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Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India is India's central banking institution, which controls
the monetary policy of the Indian rupee. It commenced its operations on 1 April 1935 during the
British Rule in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.[5] The
original share capital was divided into shares of 100 each fully paid, which were initially owned
entirely by private shareholders.[6] Following India's independence on 15 August 1947, the RBI
was nationalised on 1 January 1949.
The RBI plays an important part in the Development Strategy of the Government of India.
It is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union. The general superintendence and direction of
the RBI is entrusted with the 21-member Central Board of Directors: the Governor (Dr.
Raghuram Rajan), 4 Deputy Governors, 2 Finance Ministry representatives, 10 governmentnominated directors to represent important elements from India's economy, and 4 directors to
represent local boards headquartered at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and New Delhi. Each of these
local boards consists of 5 members who represent regional interests, and the interests of cooperative and indigenous banks.
The bank is also active in promoting financial inclusion policy and is a leading member of
the Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI).

History
1935–1950
The Reserve Bank of India was founded on 1 April 1935 to respond to economic troubles after
the First World War.[7] The Reserve Bank of India was conceptualized based on the guidelines
presented by Dr. Ambedkar to the "Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance” in 1925;
Commission members found Dr B. R. Ambedkar’s book "The Problem of the Rupee- Its
Problems and Its Solution” an invaluable reference tool and the Central Legislative Assembly
eventually passed these guidelines as the RBI Act 1934. [8] The bank was set up based on the
recommendations of the 1926 Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance, also known as
the Hilton–Young Commission.[9] The original choice for the seal of RBI was The East India
Company Double Mohur, with the sketch of the Lion and Palm Tree. However it was decided to
replace the lion with the tiger, the national animal of India. The Preamble of the RBI describes its
basic functions to regulate the issue of bank notes, keep reserves to secure monetary stability in
India, and generally to operate the currency and credit system in the best interests of the country.
[10]
The Central Office of the RBI was established in Calcutta (now Kolkata), but was moved to
Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1937. The RBI also acted as Burma's central bank, except during the
years of the Japanese occupation of Burma (1942–45), until April 1947, even though Burma
seceded from the Indian Union in 1937. After the Partition of India in 1947, the bank served as
the central bank for Pakistan until June 1948 when the State Bank of Pakistan commenced
operations. Though set up as a shareholders’ bank, the RBI has been fully owned by
theGovernment of India since its nationalization in 1949.[11]
1950–1960
In the 1950s, the Indian government, under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, developed a
centrally planned economic policy that focused on the agricultural sector. The administration
nationalized commercial banks[12] and established, based on the Banking Companies Act of 1949

[22] The central bank deregulated bank interests and some sectors of the financial market like the trust and property markets. [21] The currency lost 18% relative to the US dollar. Their results had an effect on the RBI.[14] The central bank became the central player and increased its policies for a lot of tasks like interests. This turning point should reinforce the market and was often called neo-liberal.[17] The oil crises in 1973 resulted in increasing inflation. As a result. The Indian financial market was a leading example for so-called "financial repression" (Mackinnon and Shaw). reserve ratio and visible deposits. and the RBI restricted monetary policy to reduce the effects. The . 1969–1985 In 1969. a further six banks were nationalized. the RBI was requested to establish and monitor a deposit insurance system. The National Stock Exchange of India took the trade on in June 1994 and the RBI allowed nationalized banks in July to interact with the capital market to reinforce their capital base. founded in July 1988. was forced to invest in the property market and a new financial law improved the versatility of direct deposit by more security measures and liberalisation. The Indian government found funds to promote the economy and used the slogan "Developing Banking". 1991–2000 The national economy came down in July 1991 and the Indian rupee was devalued. the RBI had to play the central part of control and support of this public banking sector. the Indira Gandhi-headed government nationalized 14 major commercial banks. the National Housing Bank. [9] The regulation of the economy and especially the financial sector was reinforced by the Government of India in the 1970s and 1980s. New guidelines were published in 1993 to establish a private banking sector.(later called the Banking Regulation Act). [16] The branch was forced to establish two new offices in the country for every newly established office in a town. The banks lent money in selected sectors. [23] This first phase was a success and the central government forced a diversity liberalisation to diversify owner structures in 1998. [19] The Discount and Finance House of India began its operations on the monetary market in April 1988. and the security and exchange board proposed better methods for more effective markets and the protection of investor interests. The government of India restructured the national bank market and nationalized a lot of institutes. [15] These measures aimed at better economic development and had a huge effect on the company policy of the institutes. The Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction.[18] 1985–1991 A lot of committees analysed the Indian economy between 1985 and 1991. the central bank was ordered to support the economic plan with loans. Upon Gandhi's return to power in 1980. 1960–1969 As a result of bank crashes. a central bank regulation as part of the RBI. and theNarsimham Committee advised restructuring the financial sector by a temporal reduced reserve ratio as well as the statutory liquidity ratio. like agri-business and small trade companies. the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research and the Security & Exchange Board of India investigated the national economy as a whole. Furthermore. It should restore the trust in the national bank system and was initialized on 7 December 1961.

R Gandhi and S S Mundra. Kolkata. Reserve Bank Staff College. Shimla and Srinagar.central bank founded a subsidiary company—the Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Private Limited—in 3 February 1995 to produce banknotes. Bhubaneswar.[26] The Security Printing & Minting Corporation of India Ltd. Dehradun. Since 2000 The Foreign Exchange Management Act from 1999 came into force in June 2000. Delhi. and not more than 4 Deputy Governors. Ajay Tyagi and Anjuly Duggal. 4[30] Directors to represent the regional boards. Nachiket Mor.[33] It has 19 regional offices and 10 sub-offices. viz. . It also has 9 sub-offices located in Agartala. Recently the RBI has opened two more sub-office at Aizawal and Imphal. Ranchi. Chandigarh. a merger of nine institutions. The bank is headed by the Governor and the post is currently held by economist Raghuram Rajan.8% in the last quarter of 2008–2009 [28] and the central bank promotes the economic development. RBI wants to create a post of Chief Operating Officer (COO) and re-allocate work between the five of them(4 Deputy Governor and COO). Raipur. Two of the four Deputy Governors is traditionally from RBI ranks. Shillong. South in Chennai. An Indian Administrative Service officer can also be appointed as Deputy Governor of RBI and later as the Governor of RBI as with the case of Y. Lucknow. The representations are formed by five members. The Government of India appoints the directors for a 5-year term.[27] The national economy's growth rate came down to 5. and is selected from the Bank's Executive Directors. Nagpur. Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research (IGIDR).Panaji. Dr Urjit Patel. Chennai. Delhi. Kanpur. Gangtok. Jammu. Jaipur. The Board consists of a Governor. There are 4 Deputy Governors H R Khan. Bhopal. There are three autonomous institutions run by RBI namely National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM). Guwahati. One is nominated from among the Chairpersons of public sector banks and the other is an economist. Kolkata and Mumbai. 2 from the Ministry of Finance and 10 other directors from various fields.. East in Kolkata and West in Mumbai. Chennai. Regional offices are located in Ahmedabad. Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT). Hyder abad. Y C Deveshwar.[34] The Reserve Bank of India has four regional representations: North in New Delhi. Pune. Bangalore.[36] There are also four Zonal Training Centres atMumbai. Prof Damodar Acharya. Patna and Thiruvanant hapuram.Kochi. Chennai and College of Agricultural Banking. The bank has also two training colleges for its officers.[29] Structure of RBI The Central Board of Directors is the main committee of the Central Bank. Mumbai. Other persons forming part of the central board of directors of the RBI are Dr. was founded in 2006 and produces banknotes and coins. Venugopal Reddy. It should improve the item in 2004–2005 (National Electronic Fund Transfer). appointed for four years by the central government and serve—beside the advice of the Central Board of Directors—as a forum for regional banks and to deal with delegated tasks from the central board. Branches and support bodies The Reserve Bank of India has four zonal offices at Chennai. Kolkata and New Delhi.

The Board of Financial Supervision (BFS). in an attempt to enhance the quality of customer service and strengthen the grievance redressal mechanism. Main functions Financial Supervision The Reserve Bank of India performs this function under the guidance of the Board for Financial Supervision (BFS). BFS through the Audit Sub-Committee also aims at upgrading the quality of the statutory audit and internal audit functions in banks and financial institutions. formed in November 1994. The RBI controls the monetary supply. The BFS oversees the functioning of Department of Banking Supervision (DBS). It has four members. The Board is required to meet normally once every month. The Board was constituted in November 1994 as a committee of the Central Board of Directors of the Reserve Bank of India. Department of NonBanking Supervision (DNBS) and Financial Institutions Division (FID) and gives directions on the regulatory and supervisory issues. The Banking Ombudsman Scheme has been formulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for effective addressing of complaints by bank customers. the Deputy Governor in charge of banking regulation and supervision. appointed for two years. external monitoring and internal controlling systems. Managerial of exchange control The central bank manages to reach different goals of the Foreign Exchange Management Act. serves as a CCBD committee to control the financial institutions. monitors economic indicators like the gross domestic product and has to decide the design of the rupee banknotes as well as coins.Objective: to facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India. On 1 July 2007. It considers inspection reports and other supervisory issues placed before it by the supervisory departments. Its objectives are to maintain public confidence in the system. .Tarapore to "lay the road map" to capital account convertibility. usually. The Board is constituted by co-opting four Directors from the Central Board as members for a term of two years and is chaired by the Governor. is nominated as the Vice-Chairman of the Board. The five-member committee recommended a threeyear time frame for complete convertibility by 1999–2000. One Deputy Governor. the Reserve Bank of India created a new customer service department. The Tarapore committee was set up by the Reserve Bank of India under the chairmanship of former RBI deputy governor S. protect depositors' interest and provide cost-effective banking services to the public. Primary objective of BFS is to undertake consolidated supervision of the financial sector comprising commercial banks. The audit sub-committee includes Deputy Governor as the chairman and two Directors of the Central Board as members. The Deputy Governors of the Reserve Bank are ex-officio members. Regulator and supervisor of the financial system The institution is also the regulator and supervisor of the financial system and prescribes broad parameters of banking operations within which the country's banking and financial system functions.S. financial institutions and non-banking finance companies. and takes measures to strength the role of statutory auditors in the financial sector. 1999.

RBI has launched a website to raise awareness among masses about fake notes in the market. Commercial banks create credit. It acts as the lender of the last resort by providing emergency advances to the banks.paisaboltahai. This would mean that banks are required to exchange the notes for their customers as well as for non-customers. the RBI facilitates the clearing of cheques between the commercial banks and helps inter-bank transfer of funds. Banks will provide exchange facility for these notes until further communication. Some of these problems are results of the dominant part of the public sector.[39] And for minting of coins. In all.org.Issue of currency The bank issues and exchanges currency notes and coins and destroys the same when they are not fit for circulation.[13] The RBI faces a lot of inter-sectoral and local inflation-related problems. As the new currency notes have added security features. it will completely withdraw from circulation all banknotes issued prior to 2005. to exchange more than 10 pieces of `500 and `1000 notes. Banker's bank RBI also works as a central bank where commercial banks are account holders and can deposit money. also has set up printing presses at Mysuru in Karnataka and Salboni in West Bengal. Kolkata and Hyderabad for coin production. and to maintain the reserves.RBI maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks. It can grant financial accommodation to schedule banks. Detection of fake currency In order to curb the fake currency menace. The Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Private Limited (BRBNMPL). The objectives are to issue bank notes and giving public adequate supply of the same. From 1 April 2014. bank rate and open market operations. The Reserve Bank has also clarified that the notes issued before 2005 will continue to be legal tender.in provides information about identifying fake currency. non-customers will have to furnish proof of identity and residence to the bank branch in which she/he wants to exchange the notes.www. Maharashtra and Dewas. Developmental role The central bank has to perform a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives and industries. For printing of notes. . there are four printing presses. SPMCIL has four mints at Mumbai. RBI gave a press release stating that after 31 March 2014. however. As banker's bank.rbi. It is the duty of the RBI to control the credit through the CRR. the public will be required to approach banks for exchanging these notes. Noida (UP). to maintain the currency and credit system of the country to utilize it in its best advantage. Madhya Pradesh. because both objectives are diverse in themselves. a wholly owned company of the Government of India. This move from the Reserve Bank is expected to unearth black money held in cash. From 1 July 2014. It supervises the functioning of the commercial banks and take action against it if need arises. they would help in curbing the menace of fake currency. a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank. has set up printing presses at Nashik. the Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited (SPMCIL). On 22 January 2014. RBI maintains the economic structure of the country so that it can achieve the objective of price stability as well as economic development.

RBI on 7 August 2012 said that Indian banking system is resilient enough to face the stress caused by the drought like situation because of poor monsoon this year. RBI uses this tool to increase or decrease the reserve requirement depending on whether it wants to effect a decrease or an increase in the money supply. The interest rate the RBI charges the banks for this purpose is called bank rate or repo rate. Reserve Ratios. Before the enactment of this amendment. the Reserve Bank.00% Savings Deposit Rate 4% Term Deposit Rate 7. is presently used in the country.50% Base Rate 9. which is the standard rate at which the RBI buys or re-discount bills of exchange or other commercial paper. The bank rate has lost its significance as a monetary policy tool as the central bank signals stance through changes in repo.00% Bank rate RBI lends to the commercial banks through its discount window to help the banks meet depositors' demands and reserve requirements for long term. Consequent upon amendment to sub-Section 42(1). The bank rate.75% Reverse Repo Rate 5. If the RBI wants to increase the liquidity and money supply in the market. it will decrease the bank rate and if RBI wants to reduce the liquidity and money supply in the system.25%–8.70%–10. it will increase the bank rate. Lending and Deposit Rates as of 29 September 2015 Bank Rate 7.Related functions The RBI is also a banker to the government and performs merchant banking function for the central and the state governments. in terms of Section 42(1) of the RBI Act. the Reserve Bank could prescribe CRR for scheduled banks between 5% and 20% of total of their demand and time liabilities. Policy rates and reserve ratios Policy Rates.75% Repo Rate 6. An increase in Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) will make it mandatory on the part of the banks to hold a large proportion of their deposits in the form of . having regard to the needs of securing the monetary stability in the country. [44] The institution maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks. too. The National Housing Bank (NHB) was established in 1988 to promote private real estate acquisition. the rate at which banks borrow short-term funds from RBI. It also acts as their banker.75% Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) 4% Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) 21. RBI can prescribe Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) for scheduled banks without any floor rate or ceiling rate. Reserve requirement cash reserve ratio (CRR) Every commercial bank has to keep certain minimum cash reserves with Reserve Bank of India.

deposits with the RBI. are administratively set.. Minimum margins for lending against specific securities. Banks are required to lend to the priority sectors to the extent of 40% of their advances. central banks use open market operations—buying and selling of eligible securities by central bank in the money market—to influence the volume of cash reserves with commercial banks and thus influence the volume of loans and advances they can make to the commercial and industrial sectors. A higher liquidity ratio diverts the bank funds from loans and advances to investment in government and approved securities. Higher liquidity ratio forces commercial banks to maintain a larger proportion of their resources in liquid form and thus reduces their capacity to grant loans and advances. This will reduce the size of their deposits and they will lend less. Direct credit controls in India are of three types: 1. The RBI is resorting more to open market operations in the more recent years. Part of the interest rate structure. government securities are traded at market-related rates of interest. 2. 3. i. . Banks are mandatory required to keep 21. Ceiling on the amounts of credit for certain purposes.50% of their deposits in the form of government securities.e. banks are required to maintain liquid assets in the form of gold. Generally RBI uses 1. This will in turn decrease the money supply. Discriminatory rate of interest charged on certain types of advances. In well-developed economies. 2. Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) Apart from the CRR. cash and approved securities. on small savings and provident funds. 3. thus it is an anti-inflationary impact. In the open money market.