycarbonates. homopolymers and copoly mers of C2 to C20 (meth)acrylate esters. [0109] As used herein. C4 to C20 dienes. partial bond beam forms and/or column forms described above. Suitable ?bers include. magnesia cements. poly urethanes. the Netherlands. 15-17. Width of from about 7 inches (18 cm) to about 9 inches (23 cm). polyester. SC. Wilmington. epoxy resins. diallyl phthalate resins. and/or ?berglass.7 cm) to about 6 inches (15.R. additional aggregate. In embodiments of the invention. 28. in some cases about 5. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 system.L. minimum dimension 41 is about 7 inches (18 cm) to about 9 inches (23 cm). in certain situations at least 5. The dimen sions of mold units 10 and 50 in this embodiment are length of from about 40 inches (102 cm) to about 56 inches (142 cm). reducing the likelihood of deformation and/or failure of the Wall forming system. even at elevated temperatures. aramid ?bers. polyphenylethers. Where the internal surfaces have squared edges. polyamides. but are not limited to alkyd resins. aluminous cements.2 cm). as is knoWn in the art. undergo a chemical cross-linking reaction causing them to solidify and hold their shape rigidly. Del.. and combinations thereof. and in other cases at least 9 volume percent and can be present at levels up to 40. in some cases about 8 inches (20.. LLC. Where hori Zontal rebar 250 and vertical rebar 252 intersect. ?berglass. in some cases about 5.

New York.298. fatty acid ester-based defoaming agents (such as glycerol monoricino late. 5. magnesium. oligosaccharides such as disaccharides and containing these. insulating aggregates such as porated by reference. in other cases at least 1. arabonic acid. and combinations thereof. lignosulfonates. the other aggregates and adjuvants are present in the concrete mixture at a level of at least 0. alkenylsuccinic acid derivatives. magnesium silico?uoride. aluminum sulfate. No.800. polycarboxylates or salts thereof. such as aminotri(methylenephosphonic acid). fructose. No. citric acid. sorbitol monolaurate. Further. extruded ?y ash. one or more US. acetylene alcohols. [0119] In a particular embodiment of the invention ?bers can make up at least 0. etc. and diatomite. in some instances up to 65 and in other instances up to 60 volume percent of the rides such as dextran. expanded slag.723. sintered ?y ash. lignosulfonates. water-proo?ng agents. etc.). calcium oleate. polyethylene glycols.). monosaccharides such as glu and invert sugar. The other aggregates and adjuvants can be present in the concrete mixture at any of the levels indicated cium sulfate. scoria. but are not limited to lignosulfonates. 6.5. scoria. the concrete com positions can contain one or more additives. but are not limited to alkaline or earth alkaline metal salts of lignin sulfonates. materials selected from common aggregates such as sand. xylose. in some cases up to 90. Pat. The additives are typically present at less than one percent by weight with respect to total weight of the compo sition. castor oil. cal When included. the alkali metal nitrate/sulfonated aromatic aggregate can include. polysaccha and adjuvants can be present at a level of up to 95. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 Corp. triethanolamine. fumed silica. calcium bromate. ribose percent of the concrete mixture. slate. oxyalkylene type defoaming agents. and in some instances at least 2 volume alkaline metal salts of melamine/formaldehyde/sul?te con densates.1 to 3 weight percent. Pat. saccharose. silicone emulsions. silico-?uorides. sodium sulfate. N. in some cases up to 8. phenols. carbohydrate esters. [0127] Suitable defoaming agents that can be used in the invention include. alcohol-based defoaming agents: octyl polynaphthalene sulfonates.026. light [0126] Suitable set-retarders that can be used in the inven tion include. potassium. perlite. etc. alkaline or earth alkaline metal salts of highly condensed naphthalene sulfonic acid/formaldehyde condensates. phosphonic acids and derivatives [0121] thereof. etc. interwoven. malic acid.751. No. [0122] Suitable dispersing agents or plasticiZers that can be used in the invention include.Y. adhesiveness-improving agents.or oil-based defoaming agents (such as animal or vegetable oils. superplasticiZing agents. fat. sorbitol trioleate. ammonium and pelletiZed aggregate. organic group modi?ed polysiloxanes (polyorganosiloxanes such as dim ethylpolysiloxane).). 4. the relevant portions of which are herein incor silica. No. phosphoric acid and salts thereof. sulphonated polyamine and combinations thereof. but is not limited to. soluble for'mate salts (such as calcium formate). ?uorosilicone oils.). hexadecyl alcohol.Nov. glucoheptonic acid. such oligosaccharides as dextrin. tartaric acid. silicone paste. triethanolamine salt). borates. and in some instances up to 5 volume percent of the concrete hydroxide. glass. diemthyl silicone oil. fatty acid based defoaming agents (such as oleic acid. Common lightweight aggregates can include ground granulated blast furnace slag. 1-hy In embodiments of the invention. but are not limited to hexam etaphosphate. but can be present at from 0. dispersing agents. natural waxes. sugars. sodium vide up to 10. cardonic acid. aminocarboxylic acids and salts thereof.).. set-retarders. expanded blast fur nace slag. and combinations thereof. pumice. coal cinders. in some cases at least 1. Further to this embodiment. in some instances at least 5 and in other instances at least 10 volume cose. The ?bers can be used in a mesh structure. 12CaO. ethylenediaminetet ra(methylenephosphonic acid). salts of one or more polycarboxylates (such as poly(meth) acrylates and the polycarboxylate comb copolymers amide-based defoaming agents (such as acrylate polyamines. sodium carbonate. the water soluble surfactant accel erators disclosed in US. hydroxy recited above. 28. alkyl phosphates (such as tributyl phosphate. in other cases up to 85. [0124] Suitable superplasticiZing agents that can be used in the invention include. humic acid. and carboxylic acids (such as gluconic acid. ?bers can pro hyde. intertwined.394. modi?ed sugars. but are not limited to polyhydroxycarboxy lic acids or salts thereof. alkali-soluble proteins. tannic acid. and masonry aggre gate such as expanded shale. hols such as glycerol. acid. and colo rants. calcium. expanded slate and clay. in some cases at least 0.). alkaline or earth alkaline metal alcohol.). The amount hydrocarbon aliphatic aldehyde condensates disclosed in of ?bers can be any value or range between any of the values iron sulfate. sulfonic acid esters. sesame oil. non-limiting examples of such being anti-foam agents. [0123] Suitable plasticiZing agents that can be used in the invention include. droxyethylidene-1 . stearate. plasticiZing agents. 4. [0120] phosphates. alkaline or earth described defoaming agents. liquid paraf?n. glycols. pumice. and combinations of the set-retarders indicated above. parafor'malde percent of the concrete composition. stone. or borate esters. The amount of ?bers is adjusted to provide desired properties to the concrete composition. Also. salicylic acid. sodium sulfate. expanded clay. Pat. etc. sugar alcohols such as sorbitol.211. Pat. diethylenetriaminepenta(m ethylenephosphonic acid). freezing point decreasing agents. apiose. in other cases up to 7. etc. alkanolamines. and inorganic or organic salts thereof such as sodium. the methylol derivatives of amino acids accelerators disclosed in US. and com binations thereof. composition. and oriented in any desir able direction. the other aggregates trisaccharides. Pat. and alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salts thereof. and gravel. polynaphthalene sulpho nate. the additional weight aggregate such as expanded shale. etc. and nitric acid salts disclosed in US. No.). etc. stearic acid.) and combinations of the above . potassium hydroxide. pelletiZed aggre gate. mineral oil-based defoaming agents (such as kerosene. expanded slate. but are not limited to soluble chloride salts (such as calcium chloride). and alkylene oxide adducts derived there from. and macrolite. tripolyphosphate.129. sodium octylphos phate. the relevant portions of which are herein incorporated by reference). galactose.7Al2O3.1 -dipho sphonic acid. polyhydric alco above or can range between any of the levels indicated above. ?y ash. and other saccharides such as molasses concrete mixture. clay. [0125] Suitable set-accelerators that can be used in the invention include.5. Re. sodium sulfate.1. set-accelerators. but are not limited to silicone-based defoaming agents (such as dimethylpolysiloxane. vermiculite.194. in other cases at least 2. etc. tuff.5. alkylene oxide adducts derived there from. 35. metal salt-based defoaming agents (such as aluminum described in US. and the mixtures of thiocyanic acid salts.

in some instances up to 75. the resin beads can have a particle siZe of up to 3 mm. the polymer particles are expandable polystyrene (EPS) par ticles. sodium abietate. and in other cases at least 35 volume percent and up to 90. and the halogenated hydrocarbons. chlorostyrene. in particular situations up to 25. 3. the term “light Weight concrete” refers to concrete Where light-Weight aggre gate is included in a cementitous mixture. polyamides. CFC’s and HCFC’S. As a non-limiting example.556. tert butylstyrene. copolymers of at least one vinyl aromatic Any gaseous material or material Which Will produce gases on heating can be used as the bloWing agent. nuclear methylstyrenes. or resin beads can optionally be impregnated using any conventional method With a suitable bloWing agent. fatty acid salts (such as calcium or aluminum stearate). natural rubbers.021. potassium chloride. [0135] In an embodiment of the invention.272. [0131] In some embodiments of the invention. synthetic rubbers. the physical properties of LWC Walls made sition at a level of at least 10.692. silicones. Although not used in many embodiments of the invention. poly esters. the lightWeight concrete (LWC) composition includes a con crete mixture and polymer particles. 1. can greatly affect the physical properties of LWC used in the invention. the impregnation can be achieved by adding the bloWing agent to the aqueous suspension during the polymer iZation of the polymer. When used suit able air-entraining agents include. paraf ?ns. the polymer particles. in other cases up to 2 mm. 3. non limiting examples being divinylbenZene. [0139] The expandable thermoplastic particles. 5. are present in the LWC compo and/or maleic anhydride. As a non-limiting example. 3. in other cases at least 0. resin beads (un expanded) containing any of the polymers or polymer com positions described herein have a particle siZe of at least 0. pentanes. polyethylene. The amount of polymer particles Will vary depending on the particular physical properties desired in a ?nished LWC Wall. polycarbonates.3.378. alkyl methacrylates. and in some instances their resin bead precursors. as Well as copolymers prepared by the copolymeriZation of at least one vinyl aromatic monomer as described above With one or more other monomers. in some cases up to 2. and physical properties of expanded polymer particles. Mixtures of these aliphatic hydrocarbon bloWing agents can also be used. composition. and W0 01/ 66485 the relevant portions of Which are incor porated herein by reference.765. [0132] In particular embodiments of the present invention. Wax emulsions.5 mm and in other situations up to 1 mm.2 mm. hexanes. Also.4 mm. In an embodiment of the invention. dienes. isoprene. Wherein the vinyl aromatic monomer is present in at least 50% by Weight of the copoly mer.35 mm.725. silicones. Exemplary light Weight concrete compositions that can be used in the present invention are disclosed in US. Nos. in some instances up to 2 mm.338. Which can optionally be expanded polymer particles. HoWever. e. styrenic polymers are used. in physical properties When resin beads having particle siZes some cases at least 30. but are not limited to polyvinyl acetate.235. structure. fats and oils. and in other cases up to 40 volume percent based on the total volume outside of the above described ranges are used to make the of the LWC composition. particles polymeriZed in a suspension process. Which are essentially spherical resin beads. in some cases up to 85. in other instance up to 65. in some situations at least 0. homopolymers and copolymers of (meth)acrylate esters.652. WO 00/61519. polycarbonates. tensides. As used herein. alkyl methacrylates. in some instances at least 15. asphalt. The resin beads used in this embodiment can be any value or can range betWeen any of the values recited above.257.5 mm. styrene-butadiene. These particles can be in the form of beads. and the like. and combinations thereof. 28. polymer particles in an aqueous medium and then incorpo rating the bloWing agent as taught in US. and combina tions thereof. 2.622.and 2. such as polyole?ns (e.291.580. polyole?ns. conjugated point of the polymer chosen. JP 9 071449. calcium chloride. in some instances at least 0. in some cases up to 50. [0138] In an embodiment of the invention. Of particular note is the relation ship betWeen bead siZe and expanded polymer particle den sity on the physical properties of the resulting LWC Wall. and combinations thereof. fatty acids and salts thereof. [0137] In the present invention. or alternatively by re-suspending the [0134] The polymer particles can include any particles derived from any suitable expandable thermoplastic material. No. ing agents include aliphatic hydrocarbons containing 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the molecule. acry lonitrile. alkyl acrylates. in some situations up to 1. are useful as polymer particles or for making expanded polymer particles. Pat.983. polypropylene). In many instances the siZe. The actual polymer particles are selected based on the par ticular physical properties desired in a ?nished LWC Wall. alkyl acrylates. in other instances up to 2. in other cases up to 78. the polymer particles include thermoplastic homopolymers or copoly mers selected from homopolymers derived from vinyl aro matic monomers including styrene. [0133] The polymer particles. polyphenylene oxides.214. alkyl-aryl-sulfonates.WO 98 02 397. but are not limited to vinsol resins. but are not limited to ethyl alcohol. acrylonitrile.33 mm. However.Nov. bitumen. phenol ethoxylates. lignosulfonates. expanded polymer particles. can include one or more polymers selected from homopolymers of vinyl aro matic monomers. but are not limited to fatty acids (such as stearic acid or oleic acid). Conventional bloW monomer With one or more of divinylbenZene.4-hexadiene). particularly polystyrene. conjugated dienes (non-limiting examples being butadiene. and combinations thereof.851. 3.g. or other particles. [0136] In a particular embodiment of the invention. Waxes.g. granules. 2013 US 2013/0312349 A1 [0128] Suitable freezing point decreasing agents that canbe used in the invention include. 393. hydrocarbon resins.45 mm and in other instances at least 0. other suitable polymers can be used. polymers derived from solution and bulk polymerization techniques that are extruded and cut into particle siZed resin bead sections can also be used. Which can optionally be expanded polymer particles. Pat. In this embodiment. and 6. alpha methylstyrene. loWer alkyl fatty acid esters (such as butyl stearate). in according to the invention have inconsistent or undesirable other instances at least 20. 5. Which boil at a temperature beloW the softening . [0130] Suitable Water-repellent or Water-proo?ng agents that can be used in the invention include. in particular instances up to 60. and maleic anhydride.5 mm. in some cases at least 0. the concrete is light-Weight concrete. such as butanes. and mixtures thereof.25 mm. 5. The amount of polymer particles in the LWC composition can be any value or can range betWeen any of the values recited above. [0129] Suitable adhesiveness-improving agents that can be used in the invention include. isopropylstyrene. and mixtures thereof.