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What is it?

Nitrogen dioxide is an irritant gas, which at high concentrations causes
inflammation of the airways.

When nitrogen is released during fuel combustion it combines with oxygen
atoms to create nitric oxide (NO). This further combines with oxygen to create
nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitric oxide is not considered to be hazardous to
health at typical ambient concentrations, but nitrogen dioxide can be.
Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide are referred to together as oxides of nitrogen

NOx gases react to form smog and acid rain as well as being central to the
formation of fine particles (PM) and ground level ozone, both of which are
associated with adverse health effects..

Sources of NOx Pollution

NOx is produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air
during combustion, especially at high temperatures. In areas of high motor
vehicle traffic, such as in large cities, the amount of nitrogen oxides emitted
into the atmosphere as air pollution can be significant. NOx gases are formed
whenever combustion occurs in the presence of nitrogen – e.g. in car engines;
they are also produced naturally by lightning.

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The Hong Kong SAR and Guangdong Provincial Governments have long been
collaborating to improve the air quality in thePearl River Delta
(PRD) Regionnote1. Over the past years, the two Governments significantly
reduced the emissions of four major pollutants, namely SO 2, NOx, RSP and VOC.

At the meeting of Hong Kong-Guangdong Joint Working Group on Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection held in November 2012. Hong Kong has implemented the following key measures:  Completed in April 2014 a one-off subsidy scheme to replace the catalytic convertors and oxygen sensors of petrol / Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) taxis and light buses. and  Continued to enforce the Air Pollution Control (Volatile Organic Compounds) Regulation to control volatile organic compounds emission from paints. using 2010 as base year. and to meet broadly the existing Air Quality Objectives by 2020. adhesives. with the latest emission caps effective in 2019.  Tightened the limit on sulphur content of locally supplied marine light diesel to 0. . Both sides have been implementing additional pollution control measures on this basis for bringing continuous improvement to the regional air quality.  Tightened progressively the emission caps on power plants.05% in April 2014.  Strengthened the inspection and maintenance of LPG and petrol vehicles from September 2014 by deploying roadside remote sensing equipment to detect excessive emissions from petrol and LPG vehicles. and  Retrofitting Euro II and Euro III franchised buses with selective catalytic reduction devices to reduce their emissions. both sides endorsed a new set of emission reduction targets/ranges up to 2020. sealants and selected consumer products. printing inks.  Launched in March 2014 an incentive-cum-regulatory scheme to phase out pre-Euro IV diesel commercial vehicles by end 2019.  Controlling the emissions from off-road mobile machinery from 1 September 2015 under the Air Pollution Control (Non-road Mobile Machinery) (Emission) Regulation. Such measures will help us to achieve the emission reduction targets for 2015 and 2020. Other key measures in the pipeline include:  Mandating the use of low-sulphur fuel for ocean-going vessels berthing in Hong Kong from 1 July 2015 under the Pollution Control (Ocean Going Vessels) (Fuel at Berth) Regulation. In order to achieve the emission targets/ranges set for 2015 and 2020.