You are on page 1of 62

The first time that I went to Japan, the first time I visited there I did the mistake

that probably most people make when they visit Japan for the first time. I went
there for a conference and the first Japanese person, the organizer that I met. I
met them, stretched out my hand to greet them. And clearly that's not how
greeting works in Japan. I knew that, I had prepared for
the trip, but my instinct was still to stretch out
my hand when I encounter someone. And to this day,
I do that even with my French in-laws. In Germany, when you greet family, you
it's kind of a handshake hug combination. And that's why you kind of prepare for
when I meet my French in-laws,
that's what I wanna do. But that's not what
happens in France right? So I rely on 21 years of
living in Germany and going through that ritual of greeting,
always the same way. Kicking that habit, losing that is really tricky. Now you can
think of all other matters of situations that you encounter also in organizational
circumstances. You might be ask by a colleague for
feedback on something that they did. You might scan a business report for
what's the most relevant information. You might wanna, you know, you might
have to manage your emotions
in some situations and for all of these scenarios, you rely on cultural
scripts that you have learned over time. And you deploy them more or less
automatically, mindlessly if you want. One of the most famous cultural
researchers Geert Hofstede, called these scripts and culture in
that light software of the mind. It's basically mental programming
that runs in the background almost. You almost don't notice it,
it takes care of every day stuff. And the software metaphor I really
like because it's not hardware. It's not our biology. It's not our hard wiring that
the differences in behavior between social groups or ethnic groups. It's really the
learned cultural
scripts that we have that make up the difference. So, let's think about culture,

mental programming, software of the mind, as something that is shared
amongst members of a social group. Something you've learned to pick it up
over time through imitating others and through active conceptualization
that you experience and of something that is enduring. Culture doesn't fluctuate
from one day to the next. It changes but it changes a little bit more slowly. Now
the cultural scripts that we have
are often the starting points for how we think about the world around us and
about problems that we encounter, how we
behave and how we interact with others. And clearly it's not the only
determinant of behavior. There is clearly our biology that
drives us to particular ways: The fight or flight instinct, for example. You could
call that our hardware. There is personality which is also part of our hardware to a
certain degree; so different chemical balances in peoples' brains make them
respond differently to different situations. And there are situational cues that
determine what you perceive to be the right course of action. But culture is an
important part of what
shapes our thinking, our behavior, and our interaction with others. Now, cultural
theorists really diverge in their views on how strong that culture influence is. On
the strongly cultural deterministic
side people would argue that culture is so deeply ingrained in our brain that it
is completely automatically deployed. We've internalized it so much that we are
not even
aware that it is an influence. We take it for granted. What our culture does is the
only way to think, to behave and to interact with others. On the other side of the
spectrum, people argue that there is an agency in
how we deploy what our culture teaches us. There culture becomes more of a
tool chest, where the individual cultural
scripts that we have are tools that we can use; that we can combine
to tackle problems that we encounter. There's more choice there. So here people
can actually maybe
imagine different ways of behaving and actually even adapt behaviors but they
are still falling back to kind of
their more comfortable tools. In either case culture does shape, to a large extent,
how we deal with everyday situations and how we
behave clearly in organizations as well. Culture's a really broad concept. You can
apply it to all manners of social groups, clearly national cultures,

ethnic cultures. There are professional cultures, organizational cultures,
departmental cultures, and even specific group cultures. In all those cases,
the function's essentially the same. It's rules and scripts for thinking,
behaving, and interacting with others. People sometimes like to make the
distinction between cultures and subcultures. You could think of the 1970s in
Britain for example: a time of some economic hardship but there was also middle
class that was rising. There was a little bit more consumerism that was
burgeoning in Britain at the time; and at that very period, in the mid 70s, you
have punk as a subculture, as a counter-culture that emphasizes
not clearly middle class consumerism, but proletarian values, antiauthoritarianism, non-conformity,
even anarchy to some degree. People have labeled that as a subculture.
Nowadays people actually talk about
this more as co-cultures, because the mainstream cultures and subcultures
can actually influence each other so they are coexisting to some degree. Now the
other distinction we can make,
is not just about the scope, how many people are part of a culture,
but how strong is that culture? How restrictive is it on behavior? How strongly are
norms actually enforced? So, my academic professional culture,
for example, is very permissive for
weirdnesses embraced. So different behaviors, different ways
of thinking, this is what we cherish. If you think about investment banking,
the culture's a lot more restrictive in terms of kind of conduct, dress,
language is a little bit more codified, and even standards of success are very,
very particular. If you ever think about
the effects of culture, they often think in terms
of overt behaviors Especially for social interaction,
for reading, for conversation, for eating together. Those are the kinds of things
that you
prepare for when you go for a trip abroad. But the effects of culture are more
profound, actually, they precede things that come before behavior even
becomes formatted or becomes observable. They impact cognition and emotions.
For cognition, I could show you an oval shape and ask you to guess what

So that's an internal cause or external cause attribution. where does culture come from in the first place? The quick answer is almost from everywhere. Patterns of interaction . That you can say that it can only have happened in Japan. Whether it is appropriate to show emotions at all in the first place. There are a myriad of influences that shape a culture. because of the cultural scripts that are available there. Depending on where you come from in the world you either have no idea or it's American football clearly or it's rugby. depending on culture background. what does it mean? Michael Morris has this great experiment where he shows people an image of a group of fish and then the head of that group is a single fish. And he asked participants. At this point we can ask ourselves. Culture provides you with these tools to interpret ambiguous cues. And the same argument can be made for Kaizen and the equality revolution. But the Chinese mindset interpreted it as the other fish are chasing the fish ahead.kind of sport that is. You look around you and see other people respond emotionally to specific situations and that's what shapes your interpretation of what is an appropriate emotional response to a particular cues. And it goes deeper than that not just recognition but actually interpretation. why is that fish ahead? And for the participants with the American mindset their interpretation is that fish is leading the other fish. The cognitive constraints and emotional constraints that culture that puts on us but I'd like to think about it as an enabler as well. The other affect of culture's on emotions. People have often made the argument that that really draws from the specific cultural environment that there is in the USA. We can think about this as very constraining. Innovation and entrepreneurship in the US. So the way that you interpret your own emotional states and you regulate your emotional expression that's determined by culture.

If a country opens its media to foreign media content for example. or the Chinese cultural revolution. that kind of complexity can really make your head explode. If you have these different spheres of social activity that influence culture. very slow. The other route that's been taken is to try to find differences between cultures and to then classify and dichotomize those . over time that would change the national culture. The education system. So we get that cultural complex. So sometimes those changes can seem very. people have developed frameworks to make cultural complexity more manageable. religions. or a few years later. They might seem glacial. One approach has been to actually dissect culture and try to identity elements that exist in all cultures and allows us to understand better how cultures operate. it ultimately changes the mix of the culture. And they get diffused and combined to make ultimately the mix that makes a particular culture. The media. It's not easy to reduce it to a few characteristics and it also explains cultural change. we actually see these watershed moments in history. and especially in a multi-cultural. If you change the education system. And that's why cultures have some extraordinarily complex thing to understand it. But occasionally.within a familiar unit. if you change one of them. And I can think of the French revolution as an example. You would seize to some degree over time an impact on the national culture. where maybe change has built up over time to some degree and drastically cultures change. All of these spheres of social activity generate their own scripts and norms of behavior. the economic reforms. larger social associations and groupings like political factions. To reduce that level of complexity. like in a cross-cultural team. and their impact on the cultural environment in the country.

if you will. this is a complete waste of resources that people make and buy. So I'm going to explain it with my own experience here in Italy. and .cultures to highlight those differences. the Onion Model of Culture. and fashion here in Milan. The Italian values that can help us understand those artifacts are these ideas of dolce vita. It is not useful. And you want to avoid that. The cultural artifacts that you immediately encounter when you are in a culture. sweet life. I'm being hard on my own culture here. and design. Especially you'll notice of course if you're not familiar with that culture. how they eat. all these frivolous luxury items and services. more traditional German lens. how people dress. but there is a tendency that we have to actually interpret other cultures. And said that. but it looks great for natural cultures and any other scope that you want to apply it to. and great restaurants of course. what I immediately encountered and what I noticed is how people talk. Now how do we interpret those artifacts? What do they mean? I could have been tempted to look at this through. And it's been developed originally in the context of organizational cultures. We'll talk about the Italian onion. So you want to understand values and the assumptions that have given rise to the artifacts you encounter. When I moved here to Italy. So this is the visible layer of culture. you know. based on our own values and our own assumptions. artifacts from other cultures. right? You want to actually understand a culture based on its own premises. The framework that I like best for the dissecting of cultures finding these elements is Edgar Shein's model. a life well lived and the idea of bella figura. Both of this are really prevalent in any time society but there are espoused values that people are aware of and they can actually be critically discussed. So Italians at times very critically examine what the importance of these values really are. right? So. There's a lot of art.

the third level right. Ultimately. so that's the Onion Model. Now this is the second layer of culture. Right? We experience it from the outside in and we wanna make sure that we really dig deeper. Right? From the hidden assumptions. This is across all kinds of cultures. about what makes societies work. That they need to have a pride in what they do and what they accomplish. And to then dichotomize cultures to highlight those differences. It's difficult to articulate. That's why they are called hidden assumptions. The other approach to making culture more manageable and easier to analyze is to find key differences that exist among cultures. how values are generated. and cultures generate from the inside out. the hidden assumptions get back at really fundamental assumptions about human nature.whether they're useful for society. people need creative expression. And he identified as one dimension in which cultures really differ strongly is the degree to which context plays . So there are accounts that try to account for where particular values come from. And only then can they actually live in stable social relations and contribute towards a harmonious society and a prosperous society on the end. Okay. And a good argument can be made that there is a basic assumption in Italian society that to live happy and harmonious lives. The question is where do those values come from? That brings us to the third level of culture and that is the hidden assumptions. Even members of a culture can't really articulate where that comes from. One of the first studies that established that intellectual school of thought if you like is by Edward Hall. understand the values and the assumptions. how artifacts are generated. Now people have tried to do it. They need to live in the moment and enjoy life to some degree.

High and low uncertainty avoidance. that that hall highlighted and that really sparked a lot of research. And there is a very relatively novel one which is human dynamics framework. In high context cultures where people assume that a lot of the meaning is already inherent in a particular situation or in a relationship or even in a person. So. very broadly. and explain what they mean. all right? So a fundamental difference in how we interact with each other. then others have followed and have identified additional dimensions. he identified low context cultures. So Franz Trompenaars' identified six dimensions that are kind of slightly overlapping. he later added short term and long term orientation. The most famous and the most widely used study in that tradition of identifying cultural dimensions to classify cultures is Hofstede's study and his four dimensions. and indulgence or restraint as additional dimensions and these have been sparking a tremendous amount of research that use this dichotomization and have been used in teaching very. right? So he identified high and low power distance. because it asks people specifically about leadership issues. so they have to make things less explicit and have to explain less. Now all of these are very documented online already. right? So those four dimensions were the original ones. So there's a lot of good . the Schwartz value survey. individualism and collectivism. And it provided the template for a lot of other studies that identified other dimensions of culture. which has been interesting for leadership contexts. where people assume that they have to really make explicit what they want to communicate. but also add some really helpful new perspectives that can be illuminating as you try to understand culture. And clearly. And then there's been the Globe study.a role in interaction and communication. femininity or masculinity in a culture as is important dimensions. Then there has been the global value survey.

It is thanks to the seminal work of Hofstede that we have today. a comprehensive understanding of the cultures that we're interacting with? How did you get hooked on the challenges and complexities of intercultural management originally? It was very much different my own experiences. Having been educated in Germany and in Anglo-Saxon countries. is not the individual dimensions. Yeah. So I learned on my own skin what it means to adapt to a different culture. Is that something that you use? Yes and no. I think it is particular because we have more and more international students in our university. though. People crossing borders and there's a beginning to understand more about how to manage cross culture situations. if you like. but it is more the overall approach of classifying cultures that way. already a culturally very particular way of dealing with culture. and really dig into the details of those frameworks. What was your first culture shock? Being a German. you know. What other ways can we find to actually make sense of cultures that we interact with? That are more helpful maybe. You're teaching here at the university. if you think about it. That explains those things in more detail. You have done this for a while. you must have gone over Hofstede a billion times already. it's your professional life. not a single book or textbook on international management which is does not mention the impact on culture. I saw there's a big need. is the Hofstede framework. to whom we see that we have to adopt our teaching. if we have those dimensions in our mind. We put it in the notes. the simple answer. now. Because that is. And how can we develop ultimately a sense of cultural intelligence that really gives us a solid. and working in a lot in international management. Well. Off campus as well. In the sense that we have to be very thankful to Hofstede because culture and international management has always been a very fuzzy thing. learning. What I'm more interested in. and management style to the diversities we have in class and simple explanations are not enough anymore to respond to the global challenges culture puts on us. And what I'm interested in exploring in this session is what that actually does to how we encounter. how we engage with other cultures. and/or organizational decision . management. my own culture shock events. arriving in Italy had been a bit of culture shock in the beginning.material out there. knock yourself out. the first thing that often they think of and that they are familiar with. I guess here on campus and also with clients I encounter through consulting. so.

Professor Tony Fang. They just co-exist in different ways. Italians are very entrepreneurable. we have a completely different view. and this is also a little bit short of the mainstream textbooks. this is true. obviously. You are dichotomizing again. you cannot. We have to recognize that we have a lot of knowledge also today on cross culture leadership thanks to Hofstede. you will understand that they are also very collectivistic. with a very hybrid culture and this also shows us that these paradoxes in cultures are in tension. I think the approach has its limitations. Think about countries like India. Whenever you try to understand across culture. If we look at the family businesses. and I think this is certainly a big limitation of these value dimensions posing one or the other. for instance. Is it because he made it concrete and focused attention on it? Yet. cultures inherently have these paradoxes within them. for instance. we have to become aware that we all use implicit theories. I tend to call them sophisticated stereotypes. which is useful as a first kickoff. If these dichotomies or the Hofstede dismentionalizations do not provide the best guidance for managers and leaders to navigate a kind of a culture that they are not very well familiar with. It is like playing cards. We are in Italy. I can put on the picture now. What other guidance do they have? Since people usually cling to it because they may be the one concrete thing they have to provide them orientation. This is useful to a certain extent. but in a globalized world. They are coexisting and with this way. He says.making and leadership styles. Certainly. all cultures have paradoxes. that is what Tony Fang is arguing. So he says. we can learn different approaches also from China. Everybody can relate to this. The Hofstede dimensions? The Hofstede dimensions. the same culture values. the play you played before. Yes. He is focused on mapping the Italians on his dimension individualism and collectivism as being very individualistic. He used the Yin and Yang approach. we all have the value cards in our hands and it is according to the situation. Chinese researchers. All cultures have this. This is a paradox. they are all representations of a very strong collectivism. There is very interesting research done in China. They are probably triggered in different situations. Tell me about the limitations you find. Reality is more complex and these frameworks do not capture the paradoxes existing in all cultures. and think about the industrial districts. I like his idea of balancing and/or of keeping in mind that there are these different elements that situationally you might come into play. particularly in emerging countries and it is up to us to understand them. no. But if you know Italy very well. . With these simple dichotomies we are not capturing this complexity. the networks that are important. We are using an implicit theory to analyze this. to your experience. This is an approach which mirrors our global complexities much better. that determines which card you are pulling out. Which scientific orientations would you highlight saying it is a useful orientation for leaders? There are two very simple categories. Mainly we are mostly not aware that we are doing so. and Only the way they express is different. It is this very ancient Chinese philosophical way of thinking and the way Tony Fang is conceptualizing cultures is very different than Hofstede. it is like value trump. Even though there is long standing scientific research to see culture differences and so probably it is a good occasion to speak about it and we should speak much more about it. so let us take the Hofstede results on Italy. very individualistic.

I think by using the Yin & Yang approach. You are more like an ethnographer. There is a lot of empirical research which shows that there is a lot of mistrust in Hungarian organizations and this is the reason why you will also find this high power distance category.I'm just joking. Whereas on the other hand. On the same side. Etic research is basically that you as a researcher are from the outside and you try to find standard. what their ideas are. who is trying to understand how people think in this discussion. Yes. Come also. that is to speak about emic and etic research. That is why people are very delicate towards power distance issues and like low power distance and all the more participative democratic work structure. for example. studying this same phenomenon. That is why I am saying let us use it complimentarily. Hungary is very low on power distance. like Hofstede. they are still very familiar with Marxist terms of thinking. If you take the results on power distance from the GLOBE study. It shows you that you cannot just say communist countries behave like this. it is basically that you are doing research from inside of the culture. believing that capitalism is exploiting employees. these etic studies. As in the example that you gave. predefined categories. or a different branches there of. You impose or you actually kind of grow with them. When we are using different methodologies together you see that you come to a much richer result and also interpretive culture analysis explaining the positivist research results and I think we are far too few aware about the regular implicit theories we are always using. It's very useful to keep this in mind when you read about culture studies because sometimes also. Both the high and the low power distance. which is that the emic and the etic perception. respective to cultures and try to think and pattern. It is been a while for me since I have revisited that. Hofstede is certainly one of the dominant representatives of this. if you do emic research. So they are two different approaches. This is a very nice example. They are actually useful and very longstanding scientific approaches. that both of these things exist in Hungarian culture and here we see that interpretive studies are very important because they give us an explanation. Especially because both extremes barely come out of the same political ideology to some degree. Do not be led astray. That is why culture is a very fuzzy concept and if we want to make it more clear we also need more clarity about the methodologies in analyzing this. or another one like GLOBE. Yes. How do we make sense of all? What should we believe? What I'm saying is that it is not a question of belief but to understand what is underlying and how we also construct culture questions but most over. Which scientific approaches then would you recommend as a useful orientation or important insight for leaders? I quite like very long standing scientific views to see culture. Which very clearly shows how an interpretive study is helping very much to give sense to etic studies. how to classify the culture differences. which is that Hungary has a socialist past and has been very familiar also with dictatorships. Explain that to me. Hofstede—-Hungary is a very nice example because in Hofstede’s research. There is actually a lot of complexity based on that ideology that comes out of it. This is a little scientific of a theory but it can be very useful to introduce this terminology because etic approaches look at culture from an outside perspective trying to define a priori predefined categories and dimensions in order to make . come to different results. So. Hungary is very high on power distance.

It's a complex phenomena. All right. takes a more inside view. who really tries to understand the culture on its own terms and it is very clear that these interpretive emic researchers are extremely important for a leader because you as a leader in an international environment. I think these things have an extremely practical implication because it influences the discourse. There is always another story. I like this very much because there is important plumbing for an organization to function. folks. Things of that nature. And that we can categorize cultures Into these diametrically opposed poles. the three layers of the audience: artifacts. how we speak about culture and culture differences and it also has a very practical implication because it is an influence in our way to analyze a crossculture conflict. Find the right poetry. influence that leaders have on their followers. In fact. Femininity and masculinity orientation. If we just rely on one approach you do not get the whole picture. and find the right words. Very important. Yes That is why these interpretive studies are extremely important. and that is why these interpretive approached are so extremely important to foster and for managers to learn much more about how to incorporate this into their everyday management life. So we have talked about culture and seen how it influences how we think. Okay. We have to be more aware of what we are using and consciously also using to complement etic and emic studies. True. To give you an example to where this complimentary analysis can help us make more sense of existing research. they try to look for what is universal about the different cultures and create categories in what makes cultures comparable. short-term orientation. and assumptions. The view of an ethnographer. It is up to you to find context. Okay. These are the tools the processes and so on but particularly in multicultural leadership. and culture can exist at a very broad scope: National culture. But also very local. They impose order? Is that the idea? Yes. the lines. want to understand how your employees think. is it that etic provides the general framework and emic just gives us more details? Or are they fundamentally different? I personally see them as very complimentary. We have talked a little bit about how we can actually start analyzing cultures by dissecting them into these layers. Let us see how we can use some of those insights to actually deal with a practical challenging situation where you have to . how we feel. so on so forth. values. on leadership I think it is about. so what I hear you say is that there are different scientific approaches but they are not just helpful for scientists but they help us question our own way of thinking about cultures. Okay. Long-term. Emic research on the other hand. Group cultures.culture comparable across a lot of countries. Leadership is always contextual. the poetry part is very important. If you've got an appreciation to some degree how complex culture is because there are so many influences on culture. Okay. for example. how we behave and interact with each other. When we use both. Find the right poem how you want to pose it but actually. so it is up to you to find and to contextualize in a well balanced way. There is a very beautiful quote from James March who says that leadership involves a delicate combination of plumbing and poetry.

that to remember charts and pointers of how to behave. how do you do it How would you approach this task of drafting that speech? How would you approach that challenge? I think the first question we need to ask ourselves is what is the national culture in Brazil? It is quite important that you understand the national level. just according to the categorization that Hofstede uses. that's a very good question. You know that there's a tendency towards high uncertainty avoidance which means that rules and standards are important to guide behavior and to give people the security to know what happens. He has been working there for seven years . You have got a nice little survey of what Brazilian culture according to the Hofstede surveys is like. and uncertainty bars. You sit on the plane. That might be the national context but what do people bring? Let's say that the people that you're working with on the project are Brazilian. good. Something that I don't see here is do we know whether all people working there are actually from Brazil? Yeah. it’s the first time that you're in Latin America actually.navigate a culture that you're not very familiar with. passionately. The group is important. It's not a criticism. an address from you because you're the project leader for this. So hierarchy is respected. Where they know that they can relax. Okay. My question for you would be. But you also know that the boss the. but often they express themselves very emotionally. It’s the first time that you're in Brazil. You are an engineer for Renault the french carmaker. So you sit on the plane. etc. people want to enjoy life. Also it means that they really want to have safe spaces from work to some degree. You've worked in Europe primarily. Exactly. that makes this easier to an Italian. You are in luck. You know that they have a high tendency towards high power distance. for process optimization in one of their plants there. You have to respect the elderly and the boss. To understand that the national context. You are on your way to Brazil. the head production engineer is actually an American. You're trying to work out what that speech should be. That means for you of course you came from Taiwan to work in Europe and you did had a shorter trip from Italy to France. You get a bunch of papers you know. Now you're being sent to Brazil to actually head a project over there for. In part of the training that you had. You also know that maybe the last thing that's important as you prepare. life balance is something that's important. There is a strong tendency towards collectivism. not all of them. Okay? All right so I'm going to give you a scenario. you got these wonderful Hofstede maps of where different cultures are located for power-distance and masculinity. Is that Brazilian's tend to be passionate. most recently in the Flans de Paris which is one of the big plants. and work. easy for you so that would be the the national context. We also know that Brazil is a high indulgence culture. so people are integrated into groups. where basically people are told. On the day after you arrive you will have a tour of the plant. you have to remember all this. and people will expect some kind of a short speech. You want to know what are the Brazilians like. and body language is very demonstrative. and your bosses know that so they generously offered you a one day boot camp style kind of cultural sensitivity training. Well.

Okay. leader in that sense as well. There are some standards maybe that have been communicated and that people have been exposed to to some degree. Sell that as a local benefit It's not just something that comes from headquarters because they. That that would make the CEO proud. or if I were to talk to him or her a figure him or her out. You can even make that point personally. You're trying to do that here as well. at this surface level. what kind of a company is Renault? Since it is a global company there is a global culture. Showing some respect to the good work that he has been done or overseen at least is. you are a multinational. or maybe that guy completely adapted to Brazilian expectations. Make it fit. If everybody is interdependent you have to collaborate across different boundaries and that every part of that network and all the diverse skills and perspectives actually have a positive contribution to make. That means people there may be more open to an American style of management. how they interact. so there's this kind of level of interdependence? Yeah. this ethnocentric interpretation of what you see. Okay. You want to dig deeper. so that also suggests that collaboration is really important. I mean this efficiency optimization project. It's multinational. so how would you find out which one prevails: the Brazilian or the American leadership style? Since I am going to have a tour with the company. Maybe. what's the cardinal rule? What do you not want to do? I shouldn't judge them or interact with them biased by cultural perspective. those artifacts that you're encountering. transnational. We have the national influences. more . I should be able to figure out what's the prevailing style. Okay. what would you stress from the local one? We can stress local achievements. want to reduce the overall cost. Yes. Good. that's the global side. even the organizational culture specifically there. is probably going to be helpful. Right. We have considerations of specific leader influences on the culture at that site at that plant. so any ideas? How do you do it? What would you stress in terms of the global elements? I think we need to first emphasize there's a global vision and that all the infrastructures are connected on the global scale. in this specific project. Knowing that being a multinational. so. understand what values and hidden assumptions actually generated those kinds of behaviors. as you're observing the artifacts. it's something that can have local benefits. is what you want to avoid. because you are embodying that. As you encounter the local culture. Exactly. In that case it would be the American boss the American boss So. Also from walking around observing people and talking to them. Maybe they are.already. how do you think that would influence how you're thinking about the speech? Well I think we need to stress the importance of integrated global cultures with the local cultures. You also want to sell the project that you are engaged in. how people talk. he clearly has been running this plan for a while. Are there any other considerations that we should be taking? I think another important factor is the organizational cultures from our company. Yes. You have experience that you can learn from these different contexts and you can contribute to a cultural context that is not your own. And then also praise authority figures there. Right. Right. I may try to meet the boss. Kind of bring that together. It means that maybe if there's more efficiency. Yes.

This is a largely Brazilian group that you're talking to would you. That's one of the things that works almost nowhere. but if you're pushing it too far. me. You can be authoritative. How would you communicate it though. You want to invite participation and foster trust? Those are great instincts because those two things. Let's say. that you enjoy reaching out to them. talking to the head American engineer there. like spend more time with your friends. If you feel like you know that guy could explode any moment. We hve considered local issues local organization in your speech but you have not talked much about yourself yet. What do you tell them? What kind of a leader you're going to be for this project. communicate about who you are in a very rationally way. Really stress that this is a local relevance in a global context. or would you allow yourself some emotion? We need to express our emotion a little bit. That's bad too. Those are also universals. You know communicating the way we are used to. Here you know you can let it go a little bit more. family. You have worked in one of the most important facilities in Europe. We have considered global strategy for the company. You want to allow yourself a little more leeway there. Okay. me. Enjoy life more. and less overtime means. it's always me. Again we see the opportunities in this project And clearly it's also how you say it so that they see that you're a good communicator. We also kind of know that you don't necessarily want to pander to those expectations or go too far away from what you feel comfortable with. so you can really emphasize that you're very happy that you have a chance to actually bring some of that experience with you. me. There’s less overtime. Yes. me. How would you approach it? I would go for building trust and participate. So you've been around You have international experience. why? Yes. especially if it's an emotional context where it's a little more controlled. Let’s say they are more honest about their emotions. We need to get. So those are some of the universals and then clearly there are also universals that you may want to avoid Any ideas of what people might almost universally not like in leaders? Pushy? Being too pushy? Yes. And people also don't like leaders that are too egocentric. And that you're positive about the whole thing as well so positivity is always something that we. People want to know that that you're honest about what you are expecting and what you want from them. that regardless of culture. I said that you honestly feel that this is great. Or if they are too irritable. Being too dictatorial. or that gal could explode any moment. so on and so forth. People want to know what kind of person you are to be able to trust you. you can actually enjoy life. though. for now you're not quite sure exactly what the expectations are. Some of that you might get out of observing when you're doing your tour. If you focus on those. a little bit. We talked about content. fostering trust and participation is actually something that works in most contexts Almost regardless of culture those are seen almost universally as positive leadership traits. Doesn't mean you go crazy emotional because that would be . that's a problem.stress-free work. that you have a chance to actually talk to them to start a conversation about the projects and so forth. So the people want to know that you're intelligent. how would you portray yourself? We should firstly understand what their expectations for their leaders are. and intelligence. like in leaders. clearly people also like competence. because we know that Brazil are quite blunt about their feelings. so those are good things to stress. and there are a couple of others.

When we talk about needing to have this global perspective as well this is basically what they should focus on. But is really taking a more. I really liked that even though we started with the idea of specific Brazilian characteristics that by and large. But can we say that adapting our way of communicating to the other culture. I think that will give you kind of a good start in this. our cognition. And it might even help kind of the organization also to develop an orientation towards. the organizational culture and all that and that you suggested that we really kind of balance multiple things here right. mathematical kind of intelligence. the one that we're measuring as IQ. We balance the emphasis on the competence of the leader. The American leader that was there. our own or others'. or the one that basically the entire European and U. I like that. At the very least. adapt a little bit more to local expectations. but how do you get it done? You can actually provide a little bit more. American education system is based on and what we emphasize traditionally in business and management education. it can be a very tangled web. with a little bit of emotionality and warmth so you're more relatable. good engineer for this project. sir. It can really make your head explode. or a capacity for this transnational or leadership approach That's not pandering to local specificities. even within just one country or one organization. But. And when we're dealing with cultures. in this scenario. It will occupy a lot of your head space. It's kind of more important than being too participative for instance.S. be mindful of all this cultural complexity and dynamism. or on our emotions. It's all changing and evolving. Which is important to build trust with people there. This case we are more emotional because they are emotional. Even for you. balance the global and local. There's this idea that there's different . You could do that. we try to avoid stereotyping by considering these different cultural influences we have as well. And certainly in this context.inauthentic you would feel uncomfortable you would see it. And it's not the logical. This is basically the content of what you want to do as a leader is have this global orientation. Yes. kind of transnational approach. is more important than adapting rules or content in a way. So it seems like you need a special kind of intelligence for this. All these different subcultures or co-cultures all influencing each other. you could be a good leader. So you've seen that the cultures have re-embedded and can have a very strong impact on our behavior. you also know that you can allow yourself a little bit more room there.

but you need. that can really go wrong if that happens. Right. simple framework for thinking about cultural intelligence. cross-cultural setting. Those were the basis for Daniel Goldman's concept of emotional intelligence. And boy. different blends of these intelligences. per se.kinds of intelligences that have been used to solve different kinds of problems. Now emotional intelligence is good. not the IQ. Now. That's an old one right? So Howard Gardner had proposed that originally in the 1980s and he had proposed initially eight distinct sets of intelligences and I'll get that people have different mixes. So it's the cultural intelligence. In an intercultural. very popular in leadership circles. right. if you operate in a multi-cultural. And they are one of those scholars that are actually interested in bringing together . So that's what we call the EQ. Christopher Earley and Elaine Mosakowski gave a really nice. it's not just emotional intelligence. And that might lead you to actually misinterpret emotional cues. you guessed it. if those understandings are culturally contingent. cultural intelligence. right? I'm not gonna argue with that. what you need then. But what international leadership scholars have argued is that emotional intelligence. if our understanding of our own emotions and others. they are the intrapersonal and the interpersonal. is not enough if you are international leader. So ultimately. cross-cultural context. Because you might be very emotionally competent. And two those dimensions that he identified. then you might understand emotions in your own cultural context but not necessarily emotional dynamics in another cultural context. but if our emotions are also embedded in the culture that we are a part of. that allows you to be effective when you're dealing with emotions and with relational issues. which has become very.

or China. So if my self-knowledge. then that understanding. business partners in many different countries. but also your specific knowledge of particular artifacts and concepts from the particular . my cultural self-knowledge is that I am a cosmopolitan. really catchy. the roles that we have in organizations. that will be the filter through which I will process all my new cultural experiences doing business in Saudi Arabia. but also. So this is the basic cognitive tools and processes that you employ to make sense of culture and this feeds from your. in our family. both our ethnic national kind of belonging. Their argument is that cultural intelligence basically resides in the head. my parents are German.the cultural perspective and the psychological perspective that really focus on the individual. very easy to remember. what they call a cultural self-knowledge. I was educated in Germany. so on and so forth. So it's my cultural self knowledge that influences my condition of other cultures. or Brazil. And they're the basic conceders that we have a. If my self-knowledge. And this self-knowledge acts as a filter through which we basically process our cultural experiences and that forms how we react to them. So this is our understanding of our own cultural identity. that self-knowledge. that orientation. right. in the heart. that I have lived and worked in many different countries and I have friends in different countries. and that mindset. I'm German. my attitude towards and my motivation to engage with other cultures and also my ability to actually interact in another culture. right. I have German business partners. And those are the three elements of Christopher and Elaine's framework and I think it's really nice. So the head is all about thinking. my cultural self-knowledge is that. that will inform how I process new cultural experiences and how I respond to them as well. and in the body.understanding of general differences of commonalities across culture. in our community.

For me it's really a matter of attitude right. right? We have this initial high of euphoria and then a deep valley of frustration and despair and homesickness. So this is a generalized learning ability. any culture really. Many of you have seen these culture clash curves. that's why keeps you trying. right? So this is still about you cramming facts about culture in your head. right. stronger head. if you will. So you could. This is about energizing your actions ultimately and this describes your confidence and your motivation to actually engage with other cultures. So do you approach another culture . The heart is energizing your body. And that would mean kind of. And that you are aware of the limits of your own cultural understanding and limits of cultural models. a more advanced stage. a bigger.culture that you are interacting with. A strong heart. ultimately. if you look at this symbol right here if recognize that from an American context. especially transformation leadership. cognitive tools. would actually be to develop. you're longing for your own culture. So this is the head and then we have the heart. But it's still fairly basic head work. So. for example. or if you're understanding concepts like [FOREIGN] in an Indian context and how that matters to leadership. that you could learn quickly about culture. keeps you engages with the other culture. for example. that is what gets you through that low. And it's also to a certain degree about resilience. in the model. That knowledge helps you to relate to others and to be more effective as a leader as you deal with those cultures. what you would call meta cognitive skills. for example. As you encounter new culture there is going to be some degree of misunderstanding and frustration. So those things are more advanced cognitive skills.

great attitude. To a really multicultural orientation and beyond that a trends cultural orientation but you are embracing. Now all three as we've seen depend on each other. the heart. So here we are essentially talking about skills. the heart. to be adaptive to the needs of the other culture in which you're operating. you think right about the culture. And I think that's really a great. motivation skills.with an openness. right? So you really wanna think systemically how you can develop the head. I want to get a sense of how they develop their own cultural intelligence. What they told me shows me that everybody really has a slightly . That's how I think the framework helps. Okay. he's not anxious about it. being able to build relationships and resolving conflict. Now when I talk to Bocconi alumni. right? To really boost your cultural intelligence and this is ultimately what allows you to transition from a moral cultural orientation where you're basically denying or avoiding cultural differences. with a flexibility. where he said that when he encounters a new culture. he's just curious. and the body is all about your ability to act and interact effectively in another culture. You're not gonna be very effective. So yeah. You can't be effective. That's a great heart. you're adapting to cultural differences and then trans cultural. And clearly you might have a great head. Carlos Ghosn had this great statement in one of the interviews that he gave. willingness to adapt where you see the necessity. and the body. communication skills. but if you're body is weak you can't really execute as a leader in another culture. You're transcending those differences. right? If you have great communication skills but you don't have cultural knowledge or the motivation to actually direct those skills. it's not a coincidence that we're talking a exactly about those skill sets later on in the course. their CQ. you have a big heart. and then we have the body. so we had the head.

I didn't speak a word of English. whatever. Look I don't know. but I was born prepared. >> I'm gonna crack a joke here. it can be in any other fields. hour of media. very strong desire of knowing different places and different people. When I was 10. how you prepare in theory. So I had my first impact with a different culture when I was ten. So I think to have the courage . and I always had this desire. I've been extremely curious. So I think there is a level of curiosity which depends on each of us. >> Honestly. At 14. my father was expatriated to the United States. When I finished University I had no idea what I was gonna do in terms of business function. The impact with the American culture which I had four years ago was very different. A classic example. my father was expatriated to France. In sense of curiosity. unfortunately 40 years ago. And to some extent that prepared me for my adventures later in life. if I decided to go to bed but I switch on the Discovery Channel going out. and that was. An hours in Italy. it means you see things. Everybody finds their own way of developing their cultural intelligence. Now they're getting closer obviously. [LAUGH] I'll be a bit more specific. I didn't have any theory or idea honestly but what I did want to is to have an experience around the world and get exposed and get lost if you wish in many situations. it can be in your professional field. And so and in France I went to the Italian Lissez in Paris. So I have my impact on cultural differences relatively young age. all my life. In the states I went to normal American public school.different path to that. that's a bad thing because I'm gonna be stuck in front of the television for next couple of hours. in a sense that I had.

of simply not knowing It's what puts you in the condition
to better understand. I believe leadership is all about
being yourself, being honest, open about your weaknesses. If you cannot open
your weakness
to the people around you it's gonna be very difficult for
people to trust you. It's just a matter of authenticity. I wouldn't stick around
that I don't feel is authentic. That works with all culture overall. I would say that
difference is there how,
I mean, I was in China many years. I was in Latin America many years. And you
may argue that people
are completely different or you may argue people
are amazingly similar. The package is different. I would say the how and
the when is different. That you know initial cultural conflict
is not something that you know is specifically appreciated and if you
actually get upset it's seen as a sign of weakness in certain cultures
where control is so important. So to me it's very important that first
of all you, when you look around and you have to operate in a position,
first of all you have to listen. Which is not something that this
Italian works that well with me, but I'm still learning. But normally when we hear
a question,
it's all about us answering. And actually the big effort should be to
understand the why the question is asked. That's the big difference because
in some situations when you have cultural differences
the why is very important. So that you relate to the person and
you can give. The person an answer while you're
learning in the mean time. >> Look the biggest challenge when
you move from place to place but you remain in a relatively homogeneous
cultural context which you were based. Which my perspective now having
now been an agent having seen the real difference it's really to,

that's the biggest challenge when you move at any level
is to know what you don't know. It's so easy to make
assumptions as to similarities. It's a lot more difficult to know what you
don't know, which are the differences. Differences in systems and
models and cultures, to some extent. Again. Difference in consumers and
as you deal with customers, depending on which business you enter. And to know
what you don't
know is really the trick. And to be very inquisitive, never to give anything for
granted or for similar. Because we do it one way in a particular
country or geography, it doesn't necessarily mean that even if the country
next door does it exactly the same. Again I found out that what I thought
were big differences between Italy, Switzerland, Spain, France,
and Portugal were actually not that big when I came in Asia which is of
course very, very different from Europe. But also, within itself,
very very diverse. My responsibility ranged from Pakistan,
to China, to Japan, to Australia. And I'd be hard pressed to find
similarities between Pakistanis and Japanese, from a cultural,
religious tradition point of view. So that's when you appreciate
how different the world is and you appreciate how little you know
about it and that's where your exercising and questioning comes in handy. Cuz
then you really have to
you really have to understand to get to know what you don't know and you
have to encourage people to let you know, and this is very important full
part that your about to make. You have to up front if you're
going to make them because of the cultural traditions and
so forth systems and consumer customers I think they
very often very different. You have to acknowledge that
you'll make some missteps but you have to do is encourage the people
around you to be open and tell you stop, boss that's the wrong direction

because and then you learn stuff. That's part of the necessary open
mindedness that one has to have, I believe. That's my personal opinion. >> I
mean I just to give you an idea. I moved from Latin America to China. >> Yeah.
>> Now that's kind of
a little bit extreme. I was used to a management committee
in Latin America where if you had a discussion, you had to come and
stop people because it was. I don't wanna say it was a fist fight. But I mean it was
that people didn't
need encouragement to express their own opinion. >> I can see that. >> So I
was used to people really
getting back into my face. Telling me simply, look,
I think that's good, or that's bad, you know, those are the reasons. And the
beginning was over, and that's it. Now, in China, when I arrived. And I was asking
questions. The answer was never a yes or no. Was always we'll see type
of thing you know because nobody really knew and
nobody wanted to lose face at the end. Chinese is very important
concept about not losing face saying someday that maybe I would have
decided that we were not going to do it. So the way I managed things
was really have a number of face-to-face meetings
to clear up things. And the meeting let's say
when it was all people, was at the beginning more together
alignment more than discussing it. >> Uh-huh. >> Now eventually you want to
a culture where disagreeing is fine. By next time. And we eventually actually got
there. But, I mean, is the level of the feedback. I had, when I was in China,
I was a very interesting thing. Cuz we had a joint venture at that point
in time when I was [INAUDIBLE] Johnson. There was a part of the company that
owned by the state owned enterprise. And the representative was
a member of the Communist party that I had in
the management committee. And was a very wise person by the way and
one day the guy looked at me and we were discussing a topic,

remember. You should look what is not written. one. it's very hierarchical. So the missteps and the mistakes. And I immediately apologize for any cultural mistake I was going to make or anything that I might have said that will be offensive to the culture and I promised that I would take in some advice from everybody to avoid that. those are examples where I had to kinda do a reset of my Italian temperament and slow down a little bit. other than being 12 years older. I made myself very available. Indonesia. Given that the Asian culture is very. we tend to [SOUND] you know? Okay. every market that I visited for the first time of course I made my little introduction of myself or yesterday who I was. and making yourself available to that actually gets people to open to you and really help you. of course. I'm not the same man I was 12 years ago.and he told me. two. but a lot of personal enrichment. in knowing people. you're not gonna get a lot of feedback. In the need of that is that I found important in a number of ways. as Westerners. Thailand. professionally and also. >> [LAUGH] >> With everyone. in some markets more than others. I think. So. personally. And I think again. I have friends of many nationalities and I call them friends and not just professional friends from Pakistan to Canada to Great Britain to Korea to Australia. I think I've acquired not just professional experience. You try to understand the conflicts. especially not initially. Through their help you grow in you avoid those mistakes. you shouldn't look at what is written. Preparing for . I've learned a great deal. you know Luca. personally. let's go and that doesn't work in all culture. three. you're trying to know what you don't know. again. It's really very enriching personally. If you don't make yourself really open and really available and you should leave examples and actions.

in some cases. And you have to make sure that while . For you as a leader to run the business properly but also to be a good leader for all the countries that I happen to manage. >> You have to be true to yourself and true to somewhat the culture of the company that you live in. you have a lot of similarity. >> My point of view. and at the same time. but having survived 12 years. impose your company values and culture. So you have to find that light balance between accepting the culture where you're going to operate. They call it. for Italians. across culture. where you have to go for the one to one type of relationship. Everybody wants to feel respected. which religion you follow. At the same time. How is different? So that our situation. impose what you wanna do. Now whether I'm a good leader or not that's for them to say but I try really hard. push gently to impose yourself. I'm not sure I've mastered that art. So. A company culture is not. It's about getting better professionally. It's the connection part. it's pretty much through for Latinos. It's not about what you do at home. You operate in their country. you have to show how. or the connection with people. if I have to say. has an enriching layer on top of the local culture. it's the same thing. for Chinese. you have to be more careful in a public situation or where you have different signals around the table. So that's I think a lot of commonality and I found a lot of commonality between the Italian and the Chinese for example. everybody wants to be successful. I would say the situational understanding is very critical. it's about business. the relationship part. everybody wants to stick around people they like to work with. by overlaying and not substituting a company culture. you operate in their culture.conflicts is also extremely important.

the heart. impose directions. But they are a starting point. and our emotions in many ways often very subtly and almost unnoticeably. and seen how practitioners actually go about navigating and making sense of cultures in a real practical sense. The overlay on it. We have seen that it is pretty complex and pretty powerful. To make this complex beast of culture more manageable I proposed three relatively simple frameworks to you. but they are not perfect. We have seen that it influences our behavior. We have talked about cultural intelligence. every time. and in the body. but it's on as a substrate over their belief. from the artifact level to the values and the hidden assumptions. and therefore you have to. a leader has to do that. It's creating better professionally. You have to show the way you have to lead. That's your goal. about the danger of over generalizing from these cultural dimension models because human behavior is more complex than simple dichotomies. and we have talked about this model for cultural intelligence suggests that it resides in the head. It's just a set of behaviors and values that we share when we come into the office. As you deal with multicultural teams or in a multicultural settings they also help you to identify areas that you want to focus on as you develop your intercultural . At the end of the day. We have talked. And you are deciding that direction you are leading the way. That part is much more important to them than your. In this part of the course we have taken a good close look at culture. We talked about the culture onion with its three layers that allows you to appreciate the depth of culture. That's how I would like you to regard those frameworks: as a starting point not as an end point. Those are good tools to have. not sometimes. You have to do it in a way that it's clear to people that it's creating better people. our cognition. The deep rooted culture. Their deeper rooted culture. the culture of the company. that you want to be careful about as you operate in foreign cultures. for example. We have talked about the cultural dimensions models like Hofstede's conceptualization or Trompenaars and GLOBE. Lot of ink has been spent on leadership. you are doing what a leader should be doing.respecting the culture at the local level. no tool ever is. sometimes. and your personality. you are providing for resources. They are not a solution but they can be a guide to focus your attention on the issues that really matter. We have seen that we can try to analyze it in different ways and we have discussed different ways to do that.

The communication competence is one of the key competencies that you can develop as a leader. and embracing it. Now one of those first steps in that direction of getting people to embrace diversity. and hopefully help you also appreciate the uniqueness that you encounter in a particular culture. That's really important. also then. To embrace that diversity. between local and global. That's why it is our next topic. This adaptation is one of the key mechanisms by which you actually help support your followers in a foreign culture as you're dealing with multi-cultural teams. You will get an appreciation of what they expect of you as a leader and how they evaluate what you do as a leader. Your actions help others to. If you will. Most of the tools and frameworks that we have discussed this week clearly point towards the local differences. for you to adapt your practice. and that's the step towards a global transcultural orientation. . Try to see things form the perspective of others so try to overcome your ethnocentric bias. And contribute those towards the organization. This is all about recognizing diversity. About the tensions that always exist for international leaders. and between supporting and challenging. You want to help others develop transcultural orientation so that they recognize the value in the diversity that exists. and/or body related competencies for example. That they can overcome barriers. so to speak. But it's a tall order to get people to move beyond those habitual ways. that you face. ultimately and that is the basis. Something that we are also subject to to some degree. Because through open respectful honest communication that's how we discover differences. It's a challenge that you absolutely want to pose to your followers as an international leader. To challenge them to step beyond their cultural and habitual ways of thinking and doing and to embrace a more global perspective A global way of working together. No it's having a very clear conversation about what those differences are and embracing that cultural diversity that realistically exists in the world Transculturalism can mean that it's in your own head that you yourself transcend cultural boundaries. And this adaptation is something that we have seen that the practitioners really stress is very important. to work on those barriers. Transculturalism doesn't mean that we're ignoring cultural differences that exists. for example. To embrace this transcultural. is communication. This is one of the most important ways in which international leaders challenge their followers. That's how we also discover synergies and discover how we can collaborate together. You want to go beyond adaptation.competency: like head. That's the big challenge. that's how you might make them more effective might make their lives a little easier. I also want to connect this discussion about culture to the orienting frame that we introduced at the very beginning of the course. That last part is the important one right. trying to take a step towards them adapt your behavior to what the expectations are. transnational orientation. You want to go one step further than that. One of the takeaways from this discussion about culture is that empathy is absolutely critical. That's how you can support them. It is not about suppressing differences or suppressing cultural stereotypes that you might have. heart. if you see things from the perspective of your followers. That allows them to to have the confidence to build on their unique local mindset and skill sets. It's very easy to say for me now. from their cultural vantage point.

In this section you will find the full list of links mentioned in the video lectures. Sometimes we say. Managing Cultural Differences . Great Leaders Who Make the Mix Work . Something simple. Center for Creative Leadership . Yes. Robert Moran 2. and he says. there's someone. “How are you?” How would you respond to that? He says. Daniel Goleman Introduces Emotional Intelligence ADDITIONAL READINGS 1.A New Era for Global Leadership Development . High/Low Context by Prof. “Yeah. I mean you are disclosing quite a bit of information that you don't want to say anything. there was a fun piece in New York Times.Culture researchers Fons Trompenaars and Charles HampdenTurner's practical advice for dealing with intercultural differences in multinational mergers. They would say.Based on interviews with 24 CEOs from around the globe. Which if you think about. “How do you do?” No reply that contains any content at all. right. You turn around and see your boss. The survivor's guide to cross cultural differences . Mm-hm. Fons Trompenaars on 7 Cultural Dimensions 3. 4. When I was in Britain I experienced and even shorter more efficient ritual. Is that something that . The Dilemma Doctors . walking towards you. How are you? Fine. Something short and simple. “I’m outstanding!” the expectation would veer more towards negative. the expectation would veer more towards negative. there seems to be a a strong tendency more towards the negative. if someone asks you. I mean you are disclosing quite a bit of information that you don't want to say anything. 5. just a question back. I thought that was nice.This CCL summary outlines the research approach and findings of the GLOBE study. In a British context. Yes Nice and light and positive Exactly. In an American context that would be exactly what's happening. “How are you?” Fine. maybe it's not that different. That if you are asked “How you are?” rather than proclaim your happiness. In Russia though.An excellent video summary of the Hofstede's framework of intercultural differences. That's the American mode Keep it nice and light and positive.Summary of the GLOBE study . and portrays what leaders can do to foster diversity and inclusion. 3. “How are you?” we say. Bill George . approaching. 2. plus some additional readings on the topic of this week. “Yeah” is not an answer to “How are you?” but sometimes we say that. how are you?” Which if you think about. “How do you do?” I quite like that because it kind of keeps both sides honest nobody is making any false declarations of positive feelings that might not exist. okay. You hear behind you. the article depicts the creation of inclusive company cultures as a journey with many steps. Dr. It is communicative.This article provides a practical overview of global/intercultural leadership development practices of leading companies. LECTURES LINKS 1.

There are multiple ways to deal with that. If we had different channels. Yeah. “Yes. how am I doing. We exchange information. we do what? We exchange information. Clearly there is a higher value and honesty in the reply than there might be in a more ritualistic American version. that can lead to misunderstandings. try to coordinate what they're doing. Yeah. that can lead to tensions. some of the misunderstandings could be more pronounced. In an intercultural setting that is the non-trivial issue because you might not understand the context very well. if you're leading a team . I try to encode that in what I say and I send that along to you. it sucks. Ho do you deal with that kind of question in a Russian context when you don't speak the great Russian? How do you communicate your anguish and anxiety without. *sigh* *sigh* *sigh* That could also work. What could happen is that. And you have to express that. One that I like for the Russian or maybe its a more general eastern European thing. the tendency toward the negative. and I can move on with my life.squares with your experience? I can talk about Hungary and Serbia not Russia but I think it's quite similar that. I’m well. usually you're saying something a little a more negative than positive. There are many theories. that's how you express your Russianness.” The same works across cultures to some degree. that stands in your way to be effective in those contexts as a leader. and I think. I noticed that people just don't care. speaking eloquent Russian to describe your misery? You don’t. They have this unquenchable thirst for suffering and so on and so forth. when somebody asks you about that. it turns up in your head. Some of the deeper meaning of the information or the words that people exchange might elude you and. said that that's the nature of the Russian soul. that's the basic model that people have. you try to decode what I'm saying and then. I'm not too happy. on how you could explain why different cultures go one way or the other. Understanding the meaning of a phrase or even something as simple as a greeting always relies on your understanding of social convention and cultural context. it's raining. such as leadership communication is a fascinating topic. Why is that so critical? Well when you talk to people. Whether you. There are many theories. and people use that all the time. try to align people. When we communicate. In this case. I have this beautiful thought in my head. In whatever you do as a leader. There’s a lot that you can say with just a sound. When you want to build or establish relationships it’s the same thing. and when I actually want to give an honest reply. and that's something of course. if we were communicating through email or through a telephone. who is supposed to have. there might be more disruptions and more difficulty actually understanding things. hopefully somewhat intact. when nothing very happy happened to you. “meh. you rely on communication. as you would in an American context. you're implying with the negative tale. Let's look at what happens when we communicate. you need to articulate very clearly and precisely what it is that you want people to do? If you try to motivate people. if you were in a leadership position. right. In the piece in the New York Times.” “How are you? How are you doing?” “Meh. they just want me to say I'm fine. Well you actually had a good example earlier. But here. you also need to be very careful on how you phrase that so that you convey the right message. We have a kind of particular channel in which that communication happens: Face-to-face. there's relatively little noise. almost instinctively if. even if you spent quite a number of years embedded in that culture. when they ask us “How are we doing?” We give an honest reply. when they ask me in English. the theory that was suggested is actually going back to Dostoevsky.” I mean. You want to be very careful in your choice of words. Or a long pause then a big sigh. try to articulate goals. I have an idea in my head that I want to articulate.

the first concern. or profitability and things like that. What are you? You're putting yourself too high. It's more. But I promise that we can jump start this organization. and whatever you're working for is clearly not going to matter for the things that are important to us. You go there and talk to people. I talked about values here. If people hear that. to help it. they’re not my main concern. So there's a great scene in Lost in Translation. In an intercultural context. especially because I think Green Peace a non-profit organization. in terms of conceptual terms. so everything has to go through the translator and the translator translates the three- . That's a relationship problem. Where people interpret. having a bigger market share. And you make this speech. And everyone. I know that our top line and bottom line performance is not in line with our projections. all of what you're trying to say here also applies to Green Peace. individually. Bill Murray doesn't speak any Japanese. That could be. they draw the conclusions you're not one of us. The first question is. who will contribute to it will be rewarded. I'm just saying hey. you immediately lose a lot of the support. and it's very fundamental is. I think this what we should be doing. You talk to your co-workers. And when you want to motivate people.for example. more an idealistic thing. He does this three-minute speech and. But it's the wrong language for those concerns. Do you think that's the appropriate language for Green Peace? No probably not. Exactly. a lot of these things become more complicated. Dear associates. Imagine you have your first job at Green Peace. the competition and penetrating the market. It's your first non-profit job and it’s your first day at the job. “Are you going to work for us?” “Are you going to make things better for us?” Those are the basic assumptions people have when they face their leaders. like efficiency and agility. Green Peace? Are you the Manager position. er… I don't understand. I doubt that's what most people look for when they join a non-profit. “what is this?” I'm not saying that I'm actually leading you. You don't understand what we care about. Yeah. We will penetrate our markets more efficiently. values. basic questions about who you are. They have to do well they have to reach for their stakeholders and kind of make a difference in the areas that are there. Clearly even through a simple communicative act. But proficiency. but in the end. They will immediately ask themselves. that's how it could be interpreted. True. Maybe you're just a team member. What do you think. tone to establish the right kind of relationship is also trickier. you come in and maybe have a little speech prepared. the decoding becomes more complicated. Dear associates. Bill Murray is doing this whiskey commercial and the director is giving all these instructions of how he should behave in the whiskey commercial. my basic idea is probably to change the world. use the wrong words. the Sofia Coppola movie. if you use the wrong language. is concerned about some basic main ideas. And. But. striking the right. That we care about. Yes. exactly. that you believe in what you do. The coding. For me. I think these are the ones you stress because these are the ones that are common in all of you. I think from a company's point of view of course they’re important. So when you. And to make the company profitable. that will allow us to leap frog the competition. “Is the person like me?” “Are they one of us?” essentially “Do you understand us?” is the second question “Do you understand what we need?” and the third question often is.

everybody understands. And if that feedback . It's easy to detect that. hence the title. That is not just a problem in communicating in a foreign language that you have very little command of.” That is not very helpful. You try to get feedback from the people that you have communicated to.. What we see from that example is two kinds of problems. that yeah. Yeah. So if you encounter those communication problems. Clearly that feedback process. Well I would start maybe using my hands as well. One of the things. I see that there is a kind of communication barrier and culture barrier just based on the generational membership. it comes back to you. That's a lexical or vocabulary problem. One is really just a basic language problem. Okay. because except for you. Which are content checking questions. Whatever meaning we attach to words might not be exactly as originally intended. The second is actually a semantic problem. you understand what words are being enunciated. you're looking for feedback. but you don't fully understand the meaning. or the semantic problem of not understanding the meaning. again. So again. . you try to decode it again. So you provide even more context to what you're saying. Everybody speaks English. But what it might give you is a sense of what is the. I experience that when I teach undergrads. we could come from different sub-cultures or co-cultures as people call them now. because you recognize that there is a breakdown of communication. What arrived there. That's a lot harder That's a lot harder to actually detect. That's the easiest way to get a sense of what actually arrived after this process of encoding and decoding at the other end. That's not the case of course. But what it might give you is a sense of what is the. our understanding of English is imperfect. they try to re-encode it. what did I understand. Mm-hm. You don't understand the words. decoding by the translator.In which I'm talking about. Maybe you’d give some context to what you're saying with your hands. that I use when I teach English to my students. basis of understanding of the person that you've talked to. the assumption could be well everybody understands English. Yeah. Yes. No problem. look in the camera and speak with intensity. All of miscommunication problems fall by the wayside. Exactly. it's also. That just have different intonations and different meanings given to particular words that change over generations. if you all kind of agree on a lingua franca. they're called CCQs.minute speech into. okay.. If that feedback process comes back. If you all speak in English. Not as universal as you might think though. The universal language. If you're talking to somebody else Mm-hm. And you explain a concept or anything which can be applied to any kind of leading position and then you start checking with questions that don't repeat what you said but tackle it from different angle. either the lexical problems with not understanding the vocabulary. “please. Because everybody assumes the message has been passed on effectively. It's not just a matter of as originally intended. people have to think. Well I would start maybe using my hands as well. If you understand the words but you don't understand the meaning you might make different inferences from your own cultural vantage point. You might draw some conclusions of where the discrepancies might come from either by vocabulary or by mismatches of meaning. re-encoding into English to Bill Murray and all that gets lost there in translation. And you suspect that there might be communication barriers what would you do? Mm-hm. Then with my intonation I would try to maybe make him understand the mood or the context in what I'm talking. chances are you can detect errors. So that can be a problem. How do you know whether that was successful? Maybe ask some questions and see how they react? Exactly. We have a double coding. The first problem: not understanding the words at all is actually an easier communication problem. You attach different meaning to what's being said. you get a sense of this field of experience of this person that you're talking to.

“I don't get that. What would the rational decision-making process look like in your mind? How do people go through making rational decisions? You have to focus on the objective you have to achieve. What kind of information would that be? It could be new ideas for instance or the launching of a new product or to improve the process within the organization. that I would. should undertake in order to communicate with other people. There's just not the social convention for that open communication. and who is involved in this what is the problem exactly that we're trying to solve with the decision that we're trying to make. To test ideas perhaps. What do you do then to actually make a decision? Probably I would take into account all the information provided by the staff and the resources within the corporation. How they share unique information. you also want to get ideas about. Some of the social functions of communication are to share or discover new ideas. You have to take decisions all the time in a commercial context. Sure. So they. To try and integrate or refine knowledge and to persuade others. What are the solutions The alternative solutions. collaborative meaning making. so you want to surface that and. In other cultures it would be an absolute no-no. All right. so organizations have to take decisions all the time. The questions could be. what can they share? So once you understand that's your context. different ways in how they do this. It's always good to know what you're trying to achieve in the first place. How they try to integrate that. And I want to talk about these patterns a little bit and I want to do it in the context of decision making because that's clearly one of the priority areas for leaders is decision making. but that's the way you want to go to have that dialogue to get a sense of what actually arrived. an American would say well. Then try to understand which people are you working with? so which kind of decision making process you. Let’s talk about the decision making process. “should we grow into a new market. We have to understand a little bit more about. People might have different ideas of what solutions could be. Where you can make small adjustments from either side of what things mean and jointly construct the meaning out of that dialogue. not just the solutions. You say something to me. should we launch a new product? What kind of innovation. then actually you would get to a point where you really have an interaction in the communication you have a dialog if you will. That's what a kind of traditional rational . If the dialogue is sufficiently open and you get a lot of information. In some cultures getting feedback is very easy. and there's a process that might be applied to that. get to a point where you actually jointly make meaning. to meaning making. Try to evaluate. Yup. how we actually share information? How we process information communicatively? We'll talk about that in the next segment. the problems and solutions. I'd like you to give me short feedback. you want to understand. what kind of knowledge is important for us to be relevant in the future as an organization?” Decision-making is something that happens every day in organizations. question your authority or lose face by conveying that I didn't understand. Once you understand your objectives. so stakeholders how are they involved. but also the problems.doesn't come just once. what I said and can we find a way to bring maybe the discrepancies of meaning together? To get full advantage of that feedback and to get to the point of drawing. It’s not that easy though. but actually it comes more often. The problems. That is usually the point where you want to get to in intercultural communication setting. can you say that again?” “Can you explain that little bit better?” So I almost put the burden on you. so getting feedback can be tricky in some circumstances. Different cultures have different patterns.

process looks like. You have to make sure that people actually bring in the information that you need. That it makes a contribution That is not redundant. or the better way to read that information That's the challenge. it's too much information. your natural culture. So you've heard of this example right? That Inuit have have 15 different words for snow because that's what they experience all the time. Here it's also a matter of equivocality. So there are two parts of the process: One is sharing information. there is no word for understatement. as a group. critically reexamine it. what meaning do I attach to it? They basically try to share that. That accessibility is important so that others get. That's one thing that you want to encourage. You want that uniqueness. The second step is then to actually. In German. And you try to deliberate what is the right way to read. dealing with uncertainty. then ultimately. So in some cases it's a matter of vocabulary. Equivocality is the opposite right. as they make decisions. The starting point is sharing information. That's one of your responsibilities as a leader. What is important for me? How do I see the world. Now that we have that on the table so to speak. surfacing information. State uncertainty. All right. Now do they have to make all the decisions by themselves? Of course not. That they process it in a way that is helpful to actually make the decision. process that information. And that uniqueness in an intercultural context is really valuable Because People literally see things. That's the thing. what do you mean by that? What I took away from this report is the following… I interpreted these numbers the following way… To share and shed light on on what your perception process is The information that you want people to share. Okay. Or have the group make a decision. Whatever your position is. you know in understatement . find some kind of closure in the process. dealing with equivocality and that's something that leaders have to deal with right. is that you have to shepherd of the process. It's just snowing. too much conflicting information of what really is the case. what do we make of it? How do we look at it? How do we make sense of it? Let's start with the first step. That is if you like the defining characteristic every leader has to deal with that level of uncertainty. to actually encourage others to share their unique pieces of information in an accessible way. That's something I want to talk about with you. That’s the first step. depending on their culture. as a team. Tt's a problem of having too little information. In some cases actually it’s extremely restrictive what your culture does to you. for example. how does this work in an intercultural context. How does it impact what we're doing? How. if you share something. how you see things. And actually make the decision. in a unique way. They can really differentiate and see the little differences there. Others don't have that so they don't see the difference. Every step that characterizes that process is uncertainty. Uncertainty is you don't know the likelihood of something to happen in the future. What are the right responses? What are the right solutions for a given setting. what does the world look like? Effect uncertainty. The leader doesn't have to make all those decisions but the responsibility of you in a leadership position. whatever influence that is. It is. You could think of this as basically a conversation that every person of your team has with themselves. Some people even go a step further and say it's actually not just a problem of uncertainty. your professional culture. Of course not. And they involve others in that uncertainty reduction equivocality reduction process. you want that to be unique. that shapes how you see the world. because they won't have all the pieces of information so they always involved others. do we need to adjust then? That's kind of the response uncertainty. your generational culture.

right?” This is trivial to some degree what I'm saying. That can be a problem. this is obvious. If you have a new piece of information that nobody else has maybe that makes you look weird. In an intercultural context that's even subtlety trying to communicate something rather than directly. In a high context culture. and that clearly creates boundaries for others who really need to understand where you're coming from. That's the problem that you often have to manage is to still encourage people despite those barriers despite those concerns to share the unique information that they have. So you think that other cultures think exactly like your culture. You need to encourage people to share their unique views. You want those differences to come out. You want to encourage people to bring that out. So in that sense culture really shapes in a very strong way often what you see. Maybe you think that what you don't see is very important. You think that there is a subconscious parochialism. Maybe you're focused on something that others think is not important so you look weird. let's put all our cards on the table. But when they share information. from what is being communicated verbally or in writing. Because you think. and what you need to create essentially is a safe and encouraging environment. those are terms that I'm sure you've heard about. That you focus on something that nobody else has on their map. One distinction that people make is between high context and low context. The meaning of what is being . it might not lead to people actually sharing anything. or may get you into conflict. You might not make a big attempt of actually explaining what you are trying to communicate. You might get into a conflict over why you focus on this and not the other thing. That might make you look stupid. Germans don't believe in that but they don't they don't even have something that they could reject as a concept in the first place. there might be some reasons why what they share is actually not very helpful to the group. you make the assumption that whatever you say is easy to interpret by others. Maybe they're sharing too little and. Now one of the things that you want to consider as you have your opening. The idea here is that. so you feel like if you don't articulate that you look stupid you don’t even make the attempt. but there is the language barrier as well for what you're trying to encode and what others are decoding might really distort the message. on the other hand. Just saying. There’s the concern that you're being judged and all that. subconsciously. There are a number of reasons why people might not share the information that they have. so the idea is that in low context cultures. weird. Wy is that so tricky sometimes? Why is it difficult for people to share the unique information that they have? Generally speaking we don't like to look stupid or weird or get into conflict. There's no word for that. So you'd rather not say anything. you basically get the meaning of what is being said from what is actually being said. You're not only judged on the merits of what you're articulating. There's no translation. the problem is that. one problem that often happens in intercultural groups is what's called projected similarity. You might forget something because you have a particular view on the world. trying to encourage others to share information is the fundamental differences in how communication occurs in different cultures. Clearly. That is what the sender really tries to express. so they couldn't see that happening. “Hey. When you do that. and there is no concept for that either because you could say. You're trying to not build a bridge for others to actually connect with what you're saying. the way that I think is the normal way. they couldn't interpret it. Because how could anybody ever think any different way. Once you have that diversity there's something you actually have to do to leverage it. That might work in a German and American context but in other national contexts. They don't think that understatement is a thing.

But from the context. intonation. Who is attending it. He had a great saying. All those issues give clues to what is actually being meant. and novel insights. the existing relationships between people. Or the status of the person that they are saying it to. A lot of the cues might get lost. Channel choice is really important. You get that from the contextual factors. “How do to interpret this?” This is where an intercultural team can really be extremely helpful.” That’s a very Weickian statement. The idea here for this reexamination is essentially that you only have a limited range of how you interpret the information that you are given. you have your cultural background. That could be the setting in which the conversation takes place. So what happens if there's a discrepancy? What happens if a low context culture communicates with a high context culture? What likely happens is that the low context person comes across as rude and too direct. The member from the low context culture might miss a lot of the cues from the situation and not even aware that they should pay attention to that. even for low context cultures in some cases there might still be subtle misunderstandings that occur if you don't really see the other person. This becomes a lot tricker because now you are asking people to not just put it out there but to actually reexamine what they have shared as their interpretation. and to reexamine some of your preconceptions and some of your assumptions. you have your. let's talk about the information processing: the critical assessment of what was shared and How we should look at that. You need time for this. Conversely. You don't get that from the words per se. The situation. Clearly nonverbal so gesticulation. the environment.communicated comes primarily not from what is being said or what is being written. That's the information sharing part. Or if they do try to see what the context is like they might not have the tools to really interpret what all those clues mean. This carries the risk of getting a lot more personal to some degree. You need people with very different conflicting perspectives to make sense of a situation that has very . What do you do in this situation where you have different cultures? What do you do in this situation where you have different cultures? Maybe high context and low context are mixed and they are supposed to share information. field of experience that you have to interpret information from . the status of the person that is saying something. cross pollination. You're sharing that. Clearly we want to create awareness for different ways of communicating: different communication styles so people don't take high context or low context styles in the wrong way. that bring you to a satisfying point of interpretation of the data that's there. can also contribute to giving context to a message. One of the people that researched this idea of sense making in organizations is Karl Weick. A richer channel makes it easier to read and avoid misreading what the other person is saying. because other people will have very different perspectives on what you you're sharing. even if you still have equivocality you're still kind of running out of options for. Other people need to understand the different communication style. All those issues give clues to what is actually being meant. facial expressions. they're saying things out loud that otherwise would be put into much more indirect terms in the high context culture. and they're not going to do that in five minutes so you need a little patience to adjust to what is being said. It gives them a way to interpret what is being said and how it's being said in the right way. “If you want to reduce equivocality you need equivocality. high context to low context. in a more empathetic way. but even if you're not quite sure of what the right answer is. If there are at least some members of the team to which you're a leader that come from a high context communication culture then you want to use face to face so that you can get all those cues. It really increases the opportunities for alternative perspectives.

“Oh. So this convergence. you are pushing people pretty hard as you are asking them to reexamine their own preconceptions. There's more comfort there. So there is. I feel others are thinking like I do. If this mutual adaptation process happens where there are conversions in the team. and/or perspective. That’s where an intercultural team with very different cultural backgrounds can really come in handy. there's this mutual adaptation process going on. It's something that you've gotta cherish and cultivate in a team to retain some of these unique perspectives. is a virtue. Patience. Collectivist countries have a very hard time separating critique of an issue from the person that has provided that issue or that idea. I feel that what I'm saying is perfectly clear to everyone. what usually happens? What sets in? Everybody feels more comfortable to act and to behave naturally Naturally.” People make the effort try to understand each other. I do not make myself as transparent. but on the other hand. which on the one hand is great! They share more information. But also notice that over time what happens? The team becomes more aligned. this idea of we're all adapting to each other to find a middle point might actually lead to the value of diversity being lost. This diversity of perspectives that people bring in is something really to be cherished and something that needs to be protected to some degree. Clearly. Those are reasons why I really want to maintain the unique voices that you have in the group. and you become more comfortable with each other. In collectivist cultures. We're not really leveraging all the ideas that are in the group. it really kills one of the key advantages that we have with different perspectives. a number of things happen to the communication in the team. It takes time to get there. As you are examining those issues one thing to keep in mind is another key cultural distinction that we make between different national cultures. That might lead you to very different conversational paths. I don't want to disturb the peace in the group. It might take a long time. yeah…? No one is ashamed of his or her country.different conflicting perspectives. Very often that's not the case. I don't show my work as much. culture.” which is to say I might not like where the discussion is going but I'm assuming everybody else does so I’ll just keep quiet. That’s what they’re willing to do. So again. It’s probably something that you've heard before: a key idea there is that in individualist countries people basically focus on whatever has to get done to be successful. If you're in a group for a longer period of time. That’s what they’re willing to discuss. We talked about many different aspects of . What should be done together to maintain group harmony and to avoid conflict. If I feel more comfortable. you become more used to each other. Clearly that's something to keep in mind as you are asking people to reexamine some base considerations. for example. You really need to emphasize this safe environment and this idea that you are really trying to get the best possible solution. You've all experienced this. I'm not engaged as much in reinterpretation. they're more willing to engage with each other if that's the group norm. To some degree it balances this idea of getting what makes us successful and maintaining harmony in the team. more of what people call illusion of transparency. I feel that what I'm saying is perfectly clear to everyone. and that is the distinction between individualism and collectivism. The peace of the team. even a team. To some degree critique is always seen as a personal critique. There might even be a certain amount of “pluralistic ignorance. That's true. people focus on what should be done to together. on the other hand. necessarily. It becomes more convergent. We know that there's more of this projected similarity. That is one distinction to keep in mind. to not go too much one way or the other. again. That's actually one of the reasons why people start trusting each other more because they feel. and in some cases it might prove impossible to separate that out. I’m assuming everybody else does so I’ll just keep quiet.

And because of that exchange. what's going on. you could say it's dull. work through something. So if you delay judgement and if you invite this kind of participation. others will too. and appeals. If you can leverage the diverse views and diverse interpretations of reality for the decision making process you can get much better decisions. we would be missing a whole lot of what is really going on also in communication.decision making and how it is impacted by differences in intercultural communication styles. but that is what you want to enforce as a leader to some degree. But if we focus only on those elements. Let's try to put this together. give them. Clearly. We've used uncertainty about what matters. the opportunity to share information. if you give attention to diversion views. So if you think about it when we say you know let's talk about it. You establish the norms of how information is shared and processed. why that's really important for communication. neutral impersonal information. too. If you give credence. So. >> Yeah. that can really help improve decision making into a cultural context. working with factual information. we want to make progress in some sense. right. right? >> There's something to say. all of that. The way that we've talked about communication so far. we want to get to some point. we use it to help make sense of the world around us. learn something. especially in a intercultural context. it can be a rocky road. reduce equivocality. right? >> It's kind of dull. qualifiers. That's why you need a healthy communication culture and effective communication routines. And this productive notion. You want people to make the effort to. What you do as a leader goes a long way. claims. That becomes the group norm. has emphasized that help is exchanged information. we have seen that having an effective way of communicating across cultural boundaries has an enormous potential benefit to decision making. this exchange of objective. it can take time. But you're onto something because it . >> Exactly right. to process that information. This process is not always smooth though. it's not just for entertainment purposes.

right? So. And what the framework suggests is that there's four dimensions to communication. we already talked about to some degree. where you deal with language barriers. to prompt action. Somebody suggested it to me and it's been very helpful for me. So you're saying something about yourself and you communicate it with another person and you say something about what you think about them or what do you think about the relationship . exactly. but that's the information. right? So you're communicating certain pieces of information. Comes from a German psychologist called Friedemann Schulz von Thun. To make sense of these other dimensions of actually those other parts do make communication richer. And you do that to have a certain effect. Still can be misunderstood. that it can really impact yourself and the relationship that you have with others. There's a. That's what I want to focus on in this part. That's the appeal side. And two of those dimensions. fact. it's objective in many ways. Then again. the factual side. And it's those other parts that in a situation where you're dealing with other cultures. you might do that to prompt a reaction. especially in the cultural context. but they also make it more complex. >> German name for you. >> That's concrete. >> Much like concrete ones. And that's the factual dimension and the appeal dimension. is those other dimensions of communication that we haven't talked about so far. and more complicated. But there's two other dimensions. other than the fact that I want to suggest a framework. and that is the self statement and the relationship statement. >> That's a name. this is something that I have learned over many years ago.

right. So that's the idea. This is how we construct relationships. But this is what sociologists call kind of face-work in interaction. Okay. And these two things are also connected to a concept that I am sure you're familiar with. not just in Asia. wants to be ridiculed.that you have with them. potentially. and the relationship statement. that's a universal thing. that's the self statement. >> Exactly right. wants to lose respect so it's an important area. face. right? We often associate that kind of with that with Asian countries. Let's talk about an example though. increase. And that is something that happens all the time. But it's very much connected to these two dimensions of self-disclosure and relationship statement. nobody in their sane mind wants to look bad. . right? That there is a lot of attention to >> Respect to this level in the society that you're in. is something that nobody wants. so the amount of status and respect that you attribute to a person or to yourself. we might call it differently. everybody cares about that. for these four dimensions. And those two parts are what we could call kind of the social performance in the communication. losing face. Clearly. or lose. but how exactly in various cultural contents we actually do this kind of face-work that that differs. and that is the concept of face. And that's something. Again. status. It's universal. >> So. This is how we position ourselves in those relationships. social relationships. right? So we lose. or respect in interaction. So it has something to do with hierarchies in society. we constantly maintain. In all cultures we do that.

That's what Friedemann calls it. seemingly innocuous statements we have those four dimensions. I'm impatient and the integration statement. >> Yeah. So there's this kind of authority kind of thing going on there. The light turns from red to green. And clearly she might reject that to some degree. Two people sit in a car. if you will. >> You're probably not . in the first session. We have these four tongues in our mouth and they always have these dimensions and also we tried to deliberately communicate on those dimensions. which is self disclosure and relationship statement. So I give you this information because I want you to drive. one of my University course. >> Okay? Factual statement? >> The light is now green. the facts. but also might slip in. Appeal? Go.very simple situation. They stand at a cross-section. We might not intend to say something. and the relationship statement. exactly. so. >> I'm impatient. >> Okay. >> Exactly. self statement. I was told by the administration that I have to teach this course. Yeah so even in very simple. >> Green means go. >> She needs help right. and he says. >> Green means go. So what do you think is going on there? >> Self disclosure could be I don't wanna wait anymore. She's driving. that he's a better driver or that he has that authority over her to tell her what to do. but it comes off that way. the light is green. the appeal. So imagine you're in the course. But the interesting parts often are in the other two dimensions. first day of class I come in and say. So we speak with four tongues. he's sitting on the passenger seat. >> Maybe he's saying he's a better driver than here or he's helping her in this moment because he thinks that.

So if you listen to it with a factual ear. okay.that willing to teach it. The conversation would take that turn. imagine the following situation. how would you respond? >> What happened? or who won? [LAUGH] I want more details. That's some of the vagary. very excited. >> It sounds like you know this may be and you shouldn't know it because it sounds like a secret. immediately response. Putting something in to what I'm trying to transfer to you. what should I do? >> What should I do about it. it sounds like it. >> Who won who won! So you wanna know more details. >> Or maybe you're related in some way . You wanna know more facts. so that's two so how about the self disclosure. That could be the challenge. right? You would actually focus on the factual side. of communication of the encoding side. >> So what do you want from me. I come running to you. where you can listen to it with four ears. Okay. right? So. let me see what I can find. If you listen to it from an appeal ear. and I say. did you hear Mike and Jane had this huge fallout. right? So you were listening to what I'm disclosing about myself. what I can do. >> Yeah. So maybe I'm showing off that I'm having these secrets so you could interpret that. So that's your response. because you're assuming that I tell you because I want you to do something about it. right? Or you might. >> Yeah. So again in the statement you can pick up different things. what would you. I might not intend that. So decoding means that not only do we speak with four tongues. this huge argument about who is going to present the project at the convention. but we also with four ears. some of the ambiguities. how would you react? >> Why are you telling me this? >> Exactly. but I might unwittingly kind of communicate that.

And for the relationships statement. >> Which might not have been the intention right? So that's what happens. he looks at the soup and says. >> Which may or may not. right. And he. Why do you think I want to hear that gossip? Because you don't like what I'm insinuating about our relationship. right? So it can go overboard. and the only response that you give me is. Some people are so intent on hearing. >> Yeah. if you listened with that ear. You're telling me something. >> Exactly I could be affected by this. We usually think of that as a good thing. why don't you go somewhere else? So because what she heard is basically the appeal leave out that green stuff or the hidden appeal I don't like your food. >> Yeah exactly. That can drive people nuts as well.emotionally to one of the two people. a hidden appeal. what is that green stuff in my soup? So one way to react to this is to really answer the question. So you're not really listening to the fact. always. >> Or I think you just hate me now. but in the joke of course would be. honey if you don't like eating my food. How does it make you feel? What are your concerns? Are you worried? Something like that. cook something else. couple sits at the table. what would your response be? >> You have some trust in me. kind of old joke. they're usually empathetic. negatively. you could reject it. Or. okay so tell me how you really feel right? You're not really listening to the fact that I'm trying to convey. . So people that have this very intense ear for self disclosure or relationship statement. but it goes to extremes. thank you for confiding in me. they're eating soup. It can drive you nuts right? So if I give you negative criticism or critique of homework or presentation that you gave me. a hidden agenda. so your response could be a kiss. So again. And same for the appeal.

When I moved to the US. the decoding essentially. right? >> TMI >> TMI and that is the relationship issue right because you have the feeling that you're getting information that is inappropriate for the kind of relationship that you think you want to have or that you have for the person. right? And I had a similar experience. but often they are also national culture based. My name is Nakamura and you can call me Nakamura Son. China. One of the first gigs that I had there was a pan-Asian group. and I was suggesting that everyone introduce themselves on a first-name basis. unwillingly often. you know this idea of too much information. So I made the experience that as a foreigner in a culture that you don't know very often. on the relational dimension. again. you often kind of take old people's relationship ear. you're violating expectations what is an appropriate relationship in a particular context. you can call me Dave. that really rubbed them the wrong . So people from India. you know. So these tendencies to hear a particular dimension of the message can be idiosyncratic or it can be gender based. and they all introduced themselves with their last name. So you will say stop. And then we came to the Japanese colleagues. One that is characterized by a lot of trust and me suggesting that we go on first name basis. is that they were expecting a professional relationship. And that is what I violated. when I was teaching in Asia. if you like because you're violating. so people from different countries. Pakistan. introduce themselves. my name is Ding Shang.

>> Which is interesting culturally. They form these impressions really quickly. as an American we strive for. Yeah. We want to focus on the last two a little bit more. How did you judge it? What impression did you form? The first one had very little energy. You noticed a clear difference. maybe because of that subtlety sometimes people also pay less attention to them. Let's start with the self-disclosure. Hello. Because in your own culture. but there were a whole lot of things that you probably noticed not just in the way that I said hello. they say that you have a “leaky body language. People have this great word for this. they focus on the appeal and what they want to get out of conversation. >> Yeah. there's less of a contradiction between informal speech and professional respect. Maybe too much. >> Yeah. Exactly. but it's there. Let's see what impressions you form quickly. they're often a little bit more tricky. you too… Wonderful.way on the relationship dimension. This is often the first thing that the people have to judge you. Okay. I didn't say much. Exactly. and relationship statement. right? Yeah. so I'm going to try to make a first impression to you twice… Okay. so we have these four dimensions. It’s what you let them know verbally or non-verbally about yourself. >> So. the appeal side. self disclosure. subtle. it sounds like there's some kind of problem.” Uh-huh. It was very distant. But the timing of it. People have this great word for this. Second time. nice to meet you. there was a difference. the body language as well. And they rejected that. We talked last time about these four dimensions of communication: the factual side. Serj! Hey! Such a great chance to see you here. In other contexts. It displays a lot . because being on a first name basis is something. right? You noticed a clear difference. appeal. because in an intercultural context. and it's a power distance issue to some degree. It's not mutually exclusive. Mm-hm. and the second one was on the other side of the spectrum. maintaining that distance for me. We only have one time to make a first impression. They are not focused on the facts. They’re about the subtleties of the conversation. the voice. and the self-disclosure. And we know that the last two are very important for this idea of face and the social performance and I want to actually dig a little deeper as the next step on how we actually manage those two dimensions. the relationship. Hello. Factual statement. it might be. Maybe too much. but not necessarily on those subtleties. right? The relationship statement and the self disclosure. yeah.

Erving Goffman who has looked at these kinds of interactions very closely called that face work. what it is that we're currently doing here. The information about the individual helps others to define the situation. Social status. Social status. That two parties already agree on what it is. Then in the action they see whether others grant them that face. The relationship doesn’t need to be worked on anymore. The point is you can't help self disclose. so that they understand who you are and where you're coming from. Mm-hm. That's something that you want to think about. That's why I want to self disclose. essentially. conceptions of self.about you and how you feel. There's always something even if I'm not saying anything. What you disclose about yourself is. You can disclose what it is that you want. Mm-hm. So they have an orientation of maybe what your expectations are for the interaction purely based on what you want to tell them about yourself.” Saying that when an individual enters the presence of others they commonly seek to acquire information about him. but you can be deliberate about this. Others want that information. even if you’re not talking. but since the face is granted. You still do it. That's what happens naturally. Exactly. there’s no emotional response from you. attitude towards them and competence. I’m disclosing that I don't feel comfortable speaking or something like that. too close? One was too far and one was too close. it's also that you give them cues about how to behave towards you. Mmhm. trustworthiness. Too far. not just giving others something to know something about you. so personal distance. Even just not telling you my whole life story but suggesting that you're open and interested in input and learning from others can be very powerful. You're still saying something about yourself that—-. That I didn't seem engaged the first time. I know it's funny coming from a guy like me. That's the idea. You take yourself back a little bit but that already says a lot. How did you feel? I was uncomfortable with both. which is to say they want to have a particular image or a particular-. what it is that you value. you give people an orientation for what behavior might be acceptable and might be effective as they're addressing you. Right. There's always something. especially with people that you know doesn't really feel like you're doing anything. I know it's funny coming from a guy like me. because you're claiming a face that you're used to with people that know you. that still creates a certain impression on you. Mm-hm. They will be interested in general socioeconomic status. There are body language experts out there that focus only on helping people navigate how particular body language is interpreted in different cultural settings. and value attached. Every time you communicate verbally or non-verbally. He actually explained how this works very nicely in “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. You probably got a lot of this low energy that you described out of the body language. Proximity is another thing. see it as an opportunity to actually share with people something about yourself. You notice it if you try to claim more for . Also unacceptable though… Yeah. You don't even notice it. Management guru Peter Drucker once said that's one of the key responsibilities that you have as a leader is to actually let others know what you need to be effective to be a good leader for them. People claim a particular face for themselves. what it is that makes you effective as a leader and that can help others. all that. This face work in every day communication. you know. right. It enables them to know in advance what he or she will expect of them and what they may expect of him. you establish boundaries so to speak. right. It doesn't mean that you have to talk like a waterfall. You don't notice that you work on it.

“Look at that you also have a red square!” We are both red square guys. you actually want to think strategically about what it is that you're disclosing I find it helpful to think: is it depth of disclosure or breadth of disclosure that you're going for? There are uncertainties about what kind of responses I should get in an intercultural setting from self-disclosure. In your circle of friends. What meaning do people attach to things that I disclose about myself? Okay. You are laughing about this but. how do people react to a face that I'm claiming? In those contexts. Even if I get that across properly in pure language terms.” I have an emotional reaction to it. There are different standards.yourself and it gets rejected. no. If you don't have that certainty you're getting a little bit concerned. All of a sudden we notice. yeah. I notice that I try to work towards something that's rejected. it has been shown that people take the oddest things. Yeah. Mmhm. There's a limited number of faces that you show your friends. You have to feel out what is appropriate.” That's a face. There are different standards. “I’m frustrated at work. Right. So if I attach A little red square on you Okay. Which is the more mechanical side of it. it seems like-. It wasn't constructed by your culture. and there's a habitual way of interacting as you said. Sometimes. We know that people take that seriously. So women can't properly express in the language. I'll do that for me too. no. You might call that mechanical. and that they know of you and they accept. not at all. People don't know you as much. do you think there's a little variance in terms of kind of reactions to what you do? Probably not. The way that I see it is that if I'm in an intercultural setting I don't know what weaknesses are acceptable for the others or what weaknesses aren’t. Immediately we have a relationship. they want to disclose that they have some humility and that might work in your own culture and works to a certain degree in my own as well. very different. Right. not at all. Right. They know both. To some degree. surprisingly people recognize you for something that you didn't think was much and. We don't need a way to change. We don't need a way to change. from the smallest things. You don't exactly know how they will react. stress commonalities.” That's a face. Mm-hm. is to try to find things that you have in common. It can be positive. you know?” “Let's talk about that. so really expressing what you mean is problematic. But then there's also the language barrier. It's a positive emotional response. because it doesn't have the right vocabulary for them to express their experiences. Let's take an example: would you disclose weaknesses of yourself in an intercultural setting? Probably not. People often do that—-reveal weaknesses for strategic reasons. Despite those problems of meeting various language barriers one of the things that almost universally works that I always encourage people stress when they self disclose. but it's not trivial. ?Let's go out and party. In an intercultural setting though. . whereas in my culture I'm pretty comfortable with it and I know what is and is not acceptable so I would probably do it more often.” “Let's talk about that. That's why you want to pay attention to it. What should I disclose? What shouldn’t I? That's a meaning barrier that people have. it can actually expressing properly in a language that's not your own. Maybe you don't need a way to change. They want to be more relatable. Okay. there's no surprise there. others say. We’re so used to the way that we interact with each other. the minimal cue to actually establish a positive relationship. but there is there is a critical feminist communication theory called the Muted Group that makes everyone's section not bad not that mechanical because language is constructed by people and the argument they make is. “Yeeeaaah. it’s constructed by men. but it’s not universally accepted. Mm-hm. and that gives you more face than you thought you could get. That's why they are the muted group and something very similar happens if you use a different language that is not your language. If all of the sudden I want to be recognized as the world's biggest genius.

“Okay. Where positive face is wanting good social standing in whatever context you are. You even use it as an acronym—-. The second tension that also very often you find that you negotiate is openness and privacy. is latched on on. Exactly. T. Just the right amount.Any kind of common ground is latched on on. As a leader you can talk specifically and deliberately about the relationships that you would want with others. There was a 14th century important scholar in Italy Petrarca. For example. I think that's a really nice ideal to have even today. but with negative face you want a good autonomy in whatever situation you are. We've seen that relationships can emerge out of the self-disclosure that you make. Not too much. when you feel like. or relationships in a group. It's two-sided. Or by talking about the value of diversity in a group you would basically valorize those that are a little bit different but make them feel included in the group. Mm-hm. and engage them to really contribute towards the well-being of that community. I think that's a nice orientation point. It’s also something that you do more directly. that's a crime because you're wasting your capability. that there are commonalities. Exactly. right? Right. Too much information. You can create maintain and modify those relationships through what you say in a very deliberate manner. to encourage them also to reconceptualize their role as followers as active participants and active contributors. He was a scholar of the classics. we're very keen on not giving much information about any topics. How much input you want. Red dot guys. and through that cocreated society. and the autonomy. you negotiate it with others. So this idea that that communication helps shape relationships is actually a very old one.” The last one is the predictability and novelty in the relationship. It usually works as a starting point across cultures. it encourages leaders to really use language to shape the bonds that they have with followers. by deliberately stressing commonalities in a group you would highlight those commonalities as something that brings you together as a team. People participated and communicated with each other. this should be right up your alley.M. how open you are to participation and all that. Red dot guys. It’s not just you willing a particular relationship into being. you want to encourage people to contribute. There was the idea that through a particular communication culture you shape the moral character of the group and/or community. clearly you can share expectations and standards for relationships that you have with followers. status comes from affiliation.I. You don't want complete routine. One of those is actually tension between wanting to be connected and wanting to have some distance. the red dots for example. Clearly construing relationship is not a one way street. Yeah. clearly you want a little bit of independence. It's a balance between the two. Get yourself and get your thoughts out there. What you tell others about yourself gives them a chance to discover that maybe you speak the same language. you want a little bit of novelty. What is the right amount of sharing that is acceptable in a group? In the US that's something very —-. he actually revitalized and re-discovered them.I.M. that's too much. Which is similar to the concept of both positive and negative face. and never talk to anybody. we're balancing that. the dyadic relationships. T. His argument was that the greatest achievement of the Roman Empire was that they had this civic discourse. the public life was very active. You want to be fully engaged with all your capacities to contribute towards. Exactly. Petrarca said that if you only think for yourself. you also don't want to surprise people completely. write for yourself. In an intercultural context often it's a bit of a negotiation and management of dialectical tensions that that exist across cultures. so the relationship all of the sudden seems to . “You like cats? I like cats too!” Anything can help to the degree that your self-disclosure can help establish that for a common ground.

The brain is social. Gabriella. and I find that very important. The Social Brain.change. You want to negotiate what the right balance is there. There is nothing that you can learn about yourself that can be helpful. all of the sudden. That's great.” “This is easy. It's one of the main obstacles to a certain extent. This mask is basically different for every person who looks at you and you are no one other than these masks for other people. Absolutely. What it means to be clear. Right. we . It's not that clear what it means to be clear. we may talk about this later on.” Why do we even talk about this? Do you have that experience in this? Absolutely yes. And. I'm very happy that you can join us. It's just a matter of being clear. “I’ve been communicating since I was born. For me that is really one of the key reasons why you want to pay close attention to how it is that you're communicating. I often have this impression when you talk with professionals about issues of communication that there is this sense of. the more we go through experiences. My favorite example is also literary. Mm-hm. but he doesn't know anything else beyond that. To a certain extent. Yeah. dimension to establish this rich dialogue so that others benefit. it's true we’ve been communicating since then. we need communication to develop as human beings. “So. That would be a shame because that's the key value. Through the four sides of the message if you will particularly with attention to can this self-statement and the kind of the relationship Mm-hm. but it goes further. Then you don’t know what the relationship really is so that doesn’t help in building. what's the issue with it?” It's something that I have by default. We also need to communicate. Mm-hm. There is a lot of research in the neurosciences. As a weird ape. because everybody says. It comes to my mind this book by Cozolino. Mm-hm. We’ve been communicating since then. start telling salacious jokes that would a bit weird. For example you know me in a certain capacity there are certain behaviors that you would anticipate and maybe I change that a little bit there's a little bit of novelty. what those collected perceptions are. I’d say so. That's similar to an Italian author. and he only knows himself as an ape. for communication in an intercultural setting that is exactly why you want to engage with others and not draw back. Communication makes us smarter. who one of his key concepts was the concept of the mask. which basically tells us that we need interpersonal relationships. Pirandello. Tarzan is raised with complete ignorance that he is a man. that you’re engaging others.” A baby. The more we relate. But you know me as a German academic motor mouth. That's the idea. Mm-hm. The extreme view of that would be that you actually only know yourself through the interactions with others. “I can do this. Clearly followers have an impact on the relationship that a leader establishes with the bond that the leader establishes with them. leaders from many different countries. The relationship building and maintenance is a dialogue with others. Yeah. Mm-hm. And up to a certain extent. That's where you learn and where you get all the value of being in a multicultural setting from. Even if you feel a little uncertain because of the language barriers or the meaning barriers that there are you want to engage with others because that's how you get to know yourself in that context. If you don't do that you don't get anything back. you don't even know yourself beyond. the more “intelligent” we get. It needs interaction to really get out and fulfill its potential. Only later does he learns the truth. It's just a matter of being clear. they actually also have an impact on how you perceive yourself. as an ape. Right. Absolutely. you do that with managers. If I. I know that you have a lot of experience in teaching and consulting and coaching around the issues of communication. but also you personally. You lose the emancipation that you can get out of being abroad and having that contact with others. one that you know for sure: Tarzan. the more we get into relationships.

but we can really find a way to become more and more effective if we take some time to think about it. To another extent. Because we communicate since we were babies. we have a lot of resources that we can activate. you see that you develop certain communication habits over time that seem so natural to you. and it's even nice to get out your potential. to learn to do something new. Take it seriously. if people are willing to give it to you. Personality. The way that we're wired. and we interpret it in a certain way because we are set up in a certain way. Learn about some of your strengths And your limitations. in other good news. You have to find your way to communicate in an . To accept it. What this means is that you have also to accept that after a certain extent. So. first of all. the more effective you will become. and learning from what you're doing. because you really have to start from yourself. what I'm saying is you learn to be more effective in communicating. so maybe you think that there is no other way to do it. We learn quite a lot from observing other people. but actually they are so deeply ingrained in ourselves that we may even consider it something structural. It may be difficult to change sometimes. just like any other professional skill that might—-. Absolutely. Attitudes may change over time. but to the other extent working on what can make you even more effective. in other good news. Communication is a tool for work. The other piece of it is to get feedback. because it's not easy. We really have to put some effort in it. And to look for it Because really knowing how you impact on other people starting from the point that we sometimes are not really aware of how we impact other people. Think about personality. we can work with. Mm-hm. It may be difficult to change. Communication is a tool for making things happen both individually and organizationally. new experiences that push you out of your comfort zone. Certainly. Think about attitudes. you may want to develop a new set of behavioral skills that don’t necessarily start from your way of being. from your innate strengths. the more you challenge yourself with interpersonal situations. So communication. which may be hard. Mm-hm. and actually. The more you practice them. What do you do then to learn to become more effective at it? Now.communicate the way we do communicate because we are wired in a certain way. by learning through experience. well. if you have a chance to focus on people that you think are interpreting their role in a very effective way. The way that we're wired. Now. but the good news is that we can change it. Think about attitudes. Nevertheless. As we have said. If somebody tells you. So. you feel comfortable in doing so. we should work with. first of all. to become more self-aware. What we are makes up for more or less 30% of the way we communicate. the more you exercise them. Experience by itself doesn't make you learn. to engage yourself in putting yourself out of your comfort zone so that you get in situations that you have not managed until then. How do we learn to become more effective when communicating? Well. even if you're not going to get exactly their style. this is a good starting point for making yourself more effective The third resource that we can activate is role models. and if we take some time to develop our communication skills. Absolutely. we can become more effective. learn where you start from. Finding out these gaps that you may want to work on-. we have it by default. And your limitations. That can help you. So. Which means. and how do we do so? Well. again: new experiences that push you out of your comfort zone. sometimes we miss out opportunities for being more effective when communicating. Mm-hm. Mm-hm. To a certain extent leveraging on your strengths. So. you work on your strengths so you feel energetic. We have this wonderful 70% that we can work on. Mm-hm. and we have to start from being really willing to put some effort in developing a new skill. and we really have to put some thought to it. from your personality. they can make you more effective.

Mm-hm. Okay? Another issue think of the fact that people are all different. and this is also fascinating because you can discover parts of yourself that you were not really aware of. Every characteristic can have something negative. But. So. what do you think?” Absolutely. or you can even learn to interpret the role. feel. Okay. regarding the interpersonal situation. feel. Also. You see differences. because you didn't want to be harsh on the other person Okay. Nevertheless. maybe. Yeah. And. and act is probably very different from the way other people think. right? “I really want you guys to do this. you didn't want to do so. So if I were to tell you. It has to do with the way you see yourself in a relationship with other people. I don't know. Another step forward. was a little bit ambivalent. I have seen people really becoming much more effective in relating to other people. I actually learn a lot from role models. and the way you see other people contributing to your relationship and relating to yourself. So. I think. very necessary because think about how many times you wanted to be effective when communicating and you really were not. I tell you. particular communication practices. Okay? Or it could be ambivalent in content. Developing is enlarging your behavioral kit. and in communicating with other people. meaning you knowing who you are. You wanted to give a feedback. especially from people who are different from me. but you can pick some. what you want. I would come up with some elements that are actually all connected one with the other. You train yourself in seeing the . you were ambivalent about it. I think that's a great rollout metaphor for learning. What really makes a difference. When they finally accepted the fact that other people are different from how they are. and really find new ways to get into other people. and finding role models. It has to do with your mindset. So it's something very fine. Which was taking away the power of what you were saying. Do you have role models? I look for them.Interesting. I talk about it as the first one. Yeah. with the way you face interpersonal and communication situations. I look for them. Yeah. Where you need the comedian. and act. what you think. Aware of yourself You being aware of yourself. You deliberately go for the diversity see the range of. very much material. Because that's a very different kind of communication then what we do here and we're not comedians. but with a smile. On one side. okay. You get the range of tools and techniques and all that. And put them in action.You deliberately go for the diversity see the range of. maybe. also because I think it's probably the most challenging one.You deliberately go for the diversity see the range of. and the consequent. Mm-hm. It has to do with your overall attitudes. are there areas. something positive. Now. but you are able to see the positive in it. Yeah. it's something that is very deeply in yourself. Because you were communicating something that in the end. which makes you more effective in situations where you maybe need that. So the very first one. from your experience. It doesn’t have to do with things that you may learn to do. as well. the way you think. those three resources: new experiences. seeking feedback and taking it seriously and. Absolutely. in terms of behavior. So. this is be aware of yourself. more challenging. but something that can really make a difference. because. what you want to get out from the relationship That's a really tall order as a first step. Yeah. Because it doesn’t have to do with techniques. but at the same time. okay. you were speaking in a very tough way. you can get inspiration from them. I do that too actually look at comedians often. and you not only accept them. And the very first one from which you really have to start is you being.effective way. Yeah. what you want.You deliberately go for the diversity see the range of. that maybe people want to focus their attention and/or learning on? Yeah.

or even some cultures. seeing his or her characteristics and leveraging on them. structure. Let's go into an example. a dynamic balance. And we have come up with a new meaning that makes sense to us. but actually you get a lot of information that is vital for you to be able to drive. and even for learning. finding a balance between you focusing on yourself. de-structuring and structuring. We could not live without it the third best practice actually. I like that. when relating to other people you will end up. and then. we have to be very rational. very consequent. which starts from you believing that you can do so. Mm-hm.positive in the characteristics that other people have. Is there another one? I see another one that follows The first one.very structured. and that enables us to go a step forward. and to a certain extent. Again. It's a generative way of communicating. new meanings to. because yeah. That seems like a good best practice to focus learning on. if you train yourself doing this. Particularly in some professions. Mm-hm. it may sound weird in the beginning. you are forcing yourself a little bit. Do you remember when you learned to drive that the instruction was telling you look in the mirrors and your forced yourself to look in the mirrors. Best practices often come in. Mm-hm. you. which really can make a difference. openness and it needs you to be constructive. “Oh I need to think about myself. me. the power of communicating. even creative in seeing things that you have not been paying attention to until now. Seeing things that can make a difference. focusing on yourself and focusing on the other person in a very natural way. Okay? And you focusing on the other people. But-. combining them. You have to have this person to be in a relationship with you. and that enables us to go a step forward. and coming up with solutions or with opinion insights. and decentering on the other person. de-structuring and creating. Don't panic. This is a productive potential. Yeah. We are talking about the dynamic balance between centering on yourself. It needs your flexibility. again. how communication is a tool for work. finally. You have to have this person engaged with what you are discussing. Remember that before you give this to the other person through communication You have to have this person on board. Absolutely. something that is challenging. something that stimulates the curiosity. which is the pre-condition for you being effective when communicating. What I'm saying is we usually think that to be effective in communicating. I need to think about the other person. in packs of three: is there a third best practice? Absolutely yes. Because. It sounds like it can be a tricky thing. Mm-hm. Don't panic. get out very smart data. Okay. because if you constantly have to remind yourself. Presented. It's a generative way of communicating. How do you engage them? This works best guess how? By putting in the emotional part. it gets to be a habit. and you have been contaminated a little bit by me. I think of my own culture. Mm-hm. for negotiating solutions and. and to make an .” That’s very difficult to do We need to internalize that. which is now centering and de-centering what comes next is really believing that communication really seeing. for solving problems for settling conflict. and proposals that you may not have started off from. and you had these nightmares of not looking in the mirrors and you were doing this in a very artificial way. we can say that communication is effective if and only if. It's a generative way of communicating. Engaging the person by bringing in something that makes sense something that is not obvious. a positive habit that you carry out without even knowing it. in the end I have been contaminated a little bit by you. So it's really. German—. seeing the other person. is finding the right balance between emotions and rationality. Okay? So to a certain extent we are talking about a balance.

Okay? That's the tension there That's the tension there to prepare the ground emotionally for people to be willing to engage. the meta verbal. What follows next is. and whatever. and so on. to really act in a way that what we are saying can have an impact. looking around. Okay? And I can do so by realistically representing the situation. it's challenging but we can do it. Mm-hm. There is something that is not the way we would like it to be. it depends also. and then follow up rationally Okay. Create a sense of urgency. I have to start from Again emotions. Very challenging. Okay. how am I going to communicate with you in a compelling way? Well. hope. or to create an idea of yeah. we use our gestures. “I didn't think about that!” “Oh wow. And. That part of the brain which is very ancient and old. but I also want you to change some behaviors. listening. so I get you engaged because I'm kind of soliciting your reptilian brain. You are really hearing. To engage ourselves. maybe referring to something that comes out as being very critical. to engage other people. It Depends on the context. Three best practices. It depends on you. we need a lot of energy. To work on that. I didn't know about that!” Or. create a sense of hope. on the cultural context.” Especially if there's a kind of perceived threat or danger. Mm-hm. To learn how to balance. Okay. Mm-hm. which is. “Oh wow. what should I be doing? Are there a couple of things that I can do that can help me get it done the way we want to get it done? Yeah. And we have to do it now. We have to do something about it.example. Because. To a certain extent. Look at these resources that you have all around you that you are not seeing. it depends on the situation. three tensions. Okay. now I have played on the emotions. to do the problem setting thing and then to finally problem solve and get ready to act and to translate the solution into real action. but also the non-verbal. I didn't think that we have to really do something about it. until now. communication is not going to produce the results that we wanted it to produce. I have made you stay wide awake. We have to really take action. with some numbers. may I add something that's really important? One last thing. Now. I have to get you awake by doing what I said we should be doing. Because we have the verbal. in the backstage. it's that oh my god there’s-! Fight or flight. I not only want to give you some information. We are in control. Yes. not only with two to what I'm telling you. how am I going to change your behaviors. that makes you be wide awake and listen with four ears. I made you really want to do something about it. I create a sense of urgency. we can do it.’ ‘We can make it. That's that's the reptilian instinct. And now I get in with some rational arguments. Let's bring them in. Anything else we need to learn? Yeah. Then to analyze the situation. but then I follow up quite immediately by creating a sense of ‘we are in control. that you can see and activate. a very dynamic balance. Mm-hm. and then hope. but actually that we can bring in the front. Now. . I’ll go into the most challenging communication situation. because we need them. but then I also have to give you a chance for getting out of it So I have to give you. to have you move. Yeah. Communication happens quite a lot also. And unless we have this energy. Concern. so we use our voice in a certain way. There is a solution. I have to start from creating a sense of urgency. As you said it’s a dynamic balance. and to a certain extent sometimes freeze and to a certain extent sometimes freeze but be wide awake because something is going to happen. As a matter of fact. So far we have seen how much communication gets to be something that happens at the intellectual level but quite a lot also on the physical level. Yeah. I want to not only change your attitude. So. especially in the beginning on the emotional level. Maybe using a story.’ We can activate some resources that are there and that we have left. on the people you are referring to. There is a solution. Mm-hm.

travels to the headquarter. The company that employs Jack has made a manufacturing joint venture deal with a Chinese partner. There's been long negotiation of legal work. but for it. we have talked about a number of different intercultural communication problems so far. the CEO and a whole delegation of Peter Chang's colleagues. “This went perfectly all right. And he arranges for a two-day schedule.” On the next day though he learns from his translator that the Chinese partner was actually very displeased with how the first day went. please let me know. Peter Chang. Jack is the right person to talk about these technical details. so let's think about what went wrong here. and that make your audience be engaged with what you are saying. you need to have power. Again. He's the technical expert. and meets Peter Chang. And they really want to make it work. any technical issues to be aware of. He relies on a translator. very nice ideas. You work on it all night and then finally when you get to do this speech. he can talk about the nuts and bolts.communication is not going to produce the results that we wanted it to produce. It's very precise very well put together a very professional presentation that he's giving. You are totally exhausted. You are totally exhausted. He encourages any questions if there's anything that his audience doesn't understand they should ask questions. Okay. And this is my last thought concerning communication. to be effective in communicating Bring in the energy that you need. and act in a way that gets you the energy that you need. he visits the production facility of the Chinese party to see whether there are any incompatibilities. And then he launches into his presentation. At the end of the presentation he again repeats his invitation. and he's traveling to China for the first time. First day he's presenting the production system to the Chinese partner tells them all about the state-of-the-art that the American partner will contribute and the second day. that communication can be powerful. so then we ask questions. He travels to Beijing to meet the Chinese party. And there are no questions. he doesn't speak the language so he goes through translator and says at the beginning of the presentation that this is a very important deal for his company. I bet that's something that people underestimate. He's also getting very anxious that he is somewhat ruining this attempt to make the partnership work and gets angry at the translator saying why didn't you tell me yesterday. Might too actually get it done. I nailed the presentation. how they're going to deal with the operations of the joint venture. how they're going to cooperate. any open issues. Remember that you have an impact Think about you bringing in very nice data. again. Thank you. . So let's try to integrate some of these concepts and we'll do it with a critical incident with a small case. And so he happily accepts the task. you should have warned me. it's something that we take for granted. He is setting up an agenda with the chief operating officer of the Chinese partner. what were the problems. nobody asks any questions. Imagine the following situation: Jack Ryan is a young American engineer. if there's an ambiguities. They're all there in the meeting room and Jack is by himself. You know. Be aware of one very important fact. And he's very surprised by that. and direct reports. Thank you so much Gabriella. Jack thinks. And you are missing very relevant parts that really make it get to your audience. Okay. and now they're to talk about how they're actually going to make this deal work.

It's a very one way conception. That's how it could be interpreted. what that basically does is that the person asking you the question could demonstrate their own incompetence that they have to ask the question. Clearly he should've allocated a little bit more time. Let's think about what happened herein this situation. But this business of inviting questions during a presentation is very tricky in a Chinese context where there's a lot of concern about face.why was the Chinese Party displeased? We can also think about what Jack could have done differently. that's why they have to ask. to elicit any response and any constructive information to make this deal work. the whole context that he’s setting for himself is already very problematic and the chips are stacked against him. Jack Ryan is going to China for the first time. maybe a day extra. He tries to make this work and tries to get feedback from his partner by saying. So take a few minutes to reflect on this then we'll see what you what you came up with. So when you ask someone to ask questions. you absolutely have to ask the question you might actually put the presenter in a bad position if the presenter doesn't have a good reply to the question. this is how you should be implementing it. to make this deal work. He's a junior guy traveling all by himself to meet a whole delegation of fairly senior representatives of the Chinese partner. So that causes the presenter to lose face and because you. when you invite someone to ask questions. but he had no part on that. if there are any questions. if you find a point that's particularly pertinent. as the question-asker made the presenter lose face you lose face. about maintaining face and preventing the losing of face. for trust building with a partner at all. should be implementing it. He gives this presentation. please let me know. so that's the whole problem with the asking questions. The other thing about asking questions is we have the chief operating office of this company with his direct reports. this is what the US technology looks like. this is really what he sees as the objective in this trip as a information transmission this is what you should be doing. Here's the junior guy talking to senior representatives of the partner. maybe a couple of days extra before he actually gave the presentation to establish a . The boss loses face. It's a very one way conception. Okay. That is already problematic. He tries to open it up. So the questions don't really help Jack Ryan much. There's already been a lot of negotiation that his boss did with the Chinese partner. bad situation for the direct report. He's ill-prepared for that situation. Let's think about what he could have done differently. So let's talk about the presentation. They don't understand what you're saying. He also gives no time at all to actually build a relationship. that reflects badly on you. Now are the direct reports going to ask any questions in the areas of expertise? Probably not because that would make the boss look bad if the direct report spots an issue that the boss didn't spot that makes the boss look bad. That would cause the person who asked the question to lose face. He's coming into this deal very late. You would make them look incompetent. so even before he starts his presentation. If you step over that barrier. Let's think about what he could have done differently. This two-day schedule that he set himself doesn't give any room for relationship building. whether you spotted some of the problems.

and how those competencies. Rather than saying my company's very interested in making this deal work he could have said. The last point then is the self-statement. To say. ideally. That would have been a very different framing. when you say that the relationship. The presentation itself also could have been done differently. So that we can maintain the harmony in the relationship. This is not a surefire recipe for success. Now the translator that Jack Ryan was so upset that he didn't warn him earlier. There's a lot of things that can happen. help me out. but at least it's a nudge in the right direction. Okay. with the appeal side of the message. He could have tested the presentation with the translator first and give clear instruction that he wants feedback. those skills actually complement very nicely with the U. I am here to try to facilitate. one characterized by trust. Clearly that's something that Jack would have managed and said to the translator. he could have been the test audience. again. but instead as an attempt to actually learn from the Chinese partner of how to make this deal work. look this is the first time that I'm in this context. how to ensure that the productive production side. so that we have a successful partnership which is. the operation side is working smoothly. side. is going to happen. Let's think about this in terms of the four dimensions communication that we talked about. and what they know is the best way to do things. How could Jack Ryan have positioned himself in a more effective way? Coming there as the technical expert to talk down to the Chinese partners is not very effective. well trust for us means that we share information openly and that we critically discuss. not just the literal translation off anything that the partner says. These four sides of the message could have been maybe a productive start. but instead. ideally somebody more senior who can basically. what is important for the relationship is trust and harmony. very different framing and puts the relationship on a very different footing.relationship with his Chinese partners Peter Chang and. and to serve the relationship between the more senior people that have made this deal possible in the first place. And probably would have been received with more appreciation by the partner. give me signs. That already has a relationship implication as well. so that we can identify issues before they become problems. some of the direct reports.S. Now on the appeal side he could've said. to serve this deal. That's something that he could have used as a resource and support for making his trip more successful. Even better if he could've brought somebody who was already involved in negotiations with him. So the factual information that Jack Ryan could've stressed is actually not the competence of the US partner. Even the intention of the presentation could have been re-framed. How could Jack Ryan have positioned himself in a more effective way? the self-statement. stress all the competencies of the Chinese partner. With this relationship statement. give him legitimacy as the technical expert from the U. so that ties together . And that is something that would be more in line with his junior status essentially. give me feedback if you have the perception that something is going wrong. That's the situational side. that could also be coupled with a particular appeal. partner and that they're very excited that this match is. but some guidance of how it might come across. More effective would have been to put himself into a serving role. we want our relationship to be an harmonious one.S. Not as linear transmission of information.

or the program is not described in the correct way. “Listen. Myself. all my focus was in making sure that I was expressing as clearly as possible. What I've done is talked to Bocconi Alumni. shake their hands and say. I usually stand up. because in the end it does not matter if I unload all my frustrations. I fundamentally believe that once you know what the problem is. The other one is what I call extreme passion for “seeing reality. all . This is the way I am. I would describe as a couple of things: First. Communication is a way in which I get to know what the problem is in the fastest possible and most direct way. and I therefore. over time. We talk about the symptoms. after a while. In the beginning of learning to play chess. and how do I say it very clearly?” Over time.” I don't want people to tell me the coded. I’ll try to create an environment which is extremely friendly and extremely informal in which we can talk very openly. I could have asked. Even if I didn't know. I really encourage every form of communication. I wanted to learn from them. can you please help me understand what is really going on here? What is the problem? What are we missing? When people disagree. The best analogy for communication in my experience is the game of chess. what was in my mind. Most of the time it takes too long to know what is the real problem. That facilitates a communication that. 90% of the time you are going to resolve it. as fast as possible. your communication changes. you are all focused on your first move. and the third move. Let's talk about it now. I wanted to hear what they considered most important about leadership communication. As you focus less on what you are saying and more on the reaction you want to get. I find that communication is the same initially. extremely informal. We have talked about different communication models and the four dimensions of communication.” This is great because this is the kind of environment that I want to see on the business. “Well done. and think through the second move. I always start meetings by saying. and more collectivist attitude that he could have adjusted to more to make this a more productive relationship. Then. no matter if it is with a guy who just entered the company a week ago. I learned that what really matters is something completely different which is the kind of reaction I get. becomes very direct. We have got some great ideas of how to improve your communication skills and what best practices to focus on when you do so. to what is the topic that we want to discuss. We have seen the role that communication plays for problem solving and for decision making. Whatever went wrong is my fault by definition. I was all occupied on. embellished version of things. The four dimensions of the message kind of the high context and culture that we talked about. what is it that I want to achieve. I want to round off our discussion by focusing on the practical realities of communication. when I was less experienced. So now that we know who's guilty. “Okay. You try to figure out what is the best first move. but we do not talk about the root causes of the problem. which probably also is visible through this interview: to be informal and try to get. you learn to make your first move and try to anticipate the move of your counterpart. You almost do not think about what will be the reaction to your move. and the role it plays for establishing relationships and establishing a social identity for yourself. avoid any any form of excess formality because when I get to excess formality I lose my effectiveness. and you are able to define it correctly. but the fact that you stood up and told me that was right. and very linked to reality.a number of the ideas that we had.

The more challenging that endpoint is. Of course. In the early phase. I mean as I am in big meetings. but they get worried if there is no clarity on the building blocks to get it to that endpoint. the communication becomes much more interesting. The way you ask questions is different with different people in different parts of the world. and all my decisions if I don't get the reaction. Am I getting the reaction that I want? When you start worrying about the reaction. you heard . in the Anglo-Saxon cultures. It requires a bit of agility and a bit of flexibility. I need to start changing my communication almost like in a chess game. I'm sure that in our alumni's recommendations and their experiences. so that I generate the right reaction. the better. the more you can make a difference. and now it comes naturally. Then people get comfort and confidence by the fact that there is a path towards the endpoint. and I talk slowly. So in the beginning it’s a very mechanical exercise. I need to be more direct if I want to know what exactly is the problem. but also much more difficult because as I speak. What is it that we want to achieve? What do we want to be in five years or in ten years from now? They get really excited and really energized by the beauty of that endpoint. Then you need to spend much more time discussing. and that creates a bit of empathy and requires a bit of emotional intelligence. I mean in ten years we want the business to be like that. This is another very important skill of leaders. three. which I talk a bit. and then you talk and I realize that actually you are reacting in a completely different way than what I wanted say. This is. but if the path is convincing. So asking questions is critical for leaders. we need to do one. the clarity of the vision. or in front of a large audience and I talk. or business and try to adjust your style to one that is most helpful for the team. When I am in certain countries. Over time you get a bit faster at that exercise. and try to change the way I talk. Provide with all the generalizing. two. a typical attitude that you find more commonly. I would say. and if I do not see the right reaction. and it is a way that helps you go beyond the surface of things and to really penetrate situations and challenges. Sometimes people like the clarity of the endpoint. and the more you can give direction to people. and we want to change the market in this direction. then you can get more energy out of the team. but also some teams where it all starts from the analysis of today. You learn to ask questions. for example. I need to be a bit more subtle and allow a bit more time for people to open up and describe what the opportunity is. guys. I need to look at you and try to see if I am getting the reaction that I want to get. and the clarity of that endpoint. There are other cultures where people like to understand where you want to go in ten years from now. but there is a bit of truth I would say. you learn that maybe 50/50 is much better. The endpoint in and of itself people do not react hopes. If I am in other places. and talk 90% of the time because you believe the more you talk. But these are big stereotypes to a degree. Then over time. because what really matters is the kind of reaction I get. If I am not getting the reaction I want to get. as you spend a bit of time to say. and became much more focused on the reaction I was getting. you tend to listen 10% of the time. There are some cultures. you can take these three styles and start putting a few flags of different countries or different. in real time to try to get to what I believe is the right endpoint for all of us. People almost do not want to engage on where we are going to go next if we do not know exactly where we are today. because I talk. and four. Therefore. You need to try to understand what is the prevalent need in a team. I think to get there. There are different ways in which people interact and get motivated. And then I need to start talk again. But the “Aha!” discovery for me has been when I stopped being overfocused on what I wanted to say. country. because that drives more energy. and I try to understand if the audience is reacting in the way I am expecting. which is usually through a dialogue.

to encourage mutual convergence of perspectives in order to be better able to (re-)interpret diverse viewpoints. you really need to find a way. 2. and therefore. That you're trying to anticipate each other's moves. the importance of thinking about communication as a dialogue. As you reflect on their experiences. I think that really hits it on the head. we heard that as a leader. as playing chess. There is this great quote from Johann von Goethe that. to build relationships. and engagement in communication. the intricacies of communication are going to be a great foundation for some of the other topics that we are gonna talk about in this course. with some inefficiencies. to judge and evaluate as quickly as possible any additional new piece of information that is shared in the group.. to be heedful of communication barriers. And we also heard it emphasized that it is really important to be attuned to your audience's needs and their communication styles. to reduce misunderstanding and misinterpretations. And I really like this metaphor that Giovanni was suggesting about communication. if you develop communication skills along those lines. that is uniquely you. You think strategically about communication. and more participation. that asking powerful questions and active listening are as important as speaking. and therefore it ca not be perfect. you will probably end up excluding others from the work. right. that suits you. It comes from [FOREIGN] and it goes. in my view. [FOREIGN]. You just have to work with others. That differentiates you. that allows you optimally leverage your strength as a leader. most importantly. In fact. you're well prepared to motivate others. We also heard that it is very useful in a diverse multi cultural setting. Communication. to encourage participation in a collective sense-making process. and that your followers can come to rely on. You're have an easier time actually tackling conflict. is try to have more or better generatively.. is wrought with some errors. in the context that you are working. To make sure that what you and what others are trying to accomplish communicatively. What I would propagate as suitable goals. a style of communicating. is actually getting through. The channel of communication… . It might be your communication by its very nature is something that you work on together with others. to show a certain level of respect to cultural conventions of communication. by its nature.echoes of themes that we've talked about earlier. In situations of collective decision making in multicultural groups it is generally important. perfectionism really is not the right goal for developing your communication skills. Maybe. In fact your understanding of communication. In fact if you try to make it perfect from your perspective. That you have to try a little harder to make sure that you are effectively communicating.

5.influences how easy it is for a sender to encode and a receiver to decode his or her messages. is easier to detect than the language barrier. The semantic barrier (also called the meaning barrier)… can be easily eliminated by the use of english as a common language. determines whether communication between the receiver and the sender is uni or bidirectional. . is the least important determinant of intercultural misunderstandings 3. sender and receiver engage in a dialog to jointly build shared meaning. The risk of decoding a message incorrectly is particularly high if… sender and receiver have a dramatically different field of experience. implies that different cultures sometimes understand the same phrase differently. sender and receiver address language barriers and semantic barriers 4. In order to overcome communication barriers in intercultural communication… feedback is important.

8. 7. because members are concerned that their contributions may be regarded negatively by others. implies that a message is communicated directly without intermediation . the sender and receiver should use body language. Diversity of a group's members… makes information sharing easier. Uncertainty in decision making… can be with regards to the current state of the situation or problem. generally cannot be reduced. 6. can make information sharing more difficult. can be reduced with a multicultural team with different backgrounds and perspectives on problems ("It takes uncertainty to reduce uncertainty").written communications should be used. and the consequences of different alternative solutions. High context communication… can often be more difficult to decode for a receiver who is foreign to sender's cultural context than low context communication. because that is always more easily and unambiguously understood. automatically leads to better decision quality.

doubts lies. Practically all communicative acts have the following 4 dimensions: self-disclosure. opinions. misunderstandings. is more generally effective implies that the meaning is upfront and direct. relationship-statement. 9. self-aggrandizement. Submit Quiz . more precise and clear than low context communication. Low context communication… is communication that carries relatively less important information for leaders. facts. facts self-disclosure. appeal. appeal.