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Muscular system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Muscular system
Bougle whole2 retouched.png
The human muscles, seen from the front. 19th century illustration.
Details
Latin Systema musculare
Identifiers
TA
04.0.00.000
FMA
72954
Anatomical terminology
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardia
c muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates bl
ood throughout the body. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled throug
h the nervous system, although some muscles (such as the cardiac muscle) can be
completely autonomous. Together with the skeletal system it forms the musculoske
letal system, which is responsible for movement of the human body.
Contents [hide]
1
Muscles
1.1
Aerobic and anaerobic muscle activity
1.2
Cardiac muscle
1.3
Smooth muscle
1.4
Skeletal muscle
2
Control of muscle contraction
3
Additional images
4
See also
5
References
6
External links
Muscles
Main article: Muscle
There are three distinct types of muscles: skeletal muscles, cardiac or heart mu
scles, and smooth (non-striated) muscles. Muscles provide strength, balance, pos
ture, movement and heat for the body to keep warm.
Upon stimulation by an action potential, skeletal muscles perform a coordinated
contraction by shortening each sarcomere. The best proposed model for understand
ing contraction is the sliding filament model of muscle contraction. Actin and m
yosin fibers overlap in a contractile motion towards each other. Myosin filament
s have club-shaped heads that project toward the actin filaments.
Larger structures along the myosin filament called myosin heads are used to prov
ide attachment points on binding sites for the actin filaments. The myosin heads
move in a coordinated style, they swivel toward the center of the sarcomere, de
tach and then reattach to the nearest active site of the actin filament. This is
called a rachet type drive system. This process consumes large amounts of adeno
sine triphosphate (ATP).
Energy for this comes from ATP, the energy source of the cell. ATP binds to the
cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments. The release of energy po
wers the swiveling of the myosin head. Muscles store little ATP and so must cont
inuously recycle the discharged adenosine diphosphate molecule (ADP) into ATP ra
pidly. Muscle tissue also contains a stored supply of a fast acting recharge che
mical, creatine phosphate which can assist initially producing the rapid regener
ation of ADP into ATP.
Calcium ions are required for each cycle of the sarcomere. Calcium is released f
rom the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcomere when a muscle is stimulated to
contract. This calcium uncovers the actin binding sites. When the muscle no lon
ger needs to contract, the calcium ions are pumped from the sarcomere and back i

nto storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. .