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CHAPTER 3 HEREDITY AND VARIATION

3.1 Understanding Cell Division
3.2 Understanding the Principles and Mechanism of Inheritance
3.3 Understanding Sex Determination and the Occurrence of Twins
in Human Beings
3.4 Understanding Mutation
3.5 Evaluating the Effects of Genetic Research on Human Life
3.6 Analysing Variation among Living Things
3.7 Realising the Need to Adhere to a Code of Ethics in Genetic
Research
3.1 Understanding
Cell Division
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Cell Division
All living organisms undergo growth and reproduction. All organisms are made up of
____________________. These ___________________ through ______________ and
___________________________ to new cells. There are two types of cell division,
_____________ and ____________.
Chromosome, Genes and DNA

1. a) _______________ are the basic units of _________________ that determine the
____________________________________________
b) Genes carry _______________________ from one generation to another.
c) Genes are located in ___________________ known as __________________
__________________
2. __________________ are located in the _______________, carrying information that
__________________________.
3. Each chromosome is made up of long molecules known as __________________
___________________________.
Mitosis
1. _____________ is a type of cell division which occurs in _________________. Each
cell _______________________________________________________
2. Mitosis only occurs in somatic cells but not in __________________________
3. The genetic content of the new cells is ____________ as that of the parent cell.
4. The new cells have the _______________________________ as the parent cell.
5. The importance of mitosis includes the following:
a) _____________________________________________________________
b) _____________________________________________________________
c) ______________________________________________________________
Meoisis
1. __________ is the _____________________________ that produces _________
2. Gametes contain ______________________________________________found in
the _____________________________
3. ________________________ in reproductive cells i.e. in the ____________ and
___________ of animals and the ________________ and ____________of plants.
4. The importance of meiosis includes the following:
a) ______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
b) ______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
c) ______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Process of Mitosis
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Proses of Meiosis 3 .

2 4 .Exercise 3.

Give reason for each example. (a) State four differences between cell division through mitosis and meiosis. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ (iv) Explain the actual concept _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ [6 Marks] 3.3.2 Understanding the Principles and Mechanism of Inheritance 5 . Your explanation should include the following. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ [4 Marks] The cell division that takes place in the body parts of a student is shown above. (i) Identify two common features ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ (ii) Build an initial concept ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ (iii) Give one example of body part that undergoes this cell division and one example of body part that does not undergo this cell division. Explain how you would build a concept based on the information above.

Dominant Genes and Recessive Genes 1. _______________________(1822-1884) was an Austrian scientist known as the _________________ because he discovered the _________________________ 2. _____________________ from the father and _________________________ from the mother. The table below shows some of _____________________________________ in humans. The following illustration shows the _____________________________________ Assume that 'T ' represents the dominant gene (tall) and 't ' represents the recessive gene (dwarf) 6 . _______________________ are controlled by genes that exist in ____________ 2. 5.e. 4. 3. __________________ are genes that ________________________ when paired with genes that are __________________________________ 3. ____________ refers to the ______________________ which can be seen in an organism.Each __________________ has ________________. The genotype of an organism ___________________________________ of the organism. Dominant traits Recessive traits The Mechanism Of Inheritance 1. 4. Therefore. we ____________ half of our traits from our fathers and the other half from our mothers. ___________refers to the ______________________ found in the genes of an organism. __________________ are weaker genes which __________________________ ________________________ when paired with dominant genes. i.

2 – Activity Aim : To study genetically inherited traits. 7 .Exercise 3.

Repeat step 3 as much as 25 times. Discussion: 1. Section B Repeat simulation by marking both tokens with letter T while the other side is labeled 't'.Material : Two plastic tokens and labeling paper. Section A 1. 2. 3. 4. Toss the both tokens and observe combination of the letter at token surface after falling on table and record in table below. Label both sides of token 1 with letter T to represent dominant gene. Label both sides of token 2 with letter't' to represent recessive gene. Complete the percentage for simulation A and B. 8 .

Fill in the blank with the term dominant genes and recessive genes. Complete the Punnet Square for Simulation A and Simulation B. (b) Dominant genes: Genes which show their characteristics that they control when paired with a dominant gene or recessive genes 3.2. (a) Recessive genes: Genes which only show their effects in the absence of dominant genes . If you are a __________ you have inherited the ________________ from your father. 9 . Combination: Genotype Tt 100 % If “T” represents gene for tall and “t” represents for dwarf. Ratio of phenotype tall to dwarf is 3 : 1 Conclusion : The characteristics of offspring depend on parent genes. The mechanism of trait inheritance in Mandel's experiment can be illustrated by using the Punnet square. 3.3 Understanding Sex Determination and the Occurrence of Twins in Human Beings Sex Determination and Occurrence of Twins Who determines the _________________ ? Is it the mother or the father? If you are a ____________ you have inherited the ________________from your father.

The ______________________ can be written as _______________ 5. a _________is _______ non-identical twins 1. Human ___________ have __________________ or _____________________ 2. ______________________________________________ Identical twins 1. The __________ are ___________ 10 . If the __________is ___________by a____________ carrying the _____________________ then a ____________will be born. The _________________ of getting a son or a daughter is the same that is _______ Sex Determination and Occurrence of Twins There are two types of twins.The __________________________ can be written as _________________ Sex Determination Mechanism The ________________________ is determined by the _____________________ During the _________________________ the ___________________ is _____________by a_____________ carrying the ____________________ then a ______________will be born. A woman usually produces ________ in one ___________________ When the ovum is __________________by __________. __________________ of the chromosomes are _______________ while two are ____________________ 3. ________________only have one type of sex chromosomes: the __________ _________.Sex Chromosomes 1. __________ have ________________________________________________ the _________________ and the ________________________ 4. The ovaries produce _________ at the same time and the ova are _______ by _____________________ 2.

The characteristics of non-identical twins include the following: (a) they have __________________ (b) their ________can be the ______ or ______________ (c) they have ___________________ ___________________________ Exercises 3. Both zygotes develop and become identical twins. Both zygotes develop to form two embryos and grow into two _____________________________ 4. The zygote then _______________ _____________________ which start to develop.3 11 . 4. 3.2. The characteristics of identical twins include the following: (a) they ______________________ (b) they are of the ______________ (c) they have the ______________ __________________________ _____on the________ with ___________________. 3.

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This results in _______________ _________________________ or the ____________________ of the organism. During the process of meiosis or mitosis some chromosomes may _____________________ or there may be some changes in the structure or number of chromosomes. Changes that occur spontaneously in the structure of the genes or chromosomes of an organism are 13 .3.4 Understanding Mutation We know that every human being has 46 chromosomes.

Structural changes in chromosomes include: (a deletion ) (b ) inversion (c) duplication 3.. Gene mutation is difficult to detect in the early stages because physical changes cannot be seen clearly.small sloping eye. Gene mutation refers to _______________________________________________ _______________________________________ 2.mental defects and heart problems . flat and rounded face . There are two types of mutations. 3.__________________________________ .also known as ______________________ (b) ____________________ (c) _____________________ Gene Mutation 1. Changes in the number of chromosomes causes. Chromosome mutation occurs ____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Gene mutation causes the following heredity traits.e. __________________ and __________________________________ Chromosome Mutation 1. (a) __________________ . protruding tongue.known as _________________. i. 14 ..__________________________________ .

Mutagens that have been identified to cause mutations are ___________________ ____________________ 2. The following are some positive effects of mutations: a) ___________________________________ b) ___________________________________ c) ___________________________________ . in particular in the fields of ____________and __________ 15 .5 Evaluating the Effects of Genetic Research on Human Life ___________________ is a ____________________ of genes. Mutations can bring positive or negative effects to all living things. Chemical mutagens include ___________________________________________ _________________________________________ -These substances are capable of changing the structure of genes and chromosomes.(a) Colour-blindness (b) Albinism (c) Sickle cell anaemia (d) Haemophilia 4. Genetic research has given ________________ to humans. Mutations have caused changes in the structure of proteins in the chromosomes. This rice species is ______________ ___________________ resulting in ____________________________________ 4. 3. the higher the rate of mutation will be. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mutations 1. 3. Therefore. Mutations rarely occur naturally because the ______________________________ of mutations can be __________________________________________________ Factors or agents which cause mutations are known as _______________ Factors that Cause Mutation 1. 2. Examples of radioactive radiation _______________________________________ the higher the dose of radiation is. the characters that they control and the diseases brought by them. The following are some negative effects of mutations: a) ______________________________________ b) ______________________________________ c) ______________________________________ 3. the chromosomes may not function properly. their functions.An example of a new rice species is MR123.

5. chillies. D100 .____________________________________________________ d) Chillies MC 11 dan 12 . The following are the benefits of genetic research: a) Plants which are _______________________________________________________ b) Plants can ____________________________________________________________ c) The production of _____________ allows the production of quality plants. Genetic engineering with __________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ This can be used to treat cancer. Advantages Disadvantages 16 . 2. agencies such as the _____________________________________________ _________(MARDI) have conducted _____________________ to produce new varieties of paddy. genetic research can help humans ___________________________ and _____________________________________ 2. b) Animal products of a better quality have been produced in _______________ such as _________________________________ c) _____________________ have been produced so as not to depend on animals sources. D99.____________________________________________ c) Paddy MR84 . Interferon. a) Various _______________________________ to prevent diseases such as hepatitis B. Quality crops with _____________________________________________________________ 3. Gene tests to detect ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 6.Contributions of Genetic Research 1. The following are some successful genetic research results: b) Papaya Eksotika Malaysia . The chart below shows the advantages and disadvantages of genetic research. In medicine. haemophilia._______________________________________ e) Durian D24. Genetic engineering carried out on animals has brought the following benefits. Genetic research in agriculture has brought a lot of benefits to us. growth hormones and enzymes have also been produced. ___________________________________ involves the ___________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Genetic Research in Agriculture 1. 3. 2. and the_________ of genetic diseases. __________________ has led to the ____________________________________ such as Down's syndrome. haemophilia and albinism._________________________________ Genetic Research in Medicine 1. The __________ is a ________________________________________________ _______ 4. thalassemia and other diseases. In Malaysia. papayas and durians which are of high quality.

_________________________________________________ __________________________while the less beneficial traits are removed. and barley have _______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _ 5.Crops and Livestock Breeding 1. weight. In the process of breeding. yield and produce crops which can ___________________________________ 4.SMF is the result of genetic modification of plants or livestock carried out by adding genes to the genotype to improve the quality yield production resistance so that the plants can ____________________________________________ 2. Crops such as wheat. ____________________ . corn.selective cattle breeding has produced the high quality Mafriwal cow which can produce a lot of milk and meat. Selective breeding is _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _ 2. Genetic Research and their Impact 1. The high yield from the genetically modified crop may be needed __________________ _____________________ but the seeds and fruits may cause genetic pollution. 17 . In livestock . rice. This can improve the quality of crops and livestock such as their size. 3.

3. Genetically modified foods containing genes which are ___________________________ ___________________________________________________ When humans eat these foods.6 Analysing Variation among Living Things Variation in Humans 1. Variation refers to _______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Individuals of the same species in a population are indeed different from one another.3. There are two types of variation: ____________________________________________ 5. the bacteria in these foods will be difficult to be eliminated from the body because they are resistant to antibiotics. Continuous Variation Aspect Definition Example Causes Can be inherited 18 Discontinuous Variation . These differences are caused by ___________________________________________ 3. Variation occurs during ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4. The differences between continuous and discontinuous variation are shown in the table below. 2.

The resulting graph Exercises 3.6 – Section A 19 .

20 .1.

2. 21 .

whether successful or unsuccessful. must be ____________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ The Importance of Establishing and Complying with Ethics in Scientific Research for the Benefit of Mankind 1. 4. 3. The security and dignity of all living things must be respected in this code of ethics. procedures and skills used in the field of genetic research are very useful but they must _________________________________________________________________________ _ Abuse of Genetic Research is Threating Humans 1. the animals are likely ______________________________________________________________________ 5. An_____________________________________________________to monitor and ensure that all parties abide by the rules and code of ethics for scientific research. a code of ethics and moral values must be established and adhered to by all researchers. All results of scientific research. Misuse of genetic skills in __________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _ 4. Scientific research should sincerely be carried out for the benefit of mankind and not for the ___________________________________________________ 2. To prevent abuse of genetic knowledge in scientific research. If dangerous animals are produced through genetic engineering. Although the techniques. 3. The code of ethics should indicate the following.3. 22 . 5. Genetic research may be used for _____________________________. If human cloning is allowed freely without control it will ___________________________ _______________________________________ 2.7 Realising the Need to Adhere to a Code of Ethics in Genetic Research Genetic research has made many contributions to the fields of _______________________ ________________________Researchers ______________________________________ so as not to give rise to various problems in scientific research. a) __________________________________________________________ b) The use of human cells in genetic research is for ___________________________ c) Genetically modified (GM) crops ______________________: If they are dangerous. but it should not be used for destroying human lives. they must be destroyed and strictly prohibited. The process of cloning cells (stem cells) may be unethical because after clonings.

7 – Section C …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23 .Exercises 3.

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