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E1-E2 Management

Revision date 22/03/2011

CHAPTER FIVE
ENERGY CONSERVATION AND FIRE SAFETY
“The fundamental goal of energy management is to produce goods and provide services
with the least cost and least environmental effect.”
(Cape Hart, Turner and Kennedy, Guide to Energy Management Fairmont press Inc.
1997)

Importance of Energy Conservation
Every industry or commercial undertaking needs a specific amount of energy to undertake the
process and operations. It could be in the form of electrical energy, thermal energy or any
other forms of energy use.
Energy is a scarce resource and the increment in energy cost is too steep. In present scenario,
competitive pricing strategy has
become a vital option for survival of a commercial
organization. To cut price, the cost of production needs to be reduced and with steep increase
in energy cost, it has become one of the most important cost components of production in any
type of industry. So, cost reduction in energy or in other words reduction in energy
consumption is of prime importance for survival of an industry.
Thus reductions in energy consumption enable to deliver products and services at a lower cost
and increase profits, which means being more competitive.
Energy conservation is also important because consumption of non-renewable sources
impacts the Environment. Specifically, our use of fossil fuels contributes to air and water
pollution, which in turn causes the global Warming of the earth, or “greenhouse effect.“
Thus Energy efficiency also prevents pollution and is good for the bottom line as well as the
environment.
Major thrust areas for Energy Conservation in BSNL

Make Energy Conservation a Mass Movement with involvement of all our
employees.

Monitor and control consumption of Energy through Energy Management
Groups

To reduce overall electricity expenditure by 5% every year through
implementation of energy conservation measures and other methods.

Recognize efforts of our Staff in Energy Conservation

Share and enrich our experiences on Energy Conservation with SSA /
Circles.
Energy Conservation Measures in BSNL
BSNL India

For internal circulation only

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E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 In order to implement the energy conservation measures and to review the activities of Energy Conservation in BSNL an Energy Core Group has been constituted at Corporate office headed by Director (Plg & NS) and at each Circle headed by the respective CGMT. Power Factor Improvement An electrical supply system supplies energy to a consumer’s distribution system consisting of transformers. chokes and other appliances. A. which leads to increase in the current BSNL India For internal circulation only 2 . In cases where the maximum demand reached is less than contract demand EB authorities will make bill for contract demand. This indicates that the consumer will always have its demand for electricity restricted to this contract value or CD. Exchanges. The second part is based on the actual consumption in terms of units of Electricity (in KWh). motors. Contract Demand means a demand in KVA mutually agreed between the supply company and the consumer as entered into in the agreement or agreed through other written communication. A part of the total energy supplied is used to establish this magnetic field and this energy is called as reactive energy or power. unnecessary expenditure (the first part of the bill in Two-part tariff) can be curtailed. it is a measure of the effectiveness in utilizing the power it draws from the system. No Cost Measures 1. CMD rationalization Huge amount of Electricity bill can be saved by rationalization of Contract Demand (CD). are billed for electricity in two parts (which is also known as Two part tariff). Thus for an installation. BSNL Energy Core Group under the chairmanship of Director (Plg & NS) has decided that the following measures are to be implemented which have been classified as No cost measures. 2. First part is based on the maximum demand (MD) recorded (in KVA) during the month or the Contract Demand (KVA). Periodical study of Energy Bills for actual demand should be done once a year & Corrective action should be taken with the electricity board for revision of contract demand. By reducing / rationalizing the contract demand near to actual maximum demand. The power factor of a system indicates what portion of the total energy can be utilized to produce useful work. For the highest value of electricity demanded or taken from the supply company or the electricity board is called the Maximum Demand (MD). which are having transformer sub-stations. These equipments require a magnetic field for its operation. which ever is higher. A poor power factor implies higher reactive energy flow. The consumer cannot utilize this reactive power as useful energy. Low cost measures and High-cost measures. For energy conservation & achieving reduction in Energy bills in BSNL.

• Reduction of current carrying rating of cables and switchgears.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 that flows in the system and hence results in higher system losses. Most of the State Electricity Boards impose a penalty if the average power factor is less than 9O% in the H. • Reduction in power loss in distribution cables. • Higher power output can be obtained with the same transformer. While pouring the bottle in to the glass. lesser will be the amount of usable liquid / drink in the glass. This supply of reactive power is done locally by providing Capacitor bans or reactive power generators.T. 3. The foam here indicates reactive energy and thus higher foam content implies poor power factor or inefficient utilization of the drink. Installations and offer financial incentive/ rebate if the average power factor maintained is higher than 95%. • Reduction in power loss in transformer. The diagram below indicates a “beer mug” or “ aerated drink” analogy to understand power factor. Switch off Stand by Transformer BSNL India For internal circulation only 3 . the higher the foam content in the glass. Power Factor = Active Power / (Active Power + Reactive Power) = KW / (KW + KVAR) = Brink / (Brink + Foam) The advantages of power factor improvement are: • Improvement in voltage regulation.

E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 In installations where only one transformer is catering to the building & exchange load and the other transformer is kept as hot standby. Reduce excess illumination Lighting Load contributes for approximately 2O% energy consumption. Thermostat Adjustment The higher is the temperature maintained in an Air-conditioned room. For scaling down excess level of illumination. This range can be maintained by setting the temperature and differential in the Thermostat. Switching off or de. i. This would result in considerable power saving. 6. Isolate non -AC area It is seen in some Telephone Exchanges that area where equipment is proposed to be installed in future. the lower is the energy consumption. it is kept energized from the primary side whereas secondary is isolated from load. efforts must be made for: • Implementing the Concept of general lighting and task lighting • Removal / Closure of excess fittings • Periodic maintenance • Using natural light / day light where-ever available 7. has also been air-conditioned.e. This will reduce load on the Air-conditioning units resulting in less running and saving of energy. Saving in Lighting Load means energy saving due to lighting and also energy saving due to less Airconditioning load.energizing the standby transformer from the primary side helps in saving the no-load loss of the standby transformer. Switch off lights in unmanned area All the extra lights and the lights in unmanned area should be switched off manually. 4. BSNL India For internal circulation only 4 . Efforts should be made to decrease the air-conditioned area by way of Full height partition and closing AC openings available in these rooms. 5. Also efforts should be made to ensure that doors of Switch rooms and Package AC rooms should be air-tight. Efforts must be made to maintain temperature in range of 24°C±1°C instead of 23°C± 2°C. self closing type to prevent leakage of cold air into corridors or entry of warm unconditioned air into air-conditioned area.

which are more efficient. frequent switching • Operating and maintenance cost low • Produce less heat 4. Low Cost Measures 1. resulting into excessive running of unit beyond required temperature. are to be provided.OO PM onwards. but the running of condenser fan is not required for long time. After office hour lighting For the common place such as corridors compact fluorescent lamps. Delayed switching ON of Compound lighting by using timer and early switching OFF the same to avail daylight shall be used. Connection can be done in such a way that along with the compressor condenser fan also gets switched off.OO PM. BSNL India For internal circulation only 5 . LED indication in Panels The advantages of LED lamps are • Life of the LED bulbs is more • They can withstand vibrations. This range can be maintained by setting the temperature and differential.OO PM to 11 . the condenser and blower fan run. The compound lighting shall be so designed that 1OO% light will be ON between 6. Though the running of blower fan is required for quick dissipation of heat from the sensitive components of the telecom equipment. If the quality of thermostat is poor. 3. only 5O% shall be put ON 11. 2. 5. This results in considerable power saving.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 B. Free cooling The unit is able to manage fresh air intake to room after filtration through automatic modulating damper on command from the microprocessor achieving the required cooling capacity without compressor in operation. Condenser stopping with compressor Often it is seen that though temperature of switch room is achieved and compressor is cut off. Each thermostat shall undergo functional test and replaced if required. Temperature setting / Thermostat change The temperature is maintained in range of 24°C ± 1°C.

Common Area Lighting CFLs. Condenser reorientation To decide the location of the condenser following points are to be adhered to • The distance from indoor unit to condenser unit should be minimum to minimize pressure drop. are provided in corridor. Automatic Volume control damper These dampers are designed to open when the blower fan is energized and to close when power is turned off. 7. 36W CFL is 8O and 4OW T-12 is 64. It will decrease the condensation and increase power loss. • Place should be decided so that heat rejected from the condenser should be quickly diluted. These have better life and more tolerance of voltage fluctuations.95. Use of level controller in pumps BSNL India For internal circulation only 6 . The light distribution of T-5 lamp is better and uniform. Thus T-5 is the most energy efficient light source and has maximum life. 11. Electronic Ballast Electronic ballast’s are ideal for increasing the system efficiency. The power factor is more than O.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 6. • 10. 36W High lumen T-8 is 9O. staircase and other common areas where light remains ON for longer duration. which are more energy efficient than bulbs and ordinary tube light. They facilitate higher light output and there is no tiring effect on workers due to absence of flickering effect. 8. 9. Energy efficiency lighting The energy efficiency (Lumen / Watt) of 28W T-5 lamp is 1O4. Direct sunrays should not fall especially during afternoon time on condenser unit. 36W T-8 fitting is 68.

To overcome these difficulties remote monitoring is done. Solar water heating system practically requires NIL maintenance and life period is approximately 15 Years whereas water heaters require periodical maintenance of replacement of elements etc. BSNL India For internal circulation only be utilized for supplying 7 . There are number of exchanges and they require a considerable amount for maintenance.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 Use of liquid level controller in pump operation is being adopted to eliminate wasteful running of pump for extended period. canteens and inspection quarters. High Cost Measures 1.T tariff. C. • The problem of tampering of meter would be obviated. Keeping long-term perspective it would be optimal to convert LT network to HT network. Automatic and Remote Monitoring Automatic and remote monitoring is a ability to monitor a process from remote location. as input metering would be on 11KV/33 V. and life period is approximately 7 years. 2. which further reduces the payback period b) Existing solar panel spared from MARR station shall lighting and other possible loads. • Consumers could get better voltages because of the elimination of local distribution system and associated disturbances. • In view of higher losses and the imperative to reduce them a need has been felt to minimize system cost. • HT tariff applicable to the consumer is much lower than the L. LT to HT conversion The proposed revision is beneficial for all genuine consumers. Non-conventional energy methods The following non-conventional energy methods have been approved for implementation at field level: a) Solar water heating system in all existing as well as new hostels.

Firstly. Using High Sensible Heat Factor AC Units If we look at the differences between cooling people and cooling electronic equipment. Conventional room AC systems (Window/Split).9 to 1. Energy conservation award shall be constituted at Circle and Corporate office Level with SSA as a unit. These High Sensible AC units are heavy-duty units compared to conventional window / split AC units. have to consider the actual sensible cooling capacity of any proposed air conditioning system. sensible + latent). In contrast.6O to O. BSNL India For internal circulation only 8 . Their life is around 9-1O years minimum compared to 6 years of conventional type. This means that you need more comfort capacity to do the same job as a High SHF air conditioning system. we find a mismatch in requirements. PCE (E) / CE (E) shall give presentation at SSA level to BSNL officials to Spread awareness in energy conservation. this means that 6O to 7O% of the work done by a comfort system will lower the air temperature and 3O and 4O% of the work will remove moisture from the air. Circle and Corporate office level by organizing seminars and other Awareness programs to involve all stakeholders. High SHF air conditioning units have a much higher sensible cooling ratio in the region of O. therefore. You.e. This means that over 9O% of the work done by a High SHF air conditioner will be devoted to cooling the air with less than 1O% used in the removal of moisture. In essence. 3. are usually designed with a sensible cooling ratio of around O.O.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 c) Waste water recycling should be done by installing sewage treatment plants in all major buildings by PCE (E) / CE (E) in consultation with CGMs. 4. That SSA who has achieved maximum energy Conservation shall be awarded running trophy. Similar award at Corporate Office Level shall also be instituted. SSAs in consultation with electrical wing shall fix target for energy savings in their SSA. people add moisture to a room and electronics are dry. Activities for creating awareness and promoting Energy Conservation in BSNL 1. whereas sensible cooling is the ability to remove heat. Latent cooling is the ability to remove humidity from the air. This is a typical ratio for a building full of people. The operating cost of High SHF AC is quite low and the extra expenditure incurred on its procurement can be recovered in less than a year out of the savings due to lower energy consumption.7O. 2. National energy conservation day on 14th December shall be observed every year at SSA. How does this affect the cost equation of Conventional (or comfort) Vs High SHF cooling? The cooling capacity stated for a comfort unit is usually its total cooling capacity (i.

but all commercial buildings/installations having a having either Connected Load 5OO KW or Contract Demand 6OO KVA fall under its purview. For the above referred buildings / installations.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 They are also designed to work under high ambient temperature of 43 deg C compared to conventional AC unit of 35 deg C. etc. • • BSNL India For internal circulation only 9 . providing intelligent control. The heart of the High SHFAC unit is its controller. • Although BSNL has not been specifically included. a compulsory energy audit by qualified Energy Auditor to check compliance with statutory energy norms and appointment of an energy manager for each such building installation is required. running of units on equal run hour basis allowing a homogeneous wear of the system components. • Energy Conservation Act 2OO1 provides for Energy Auditing and Energy Conservation of Designated Consumers. Energy Conservation Act 2001 (ECA 2001) It is a regulatory act enacted by the Government and the broad objective is “To promote efficient use of energy and its conservation through certain statutory measures to promote conservation of energy and facilitate its efficient use”. The controller has immense capability and features such as automatic start of the standby unit in case of failure of one unit. There is a provision of penalty for non-compliance.

The Five star rating is given to the most efficient equipment and One star to the least efficient. Energy Audit Energy Audit is a tool to identify areas where excess energy consumption or wastage of energy is taking place. motors and transformers. Contract Demand Maximum Demand Power Factor Explained at S. comparing it with an estimate of the minimum energy required to undertake the process and establishing technically and economically feasible means to achieve the same. Ministry of Power has developed a scheme for energy efficiency labeling of equipments. An Energy Audit involves measuring the actual energy used in the plant. induction Fluorescent Tubular lamps. distribution and utilization is the key to energy efficiency. 1 UNIT = 1 KW x 1 HOUR = 1 KWh = 1OOO W x 1 HOUR BSNL India For internal circulation only 10 . More products are being covered by Star labeling Some Common Terminology used in relation to Energy Conservation Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency is eliminating wastage while using energy. A Star rating between 1 star and 5 stars is given to equipment based on its energy efficiency and power consumption. This scheme has been presently launched for Frost-free refrigerators. No.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 Energy Efficiency Labeling As per the Energy Conservation Act 2OO1. Window/ Split AC units. 1 & 2 under No Cost Measures Unit of Electrical Energy (KWh) One unit of electricity means using one Kilo watt (KW) or 1OOO Watt for one hour. the Bureau of Energy Efficiency. Optimizing the energy pattern in generation.

5 x 3O24) / 2OOO = 9. This term is used for power supply at 11 or 22 or 33 Kilo Volts A.5 Ton AC consuming 2OOO Watts power. L. A T8 lamp is eight-eighths of an inch. BSNL India For internal circulation only 11 .C. is an abbreviation for Low Tension Supply.one-half inches in diameter. A T12 lamp is therefore twelve-eighths of an inch. (11 KV/22 KV/ 33 KV).T. mounting position and lumen depreciation.T. the shape of the lamp. EER will be calculated as: EER (BTU/Hr-W) EER (Kcal/Hr-W) = (1. or one inch in diameter.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 EER of an Air-conditioner EER is the Ratio between Cooling Capacity of AC Unit (in BTU/hr or Kcal/Hr) and Power input to AC Unit in Watts EER = Cooling Output / Power input in Watts The conversion factor for calculating cooling capacity is 1 TR (or 1 Ton) = 12OOO BTU/Hr = 3O24 Kcal/Hr For a 1. a 4:1 ratio is often stated for replacing an incandescent lamp (a 25-watt CFL can replace a 1OO. Depending on the effects of temperature.watt incandescent lamp). L. CFL It stands for “Compact Fluorescent Lamp”.5 x 12OOO) / 2OOO = (1. H. and number immediately following the T gives the diameter of the lamp in eighths of an inch. H.C.O = 2. T.27 T-Number of a Fluorescent Tube The “T” designation in fluorescent lamp nomenclature stands for tubular.C. is an abbreviation for High Tension Supply. A T5 lamp is fiveeighths of an inch in diameter. and Three-phase power supply at 415 Volts A. or one-and.T. This term is used for Single-phase power supply at 23O Volts A.

mnes.in FIRE SAFETY TRIANGLE OF FIRE It has been shown from the triangle of fire that three factors are essential for combustion or a fire.energymanagertraining. and iii) The attainment and maintenance of a certain minimum temperature (ignition temperature) BSNL India For internal circulation only 12 .nic. namely. Further Reading:1. outside the room (in Split AC units) and outside the AC plant room (in Package AC units). i) The presence of a fuel.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 Condenser in an Air-conditioning unit It is the unit placed outside the wall (in Window AC units). Website of bureau of energy efficiency www.bee-india.in 2. Website of Ministry of Non-conventional energy sources www. It is used to remove heat gained from air-conditioned area and heat gained from compressor.nic. or combustible substances.com 3. ii) The presence of oxygen (usually as air) or other supporter of combustion. Website www.

potassium. dry powder. where the cooling effect of water is essential for extinction of fires. 19-30/98-PHM dated 11. non. Corporate BSNL India For internal circulation only 13 .E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 Fire extinction. extinguishers suitable for the class of fire involved can be used safely. that in the case of electrical fires. carbon dioxide (without metal horn) should be used. Effective extinguishing agent is generally water in the form of a jet or spray. b) Class B Fires: Fires involving flammable liquids or liquefiable solids.9. and the methods of extinguishing fire may be classified conveniently under the following headings: (a) Starvation (or Removal of the fuel). and only extinguishers expelling dry powder. Extinguishing agents include foam. (b) Smothering / Blanketing (or Removal of the oxygen). in principle.ext Extinguishing agent is special dry powder for metal fire. use of water on live electrical equipments involves risk due to electric shock and it also causes permanent damage to the electrical insulation FIRE PREVENTION & SAFETY IINSTRUCTIONS: A committee was formed for thorough examination of cases of fires in telecom buildings and to suggest measures to avoid such incidents in future.2001 of MSE cell. paper. CLASSES OF FIRE & EXTINGUISHING AGENT: For all practical purposes. and (c) Cooling (or Bringing down the temperature). Remember. Subsequently detailed instructions have been issued on precautions against fire incidents in telephone exchanges / buildings vide letter No. sodium. the basic types of fires can be grouped into following four classes: a) Class A Fire: Fires involving solid combustible materials of organic nature such as wood. such as magnesium. where a blanketing effect is essential. Electrical Fire: Where energized electrical equipment is involved in a fire. and carbon dioxide. aluminum. Once the electrical equipment is deenergized. carbon dioxide. plastics etc. Extinguishing agents include foam. zinc.. where it is necessary to inhibit the burning gas at fast rate. dry powder. consists in the limitation or elimination of one ore more of these factors. rubber. c) Class C Fires: Fires involving flammable gases under pressure including liquefied gases. d) Class D Fires: Fires involving combustible metals.conductivity of the extinguishing media is of utmost importance.

Importance of regular check of earthing and lightening protection to be emphasized. detection and fighting systems are kept in proper shape. both A. “Next check due on …………” kind of notice can be mounted in MDF and exchange in charge’s room to draw attention and enforce regular check.C. As per fire byelaws barriers are already required at the floor crossings. intersuit wiring and subscriber cables should be laid separately. It is felt that barriers should also be created along the horizontal runs of the cables. While laying cables it should be ensured that cables are not laid on sharp edges.E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 Office. (iv) Storage of hazardous materials. New Delhi. (ii) In order to isolate MDF from higher voltages. engineering instructions should be followed. Preventive Measures (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Automatic fire detection system and alarm Fire extinguishers Wet risers in building more than 15 mtr in height. & D. He has to ensure that fire prevention. (iv) The specification of the insulating material of the cables should be reviewed and strengthened with an objective to ensure that the burning of the insulation is confirmed to the barest minimum length of the cable and also it generates minimum smoke. Follow Fire protection manual. (vi) Improper maintenance of Electrical safety devices likes overload relays. interlocking devices. which gives details regarding fire drills and other precautions to prevent fire. Instructions & Suggestions for minimizing fire incidences and also losses on this account: (i) Identification of a Fire warden for each building along with a Deputy. (iii) Barriers should be created at suitable intervals in addition to the requirement of normal fire byelaws while laying cables so that fire in one section does not travel freely along the cables. Preventive measures to eliminate / minimize spread of fire / smoke on account of cables: (i) Power cables. The BSNL India For internal circulation only 14 ..C. (ii) A display board mentioning the next due date for fire drill should be provided. (iii) Short circuit / loose connection / over loading in DC power cables / system. (v) Indiscriminate additions to existing electrical wiring without proper technical examination. which can with passage of time damage the insulation and cause short circuit and also not subjected to any other mechanical strain. so that short circuits and fire prone set of cables does not spread to other cables also. The instructions are summarized below: Major Causes of Fire: (i) Short circuit in switching racks (ii) High voltage reaching MDF on account of telephone lines coming in contact with high voltage lines and also on account of lightening.

packing cases. thermocol etc) and ensuring passages.C power and telephone cables so as to further retard the spread of fire and generation of smoke. Fixing important fire instruction inside each room.E1-E2 Management (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Revision date 22/03/2011 due date should be painted (i. (b) Making additions / alteration in the existing system and use of new gadgets only after clearance from electrical maintenance unit as well as building in charge. (x) Maintenance of fire detection and fire fighting systems in working through specialized agencies by entrusting the same to Electrical wing and ensuring fire drill at regular intervals and certificate. Issuing a personal card to each occupant of the building having instructions regarding steps to be taken in case of fire. Fixing these in common areas is not considered an effective solution.I specifications. Provision of Fire Barrier at all floor / wall crossings of cable laid in exchange. empty drums. (ix) Providing automatic small independent fire quenching systems at important fire prone locations in additions to fire extinguishers as per norms. (xi) In addition to the above. Some other important precautions / safety measures for prevention of fire (as per guidelines issued from time to time) 1) All broken furniture. (a) Observing Engineering instructions with regards to the cable laying particularly in regard to safety from mechanical damage. wooden packing cases and all other un usable items which are liable to catch fire may be disposed off after observing due formalities. 2) To create awareness. fire safety day should be observed. (c) Following the guidelines included in the Fire Manual particularly in regards to keeping buildings free from hazardous materials (dry grass. (viii) Improving quality of insulation of D. already existing instructions on fire control particularly in the following areas need to be scrupulously followed. earthing continuity at joints. This will ensure reading of the instruction by the occupants of the building. 3) The Fire audit of major Telecom installation may be got conducted through the Fire Department 4) Equipment / Materials used in the Telecom building should be of I.e. recorded on a permanent basis and not to be written with chalk).S. Fixing a plate in the MDF room and also in room of senior officer mentioning the next date for earth and surge lightening protector check. 5) Sand buckets should be available in every exchange near the switch room at a reasonable accessible place. Ensuring human presence round the clock in switch room for early detection and fire fighting during initial stages of fire. emergency exits and area around buildings clear of any obstructions. BSNL India For internal circulation only 15 .

The switch over/ change over arrangement between AC units should be operational. 11) Circuit breakers / HRC and other fuses. There should be free access inside the buildings also to enable the fire personnel to control the fire 10) Check that all the window air –conditioners are properly functional and are being maintained properly. Such air-conditioners are not supposed to run continuously. they do not draw excessive current and the temperature is maintained in the switch room at an appropriate level. 7) Key of all rooms in a building shall always be made available with the security personnel with distinct tag with each key for easy identification of the room / door. wherever exist are of specified / matching capacity. 9) Provisioning of adequate space should be there for the movement of Fire Brigade personnel’s around the building.) are fully provided. BSNL India For internal circulation only 16 .E1-E2 Management Revision date 22/03/2011 6) A non-exchange line to the nearest fire station should be provided and check for its function on daily basis. floor etc. The air-conditioners are to be serviced regularly as per schedule. 8) Protective devices in MDF (IPM etc.

E1-E2 Management BSNL India Revision date 22/03/2011 For internal circulation only 17 .