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8.1 Understanding the properties of alloys and their
uses in industry
8.2 Analysing the production and uses of ammonia in
8.3 Analysing the effects of industrial waste disposal
on the environment
8.4 Realising the need for preservation and
conservation of the environment from industrial
waste pollution for the wellbeing of mankind


Examples of commonly used alloy are _______________________________________ 5. Alloy is the result of mixing of alloying and have _______________________________ 3. 4. Alloying is a process of ___________________________________________________ ________________________________ 2. The properties of the alloy are _____________________________________________ Alloy Duralumin Composition Special properties Steel Stainless Steel Brass Bronze Pewter 2 Uses .1 Understanding the properties of alloys and their uses in industry Alloy 1.8. Mixed pure metals will change the nature of the origin of these metals into a new material with the desired characteristics.

4. The Nature of the Relationship between Alloys with Ordering the Particles 3 . smooth surface and corrosionresistant.hard and resistant to corrosion. Alloy have a more _________________________ than pure metal. the metals must be mixed to form a stronger alloy. beautiful. The pure metal is _____________________ Thus. Most metals that we use in everyday life is an alloy. 3. This is because the alloy is harder. shiny. Alloying change the properties of the metal due to ___________________________________________________________ 2.Alloys and Their Uses 1.

______________________ capable of reaching high speeds (500 km h -1) as a powerful magnet to produce high power engines. Duralumin is used in the __________________________________ as duralumin is _________________________________________ 5. Therefore. Superconducting alloys is also _____________________. Alloy used in the industry because the alloy has better properties than pure metal. Brass is used to make ___________________________________________________ 6. Ω 1. Normal conductor indicate resistance even at a temperature of 0 Kelvin. 5. steel is hard. 8. The resulting superconducting at _________________________ Therefore. Superconductors with strong magnetic field is used as a _________________________ machine. 2. the alloy superconductors must be ________________________________________________ 6. MRI in the medical field. The diagram shows relationship between resistance with temperature for normal conductors and superconductors. Pewter used to make tools such as _________________________________________ Superconductor Alloys Resistant. Bronze can be used to make ______________________________________________ 4. At temperature T1. 3. 4 . Superconducting alloys can _____________________________ that cannot be detected by existing tools. 7. strong and corrosion-resistant and pure iron is soft and easily eroded. Superconducting alloy is an alloy that can ____________________________________ 2. For example. 4.Importance of Alloys in Industry 1. superconductors have ____________________ the high electrical conductivity. steel is widely used in _______________________________ ___________________________________ 3.

2.2 Analysing the production and uses of ammonia in industry Ammonia is a chemical important in the agricultural sector. 8. 3. Urea produced from the reaction of _______________________________________ 4. Urea is a fertiliser used in agriculture. When hydrogen reacts with nitrogen. 5 . ammonia is formed. Superconducting alloys are also designed to ________________________________ in the area of defense. Ammonium Salt Fertilizer Production 1. Most chemical fertilizers are ______________________________________________ 4. Urea has the percent nitrogen content is very high. which is to make ___________ Molecule of ammonia (NH3) is composed of three atoms of hydrogen (H) and one atom of nitrogen (N). 2. Plants need nitrogen to __________________________________________________ 3.9. Ammonium salt produced by the neutralisation reaction between ammonia with acid as shown in the chemical equation below. Fertilizer ammonium salt is a source of nitrogen for plants. Salt Urea Fertilizer Production 1. The reaction produces urea occurs at a temperature of 200°C under a pressure of in the compressor chamber.

In the Haber process. nitrogen and hydrogen gas are mixed and passed through a metal catalyst to form ammonia. Factors that influence the production of ammonia is: a) optimum temperature: ________________________________ • Use of too high temperatures to ______________________________________ ________________________________________________ • The use of very low temperatures ____________________________________ b) pressure: __________________________________________ 6 . 5. The figure below shows the production of ammonia by the Haber process. Ammonia is produced synthetically from nitrogen and hydrogen by the ____________ Ammonia and its compounds are widely used as a fertilizer. 4.Ammonia Production in Industry Usage 1. Haber process is an ____________________________________________________ (reaction forward and backward). Ammonia is produced in the industry through the Haber process. 3. 6. In addition. ammonia is also used in the manufacture of ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.

herbicides and fungicides are toxic and _______________________ • Thrown into the sea. Environmental quality is declining due to _________________________________ __________________________________Removal of industrial wastes from factories _________________________________________________ 2. lead and heavy metal 7 • Soluble in water and drain to cause ___________________in ponds • Can cause___________________ ___________________________ • Some pesticides. insecticides.c) catalyst: ___________________________________________ 8. herbicides and fungicides • Acids and alkalis • Mercury.3 Analysing the effects of industrial waste disposal on the environment 1. asthma and bronchitis • Cause ______________________ ___________________________ Chemical fertilizers such as phosphate and nitrate Pesticides. The table below shows the sources of pollution and the effects of pollutants on the environment. ____________ • May cause ____________________ . Sources of pollution Pollutants Impact on the environment • Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide Combustion of fossil fuels • • • Carbon monoxide • • Carbon dioxide • • Soot • • Radioactive waste The agriculture industry • • • The chemical industry ______________ to the respiratory system and cause tissue damage diseases such as bronchitis _______________ dissolved in rain water form of acid rain corrode buildings. monuments cause the soil is not fertile and kill aquatic life ___________________ that reduces the ability of red blood cells to transport of oxygen causes headache and can lead death Gas cause home green which in turn causes global warming and changes weather Cause ______________ Cause diseases such as cough. insecticides.

c) ____________________ Education is the best way to make people aware of the importance of preserving and conserving the environment. i) of the ______________________________ aims to protect. d) ____________________ Most industrial waste can be reused by other industries. electrostatic precipitator. conserve and enhance environmental quality. For example.Method of Waste Material Removal Control Industry 1. 1979 seeks to __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ b) Use of technology There are ways to handle and dispose of industrial waste such as the use of air cleaners . Pollution caused by industrial waste can be controlled through the following methods: a) Law Enforcement Acts are applicable to the regulation of industrial waste was passed by the Parliament of Malaysia. Types of industrial waste Methods of control Toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide Coal dust toxic waste Waste oil palm radioactive waste 2. organic waste from palm oil processing can be used to ____________________ 8 . the use of _______________________________ ________________________________________________. The table below shows the types of industrial waste and methods of control. use a chimney that is installed with the filter reduces the release of pollutants into the air and the use of solar energy to reduce the generation of waste. ii) of the Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulations .

8.4 Realising the need for preservation and conservation of the environment from industrial waste pollution for the wellbeing of mankind Effects of Disposal of Industrial Waste Not Regulated 1. Disposal of waste uncontrolled and disorganized have an adverse effect on the environment. The environment is clean and not contaminated ensure: a) people can lead a healthy life . 6. d) ____________________________________________ on the firm to practice. the steps can be taken to protect and conserve the environment include: a) to create awareness among people about the importance of a clean environment and work together to maintain the beauty and cleanliness. 7. Examples of conservation is to preserve the forest allow plants and animals to thrive in their natural environment. Effect of disposal of industrial waste uncontrolled and irregular. 5. unpolluted and suitable for living things including humans. Conservation refers to the steps taken to __________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Examples of conservation is the ___________________________ allows us to have ______________________ and not polluted by industrial waste. e) enforce environmental regulations on the firm so that irresponsible practices such as illegal logging and removal of waste materials disorganization occurs. 3. including: a) b) c) d) e) Environmental Preservation and Conservation 1. 9 . 2. Measures to protect and conserve the environment is very important so that the environment will remain clean. Conservation refers to _________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. b) _______________________________________________________________ c) have a strategy and program for the preservation and conservation of the environment. b) plants and animals are protected and do not become extinct. c) the beauty of the environment is maintained.