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Li-Fi is transmission of data through illumination by taking the fiber out of fiber
optics by sending data through a LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the
human eye can follow. Li-Fi is the term some have used to label the fast and cheap
wireless-communication system, which is the optical version of Wi-Fi. The term was
first used in this context by Harald Haas in his TED Global talk on Visible Light
Communication.At the heart of this technology is a new generation of high brightness
light-emitting diodes, says Harald Haas from the University of Edinburgh, UK. Very
simply, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital 1, if it‘s off you transmit a 0.Haas
says, They can be switched on and off very quickly, which gives nice opportunities
for transmitted data. It is possible to encode data in the light by varying the rate at
which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s.The LED
intensity is modulated so rapidly that human eye cannot notice, so the output appears
constant. More sophisticated techniques could dramatically increase VLC data rate.
Terms at the University of Oxford and the University of Edingburgh are focusing on
parallel data transmission using array of LEDs, where each LED transmits a different
data stream. Other group are using mixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the
light frequency encoding a different data channel. Li-Fi, as it has been dubbed, has
already achieved blisteringly high speed in the lab. Researchers at the Heinrich Hertz
Institute in Berlin, Germany have reached data rates of over 500 megabytes per
second using a standard white-light LED. The technology was demonstrated at the
2012 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas using a pair of Casio smart phones to
exchange data using light of varying intensity given off from their screens, detectable
at a distance of up to ten metres In October 2011 a number of companies and industry
groups formed the Li-F Consortium, to promote high-speed optical wireless systems
and to overcome the limited amount of radio based wireless spectrum available by
exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The
consortium believes it is possible to achieve more than 10Gbps, theoretically allowing
a high-definition film to be downloaded in 30 seconds.


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Most of us are familiar with Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity), which uses 2.4-5GHz
RF to deliver wireless Internet access around our homes, schools, offices and in
public places. We have become quite dependent upon this nearly ubiquitous service.
But like most technologies, it has its limitations.
While Wi-Fi can cover an entire house, its bandwidth is typically limited to
50-100 megabits per second (Mbps) today using the IEEE802.11n standard. This is a
good match to the speed of most current Internet services, but insufficient for moving
large data files like HDTV movies, music libraries and video games.

Figure 1.1 . Linksys 2.4 Ghz Wireless Router
The more we become dependent upon ‗the cloud‘ or our own ‗media servers‘
to store all of our files, including movies, music, pictures and games, the more we will
want bandwidth and speed. Therefore RF-based technologies such as today‘s Wi-Fi
are not the optimal way.


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it is seen as an alternative to different RF-based communication services in wireless personal-area networks. This will be particularly relevant in indoor ‗smart‘ lighting systems.1 Electromagnetic spectrum The premise behind VLC is that because lighting is nearly everywhere. the so-called _what you see is what you send feature can be used to improve the usability of transmitting data at shorter point-to-point distances between different portable or fixed devices. Today. This emerging technology offers optical wireless communications by using visible light. This can be done due to the ability to modulate LEDs at speeds far faster than the human eye can detect while still providing artificial lighting. discovery or generating an alarm for misalignment. An additional opportunity is arising by using current state-ofthe-art LED lighting solutions for illumination and communication at the same time and with the same module.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 2 2. There. communications can ride along for nearly free.‘ In contrast to infrared. Think of a TV remote in every LED light bulb and you‘ll soon realise the possibilities of this technology TKRCET. Fig 2.ECE Page 3 . illumination can be used for beam guiding.1 VISABLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION Many people‘s first exposure to optical wireless technology was VLC. where the light is always ‗on. Thus while LEDs will be used for illumination. their secondary duty could be to‗piggyback‘ data communication onto lighting systems.

15. Thirty billion light bulbs are in use worldwide. Assuming that all the light bulbs are exchanged with LEDs. the focus is on low-speed. Data rates are supported from some 100 kbps up to 100 Mbps using different modulation schemes. for example. TKRCET. one billion barrels of oil could be saved every year. the IEEE 802. multimedia data.7 task group was established by the industry. It specifies VLC comprising mobile-to-mobile (M2M). The VLC Consortium (VLCC) in Japan was one of the first to introduce this technology. ISO and ICSA. There.15 wireless personal-area networks working group. medium-range communications for intelligent traffic systems and on high-speed. fixed-tomobile (F2M) and infrastructure-to-mobile (I2M) communications. short range M2M and F2M communications to exchange. Driven by the progress of LED technology. which again translates into energy production of 250 nuclear power plants.ECE Page 4 . research institutes and universities in 2008.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY One of the biggest attractions of VLC is the energy saving of LED technology. Nineteen per cent of the worldwide electricity is used for lighting. visible light communication is gaining attention in research and development. Other standardisation groups are working on standardised optical wireless communication (OWC) solutions using visible and infrared light. The most important groups are IrDA with its new 10 Giga-IR working group. After establishing a VLC interest group within the IEEE 802. The final standard was approved in 2011.

the optical output can be made TKRCET.The Term Coined By Dr Harald Haas Li-Fi is a VLC. The term Li-Fi was coined by Prof.ECE Page 5 . However.7 standard. This larger word has been dubbed ‗Li-Fi‘ (Light Fidelity) by Dr Harald Haas of Edinburgh University and organisations such as the Li-Fi Consortium. Li-Fi is now part of the Visible Light Communications (VLC) PAN IEEE 802. visible light communication. Prof.1 LIGHT FIDELITY (Li-Fi) VLC represents only a fraction of what appears to be a much larger movement towards optical wireless technologies in general.15. Figure 3. by fast and subtle variations of the TED Global in July 2011. technology developed by a team of scientists including Dr Gordon Povey. Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs. Haas when he amazed people by streaming high-definition video from a standard LED lamp.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 3 3. These devices are normally used for illumination by applying a constant current through the LED. Harald Haas and Dr Mostafa Afgani at the University of Edinburgh.1“Li Fi”.

Thus it provides a completely new set of optical technologies and techniques to offer users add-on as well as complementary functionalities compared to well-known and established RF services. all kinds of light. these and many more could be merged to a full-featured Li-Fi cloud providing wireless services for other future applications as well. applications and end users. machines or robots with entirely new natural user interfaces. Li-Fi is a short term of light fidelity.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY to vary at extremely high speeds. says Dr Povey. Just like the more commonly known wireless fidelity. this variation is used to carry high-speed data.ECE Page 6 . . Product Manager of the University of Edinburgh's Li-Fi Program‘D-Light Project’. and unidirectional and bidirectional data transfer using line-of-sight or diffuse links. from the infrared through visible and down to the ultraviolet spectrum.Unseen by the human eye. Finally. It is not limited to LED or laser technologies or to a particular receiving aims to transfer data through light. This could reach from a new user experience regarding communication speeds in the gigabit class to bridge the well-known spectrum crunch. medium and long ranges. known as the head over heels in LED from his teenage years. over to precise indoor positioning or controlling video games. It includes sub-gigabit and gigabit-class communication speeds for short. Li-Fi comprises a wide range of frequencies and wavelengths. Li-Fi has been developed by Haas whose expertise is on the mobile communications at Edinburgh University. navigation and gesture recognition applied for natural user interfaces . regardless the part of the spectrum where they belong. It is a technology based on LED‘s for the exchange of data. Li-Fi is a framework for all of these providing new capabilities to current and future services. Li-Fi comprises several optical wireless technologies such as optical wireless communication. reflections and much more. TKRCET. In that connection. Data will be sent via light.

2 Transfer of data through light Within a local Li-Fi cloud several databased services are supported through a heterogeneous communication system. for example. the Li-Fi Consortium defined different types of technologies to provide secure. precision location and gesture recognition technologies. in an operating room. GigaShower provides unidirectional data services via several channels to multiple users with gigabit-class communication speed over several metres. GigaBeam. GigaSpot and Giga. the GigaBeam model is a point-to-point data link for kiosk applications or portable-to-portable data exchanges. optical mobility technologies. GigaSpot and GigaMIMO models to address different user scenarios for wireless indoor and indoor-like data transfers.ECE Page 7 . with speeds up to 10 Gbps. GigaShower. in a production hall or at an airport. reliable and ultra-highspeed wireless communication interfaces. a media server. Thus a two-hour full HDTV movie (5 GB) can be transferred from one device to another within four seconds. On the other side are portable or fixed devices on a desk in an office. For giga-speed technologies.MIMO are the other models for inhouse communication. and navigation.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY Fig 3. tablets or notebooks. In an initial approach. the Li-Fi Consortium defined GigaDock. There a transmitter or receiver is mounted into the ceiling connected to. These technologies included giga-speed technologies. TKRCET. GigaShower. While GigaDock is a wireless docking solution including wireless charging for smartphones.

In case GigaShower is used to sell books. hall or shopping mall for example.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY This is like watching TV channels or listening to different radio stations where no uplink channel is needed. the connected media server can be accessed via Wi-Fi to process payment via a mobile device. GigaSpot and GigaMIMO are optical wireless singleand multi-channel HotSpot solutions offering bidirectional communication in a room. TKRCET.ECE Page 8 gigabit-class . music or movies.

1 SYSTEM DESIGN Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs at the downlink transmitter. The photo detector picks up signal. However.2 Methods of Visible Light Communication  Devices used for Visible Light Communication  Communication using Image Sensors Devices used for Visible Light Communication Fig 4. These devices are normally used for illumination only by applying a constant current. An overhead lamp fitted with an LED with signal-processing technology streams data embedded in its beam at ultra-high speeds to the photo-detector.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 4 4.ECE Page 9 . The operational procedure is very simple.1 Communication system TKRCET. data from the internet and local network is used to modulate the intensity of the LED light source if any undetectable to the human eye. by fast and subtle variations of the current. This very property of optical current is used in Li. A receiver dongle then converts the tiny changes in amplitude into an electrical signal. the optical output can be made to vary at extremely high speeds. which is converted back into a data stream and sent to the client. which is then converted back into a data stream and transmitted to a computer or mobile device. 4. The client can communicate through its own LED output or over the existing network.Fi setup.

However. they can be regarded as the semiconductor analog to photo multipliers .> Fluorescent Lamp  FSK modulation of high frequency fluorescent light.By applying a high reverse bias voltage (typically 100-200 V in silicon).ECE Page 10 .>Visible Light LED  LED light intensity is modulated by controlling its current.  Data rate: low speed to very high speed (up to several hundred Mbps) 2.>Avalanche photodiode An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity. The wide intrinsic region makes the PIN diode an inferior rectifier (one typical function of a diode). 2. but it makes the PIN diode suitable for attenuators.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY Transmitter devices of visible light communication 1. photo detectors. lightly doped 'near' intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region. The wide intrinsic region is in contrast to an ordinary PN diode.In general. From a functional standpoint. APDs show an internal current gain effect (around 100) due to impact ionization (avalanche effect). Receiver devices of visible light communication 1. The p-type and n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for Ohmic contacts. some silicon APDs employ alternative doping and beveling techniques compared to traditional APDs that allow greater voltage to be applied (> 1500 V) before breakdown is reached and hence a greater operating gain (>1000).>PIN diode A PIN diode is a diode with a wide.  Data rate: up to several kilo bps. TKRCET. fast switches. APDs can be thought of as photo detectors that provide a built-in first stage of gain through avalanche multiplication. and high voltage power electronics applications. the higher the reverse voltage the higher the gain.

ECE Page 11 . TKRCET. It is used mostly in digital cameras.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY Communication through image sensors An image sensor is a device that converts an optical image into an electronic signal. most currently used are digital charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors. Early analog sensors were video camera tubes. camera modules and other imaging devices.

which gives nice opportunities for transmitted data.It is possible to encode data in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s. VLC data rate can be increased by parallel data transmission using LED arrays where each LED transmits a different data stream. There are reasons to prefer LED as the light source in VLC while a lot of other illumination devices like fluorescent lamp. Terms at the University of Oxford and the University of Edingburgh are focusing on parallel data transmission using array of LEDs. Which acts as a communication source and 2) a silicon photodiode which shows good response to visible wavelength region serving as the receiving element. so the output appears constant. the LED illumination can be used as a communication source. Other group are using mixtures of red. incandescent bulb etc.The LED intensity is modulated so rapidly that human eye cannot notice. have reached data rates of over 500 megabytes per second using a standard white-light LED. More sophisticated techniques could dramatically increase VLC data rate. by modulating the LED light with the data signal.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 5 5. if it‘s off you transmit a 0. green and blue LEDs to alter the light frequency encoding a different data channel. To be clearer. The technology was demonstrated at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas using a pair of TKRCET.1 WORKING TECHNOLOGY VLC uses visible light between 400 THz (780 nm) and 800 THz (375 nm) as optical carrier for data transmission and illumination. has already achieved blisteringly high speed in the lab.ECE Page 12 . are available. ―They can be switched on and off very quickly. you transmit a digital 1. It uses fast pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly. as it has been dubbed. The main components of this communication system are 1) a high brightness white LED. A data rate of greater than 100 Mbps is possible by using high speed LEDs with appropriate multiplexing techniques. if the LED is on. the LED output appears constant to the human eye. Data can be encoded in the light to generate a new data stream by varying the flickering rate of the LED. LED can be switched on and off to generate digital strings of 1s and 0s. As the flickering rate is so fast. Very simply. Li-Fi. Researchers at the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Berlin Germany.Haas says. where each LED transmits a different data stream.

or using mixtures of red.ECE Page 13 . There's a new technology on the block which could. Since Li-Fi uses just the light. it can be used safely in aircrafts and hospitals that are prone to interference from radio waves.7 No. Figure 5.ripublication. Further enhancements can be made in this method. We have to just vary the rate at which the LED‘s flicker depending upon the data we want to encode. ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 'throw light on' how to meet the ever-increasing each frequency encoding is a different data channel. like using an array of LEDs for parallel data transmission. Such advancements promise a theoretical speed of 10 Gbps – meaning you can download a full high-definition film in just 30 seconds. http://www.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY Casio smart phones to exchange data using light of varying intensity given off from their screens. thereby throwing open endless opportunities for military operations. or downloading a movie from the lamp on your desk.1 Working of LI-FI So what you require at all are some LEDs and a controller that code data into those LEDs. This can even work underwater where Wi-Fi fails completely. Imagine only needing to hover under a street lamp to get public internet access. detectable at a distance of up to ten metres. Simply awesome! But blazingly fast data rates and depleting bandwidths worldwide are not the only reasons that give this technology an upper hand.11 (2012)© Research India Publications. quite literally as well as metaphorically. green and blue LEDs to alter the light‘s frequency with International Journal of Applied Engineering Research.

even though it is in fact 'flickering'.2 Block Diagram A flickering light can be incredibly annoying. being precisely what makes it possible to use light for wireless data transmission. but has turned out to have its upside. Radio waves are replaced by light waves in a new method of data transmission which is being called Li-Fi Lightemitting diodes can be switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect. causing the light source to appear to be on continuously. This invisible on-off activity enables a kind of data transmission using binary codes. This method of using rapid pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly is technically referred to as Visible Light Communication (VLC). causing the light source to appear to be on continuously.ECE Page 14 .LI-FI TECHNOLOGY demand for high-speed wireless connectivity. TKRCET. Figure 5. though it‘s potential to compete with conventional Wi-Fi has inspired the popular characterisation Li-Fi. Information can therefore be encoded in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s. Light-emitting diodes can be switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect.

3 Data from internet to user through light TKRCET.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY Fig 5.ECE Page 15 .

1 COMPARISION BETWEEN LI-FI&WI-FI LI-FI is a term of one used to describe visible light communication technology applied to high speed wireless communication. TKRCET.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 6 6. only using light instead of radio WI-FI is great for general wireless coverage within buildings.e. Only Wi-Fi currently offers very high data rates. so the two technologies can be considered complimentary. The IEEE 802. Table 6. and li-fi is ideal for high density wireless data coverage in confined area and for relieving radio interference issues.11. Bluetooth and IrDA. i. It acquired this name due to the similarity to WI-FI.ECE Page 16 . Note that one out of three of these is an optical technology. Wi-Fi.n in most implementations provides up to 150Mbit/s (in theory the standard can go to 600Mbit/s) although in practice you receive considerably less than this.1Comparison between current and future wireless technologies The table also contains the current wireless technologies that can be used for transferring data between devices today.

 The efficiency of such a base station is only at about five percent.  Most of the energy consumed.2 ISSUES WITH WI-FI USING RADIO WAVES Fig 6. 2. 3.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY 6.>AVAILABILITY  Availability of radio waves or RW signals causes another concern   We have to switch off our mobile devices in aero planes It is not advisable to use mobiles at places like petrochemical plants and TKRCET. expensive and we only have a certain range of it. which are :1.  Due to this limitation one can’t forever hope to cope with the demand of wireless data transmissions and the number of bytes and data which are transmitted every month.>CAPACITY:  We transmit wireless data is by using electromagnetic waves -.>EFFICIENCY  There are 1.but is used to cool the base stations.4 million cellular radio masts deployed worldwide.inparticular. is not used to transmit the radio waves. radio waves.ECE Page 17 .  Radio waves are scarce.1 Four aspects of WI-FI There are four issues with the current wi-fi scenario .

ultraviolet or the visible part of the spectrum. You no more need to be in a region that is Wi-Fi enabled to have access to the internet. TKRCET. The transfer of the data can be with the help of all kinds of light. music etc in just a few minutes with the help of this technology. the technology removes limitations that have been put on the user by the Wi-Fi. There cannot be anything better than this technology. 6. You can simply stand under any form of light and surf the internet as the connection is made in case of any light presence.ECE Page 18 . That is. games. no matter the part of the spectrum that they belong. Also.3 LI-FI IS DIFFERENT COMPARE TO WI-FI Li-Fi technology is based on LEDs for the transfer of data.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY petrol pumps 4. and somebody can make use of one‘s network. the light can belong to the invisible. the speed of the internet is incredibly high and you can download movies.  They can be intercepted. Also.>SECURITY  The radio waves penetrate through walls.

ECE Page 19 . it switches your navigation software to use this information to guide you to the ATM TKRCET.1 FUTURE PROSPECTS First applications of Li-Fi have been put to use already. we will see more Li-Fi products entering the market. The prototype of a mobile phone with an incorporated VLC system was presented by Casio at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas in January this year.2 APLICATIONS 7. both in the industrial as well as consumer markets.1 Enhanced & Exclusive Shopping Experience Imagine yourself walking into a mall where GPS signals are unavailable but the mall is equipped with ceiling bulbs that create their own ‗constellation‘ of navigation beacons. for example. Fig 7.2. Axiomtek Europe presented such a product at the Embedded World exhibition in hospitals where RF signal are a threat due to interference problems with medical equipment such as blood pumps and other life supporting instruments. Germany. In the coming years.1 Anticipated uses of VLC Technology 7. As the camera of your cell phone automatically receives these signals.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 7 7.

ECE Page 20 .2 You Might Just Live Longer For a long time. You walk over towards the show window and your image comes up on the screen. You pick out that new Tom Cruise movie using your phone‘s payment facility.‘ When you walk into the store. the clerk hands you the actual jacket in exactly your size. your phone notifies you that the leather jacket Tom featured in the movie is on sale nearby. You conclude your ATM transaction and notice the GigaSpot sign for instant digital movie downloads. Operating rooms do not allow Wi-Fi over radiation concerns. and there is also that whole lack of dedicated spectrum. wearing that coveted jacket. medical technology has lagged behind the rest of the wireless world. and then download within a few seconds the high-definition movie into the GigaLink flash drive plugged into the USB port of your smartphone. As you walk away.2.000 times the spectrum of Wi-Fi. Li-Fi has 10. Code Red! Figure 7. Li-Fi solves both problems: lights are not only allowed in operating rooms. And. While Wi-Fi is in place in many hospitals. You turn and pose while the image matches your orientation and body gestures for a _digital fitting. 7. but tend to be the most glaring (pun intended) fixtures in the room. as Haas mentions in his TED Talk.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY machine you‘re looking for.2 Use In Medical Field TKRCET. interference from cell phones and computers can block signals from monitoring equipment. so maybe we can delegate red light to priority medical data.

I expect it. TKRCET. And at the same price as checking a bag.ECE Page 21 . The savings from proper monitoring at a single power plant can add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars.3 Smarter Power Plants Wi-Fi and many other radiation types are bad for sensitive areas.3 Airlines Nothing says captive audience like having to pay for the "service" of dial-up speed Wi-Fi on the plane.8 Mbps per plane. Like those surrounding power plants. Its better than listening to you tell me about your wildly successful son.2. inter-connected data systems to monitor things like demand. abundant connectivity for all areas of these sensitive locations. Not only would this save money related to currently implemented solutions. I have twice that capacity in my living room.2.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY 7. United is planning on speeds as high as 9. Li-Fi could offer safe. And don‘t get me started on the pricing. grid integrity and (in nuclear plants) core temperature. I‘ll be the guy WoWing next to you.3 Use in airlines 7. The best I‘ve heard so far is that passengers will "soon" be offered a "high-speed like" connection on some airlines. But power plants need fast. Li-Fi could easily introduce that sort of speed to each seat's reading light. Uh. Figure 7. but the draw on a power plant‘s own reserves could be lessened if they haven‘t yet converted to LED lighting. ma‘am.

4 Use in power plants 7. If their wires were cut and replaced with light _say from a submerged.ECE Page 22 . except when the tether isn‘t long enough to explore an area.2. high-powered lamp _then they would be much freer to explore. processing data autonomously and referring findings periodically back to the surface. They could also use their headlamps to communicate with each other. operate from large cables that supply their power and allow them to receive signals from their pilots above. or when it gets stuck on something. ROVs work great.5 Under sea awesomeness TKRCET.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY Figure 7. all the while obtaining their next batch of orders.4 Undersea Awesomeness Underwater ROVs. Figure 7. those favourite toys of treasure seekers and James Cameron.

in times less stressing cities could opt to provide cheap high-speed Web access to every street corner Figure 7. The average Delhiite may not know what the protocols are for those kinds of disasters.ECE Page 23 . common dead zones for most emergency communications. you‘re online. Until they pass under a street light.6 Use of li fi in traffic control TKRCET.or a hurricane.2.5 It Could Keep You Informed and Save Lives Say there‘s an earthquake in New Delhi. Metro stations and tunnels. with Li-Fi. if there‘s light. Plus. Remember. pose no obstruction.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY 7. that is. Take your pick — it‘s a wacky city.

This may solve issues such as the shortage of radiofrequency bandwidth and also allow internet where traditional radio based wireless isn‘t allowed such as aircraft or hospitals. making it more and more difficult to get a reliable. As a growing number of people and their any devices access wireless internet. the airwaves are becoming increasingly clogged. TKRCET. One of the shortcomings however is that it only work in direct line of sight.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 8 8. not least because it may offer a genuine and very efficient alternative to radio-based wireless.ECE Page 24 .1 CONCLUSION The concept of Li-Fi is currently attracting a great deal of interest. high-speed signal. 3.blogspot.ECE Page 25 .www.wikisedia. 5.html 2.1 Bibliography 1.LI-FI TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 9 9.http://teleinfobd.