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Studymate Solutions to CBSE Board Examination 2014-2015

Code No. 55/1/3

Series : OSR/1

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Please check that this question paper contains 26 questions.
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answer script during this period.

PHYSICS (Theory)
[Time allowed : 3 hours]

[Maximum marks : 70]

General Instructions:
(i)

All questions are compulsory.

(ii)

There are 26 questions in total. All questions are complusory.

(iii)

This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iv)

Section A contains (question Nos. 1 to 5) are very short answer type questions and carry one mark
each.

(v)

Section B contains (question Nos. 6 to 10) carry two marks each. Section C contains (question Nos.
11 to 22) carry three marks each and Section D contains value based question (question no. 23)
carry four marks each. Section E contains (questin no. 24 to 26) carry five marks each.

(vi)

There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two
marks, one question of three marks and all three questions of five marks each weightage. You
have to attempt only one of the choices in such questions.

(vii)

Use of calculators is not permitted. However, you may use log tables if necessary.

(viii) You may use the following values of physical constants wherever necessary :
8

c = 3 × 10 m/s
–34

h = 6.63 × 10

–19

e = 1.6 × 10

–7

Js

C
-1

µ = 4 × 10 T mA

1
9
2
–2
40 = 9 × l0 Nm C
DISCLAIMER : All model answers in this Solution to Board paper are written by Studymate Subject Matter Experts.
This is not intended to be the official model solution to the question paper provided by CBSE.
The purpose of this solution is to provide a guidance to students.
55/1/3

1

P.T.O.

SECTION – A
1.

A concave lens of refractive index 1.5 is immersed in a medium of refractive index 1.65. What
is the nature of the lens?

Sol. Since lens < surrounding

2.

It behaves like converging lens.

How are side bands produced?

Sol. Side bands are produced by the method of amplitude modulation.
It produces two new frequencies (fc + fm) and (fc – fm) around original frequency (fc), which are
called side band frequencies.
Upper side band frequency = USB = fc + fm
and Lower side band frequency = LSB = fc – fm.
3.

Graph showing the variation of current versus voltage for a material GaAs is shown in the
figure. Identify the region of
(a)

negative resistance.

(b)

where Ohm’s law is obeyed.

D

C
Current I
B
A
Sol. (a)
4.

E

Voltage V 

DE [ Slope is negative.]

BC [ V  I]

(b)

Define capacitor reactance. Write its S.I. units.

Sol. Opposition offered by the capacitor to the flow of a.c. through it is called capacitive reactance. It
is denoted by XC.
1
1

C 2fC
Its S.I. unit is ohm.
XC 

5.

What is the electric flux through a cube of side 1 cm which encloses an electric dipole?

Sol. Net flux enclosed = 0
Because net charge enclosed by cube = 0.
SECTION – B
6.

Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.

Sol.

1.
2.
3.

55/1/3

Intrinsic semi-conductors
These are pure semi-conducting
tetravalent crystals.

1.

Their electrical conductivity is low.
2.
There is no permitted energy state 3.
between valence band and conduction
bands

2

Extrinsic semi-conductors
These are semi-conducting tetravalent
crystals doped with impurity atoms of
group III or V.
Their electrical conductivity is high.
There is permitted energy state of the
impurity atom between valence and
conduction bands.

P.T.O.

(I1 – Ig) Applyng Kirchoff’s second law to the loop ABDA. we get  55/1/3 3 P.. 1 1 1   v f u Now. the real image is formed beyond 2f. By Malus law.  2f < u < f or  or 1 1  0 2f v 1 1 1   2f u f This implies implies. B Use Kirchhoff’s rule to obtain conditions for the balance condition in a Wheatstone bridge. .O. the inequality v 2f > v or |2f| < |v| [ 2f and v are negative] i. Again. In which position of the polaroid sheet will the transmitted intensity be maximum? Sol. the intensity of light emerging from the polaroid B will be I2 = I1 cos2 (90 – ) = (I0 cos2 ) cos2(90 – ) = I0 cos2  sin2  =  1 I (2 sin  cos )2 4 0 I0 sin2 2 A C 4 Transmitted intensity I2 will be maximum when sin 2 = 1 or 2 = 90° or  = 45°.e. I2  8. the intensity of light emerging from the middle polaroid C. u < 0. Sol. Find an expression for intensity of transmitted light when a polaroid sheet is rotated between two crossed polaroids. (2) On dividing equation (1) by (2). Thus. From mirror formula. The above equations become I I I1P – I2R = 0 or I1P = I2R . we get P Q I1P + IgG – I2R = 0 Ig I1 where G is the resistance of the galvanometer. Also. OR 7. or 1 1 1   2f u f or 1 1 1 1 1 1      f 2f f u f f 1 is negative or v is negative. Use the mirror equation to show that an object placed between f and 2f of a concave mirror produces a real image beyond 2f. Sol.7. So that image is formed on left. for a concave mirror... (1) I2 + Ig D and I1Q – I2S = 0 or I1Q = I2S . will be I1 = I0 cos2 . Therefore. where I0 = intensity of light falling on middle polaroid.. f < 0 and for an object on left. the currents through various branches are as shown in B figure. applying Kirchoff’s second law to the loop BCDB. we get G I2 C A (I1 – Ig)Q – (I2 + Ig)S – G Ig = 0 R S In the balanced condition of the bridge Ig = 0. In accordance with Kirchoff’s first law. intensity I1 falls on the polaroid at the end (polaroid B) whose polarisation axis makes an angle of (90° – ) with the polarisation axis of the angle of middle polaroid.T.

v = speed of particle As. Show that the radius of the orbit in hydrogen atom varies as n2.(i) v = speed in an orbit of radius r.O. The electrostatic force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron is ke 2 r2 To keep electron in its orbit. According to Bohr’s theory. Charge on proton = qp Charge on -particle = q = 2qp and mass of proton = mp mass of -particle = m = 4mp (i) Given  = p  h  2mq V  mqV = mpqpVp  Vp V  h 2m p q pV p mq   4m p  m p q p  m p   2q p    qp      8 1 (ii) As. A proton and an -particle have the same de-Broglie wavelength.. a hydrogen atom consists of a nucleus with a positive charge e and a single electron of charge –e.  = p    h h  m v  m pv p vp v   m 4m p  mp mp 4 1 10. where. Determine the ratio of (i) their accelerating potentials (b) their speeds.m Nucleus ke 2 r ke 2 mv 2 Where. De-Broglie wavelength is given by  h h   p mv h 2mqV . V = accelerating potential. 55/1/3 4 P.P R = Q S This proves the conditon for the balanced wheatstone bridge.. m = mass of electron  +e r . Sol. 9.T. F mv 2 ke 2  2 r r mv 2  r – e. which revolves around it in circular orbit of radius r. the centripetal force on the electron must be equal to the electrostatic attraction. . Therefore. Sol. where n is the principal quantum number of atom.

. ig G V = ig (G + R1) . it experiences a torque.(iv) From (i) and (iii) 2i g (G  R1 )  i g (G  R) 55/1/3 5 P.. Sol.O. State the principle of working of a galvanometer... n = principal quantum number.Bohr’s quantisation condition for angular momentum is nh 2 L = mvr = nh 2mr On substituting (ii) in (i). Find the resistance..(iii) R1 V ig G V 2 ig G 2V From (i) and (ii) 2i g (G  R 2 )  i g (G  R1 )  2G + 2R2 = G + R1  G = R1 – 2R2 . we get v  r r r  .. Also find the resistance G of the galvanometer in terms of R1 and R2.(i) R2 V  i g (G  R 2 ) 2 . Principle: Moving coil galvanometer is based on the fact that when a current carrying loop or coil is placed in the uniform magnetic field.(ii) R 2V = ig (G + R) . If a resistance R2 is connected in series with it...T.(ii) ke2  nh  m   2mr  2 ke2 mn2 h2 4 2 m 2 r 2 ke 2  42 m 2 r 2  mn2 h2 n2 h2 42 mke2 r  n2 r   where.. then it can measure upto V/2 volts. . A galvanometer of resistance G is converted into a voltmeter to measure upto V volts by connecting a resistance R1 in series with the coil. in terms of R1 and R2. SECTION – C 11.. required to be connected to convert it into a voltmeter that can read upto 2V.

V I ( A) (b) I-V character of photodiode for different illumination intensities A photodiode is preferably operated in reverse bias condition. Consider an n-type semiconductor.5 eV or lower so that solar conversion efficiency is better. yet the photodiode works in reverse bias. Working: It is a p – n junction fabricated with a transparent window to allow light photons to fall on it. Define the terms: (a) Input resistance and (b) Current amplification factor. these electron hole pair move in opposite directions so as to produce current in the circuit. This current is very small and is detected by the microammeter placed in the circuit. the fractional increase in majority carries is much less than the fractional increase in minority carriers..e. How are these determined using typical input and output characteristics? 55/1/3 6 P. Consequently. In fabrication of photodiode. A I1 I2 I3 I4 Fig. n>>p.13: (a) Photodiode (R. photodiodes are preferable used in the reverse bias condition for measuring light intensity. material chosen should have band gap ~1..(vi) Using (vi) in (v) G = R – 2R1 G = 3R1 – 2R2 – 2R1 G = R1 – 2R2 12. When illuminated with light.(v) G = R – 2R1 From (iv) and (v) R1 – 2R2 = R – 2R1 R = 3R1 – 2R2 . 13. This is the reason to choose Si or GaAs material.).B. These photons generate electron hole pairs upon absorption.T.. With what considerations in view.2G + 2R1 = G + R . both types of carries increase euqally in number n' = n + n . Hence. a photodiode is fabricated? State its working with the help of a suitable diagram. A photodiode is used to observe the change in current with change in the light intensity under reverse bias condition. B. Its majority carrier (electron) density is much larger than the minority hole density i. What is the reason? Sol. I4>I3>I2>I1 p n I (m A) R.O. . p' = p + p Now n >> p and n = p  n p  n p That is. Draw a circuit diagram of a transistor amplifer in CE configuration.. Eventhough the current in the forward bias is known to be more than in the reverse bias.. the fractional change due to the photo-effects on the minority carrier dominated reverse bias current is more easily measurable than the fractional change in the majority carrier dominated forward bias current. If the juction is reverse biased using an electrical circuit.

1°   d d    600 109 m   0.14 = 34394. . (b) Light of wavelength 5000 Å propagating in air gets partly reflected from the surface of water.C Sol.6 0.4 0. B RB Vi C IB  IC E IE VBB RC  V0 VCC Transistor amplifer in CE configuration (a) Input resistance =  ri = Change in base-emitter voltage Base current VBE  dynamic resistance IB From the input characteristics we can calculate the change in VBE (VBE) and change in IB (IB).343 × 10–3m  55/1/3 7 P.1 180 600 109 180 10 3.90 × 10–8 = 0.2 0. dc  C  ac  dc IB CE From the output characteristics we can calculate the change in IC (IC) and change in IB (IB). (a)  = 600 nm = 600 × 10–9 m  = 0. Find the spacing between the two slits. How will the wavelengths and frequencies of the reflected and refracted light be affected? Sol.343 × 10–3 m = 0. Input characteristics IB 100 (A) 80 60 40 20 10 IC 8 (mA) 6 4 2 VCE = 10V 0 0.O. (b) Current amplification factor ()  I  ac   C   IB  V I .8 VBE(V) Output characteristics 50A 40A 30A 20A IB = 10A VCE (Volts) 14.T. Answer the following questions: (a) In a double slit experiment using light of wavelength 600 nm. the angular width of the fringe formed on a distant screen is 0.1°.

Write in brief. (ii) When iron rod inserted in the inductor L will increase XL will also increase current will decrease so brightness will decrease (iii) A capacitor of reactance XC = XL in series in the circuit. (c) used as a diagnostic tool in medicine.O. (b) used to treat muscular strain. current will increase and brightness will increase. (b) an iron rod is inserted in the inductor and (c) a capacitor of reactance XC = XL is inserted in series in the circuit.  Current is increased and brightness is increased.25 108 m/s 4 2. Sol. due to it circuit attains resonance condition. 55/1/3 8 P. . Total impedance will decrease. Justify your answer in each case.25  108  0.(b)  = 5000Å  C  = 3 108 3 108  10 5000 10 5 107 = 3 1015 5 30 1014 5 = 6 × 1014 Hz. How would brightness of the bulb change when (a) number of turn in the inductor is reduced.375  106 m 6  1014 = 0.375 × 10–6m '  15. An inductor L of inductance XL is connected in series with a bulb B and an ac source. = Frequency of reflected and refracted light is 6 × 1014Hz Velocity of light in water μ= speed of light in air speed of light in water 4 3 108  3 v v = 3 108  3 4 9 108  2. Name the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum which is (a) suitable for radar systems used in aircraft navitation. (i) L  0 16.T. how these waves can be produced. N2 A l If N is reduced L will decrease As XL = L XL will decrease.375 × 10–6 m Wavelength of the refracted light is 0.

8 × 108 m.8  108 x = 13.48  106  15 = 13. This means. (b) If  < 0. Infrared These waves are produced by vibrations of atoms and molecules.0 cm is used.O. 17.Sol. increases. (a) Einstein said that one photoelectron is ejected from a metal surface if one photon of suitable light radiation falls on it.8  108 3.E. Einstein’s photoelectric equation Photon h = 0 + Kmax ½ m2max h = Energy of the photon Photoelectron 0 = Work function of the metal Kmax = Maximum kinetic energy of the emitted photoectron or 1 K max  mv 2max  h  0 2 Kmax = h – h0 Metal whee. Sol. is negative. (a) (b) (c) Microwave These waves can be produced by klystron valve or magnetron valve. If an eye piece of focal length 1. which is impossible. maximum K.73 × 10–2 m 3. than maximum K. the number of incident photon increases. maximum K. Derive the expressions for the threshold wavelength 0 and work function for the metal surface. 0 = threshold frequency of metal surface. This implies photo current is proportional to intensity and radiation. Hence photoelectric emission does not take place for the incident radiation below threshold frequency. Sol. If the intensity of the light is increased. of photoelectrons depends only the frequency of incident light.73 cm x 18. . what is the diameter of the image the moon formed by the objective lens? The diameter of the moon is 3.48  106  15 3.E. Write Einstein’s photoelectric equation and mention which important features in photoelectric effect can be explained with the help of this equation. -rays These waves are produced by the radioactive decay of the nucleus. The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons gets doubled when the wavelength of light incident on the surface changes from 1 to 2. (a) A giant refracting telescope has an objective lens of focal length 15 m. Explanation of features of photoelectric effect.T. what is the angular magnification of the telescope? (b) If this telescope is used to view the moon. which results in an increase in the number of photo-electrons ejected.E. (a) (b) |m| f0 15   1500 fe 1  10 2 Objective lens D = diameter of moon D r = radius of lunar orbit f0 = focal length of objective x = diameter of image of moon tan =   r f0 x x 3. (c) If  > 0. 55/1/3 9 P.48 × 106 m and the radius of lunar orbit is 3.

O.(ii) From (i) and (ii). . 2K max   K max  hc  0 2 hc 0  22 2 . From the relation R = R0 A1/3.Einstein equation corresponding to wavelength 1. where R0 is constant and A is the mass number of the nucleus.T.(i) Einstein equation corresponding to wavelength 2. Explain briefly how one gets the information on the size of the nucleus from this study.  b Nucleus r0 55/1/3 10 P.. K max  hc  0 1 ... Sol. show that nuclear matter density is independent of A. we get hc hc 0  0   1 22 2  hc hc   0  0 1 2 2 2 1 1  0 hc     1 22  2  1 1  0  2hc     1 2 2   2 1  0  hc     1  2   2 hc 1   hc    0   2   1  1  22  1    0  12   0  12 2 2  1 19.. draw the trajectory of -particles in the coulomb field of target nucleus. In the study of Geiger-Marsden experiment on scattering of -particles by a thin foil of gold.

Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion.e. Suppose. gets converted in P.  On account of Coulomb’s repulsive force between nucleus and -particle.014102 u m(13H) = 3.008665 u 1u = 931..E. at the distance of closest approach (r0) the particle stops and it cannot go closer to the nucleus and its K. i. 1 Ze (2e ) mv 2  2 40r0 r0  Ze (2e ) 1  40  mv 2  2  Radius of the nucleus must be approximately equal to the ‘r0’.  Nuclear density Volume of nucleus = 4 3 R 3 4 (R0 A1/3 )3 3 4  R30 A 3  mass of nucleus Density of nuclear matter = Volume of nucleus mA 3m  4 3 R 30 4 R 0 A 3 m = average mass of nucleus     m and R0 are constant  3m 4R 30 Density of nuclear matter is same for all elements.E.O.016049 u m( 24He) = 4.. OR 19.5 MeV/c2 55/1/3 11 P. = 1 mv 2 is directed towards the center of the nuclues 2 of an atom.002603 u mn = 1.E. Calculate the energy release in MeV in the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction: 4 2 3 1 H  1 H  2 He n Using the data: m(12H) = 2. an -particle with initial K. . Show how in both these processes energy is released.T.

Draw the plots of the terminal voltage V versus (i) R and (ii) the current I.011268)u m = 0. how the original message signal is detected from the input AM waves. .011268 µ m = mr – mp = (5.030151u Total mass of the product m p  m ( 24He)  mn = (4. A cell of emf ‘’ and internal resistance ‘r’ is connected across a variable load resistor R. Ex.42MeV 140 235 94 1 1 0n  92 U  54 Xe  38 Sr  2 0n  200. Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fusion It is the phenomenon of breaking of heavy It is the phenomenon of fusing two or nucleus to form two or more lighter nuclei. To obtain modulating signal m(t) the signal in passed through an envelop detector.O. The modulated signal of the form given in (a) is passed through a rectifier to produce the output as shown in (b).5 MeV = 17.016049)u = 5. 11H  11 H  1 H  e     0.  Given equation is 2 1H 4  13 H  2He  n Total mass of the reactant mr  m ( 12H)  m ( 13H) = (2.018883u Energy Released E = mc2 = mc2 = 0.008665)u = 5. which appears in the form of energy as per Einstein equation : E = (m)c2.014102 + 3. using necessary processes and the waveforms. Block diagram of a deterctor AM wave Rectifier Envelope detector Rectified wave AM input wave m(t) Output Output Time Detection is the process of recovering the modutating signal from the modulated carrier wave.030151 – 5.002603 + 1. Sol.4MeV In both the processes. 21.589514 MeV 20. more lighter nuclei to form a single heavy nucleus. This envelop of signal (b) is the message signal.Sol.018883 × 931. 55/1/3 12 P. a certain mass (m) disappears.T. 2 Ex. Draw a block diagram of a detector for AM signal and show.

5 × 10–4F C1C 2  9F C1  C 2 C1 + C2 = 50µF  C1C2 = 450 450 C2 = C 1 C1  450  50 C1 C12 – 50 C1 + 450 = 0 C1  55/1/3 50  2500  1800 2 13 P..5 =  9r  r = 1.045  2 1 (C1  C 2 )V 2  0.5r + 4.  = 5 volt 0. 100V 1  C1C 2  2 C  C 1 100V  2 V  0.5  . Find the values of the emf  and internal resistance r. Also calculate the charge on each capacitor in parallel combination. If the energy stored in the two combinations is 0.T. V V R (a) I (b) Current in circuit is  (R  r ) I R (VA – VB) = V = Terminal voltage = IR R    Ir (R  r ) V   I (R  r ) A  I  r 4  4 r  r B . (1)   0.9 105 F C1  C 2 C1 + C2 = 0. determine the value of C1 and C2. C1 C1 C2 C2 Sol. Sol.5A. the current reduces to 0.. Two capacitors of unknown capacitances C1 and C2 are connected first in series and then in parallel across a battery of 100 V. .25 J respectively.045 J and 0. the current is 1A and when R is increased to 9... (2) 22.O.25 2 C1C 2  0.It is found that when R = 4.

Answer the following questions: (a) What device is used to bring the high voltage down to low voltage of a. Values displaced by teacher  Patient.c.T. current will be constant. . (a)  An electric dipole of dipole moment p consists of point charges +q  and – q separated by a distance 2a apart.8 C1 = 11. (c) SECTION – E 24. Deduce the expression for the electric field E due to the dipole at a  distance x from the centre of the dipole on its axial line in terms of the dipole moment p . The teacher thought it to be an important question and therefore explained to the whole class. current and what is the principle of its working? (b) Is it possible to use this device for bringing down the high dc voltage to the low voltage? Explain. the supply was only 220 V.  Active. ability to make use of subject knowledge of explain practical application. This means we can not get output from transformer. Motivating. which is associated with varying magnetic flux. but in case of dc source. Student has investigative skills.T.O. (b)  Given the electric field in the region E  2 xi. (c) Write the values displayed by the students and the teacher. y x z Sol. because its working is based on electromagnetic induction.8 µF. They asked their teacher this question the next day. while they argued.  Make use of modern technology. find the net electric flux through the cube and the charge enclosed by it. Values displayed by students. It’s working is based on mutual indirection. (a) A step down transformer is used to bring high voltage to low voltage. They did not understand the utility of a such a high voltage. 2200 V” at a substation in the main street. 25  175  11. E  2 p / 4 0 x . (b) No. flux will be constant.     3 Hence show that in the limit x  a. C2 = 38. A group of students while coming from the school noticed a box marked “Danger H. (a) Electric Field at a point on the axial line  E q   E q  55/1/3 a x kq 2 (x  a ) –q +q p kq E q E q 2a (x  a )2 14 P. Sol.2 µF SECTION – D 23.

using suitable diagrams. the difference in the behaviour of a (i) conductor and (ii) dielectric in the presence of external electric field. Define the terms polariazation of a dielectric and write its relation with susceptibility. the electric field is parallel to the faces parallel to xy and xz planes. (i) A 2Q C Conductor E0  external field Ein  internal field created by the redistribution of electrons inside the metal When a conductor like a metal is subjected to external electric field. the electric flux through them is zero. A point charge 2 Q +2Q is placed outside the shell at a distance x from the centre as 2 shown in the figure. (a) (b) Sol.O.T. (ii) Dielectric –+ –+ –+ –+ internal electric field E0 When external electric field is applied. (ii) the electric flux through the shell. This creates on opposite electric field (Ein) that balances out (E0)  The net electric field inside the conductor becomes zero. . – – – – – Metal Ein + + + + + E0 A positive charge is therefore induced on the right hand side. the electrons experience a force in the opposite direction collecting on the left hand side. A thin metallic spherical shell of radius R carries a charge Q on its Q Q is placed at its centre C and another charge surface. (a) Explain.   E  E  q  E q   E   2k px 2 kq 2 (x  a )  kq (x  a )  E  kq 4ax (x 2  a 2 )2  (Parallel to p ) 2 2 (x  a ) E If x >> a (b)  2  In vector form E  2p 3  2p 40 x 40 x 3 Since. Electric flux through the left face L = (EL) (a2) cos 180° = (0) (a2) cos 180° = 0 Electric flux through the right face R = (ER) (a2) cos 0° = (2a) (a2) × 1 = 2a3 Total flux () = 2a3 =  qenclosed 0 qenclosed = 2a3 0 OR 24. dipoles are created (in case of non-polar dielectrics) or dipoles are aligned (in case of polar dielectrics). The placement of dipoles 55/1/3 15 P. Find (i) the force on the charge at the centre of shell and at the point A.

T.dl = 0 × net current enclosed by the circle of radius r = 0 × tota number of turns × I = 0 (n × 2r) I 55/1/3 .dl   Bdl cos    Bdl  B  dl or = B × circumference of the circle of radius r   .   B  dl = 0I  Consider a circle of radius r. . its distance from 2Q is ‘x’.dl   Bdl cos    Angle  between B and dl is 0.   Now..  B . (a) (b) Sol.    B .    B . Use this law to obtain the expression for the magnetic field inside an air cored toroid of average radius ‘r’ having ‘n’ turns per unit length and carrying a steady current I. For the charge at A.. Therefore. the total charge is Q 3Q Q  . An internal electric field is created which reduces the external electric field. the force on the charge placed at the centre of the shell is zero. Depict the magnetic field lines due to the solenoid specifying its polarity and show that its acts as a bar magnet of magnetic moment m = NIA. the electric field at A is  3Q  K  2 E  2  x 1 3Q2  So. Hence.is as shown in the given figure.(ii) 16 P. i.dl  B  2r According to Ampere’s circuital law. the total flux according to 2 Q/2 Q  0 20 State Ampere’s circuital law.. P  e 0 E Where e = susceptibility E = Electric field (b) (i) Since.(i)  B .. 2 2 Since.  The line integral of magnetic field B around any closed path in vacuum is 0 times the total current through the closed path.e.O. the total charge enclosed by the shell is q en  Q . (a) An observer to the left of a solenoid of N turns each of cross section area ‘A’ observes that a steady current I in it flows in the clockwise direction. electric force F = (2Q) × E = 40 x2 (ii) Since. the electric field inside a spherical shell is zero. Polariazation of a dielectric (P) is defined as the dipole moment per unit volume of the polarized dielectric. the shell will behave as if the entire charge ‘Q’ is placed at the centre of the shell. Gauss’s law is   25.

(b) Mutual inductance of two long co-axial solenoids  B1 and B2 – Magnetic fields created by each solenoid.f. The magnetic moment of each turn is I × A. (a) Coefficient of mutual induction (M) or mutual inductance of two coils is equal to the e. The SI unit of M is henry. (c) In an experiment. Since there are N turns the total magnetic moment of the solenoid is m = NIA.T.I.O. As shown in figure (b).  1 and 2 – Flux associated with each solenoid. units. we get B × 2r = 0 (n × 2r) I or B = 0nI Which is the magnetic field due to a toroid carrying current.  I1 and I2 – Current through each solenoid. OR 25. (a) Define mutual inductance and write its S. Find out the expression for the emf induced in the coil C1 due to a change in the current through the coil C2. and record flux associated with S1 1 = N1B2A1 1 = (n1l) (0n2I2) (r12) 1 = M12I2 M12 = 0n1n2 r12 l = 0n1n2Al Similarly pass current through S1 and record the flux associated with S2 2 = N2B1A1 2 = (n2 l) (0n1I1) (r12) 2 = M21I1 M21 = 0n1n2r12 l = 0n1n2Al M21 = M12 = 0n1n2Al 55/1/3 17 P.  N1 and N2 – Number of turns in each coil. (b) Solenoid as a magnetic dipole i S N S NS N S N S NS N d (b) (a) S N (c) Each turn of the solenoid has been replaced by a dipole. the solenoid behaves like a bar magnet with south pole on the left and north pole on the right.  l – Length of each solenoid. two coils C1 and C2 are placed close to each other. Sol. intermediate poles neutralize each other and we are left with the poles at the ends.m. Hence. (b) Derive an expression for the mutual inductance of two long co-axial solendoids of same length wound one over the other. Pass current through S2. induced in one coil when rate of change of current through the other coil is unity.Comparing equation (i) and (ii). .

On both side of central maximum.. If this path difference is .T. for every point in the upper half AC. and path difference between the secondary waves from B and C reaching P will again be /2. The intensity at any point P on the screen depends on the path difference between the waves arsing from different parts of the wavefront at the slit. It is found that  I or  = MI where M is a constant of proportionality and is called coefficient of mutual induction or mutual inductance of the two coils. P is a point of first secondary minimum. the intensity becoming weaker away from the centre. (b) Show that the angular width of the first diffraction fringe is half that of the central fringe. (the wavelength of light used). BP – AP = NQ= a sin   a A   At the central point C on the screen. (b) Central bright lies between      and   a a Angular width of central bright = 2 = first diffraction fringe lies between   55/1/3 2 a . . then P will be point of minimum intensity. Thus. 2a  Diffraction of light at a Single slit A single narrow slit is illuminated by a monochromatic source of light.m. the intensity at C is maximum. then the path difference between the secondary waves from A and C reaching P will be /2. = (c) Sol. All the waves reaching this region are in phase hence the intensity is maximum.f. Source  Path difference. (a) 1  Explain why the maxima at    n   become weaker and weaker with increasing n. there are alternate dark and bright regions. destructive interference takes place at P and therefore.(1)  2 and   a a 18 P. P According to the figure.(c) I = strength of current in coil 2 Coil 2 Coil 1  = total amount of magnetic flux linked with all the turns of the neighbouring coil 1. reaching P is /2. Also. There is a central bright region called as central maximum. there is a corresponing point in the lower half CB for which the path difference between the secondary waves.O. the path difference (BP – AP) From between the two edges of the slit can be calculated. Due to this. The e. The diffraction pattern is obtained on the screen placed infront of the slits. (a) d  d dI  MI  = M = dt dt dt Using Huygen’s construction of secondary wavelets explain how a diffraction pattern is obtained on a screen due to a narrow slit on which a monochromatic beam of light is incident normally. This is because the whole wvaefront can be considered to be divided into two equal halves CA and CB and if the path difference between the secondary waves from A and B is . therefore all path difference are zero and N B  hence all the parts of slit contribute in phase.. the angle  C C a is zero. induced in the neighbouring coil (1) is given by 26.

 Angular width of first difraction fringe is 2     a a a .  maxima gets weaker with increasing n. Draw the ray diagram showing the image formation and deduce the relationship between the object distance and the image distance in terms of n1. i =NOM + NCM tan NIM  i 55/1/3 MN MN  OM MC . Hence obtain the expression for the lens maker’s formula. so that small angle approximation can be made. Therefore. OR 26. (a) R When the image formed above acts as a virtual object for a concave spherical surface separating the medium n2 from n1(n2 > n1). draw this ray diagram and write the similar (similar to (a)) relation. n2 and R.T. (i) In particular NM will be taken to be nearly equal to the length of the perpenedicular from the point N on the principal axis. to another of refractive index n2. and radius of curvature R. as shown in the figure. n1 n2 C O u (b) Sol. We have tan NOM  MN  NOM OM tan NCM  MN  NCM MC MN  NIM MI Now.... The rays are incident from a medium of refractive index n1.. i is the exterior angle. .(2) Hence proved from (1) and (2). (c) For the first maxima of diffraction pattern 2/3rd of the slit is responsible for destructive interference. for NOC. For small angles. Refraction at spherical surface Figure shows the geometry of formation of image I of an object O on the principal axis of a spherical surface with centre of curvature C.O. Hence first maxima is weaker than the central maxima. (a) A point object ‘O’ is kept in a medium of refractive index n1 in front of a convex spherical surface of radius of curvature R which separates the second medium of refractive index n2 from the first one.(i) 19 P. N i n2 r n1 C O P M I R u v Approximation: (i) We take the aperture (or the lateral size) of the surface to be small compared to other distances involved.

.e... by Snell’s law n1 sin i = n2 sin r Or for small angles n1i = n2r Substituting i and r from Equations. MI and MC represent magnitudes of distances. we get :  MN MN   MN MN  n1      n2    OM MC   MC MI  n n  n1 n1  2  2 . r  MN MN  MC MI ..O. (i) and (ii).(ii) Now. Applying the Cartesian sign convention.Similarly.T. ..  OM = – u. from NCI r = NMC – NIM i. v = f   1 1  n2 1    1    f  n1   R1 R 2  ×·×·×·×·× 55/1/3 20 P. MC = + R Substituting these in equation (iii). MI = + v.(iii) OM MI MC Here. OM. we get : (b) n2 > n1 n2 i M n2 n1 n2  n1   v u R n1 r N P C I v R2 I1 v1 n1 n 2 n1  n 2   R2 v v1 … (i) from equation in part (a) n 2 n1 n 2  n1   R1 v1 u … (ii) Adding (i) and (ii)  1 n1 n1 1    (n 2  n1 )    R R v u 2   1  1 1 1  n2 1     1    v u  n1   R1 R 2  u = .