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QCS 2010

Section 6

Part 5

Asphalt Works

Page 1

5. 

ASPHALT WORKS ........................................................................................ 3 

5.1 

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 3 

5.1.1 
5.1.2 
5.1.3 
5.1.4 
5.1.5 
5.1.6 
5.1.7 

Scope
References
Submittals
Quality Assurance
Delivery, Storage and Handling
Inspection Testing and Control
Unacceptable Materials

5.2 

MATERIALS ................................................................................................... 6 

5.2.1 
5.2.2 
5.2.3 
5.2.4 

Fine Aggregate
Coarse Aggregate
Mineral Filler
Bitumen

5.3 

PLANT GENERALLY ..................................................................................... 8 

5.4 

ASPHALT MIXING PLANT ............................................................................ 9 

5.4.1 
5.4.2 
5.4.3 
5.4.4 
5.4.5 
5.4.6 
5.4.7 
5.4.8 
5.4.9 
5.4.10 
5.4.11 
5.4.12 
5.4.13 
5.4.14 
5.4.15 
5.4.16 

General
Automatic Operation
Cold Bins System
Filler Additive System
Drier
Dust Collector
Screens
Hot Bins
Bitumen Storage
Thermometric Equipment
Control of Mixing Time
Pugmill
Temporary Storage of Mix
Safety Requirements
Weigh-Box
Scales or Meters

5.5 

HAULING EQUIPMENT ............................................................................... 13 

5.6 

OTHER PLANT ............................................................................................ 13 

5.6.1 
5.6.2 
5.6.3 

Spreading and Finishing Equipment
Rolling Equipment
Liquid Bitumen Distributor

5.7 

MIX DESIGN OF BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSES ................................. 15 

5.7.1 
5.7.2 

Mix Design Criteria
Mix Design Procedure

5.8 

PRODUCTION OF BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSES .............................. 18 

5.8.1 

Weather Limitations

QCS 2010

CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1.0 Oct 2013















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QCS 2010

Section 6

Part 5

Asphalt Works

Page 2

5.8.2 
5.8.3 
5.8.4 
5.8.5 
5.8.6 

Equipment Required
Survey and Preparation
Heating of Bitumen
Heating of Mineral Aggregate
Proportioning and Mixing

5.9 

DELIVERY SPREADING AND FINISHING .................................................. 20 

5.9.1 
5.9.2 
5.9.3 
5.9.4 
5.9.5 
5.9.6 
5.9.7 
5.9.8 
5.9.9 
5.9.10 

Delivery of Mixes
Spreading and Finishing
Compaction of Mixes
Transverse Joints
Longitudinal Joints
Paving Edges
Breakdown Rolling
Intermediate Rolling
Finish Rolling
Protection of Laid Courses

5.10 

COLD PLANING .......................................................................................... 23 

5.11 

SAMPLING TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE ................................................ 24 

5.11.1 
5.11.2 
5.11.3 
5.11.4 
5.11.5 
5.11.6 
5.11.7 

General
Sampling
Compaction
Mix Composition
Thickness and Level
Evenness of Surface
Pavement Evaluation Techniques

5.12 

PRIME COAT ............................................................................................... 27 

5.12.1 
5.12.2 
5.12.3 
5.12.4 
5.12.5 
5.12.6 

General
Materials
Equipment Required
Surface Preparation
Application
Maintenance and Traffic

5.13 

TACK COAT ................................................................................................ 28 

5.13.1 
5.13.2 
5.13.3 
5.13.4 
5.13.5 
5.13.6 

General
Materials
Equipment Required
Surface Preparation
Application
Maintenance and Traffic

QCS 2010

CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1.0 Oct 2013

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QCS 2010

Section 6

Part 5

5.

ASPHALT WORKS

5.1

GENERAL

5.1.1

Scope

1

Asphalt Works

Add new test for Performance Graded (PG) Asphalt and Polymer
Modified Bitumen (PMB) as follows:
Materials, equipment, and construction of bituminous paving works including prime coating
AASHTO M 320
Performance-Grade Asphalt Binder
and tack coating.
AASHTO M 323
Superpave Volumetric Mix Design
AASHTO R 28

2

Page 3

Related Parts

AASHTO R 29

Part 1, General
Part 3, Earthworks
Part 4, Unbound Pavement Materials.

AASHTO R 35
AASHTO T 40
AASHTO T 44
AASHTO T 48
AASHTO T 55
AASHTO T 240
AASHTO T 313

Accelerated Aging of Asphalt Binder Using a Pressurized Aging
Vessel (PAV)
Grading or Verifying the Performance Grade (PG) of an
Asphalt Binder
Superpave Volumetric Design for Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA)
Sampling Bituminous Materials
Solubility of Bituminous Materials
Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup
Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by
Distillation
Effect of Heat and Air on a Moving Film of Asphalt Binder
(Rolling Thin-Film Oven Test)
Determining the Flexural Creep Stiffness of Asphalt Binder
Using the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)
Determining the Fracture Properties of Asphalt Binder in Direct
Tension (DT)

5.1.2

References

1

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

AASHTO t 314

AASHTO M17 ---------- Mineral Filler for Bituminous Paving Mixtures
AASHTO M20 ---------- Penetration Graded Bitumen
AASHTO M82 ---------- Cut-Back Asphalt (Medium Curing Type)
AASHTO M85 ---------- Portland Cement
AASHTO M140 -------- Emulsified Asphalt
AASHTO M208 -------- Cationic Emulsified Asphalt
AASHTO M226 -------- Viscosity Graded Asphalt Cement
AASHTO R12-85 -----Standard Recommended Practice for Bituminous Mixture Design
Using the Marshall and Hveem Procedures
AASHTO T2 ------------ Sampling Stone, Slag, Gravel, Fine aggregate and Stone Black for
Use as Highway Material
AASHTO T11 ----------- Amount of Material Finer than 0.075 mm Sieve in Aggregate
AASHTO T27 ----------- Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
AASHTO T30 ----------- Mechanical Analysis of Extracted Aggregate
AASHTO T96 ----------- Resistance to Abrasion of Small Size Coarse Aggregate by Use of the
Los Angeles Machine.
AASHTO T104 --------- Soundness of Aggregate by Use of Sodium Sulphate or Magnesium
Sulphate
AASHTO T165 --------- Effect of water on Cohesion of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures
AASHTO T168 --------- Sampling Bituminous Paving Mixtures
AASHTO T176 --------- Plastic Fines in Graded Aggregates and Soils by Use of the Fine
Aggregate Equivalent Test
AASHTO T211 --------- Determination of Cement Content in Cement Treated Aggregate by
the Method of Titration
AASHTO T219 --------- Testing Lime for Chemical Constituents and Particle Sizes
AASHTO T230 --------- Determining Degree of Pavement Compaction of Bituminous
Aggregate Mixture
AASHTO T308 --------- Test for Determining the Asphalt Binder Content of Hot-Mix Asphalt by
the Ignition Method
AASHTO T164 -10 ---- Test for Quantitative Extraction of Asphalt Binder from Hot-Mix
Asphalt
AASHTO T245 -97---- Standard Method of Test for Resistance to Plastic Flow of Bituminous
Mixtures Using Marshall apparatus
ASTM C25 -------------- Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Limestone, Quicklime, and
Hydrated Lime
ASTM C50 ------------- Practice for Sampling, Inspection, Packing and Marking of Lime and
Limestone Products
ASTM C51 ------------- Terminology Relating to Lime and Limestone (as used by the industry)
ASTM C150 ------------- Specification for Portland Cement
ASTM D244 ------------ Test Methods for Emulsified Asphalt
ASTM D 2172-11 ------ Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen From Bituminous
Mixtures.
ASTM D6307-10 ------- Asphalt Content of Hot-Mix Asphalt by Ignition Method

QCS 2010

CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1.0 Oct 2013

The Job Mix Formula shall also establish the mixing temperature and a compaction reference density. laying.Test Method for Compaction and Shear Properties of Bituminous Mixtures by Means of the U.Bituminous mixtures -Test methods for hot mix asphalt BS EN 13108-4 ------. Specifications for hard paving grade bitumens BS 594987:2010 ------. The Contractor shall report all the values obtained in the laboratory design and shall submit these together with a copy of the plotted curves resulting from the tests in an approved form to the Engineer. The Engineer shall decide the optimum binder content based upon the design values submitted by the Contractor and shall notify the Contractor of the value. production and conformity BS 8500 ----------------.Standard Method of Test for the Ten Minute Rotational Test for Aggregates (Immersed Rotational Test) CML 2-97 ---------------.Specifications for paving grade bitumens BS EN 13924:2006 --. Approval certificates for mix designs will not be issued if the above requirements have not been complied with. and load devices.Hot rolled Asphalt BS EN 206-1 ----------. Asphalt Institute -------. compaction and type testing protocols.MS2.Concrete.S. Testing aggregates Part 101 Guide to sampling and test procedures Part 102 Methods of sampling Part 103 Methods for the determination of particle size distribution Part 105 Methods for the determination of particle shape Part 109 Methods for the determination of moisture content Part 110 Methods for the determination of aggregate crushing value Part 111 Methods for the determination of ten percent fines Part 121 Methods for the determination of soundness BS EN 12591:2009 --. The Engineer may require verification of the submitted design before giving approval. proving rings. The Job Mix Formula shall give a combined gradation showing a single definite percentage passing each sieve as well as a percentage of each material to be used in the mix.Bitumen and bituminous binders. BS 812.Concrete.Standard Test Method for Marshall Stability and Flow of Bituminous Mixtures ASTM D6926-10------Standard Practice for preparation of Bituminous Specimens Using Marshall Apparatus ASTM D3387-11 ------. No asphalt works will be allowed to commence before the Contractor receives written approval from the Engineer for his Job Mix Formula.1. performance. 3 The Contractor shall submit full technical details of the cold planning plant proposed for use. 2 The asphalt mix design submission shall include a copy of valid calibration certificates from a calibration service agency approved by the Laboratories and Standardization Affairs (LSA) for the batching plant and the relevant laboratory equipment such as but not limited to balances. Material Specifications.Test Method for Effect of Water on Compressive strength of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures ASTM D6927-06 ------.Standard Method of Test for the Determination of Stability Retention after Water Immersion 5. Specification. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. Specification for transport. Marshall Method of Mix Design CML 1-97 ---------------. The Engineer will test samples of the materials proposed for use in order to check their quality and to check the proposed mix design.Asphalt for roads and other paved area.Bitumen and bituminous binders.Bituminous mixtures .3 Submittals 1 The Contractor shall submit for approval a proposed Job Mix Formula together with all applicable design data at least one month before beginning the work. Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1. Corps of Engineers Gyratory Testing Machine (GTM).QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 4 ASTM D 1075 ---------. BS EN 12697 ----------.0 Oct 2013 .

Delivery of materials produced from commercial manufacturing processes shall be accompanied by the manufacturer's certification and test report showing that the materials comply with the designated requirements. 4 It is the full responsibility of the asphaltic mixture producer to make sure that he requests test results. which prove that the bitumen complies with the specifications. All materials shall be tested and approved before use. Furthermore. issued from the source.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 5 5. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. the asphaltic mixture producer has to perform all the required tests in an approved private laboratory to make sure that the bitumen being purchased complies with the specifications. 2 Where the quality of material from a source of material does not comply with the designated requirements. the Contractor shall furnish material that does comply from other sources.0 Oct 2013 .1. at any time. 3 No change shall be permitted in the source of any of the materials until the technical submissions listed in the specification have been made and approved by the Engineer.4 Quality Assurance 1 The Contractor shall notify the Engineer of the sources of materials and the Engineer shall approve the sources before delivery of materials to the site. The LSA will. take samples from the asphaltic mixtures producer’s plants and test them as part of its quality practice.

e. is the responsibility of the Contractor. filler material. and bitumen binder. 6 The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with a complete report on the origin and composition of all stone and/or gravel aggregates to be used in the work (Aggregate Resources Report) within thirty (30) days prior to the scheduled beginning of the crushing and screening operations.g. Mixture of two different types of rocks. It is also the Contractor‟s sole responsibility to manufacture and haul such aggregates at IA 12/13 C 055 ST Construction of East Corridor P011 (PACKAGE 2) October 2012 C2 / S6 15 Corridor P011 Rev 1. The Contractor shall provide petrographic analysis including x-ray diffraction of clay minerals conducted by a competent independent testing laboratory which shall include reports on the suitability of the proposed materials for their use in concrete and asphaltic mixes. 7 The source and manufacture of the aggregates.0 Oct 2013 CHEC—Construction of /East . fine aggregate.TECHNICAL SUBMISSION SECTION C – PART 2 5. igneous and sedimentary having different specific gravities in a single fraction shall not be permitted. All materials shall comply with the specified requirements for the various aggregates.4 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SECTION 6: ROAD WORKS Quality Assurance Insert new paragraphs 5 to 15 as follows: 5 Bituminous paving courses shall consist of coarse aggregate.1. which shall meet the requirements of the specification.

TECHNICAL SUBMISSION SECTION C – PART 2 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SECTION 6: ROAD WORKS the rates and in the quantities required to complete the work within the specified contract period. 9 All sources of aggregates shall be approved by the Engineer prior to the processing of material from such sources. Approval of specific sources of materials shall not be considered as final approval and acceptance of materials from such sources. 8 Delivery of materials produced from commercial manufacturing process shall be accompanied by the manufacturer‟s certification and test reports showing the materials comply with the specification for which it is stipulated. 15 If the grading and quality of the material delivered to the Site does not conform to the grading and quality as previously inspected and tested. 10 During the execution of the Works variation in the specific gravity of any individual fraction of aggregates used in the asphaltic mixes by more than 0. 14 All processed materials shall be tested and approved before being stored on the Site or incorporated in the Works and may be inspected and tested at any time during the progress of their preparation and use. Questionable materials. or does not comply with the specifications the Engineer reserves the right to reject such material at the Site of the work. IA 12/13 C 055 ST Construction of East Corridor P011 (PACKAGE 2) October 2012 C2 / S6 16 Corridor P011 Rev 1. 13 After having received approval of specific sources of material the Contractor cannot change these without prior written approval of the Engineer.020 may be a cause for rejection of mix design in which case the Engineer may ask the Contractor for a new mix design. extent and quantities which will comply with the specification. An individual source of aggregate is deemed to be a particular location within a quarry or borrow pit where material of a constant specific gravity is obtained (with possible variation due to minor changes in characteristics of rock).0 Oct 2013 CHEC—Construction of /East . 12 Only material from approved sources shall be processed for incorporation into the work. 11 The test certificate obtained by the Contractor or tests performed by the Contractor at his expense are intended to assist him in his estimate of the location. and will no way obviate the need for future testing by the Engineer. when properly processed. The presence of weathered materials discovered in the quarry areas shall be a cause of rejection of the source of materials. pending laboratory testing subsequent approval shall not be unloaded and incorporated with materials previously approved and accepted.

2 Stored material shall be located so as to facilitate their prompt inspection. 4 Where trucks are used to construct stockpiles. the stockpiles shall be constructed one layer at a time with trucks depositing their loads as close to the previous load as possible.1. 5. storage yards. aggregate plant. When conveyor belts are used for stockpiling aggregates.5 Additional Page Delivery. character of materials and determination of temperatures used in the preparation of the asphalt mixes. and their use shall be limited to levelling the deposited material only. even though approved before storage or handling. 3 Handling and stockpiling of aggregates shall at all times be such as to eliminate segregation or contamination of the various sizes and to prevent contamination of materials by dust.6 Inspection Testing and Control 1 For verification of weights and measures. crushers and other facilities used for producing and processing the materials of construction. 6 Intermediate storage of hydrated lime and commercial mineral filler for equipment feeding the asphalt plant shall be silos of adequate size to ensure a minimum of one day's continuous operation.QCS 2010 5. Materials. Stockpiles shall be kept flat and the formation of high cone-shaped piles shall not be permitted.1. Storage and Handling 1 Materials shall be so stored and handled as to assure the preservation of their quality and fitness for use. Stockpile locations and procedures at temporary asphalt plant sites shall be as approved by the Engineer. QCS 2010 QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. 5 Stockpiles of aggregate located at permanent asphalt plant sites shall be separated by bin walls and shall be constructed on asphaltic or concrete floors. the Engineer may require the use of baffle-chutes or perforated chimneys. the Engineer shall at all times have access to all portions of the mixing plant. The use of tractors or loaders to push material deposited at one location to another location in the stockpile shall not be allowed during the construction of the stockpile. All storage locations on land not owned by the Contractor shall be restored to their original condition at the Contractor's expense. may again be inspected and tested before use in the Works.0 Oct 2013 .

5. 7 The loss by the magnesium sulphate soundness test. with other aggregates in proper proportions. the Contractor shall provide a portable coring machine and bits for taking 150 mm diameter full depth cores of all bituminous paving courses. 5 In addition to the foregoing. 7 The loss by the magnesium sulphate soundness test. The coring machine shall be available to the Engineer upon request. Fine aggregate including filler shall be obtained shall be non-plastic and chemically stable. No rejected material. the defects of which have been corrected.0 Oct 2013 . The use of wadi.36mm BS Sieve. The frequency of all sampling and testing shall be as designated. 6 Individual stockpiles of crushed fine aggregate shall have a sand equivalent value of not less than 30. Crushed fine aggregate shall be produced by crushing clean coarse aggregate and shall not be thin. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. asphalt mixes and samples cut from the paving courses after compaction. 3 The Contractor shall arrange for obtaining specimens of materials.2 MATERIALS 5. shall be delivered to LSA no later than 12 hours after compaction of the specimens together with the mix type and project details.1 Fine Aggregate 1 2 1 Fine aggregate is that portion of the mineral aggregate passing the 2. shall be a maximum of 18% for base course and 14% for intermediate and wearing course. beach or dune sand for asphalt works is not Fine aggregate shall consist of crushed hard durable rock and shall be of such gradation that when combined 2 permitted. including the provision of necessary equipment and plant for obtaining these specimens and samples. Fine aggregate is that portion of the mineral aggregate passing the 2.1.2. shall be used until approval has been given by the Engineer. Individual stockpiles of crushed fine aggregate shall have a sand equivalent of not less than 6 45 for base course and not less than 55 for intermediate and wearing course. Samples shall also be taken from completed work to determine compliance. as determined by ASTM C88. Sampling of fine aggregate shall be in accordance with BS EN 12697. 5. 6 On first erecting a batching plant and at least once each three months thereafter the plant shall be calibrated by a calibration service organisation approved by the LSA. as determined by ASTM C 88. clay. Fine aggregate shall consist of crushed hard durable rock and shall be of such gradation that when combined with other aggregates in proper proportions.36mm BS Sieve. the resultant mixture will meet the required gradation. the resultant mixture will meet the required gradation. 5 Fine aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter. shall be a maximum of 18%. The Engineer shall take possession of the samples upon their removal from the roadway unless the Contractor is authorised otherwise 4 In particular. The use of wadi. flaky or elongated. 3 Fine aggregate 4 The source of natural fine aggregate is considered to be the crusher site at which it is produced.7 Unacceptable Materials 1 Materials that do not conform to the designated requirements shall be rejected and immediately removed from the site of the works unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer. This work shall be performed in the presence of the Engineer. from 100% crushed gravel or crushed rock pre-screened to exclude natural uncrushed fine material or weathered unsound fines. one set of three laboratory compacted specimens and one uncompacted coated sample for each mix type and mixer plant for each day’s production.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 6 2 The Engineer shall have authority to instruct sampling and testing of any material supplied to the site from any source whatsoever in order to establish their compliance and to accept or reject as he deems necessary. cemented particles and other extraneous or detrimental materials. beach or dune sand for asphalt works is not permitted.

5.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 7 8 Unless permitted elsewhere in the contract. intermediate. 9 The maximum acid-soluble chloride content shall be 0. Sampling of coarse aggregate shall be in accordance with BS EN 12697. and stockpile) a minimum of 99%the average of the elongation index values of all stockpiles shall not exceed 25% for the by weight of aggregate shall wearing course . the resultant mixture will meet the required gradation. Specific Gravity of individual fraction (size) of approved aggregates shall not vary by more than ± 1%. and the maximum of 10% for aggregate used in wearing and intermediate courses and a maximum of 15% for aggregate used in base course. as determined by ASTM C88. Job materials will be rejected if they are found not to have the characteristics required by the approved job Standard Mix.1 % and the maximum acid-soluble sulphate content shall be 0.36mm BS Sieve. 5. shale. 9 The Contractor shall ensure that the sources of all coarse aggregates have been approved by the Municipality concerned.36mm BS Sieve.0 Oct 2013 . 1 Coarse aggregate is that portion of the mineral aggregate retained on the 2. The flakiness index of each or detrimental material.5 %. The degree of crushing shall be such that a clean and free from organic minimum of 99% by weight of aggregate (of each stockpile) having at least one fractured matter. Coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed natural stones and gravel. Should a change in a material be encountered or should a change in a source of material be 10 11 12 made a new job-standard mix shall be submitted by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer before the mix containing the new material is delivered. flaky or elongated. shall be a maximum and the average of the of 25% for wearing course aggregate and 30% for intermediate and base courses elongation index values of aggregate. intermediate.5% except for base course where it shall not exceed 2. cemented particles and Coarse aggregate shall be other extraneous or detrimental material. clay. 30% all courses. stockpile shall not exceed 25% for wearing course and 30% for intermediate and base The degree of crushing shall be such that (for each courses. 7 Unless permitted elsewhere in the contract. No rounded or sub-rounded particles shall be permitted. 2 The source of crushed aggregate is considered to be the crushing site from which it is produced. No rounded or subrounded particles shall be permitted.2. hydrated lime. It shall be free from QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. clay. the aggregate type for wearing. etc. and the elongation index of each stockpile shall not exceed 30% all courses. Crushed particles shall be cubic and angular in shape and shall not be thin. The loss by the magnesium sulphate soundness test. shall be a and 30% for intermediate and base courses. Crushed particles shall be cubic and angular in shape and shall not be thin. The gradation shall be such that when combined with other aggregate fraction in proper proportions. all stockpiles shall not exceed 25% for the wearing course. 6 The aggregate crushing value. 10 The fine aggregate shall have a maximum plasticity index of 4% when sampled from stockpiles and shall be non plastic when sampled from hot bins. Coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed natural stones and gravel. The fine aggregate shall be non-plastic. and base courses shall be Gabbro. Coarse aggregates shall be of uniform quality and free from decomposed stone. as determined by ASTM C elongation index of each 4 88. the resultant mixture will meet the required gradation. the aggregate type for wearing. flaky or elongated. have at least one fractured face and 85% having at least two fractured faces.3 Mineral Filler 1 Mineral filler when separately supplied from an external source shall consist of finely ground mineral matter such as rock dust. 3 3 Coarse aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter. as determined by ASTM C131/C535. The gradation shall be such that when combined with other aggregate fraction in proper proportions.2. shall be a maximum of 12% for base course and 10% for intermediate and stockpile shall not exceed wearing course. The flakiness index of each stockpile shall not exceed 25% for wearing course 4 The loss by magnesium sulphate soundness test. The Contractor shall ensure that the sources of all fine aggregates have been approved by the Municipality concerned.2 Coarse Aggregate 1 Coarse aggregate is that portion of the mineral aggregate retained on the 2.5 The Los Angeles Abrasion Loss.0% when tested in accordance with BS 812. cemented face and 85% having at least one fractured face and 85% having at least two fractured particles and other extraneous faces. as determined by BS 812: Part 110 shall be a maximum of 20% for the wearing course aggregate and a maximum of 25% for the intermediate and base courses aggregate. cement or other material which can satisfy the Engineer will produce asphalt mixes of at least equal quality. 8 The average water absorption by the aggregate for all courses shall not exceed 1. and base courses shall be Gabbro.

4 The Engineer shall have the right to stop the use of any equipment or plant which he deems to be inferior to the quality required or detrimental to the permanent works and to instruct the removal of such equipment and to have it replaced by suitable equipment. 2 The bitumen shall be prepared by the refining of petroleum. 2 If required the Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with the manufacturer's catalogues. the plant shall be calibrated by a calibration service organisation approved by the LSA.075 % Mass Passing 100 95-100 90-100 70-100 2 Hydrated lime shall conform to the definitions given in ASTM C51. Equipment approved for use shall not be removed from the Site without the approval of the Engineer. it shall meet the requirements of EN 197-1. The Engineer shall have the right to expel any operators. calibrated by a calibration service organisation approved by the Central Materials Laboratory. carried out to 360°C.150 0. shall be thoroughly dry and free from agglomerations. the plant shall be 3 On first erecting a batching plant and at least once each three months thereafter.2.0 Oct 2013 . Storage and use of the hydrated lime shall at all times be such as to protect the material from the weather. The residue from the distillation test.300 0. 5 The Contractor shall immediately comply with such instructions without being entitled to any indemnities or extensions as a result of such instructions. Sampling. The Engineer shall approve the machinery and tools before works begin and the Contractor shall supply adequate quantities of such machinery in order to execute the work with due speed and precision. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. The Contractor shall maintain and preserve them for the whole duration of the work. 3 On first erecting a batching plant and at least once each three months thereafter. shall be non-plastic and shall meet the following grading requirements: BS Sieve (mm) 0. mechanics or labour and to instruct suitable replacement thereof at any time he deems such action is necessary. It shall be uniform in character and shall not foam when heated to 175°C. packaging and marking of hydrated lime shall be in accordance with ASTM C50. and the Contractor shall undertake to follow sound technical methods in operation and to engage skilled and trained operators. Blending of bitumen materials from different refineries will be permitted only with the written approval of the Engineer. 5. 3 When cement is used as mineral filler.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 8 organic substances and clay.4 Bitumen 1 The bitumen specified for use in the asphalt mixes shall be 60/70 penetration grade in accordance with BS EN 12591 and shall only be obtained from approved sources. The Contractor shall not be allowed to use any equipment or plant before obtaining the approval of the Engineer. Production shall not be permitted if the weigh batch calibration does not comply with the requirements of BS EN 206 / BS 8500.600 0. 3 The prime coat shall be cutback bitumen consisting of a 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and kerosene. 5.3 PLANT GENERALLY 1 The machinery and tools used in constructing the various items involved in asphalt works shall be in good working condition and free of oil and fuel leaks. shall be a minimum of 55% (by volume). as determined by the difference method. mechanics and labour to carry out the works. specifications and other published data for the equipment and machinery he proposes to use.

the bitumen will be required to meet the requirements of TP 70 – Figure 2. 6 The Bitumen Grade PG 79-10 shall conform to the requirements listed in Table 5. V.TECHNICAL SUBMISSION SECTION C – PART 2 5. EN and BS International Standards and Test method. 2 The bitumen shall only be obtained from approved sources. (°C) < 76 Minimum pavement design temperature. (°C) Flash Point Temperature. 3 The bitumen shall be prepared by the refining of petroleum. and E specifications Test Standard AASHTO Specification ASTM Original Binder Average 7 days maximum pavement design temperature. Table 5. V. 5 When bitumen grades PG76-10 H.4 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SECTION 6: ROAD WORKS Bitumen Delete all paragraphs and substitute with the following: 1 The bitumen specified for use in the asphalt mixes shall meet the requirements of AASHTO MP 19 and equivalent ASTM. Minimum (°C)b IA 12/13 C 055 ST Construction of East Corridor P011 (PACKAGE 2) >-10 T48 - 230 October 2012 C2 / S6 18 Corridor P011 Rev 1.2. 4 Blending of bitumen materials from different refineries will be permitted only with the written approval of the Engineer.0 Oct 2013 CHEC—Construction of /East .1 Passing % recovery.4: Bitumen PG76-10 H. It shall be uniform in character and shall not foam when heated to 175°C.4. or E are specified.

b Pavement temperatures are estimated from air temperatures using an algorithm contained in the LTPP Bind program may be provided by the specifying agency or by following the procedures as outlined in M 323 and R 35.0mm/min). Failure Strain. max 75% Test temperature.0 MPa at 60 seconds m-value Minimum. Minimum. Stiffness. 1. 5000kPae Test Temperature (°C) at 10rad/s Physical Hardening Report Creep Stiffness.a.2. Test Temperature (°C) 37 37 0 0 a MSCR testing on RTFO residue should be perform at the PG grade based on the environmental high pavement temperature. Percent 1% MSCR TP70 Standard Traffic “S” Grade Jnr3.TECHNICAL SUBMISSION SECTION C – PART 2 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SECTION 6: ROAD WORKS Viscosity Maximum. 3Pa. G*/sinδ. max 75% Test temperature. Maximum. 5000kPae Test Temperature (°C) at 10rad/s Dynamic Shear.2.50 kPa-1 Jnrdiff. °C MSCR TP70 Very Heavy Traffic “V” Grade Jnr3. Grade bumping is accomplished by requiring a lower J nr value while testing at the environmental temperature.2. T315 “S” Grade. T314 1. 0.00kPa Test Temperature (°C) at 10rad/s T315° - 135 76 Rolling Thin Film Oven (T240) or Rolling Thin Film Oven (T179) Mass Loss. max 75% Test temperature. °C Pressurized Aging Vessel Residue (R28) PAV Aging Temperature (°C) 76 76 76 76 110 Dynamic Shear. T313 300. Test Temperature (°C)b T316° Dynamic Shear. Minimum.0% (loading rate of 1. “E” Grades. Minimum. max 0. max 4.2.0 kPa-1 Jnrdiff. max 75% Test temperature. Minimum.0 Oct 2013 CHEC—Construction of /East . T315 “H”. S. Maximum.300 at 60 seconds Test Temperature (°C) Direct Tension. IA 12/13 C 055 ST Construction of East Corridor P011 (PACKAGE 2) October 2012 C2 / S6 19 Corridor P011 Rev 1. G*/sinδ. °C MSCR TP70 Extreme Traffic “E” Grade Jnr3. max 4. G*/sinδ. excluding the provisions for “grade bumping”. “V”. °C MSCR TP70 Heavy Traffic “H” Grade Jnr3.0 kPa-1 Jnrdiff.0 kPa-1 Jnrdiff. max 2.

If the creep stiffness is between 300 and 600 MPa. f The mass charge shall be less than 1. The m-value requirement must be satisfied in both cases. However. 8 The PG binder shall show no separation upon mixing with the modifier either when the binder is blended by the method of injection into the asphalt line/mixer or when the binder is blended on site in continuously agitated tanks. the bulk tankers must have good heating and circulation systems and shall have good functional insulation that can maintain the same temperature. the direct tension test is not required. 12 When the Bitumen or PMB is transported in bulk tankers or in drums. the contractor shall ensure proper circulation or agitation in storage if separation of the modifier is suspected. No drop in temperature exceeding 10°C/day shall be allowed. g The PAV aging temperature is based on simulated climatic conditions and is one of three temperatures. d For quality control for unmodified asphalt binder production. the PAV aging temperature for PG 70-xx and above may be specified as 110°C. Normally the PAV aging temperature is 100°C for PG 58-xx and above. the direct tension failure strain requirement can be used in lieu of the creep stiffness requirement. in desert climates.0 Oct 2013 CHEC—Construction of /East . IA 12/13 C 055 ST Construction of East Corridor P011 (PACKAGE 2) October 2012 C2 / S6 20 Corridor P011 Rev 1. measurement of the viscosity of the original asphalt binder may be used to supplement dynamic shear measurements of G*/sinδ at test temperatures where the asphalt is a Newtonian fluid. 10 The PMB shall provide high cohesion when combined with mineral aggregate and shall offer good elastic recovery after relief. 9 As the performance graded bitumen containing polymer modifiers is susceptible to separation of the modifier.00 percent for either a positive (mass gain) or a negative (mass loss) change. 100°C or 110°C. 7 The contractor shall submit samples of the bitumen and PMB that he proposes to use in the work together with a statement as to its source and properties approved by the Engineer at least 45 days before the asphalt works begins. e G*/sinδ = high temperature stiffness and G* sinδ = intermediate temperature stiffness. 90°C. 11 PG binder or polymer modifier supplier instructions with regard to the recommended application and storage shall be carefully followed.TECHNICAL SUBMISSION SECTION C – PART 2 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SECTION 6: ROAD WORKS c This requirement may be waived at the discretion of the specifying agency if the supplier warrants that the asphalt binder can be adequately pumped and mixed at temperatures that meet all applicable safety standards. h If the creep stiffness is below 300 MPa.

filler and bitumen.4 1 Filler Additive System 2 The filler additive system shall be interlocked with the aggregate cold feed system in order to provide continual supply with the aggregate. mixing and discharge are accomplished by one operation without manual control of the separate phase.3 1 The use of manual and semi-automatic plants for the production of asphalt is not permitted unless specific approval is given in writing by the Engineer.4. date and time of production. total bin for each different stockpile of material being used. Positive interlock shall be provided so that proportioning. i. entering the asphalt plant drier. 2 Intermixing of material from different stockpiles in one bin or on the ground before putting into the bin is prohibited. Each cold bin shall include an accurate means for continuously feeding the required amount of mineral aggregate so that uniform production is achieved. The capacity QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. The above printout is to be provided to the Engineer for each production day. 2 The Engineer may permit the use of continuous drier drum type mixing plants after a fully detailed technical submission by the Contractor itemising the differences from the specification. Change of settings shall be made only with the approval of the Engineer.e. Baffle plates shall also be used between bins to prevent overflow of one bin into another.2 Automatic Operation 1 The plant shall be designed. Baffle plates shall also be used between bins to prevent overflow of one bin into another. bitumen content.0 Oct 2013 . Each cold bin shall include an accurate means for continuously feeding the required amount of mineral aggregate so that uniform production is achieved. mixing time and cycle. The plant shall include a sufficient number of cold storage bins so that there is at least one mix type. 3 The cold bins and loading equipment used shall be compatible to prevent overflow between the bins. 3 The use of manual and semi-automatic plants for the production of asphalt is not permitted unless specific approval is given in writing by the Engineer. enclosed storage sheds with concrete flooring and storage silos. 3 5. In such cases after approval of the technical submission the Contractor shall carry out a full scale laying trial with testing of the hot and laid mix and monitoring of the plant operation by the Engineers staff to assess the suitability of the proposed plant. production in a given day. The settings on the cold bins shall not be altered An approved filler additive system shall be provided. The cold bins and loading equipment used shall be compatible to prevent overflow between the bins. together with the dry and wet mixing cycles are all controlled automatically. 3 Adequate precautions shall be taken to protect the filler from loss or damage due to the weather.4. 2 The plant shall be equipped and operated so that the proportioning of the hot aggregate. 3 No laboratory verification or plant trial shall be carried out by the LSA unless an automatic compaction apparatus is available at the producer’s laboratory. Plant shall be required to be equipped with the Cold Bins System facilities to provide computer printout indicating the quantity of materials used in batch against target setting the hot bin fractions.4 ASPHALT MIXING PLANT 5.4. 3 5.4.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 9 5.1 General 1 All plant used by the Contractor for the preparation of asphalt hot mixes shall be batch type plants conforming to the requirements as detailed below. This system shall uniformly feed the from the correct required quantities of filler to the total aggregate and thoroughly mix these materials before calibrated settings without the approval of the Engineer. co-ordinated and operated so as to continually produce an asphalt mix within the job mix tolerances specified. The settings on the cold bins shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be checked and calibrated as often as he may deem necessary to ensure their continued accuracy. 5.

Before permitting the return of such collected dust. 5. The mixture may then be transferred directly to the asphalt plant drier or stockpiled for later use. This device shall thoroughly mix the filler. They shall be arranged to ensure separate and adequate storage of appropriate fractions of the aggregate.4. The second slurry chamber shall contain the mixed slurry and shall be provided with an accurate metering device with well defined settings to enable easy checking. 6 The filler system shall also include a mixing device. water and total aggregate so that the resultant mixture is uniform in appearance and moisture content. 5 When filler is added as a slurry.075mm shall be fed back into the system. Before permitting the return of such collected dust. smoke and any other pollutant to the atmosphere. The second slurry chamber shall contain the mixed slurry and shall be provided with an accurate metering device with well-defined settings to enable easy checking. The drier shall be capable of uniformly drying and heating the aggregate to the moisture and temperature required without leaving any visible burned oil or carbon residue on the aggregate when discharged from the drier.4.6 Dust Collector 1 The plant shall be provided with a dust collector designed to waste. They shall have capacities equal to or greater than the maximum rated capacity of the plant. . Both chambers shall be equipped with continuous mixing paddles or recirculating pumps in order to prevent the slurry mixture from separating.4.075mm shall be collected in the system and disposed of in an appropriate manner. Both the filler and water additive devices shall have well defined controls to enable easy checking. Mixed material that remains in the stockpile for more than 30 days may require additional treatment. Bins shall be so constructed that samples can be readily obtained therefrom. 5. Particles smaller than 0. This screen tolerance shall not invalidate the job mix tolerances specified. Particles larger than 0. 3 All plants used for preparation of bituminous mixtures shall consist of an effective filter system to prevent the escape of dust. the Contractor will examine its characteristics in relation to the mix requirements and will designate the quantity to be returned. setting and calibration. An additional dry-storage bin shall be provided for commercial mineral filler and provision shall be made for proportioning this filler into the mix. augers and the like may be required to ensure the uniform and continuous flow of filler. setting and calibration. Both chambers shall be equipped with continuous mixing paddles or recirculating pumps in order to prevent the slurry mixture from separating. 5 When filler is added as slurry. 5. One chamber will be used for proportioning the filler and water into slurry consistency. the filler storage silo and the feeder shall have satisfactory means of preventing arching or intermittent flow. They shall have an operating efficiency such that the aggregate deposited in any bins shall not contain more than 10 % oversize or undersize material. 5. Each compartment shall be provided with an overflow pipe that shall be of such size and at such location as to prevent any backing up of material into other bins or against the screens.7 Screens 1 Plant screens shall be capable of screening all aggregates to the specified sizes and proportions. One chamber will be used for proportioning the filler and water into slurry consistency as directed by the Engineer. When added dry. The screens shall be placed directly above the storage bins for the heated aggregate and shall receive the material coming from the drier. A sufficient number of vibrators. 4 Filler may be added dry or in slurry form. the Engineer will examine its characteristics in relation to the mix requirements and will designate the quantity to be returned. Dust return shall not be permitted without the approval of the Engineer.8 Hot Bins 1 The plant shall include at least three storage bins for hot aggregate of sufficient size to supply the pugmill when it is operating at full capacity.5 Drier 1 A drier of satisfactory design shall be provided. The plant shall have a screen cover and housing to ensure the proper control of dust. The plant dust collection system shall collect dust being ejected by the use of stacks. or to return in a constant and uniform flow to the hot elevator. or to return in a constant and uniform flow to the hot elevator.4. setting and calibration. a minimum of two slurry chambers will be provided.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 10 of all components of the filler additive system shall be such as to ensure the continuous application of filler as specified. 1 2 The plant shall be provided with a dust collector designed to waste. all or part of the material collected. all or part of the material collected. a minimum of two slurry chambers will be provided.

mercury-actuated thermometer. The heating shall be accomplished by steam coils. 2 The plant shall be further equipped with either an approved dial-scale. 3 The storage tank capacity shall be sufficient for at least one day's operation.9 Bitumen Storage 1 Tanks for storage of bituminous material shall be equipped for heating the material using positive and automatic control at all times.11 Control of Mixing Time 1 The Plant shall be equipped with positive means to govern the time of mixing and to maintain it constant unless changed at the direction of the Engineer. hot oil. It shall be so designed as to permit visual inspection of the mix. The mixer capacity shall be not less than 600 kg per batch and shall be so constructed as to prevent leakage of contents. weigh buckets. 3 The mixer shall be enclosed and shall have an accurate time lock to control the operation of a complete mixing cycle by locking the weigh box gate after the charging of the mixer until the closing of the mixer gate at the completion of the cycle.10 Thermometric Equipment 1 An armoured thermometer reading from 38 °C to 204 °C shall be fixed in the bituminous feed line at a suitable location near the discharge valve. The outlet shall consist of a valve installed in such a manner that samples may be withdrawn from the line slowly at any time during plant operation. Similar devices shall be fixed in the heating and storage tanks. or other approved thermometric instruments placed at the discharge chute of the drier and in the hot fines bin so as to register automatically or indicate the temperature of the heated aggregates. an electric pyrometer. Suitable means shall be provided either by steam or hot oil jackets or other insulation for maintaining the specified temperature of the bituminous material in the pipeline.4.0 Oct 2013 . For better regulation of the temperature of the aggregates. It shall lock the bitumen supply throughout the dry mixing period and shall lock the mixer gate throughout the dry and wet mixing periods.4.12 Pugmill 1 The pugmill shall include equipment to deliver the bituminous materials in a thin uniform sheet or in multiple sprays over the full length of the mixer. spray bars. and other containers and flow lines. 2 The circulating system for the bituminous material shall be of adequate size to ensure proper and continuous circulation during the entire operating period. 5. 2 The batch mixer shall be an approved twin pugmill type. electricity or other approved means such that no flame shall come in contact with the bitumen or heating tank. to a temperature within the specified range. The location of the sampling outlet shall be readily accessible and free from obstruction. replacement of any thermometer by an approved temperature recording apparatus may be required by the Engineer and he may further require that daily temperature charts be submitted to him by the Contractor. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 11 5.4. The dry mixing period is defined as the interval of time between opening of the weigh box gate and the start of application of bitumen. meters. Two or three vertical slots may be cut in the return line above the high level mark to break vacuum when reversing the pump.4. A drainage receptacle shall be provided for flushing the outlet before sampling. Circulation return lines to the asphalt storage tanks should be submerged to the same elevation in the storage tanks as the feeder line. 5. capable of producing a uniform mixture within the job-mix tolerances. 4 The Contractor shall provide a sampling outlet in the bituminous material feedline connecting the plant storage tanks to the bituminous material weighing or metering box. 5.

Scales and meters that require frequent adjustment shall be replaced. 5. Scales shall be constructed and located so as to prevent vibration in the dial pointer.4. suspended on scales. All gears. The clearance of blades from all fixed and moving parts shall not exceed 19 mm except in the case of aggregates having a nominal maximum size of over 25 mm in which case the clearance shall be so adjusted as to prevent undue breakage of the coarse aggregate during the mixing operation. pulleys. Ample and unobstructed passage shall be maintained at all times in and around the truck loading space. Hoppers or silos shall be of such design that no segregation or loss in temperature of the mix occurs. The skips or elevators shall not be sprayed with diesel or other solvents. a hoist or pulley system shall be provided to raise or lower the equipment from the ground to platform or vice versa. sprockets and other dangerous moving parts shall be thoroughly guarded and protected. All gears. 1 Adequate and safe stairways to the mixer platform and guarded ladders to other plant units shall be placed at all points required for accessibility to all plant operations. The control of the time shall be flexible and capable of being set at intervals of not more than five seconds throughout cycles up to three minutes.13 Temporary Storage of Mix 1 Plants may be equipped with skips or elevators for delivering batched mix to hoppers or silos before discharging to hauling units.3 of this Part. Accessibility to the top of truck bodies shall be provided by means of a platform or other suitable device to enable the Contractor to obtain mixture temperature data. sprockets and other dangerous moving parts shall be thoroughly guarded and protected. The mixer shall be equipped with a sufficient number of paddles or blades in a suitable arrangement to produce a proper and uniformly mixed batch. To facilitate handling scale calibration equipment and sampling equipment.4. 2 The weigh-box or hopper shall be supported on fulcrums and knife edges so constructed that they will not be easily thrown out of alignment or adjustment. All edges. Scales and meters shall be substantially constructed. This space shall be kept free from drippings from the mixing platform. 5. 2 Scales for weighing aggregate and mineral filler may be either the beam or springless dial type and shall be of standard make and design. ends and sides of weighing hoppers shall be free from contact with any supporting rods and columns or other equipment that will in any way affect the proper functioning of the hopper. Ample and unobstructed passage shall be maintained at all times inand around the truck loading space.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 12 4 The wet mixing period is the interval between the time the bituminous material is spread on the aggregate and the time the mixer gate is opened. Graduation intervals shall be not more than 1 All scales and meters shall be calibrated as detailed in Sub-Clause 5. 5. chains. The discharge gate of the weigh-box shall be so hung that the aggregate will not be segregated when dumped into the mixer and shall close tightly when the hopper is empty so that no material is allowed to leak into the batch in the mixer during the process of weighing the next batch. A mechanical batch counter shall be so designed as to register only completely mixed batches. where necessary they may be sprayed with a minimum amount of lime water. To facilitate handling scale calibration equipment and sampling equipment. chains.14 Safety Requirements 1 Adequate and safe stairways to the mixer platform and guarded ladders to other plant units shall be placed at all points required for accessibility to all plant operations. pulleys. soap or detergent solution.4. ample in size to hold a full batch without hand raking or running over. 3 There shall also be sufficient clearance between hoppers and supporting devices to prevent accumulations of foreign materials.15 Weigh-Box 1 The plant shall include means for accurately weighing each size of aggregate in a weigh-box or hopper.16 Scales or Meters 1 Scales or meters used for proportioning aggregates. This space shall be kept free from drippings from the mixing platform. 5. Production shall not be permitted if the weight batch calibration fails. . mineral filler and bitumen shall be accurate to 1 % of the indicated quantity.4. a hoist or pulley system shall be provided to raise or lower the equipment from the ground to platform or vice-versa. Accessibility to the top of truck bodies shall be provided by means of a platform or other suitable device to enable the Engineer to obtain mixture temperature data.

5. capable of spreading and finishing the mixture true to line. 3 Any truck causing excessive segregation of material by its spring suspension or other contributing factors.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 13 0. or that shows oil leaks in detrimental amounts. The minimum gradation shall be not more than 1 litre or 1 kg. be sprayed with a minimum amount of soapy water or lime solution to prevent the bituminous mix from adhering to the bed. 5 The Contractor shall provide an adequate number of trucks of such size. 3 Any truck causing excessive segregation of material by its spring suspension or other contributing factors. Production shall not be permitted if the weight batch calibration does not comply with the requirements of BS EN 206 / BS 8500. 5 The Contractor shall provide an adequate number of trucks of such size. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1.5 HAULING EQUIPMENT 1 Vehicles used for the transport of aggregates or bituminous mix shall have tight. Use of diesel or other solvents to spray in the truck bed is prohibited. the truck shall be raised and thoroughly drained and no excess solution shall be permitted. or that causes undue delays.3.0 Oct 2013 . Bituminous scales and weigh buckets shall be such that the required amount of bitumen is provided in a single weighing and delivered to the pugmill without loss due to overflow. 5 Bituminous weigh buckets shall be satisfactorily insulated to prevent loss of heat in the bitumen or accumulation of bitumen in the bucket. 4 Bituminous material shall be automatically proportioned by either weighing or metering.6. be removed from the work until such faults are corrected. Bituminous metering devices shall be rotating positive displacement pumps and shall be capable of providing the designated quantity of material for each batch. or that shows oil leaks in detrimental amounts. 4 End dump trucks shall be equipped with chains on the tail gates for control when dumping the mix into the paving machine. if required.1 % the nominal scale capacity. 6 All scales and meters shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be checked and calibrated as detailed in Clause 5. 2 Provision shall be made for covering truck loads with canvas or other suitable material of such size that the bituminous mix is fully covered. upon the instruction of the Engineer. speed and condition to ensure orderly and continuous progress of the work. screenings. petroleum oil and volatile or other mineral spirits which may affect the material being hauled. shall be removed from the work until such faults are corrected. self-powered electronic controlled floating screed type. speed and condition to ensure orderly and continuous progress of the work all to the approval of the Engineer. Dial scales shall be equipped with adjustable pointers for controlling automatically the weighing of each aggregate and filler.6 OTHER PLANT 5. The vehicle metal bed shall. After spraying. grade and required crown. The pointer shall be set close to the dial face to prevent excessive parallax and all dial faces shall be so located that they will be in plain view of the operator at all times. Hauling trucks shall not be routed over wet or muddy access ways such that tyres accumulate dirt that is deposited on the laying surface. clean and smooth insulated metal beds and shall be free from dust. 5.1 Spreading and Finishing Equipment 1 The asphaltic mixture shall be fed to the paver by end tipping of the truck or by means of a windrow elevator. shall. or that causes undue delays. The equipment for spreading and finishing the asphaltic mixtures shall be of an approved mechanical. splashing or spillage. 3 Weighing sequence of hot aggregates shall progress from coarse to fine.

2 The pavers shall be self-propelled and equipped with hoppers and distributing screws of the reversing type to place the mixture uniformly in front of adjustable electronic controlled screeds. it is found that the spreading and finishing equipment in operation leaves in the pavement surface tracks or indented areas or other objectionable irregularities that are not satisfactorily corrected by scheduled operations. Automatic screed controls shall be approved by the Engineer before use.000 kg each and three-axle roller shall have a minimum weight of 13. crowning or other physical action that is effective in producing a finished surface of the evenness and texture specified. Unless otherwise permitted. evener arms or other compensating devices to maintain trueness of grade and to confine the edges of the pavement to true lines without the use of stationary side forms. The operational speed of the pavers shall be adjustable from 3 to 6 m/min.000 kg. The pavers shall be so designed to allow a minimum paving width of 2 m. 4 The pavers shall employ mechanical devices as equalising runners. Vibrating steel-wheeled rollers shall have dual drums with a minimum weight of 7000 kg. Each two-axle roller shall have a minimum weight of 10. or gouging.6.2 Rolling Equipment 1 Rolling equipment shall consist of vibratory steel-wheeled rollers. The automatic slope control shall be equipped with a proportioning manual override to enable smooth transition of changing slope rate. shoving. without tearing. 3 Pavers shall be equipped with such provisions and attachments to suit paving widths specified for road widening as well to as to suit paving on sloped sections. the use of such equipment shall be discontinued and other satisfactory spreading and finishing equipment shall be provided by the Contractor. although paving in widths of less than 3 m will require the approval of the Engineer. They shall be equipped with fast and efficient steering devices and shall have reverse as well as forward travelling speeds. Vibrating frequency shall be between 2000 and 3000 cycles per minute with individual controls for each tandem drum. All screeds shall be of the vibrating type that permits material to be tamped into position. 2 The pavers shall be self-propelled and equipped with hoppers and distributing screws of the reversing type to place the mixture uniformly in front of adjustable electronic controlled screeds. 5 Electronic screeds shall include automatic feed controls to maintain a constant level of material along the full length of the screed. straight edge runners. 2 Steel-wheeled rollers shall be two-axle tandem rollers or three-axle tandem rollers. rollers shall be equipped with reversible or dual controls to allow operation both forward and backward with the operator always facing in the direction of movement. Pavers shall also be provided with the standard attachable screed extensions. Rollers shall be equipped with adjustable scrapers to keep the wheel surface clean and with efficient means of keeping them wet to prevent mixes from sticking. The three-axle rollers shall be equipped with a centre axle which may be . They shall be equipped with fast and efficient steering devices and shall have reversed as well as forward traveling speeds. Rollers shall be in good working condition and shall be equipped with a reversing clutch. 5. 6 Screeds shall be provided with devices for heating the screeds to the temperature required for the laying of the mixture without pulling or marring. 7 The term "screed" includes any cutting. 3 Pavers shall be equipped with such provisions and attachments to suit paving widths specified for road widening as well to as to suit paving on sloped sections. The grade controller shall be activated by a travelling. dead weight steel-wheeled rollers and pneumatic-tyred rollers as required for proper compaction and finishing of the asphalt surface. These surfaces shall have no flat areas or projections which will mark the surface of the asphalt courses. These rollers shall be self-propelled and equipped with power units of not less than four cylinders and under working conditions shall develop contact pressures under the compression wheels of 45 to 65 kg/cm of width. Tracked pavers shall be used for major roads and tyred pavers shall be used for tight junctions and minor roads. Paving in widths less than the width of a lane shall require the approval of the Engineer. The pavers shall be so designed to allow a minimum paving width of 2 m and must be capable of paving at least the width of a lane. The operational speed of the pavers shall be adjustable from 3 to 6 m/min in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer. automatic grade control and automatic slope control. articulated averaging beam not less than 9 m in length. The equipment shall include blending or joint levelling devices for smoothing and adjusting longitudinal joints between lanes. The assembly shall be designed and operated in such a manner that it will place the material at the required compacted thickness. during construction. 8 If.

3 4 Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be self-propelled.7 MIX DESIGN OF BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSES 5.6. The distributor shall be equipped with devices and charts to provide for accurate and rapid determination and control of the amount of bituminous material being applied and with a tachometer of the auxiliary wheel type reading speed in m/min. QCS 2010 . The spreading equipment shall be provided with a separate power unit for the pump or a variable displacement pump driven by a hydrostatic transmission so that a uniform application of bituminous material.7. Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be in good condition and with enough ballast space to provide uniform wheel loading as may be required. 3 Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be self-propelled.15 to 5. the roller wheels are held with such rigidity that. The Contractor shall furnish to the Engineer charts or tabulations showing the contact areas and contact pressures for the full range of tyre inflation pressures and for the full range of tyre loading for each type and size compactor tyre furnished and used in pneumatic-tyred rollers. The distributor shall be equipped with a hose and nozzle attachment to be used for spotting areas inaccessible to the distributor. 5. The distributor shall have pneumatic tyres of such width and number that the load produced on the road surface shall not exceed 100 kg/cm tyre width. in 2 controlled amounts. The distributor shall have satisfactory heating equipment and thermometers in order to provide the full range of application temperatures for the bituminous material being used. The rollers shall be equipped with pneumatic-tyres of equal size and diameter which are capable of exerting varying average contact pressure.0 kg/m . 2 Spray bars shall have a minimum length of 2.4 m and shall be of the full circulating type. The valves shall be operated by levers so that one or all valves may be quickly opened or closed in one operation. The use of gravity distributors will not be permitted. 3 The spray bar nozzles shall be slotted and shall be of such design so as to provide a uniform unbroken spread of bituminous material on the surface. the liquid bitumen distributor shall be checked and calibrated such that the rate of transverse spread or longitudinal spread shall not vary more than 10 % from the required rate of application. The total operating weight and tyre pressure shall be varied by the Contractor to obtain contact pressures which will result in the required asphalt course density. 5. The three-axle tandem roller shall be so constructed that when locked in a position for all treads to be in one plane.3 Liquid Bitumen Distributor 1 The liquid bitumen distributor truck shall be of the pressure type with insulated tanks. may be made ranging from 0. Spray bar extensions shall also be of the full circulating type. 5 Before commencing the work and as required by the Engineer. if either front or centre wheel is unsupported the other two wheels will not vary from the plane by more than 6 mm.1 Mix Design Criteria 1 The types of bituminous paving mixes shall be as designated on the project drawings or in the contract documents. All steel-wheeled rollers shall be in good condition and the Contractor shall furnish to the Engineer the manufacturer’s technical data for each roller and no roller shall be used except after approval of the Engineer. The total operating weight and tyre pressure may be varied by the order of the Engineer to obtain contact pressures which will result in the required asphalt course density. Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be in good condition and with enough ballast space to provide uniform wheel loading as may be required. The distributor and booster tanks shall be so maintained at all times as to prevent dripping of bituminous material from any part of the equipment.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 15 operated either fixed or floating. The Contractor shall furnish to the Engineer charts or tabulations showing the contact areas and contact pressures for the full range of tyre inflation pressures and for the full range of tyre loading for each type and size compactor tyre furnished and used in pneumatic-tyred rollers. The spray bar shall be adjustable to maintain a constant height above the surface to be treated. The rollers shall be equipped with pneumatic tyres of equal size and diameter which are capable of exerting varying average contact pressure.

0 minimum 4.95 60 .0 mm 20.5 14 minimum 15 minimum 14 minimum 50 to 75 48 to 64 4.20 5 .41 12 .36 mm 1.67 25 .4 minimum Optimum Binder Content (%) Retained Stability (as per CML test method 2-97)(%) 75 minimum 75 minimum (Filler/Bitumen) Ratio 10 minimum 0.5 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1.19 2.35 0.5 to 8.0 minimum (=Stability/Flow) (kN/mm) Voids in Mix (Air Voids)(%) 4 to 8 Voids in Mineral Aggregate 13 minimum (%) QCS 2010 0.40 15 .2 Design Criteria for Marshall Design Mixes Parameter Stability (kN) Base Course (BC-TYPE 1) 9 minimum Asphaltic Dense Bitumen Intermediate Concrete Macadam Course Wearing Course Wearing Course (IC-TYPE 1) (SC-TYPE 1) (SC-TYPE 2) 9 minimum Flow (mm) 2 to 4 2 to 4 Marshall Quotient /stiffness 4.8.5 minimum 4.00 mm 3.1 and Table 5.5 10 minimum 2 to 4 2 to 3.0 .0 Table 5.0 Oct 2013 .16 4 .35 mm 2.100 75 .45 8 .8.75 40 .2 Dense Bitumen Macadam Wearing Course (SC-TYPE 2) 100 98 .75 to 1.1 Combined Aggregate Gradation for Marshall Design Mixes Percentage Passing (by Weight) B.0 mm 6.12 2.6.81 47 .5 minimum 75 minimum 75 minimum 0. calibrated to meet AASHTO T:245 requirements.35 Voids Filled with Bitumen 50 to 70 50 to 75 (%) Voids in Marshall Specimen at 400 Blows per Face at 3.6.91 46 .61 25 .100 57 .5 to 8 5 to 8 5.69 31 .52 20 .100 68 .0 minimum 3.QCS 2010 2 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 16 The "Laboratory Design Mixture" for all types of bituminous coated courses shall comply with the requirements given in Table 5.60 25 .2 and the precise values for each mixture shall be determined in accordance with the procedures given in BS EN 12697 except that 75 blows with automatic compaction hammer.0 mm 10. Table 5.16 5 .0 100 80 .75 to 1.12 2.18 mm 600 µm 300 µm 150 µm 75 µm Base Course (BC-TYPE 1) Intermediate Course (IC-TYPE 1) Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course (SC-TYPE 1) 100 80 .0 .0 .78 41 .0 mm 25.100 70 .0 100 98 .40 9 .S.23 8 .90 55 . shall be used for compaction of each face of the specimen.8 to 1.0 minimum 4.5 mm 28.6 4.8 to 1.30 8 . Sieve Size 37.0 mm 14.14 2.0 .30 mm 5.2 minimum 3.

It is more open-textured and it has more voids in mix (air voids) than the “SC-TYPE 1”.3 % Binder Content ± 0. The absolute density shall be considered as the theoretical specific gravity calculated in accordance with BS EN 12697. 5 The approved Job Mix Formula may be amended as a result of experience in the execution and performance of the permanent asphalt works.015 shall be rejected.5 % ± 1. not stability alone. it is intended for more heavily-trafficked roads/locations. and provided that not more than two results are so rejected the mean of the remaining result shall be designated the ‘Job Standard Mixture Density’. After the Job Mix Formula has been established and approved. The optimum bitumen content determined by the Marshall Method shall be used in preparing specimens for the determination of stability retention after water immersion (CML 2-97). and the Contractor shall be responsible for the soundness of the asphalt paving mixes and the satisfactory execution and performance of the asphalt paving courses.3 % ± 0.00 mm Sieve or larger ±5% ±4% ±4% Aggregate Passing 5. shall be considered in designing and evaluating each type of mix. 4 All of the criteria shown in Table 5. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. all mixes furnished shall conform thereto within the following tolerances: Job Mix Tolerances Base Course Intermediate Course Wearing Courses Aggregate Retained on 5. Any individual result which differs from the mean by more than 0. It is intended for “more heavily-trafficked” roads/locations.00 mm Sieve and Retained on 75 µm Sieve ±4% ±3% ±3% Aggregate Passing 75 µm Sieve ± 1.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Recommended Compacted Layer Thickness Asphaltic Asphaltic Dense Bituminous Concrete Concrete Macadam Intermediate Wearing Course Wearing Course Course (SC-TYPE 1) (SC-TYPE 2)* (IC-TYPE 1) 50mm-60mm 50mm-60mm 50mm-80mm *The SC-TYPE 2 Wearing Course is coarser than SC-TYPE 1.2 % Description 7 The ‘Job Standard Mix Density’ shall be obtained by making six standard Marshall specimens from samples of the approved ‘Job Standard Mixture’ determining the bulk specific gravity of each and comparing them with the mean value of the six.0 Oct 2013 . Asphaltic Concrete Base Course (BC-TYPE 1) 70mm-100mm Asphalt Works Page 17 Recommended Compacted Layer Thickness * Base Course (BC-TYPE 1) Intermediate Course (IC-TYPE 1) Asphaltic Concrete Wearing Course (SC-TYPE 1) Dense Bitumen Macadam Wearing Course (SC-TYPE 2)* 80 mm to 100 mm 60 mm to 80 mm 40 mm to 50 mm 45 mm to 50 mm The “SC-TYPE 2” wearing course is coarser than the “SC-TYPE 1”.2 % ± 0. Such an amendment may be submitted by the Contractor for the Engineer's approval in which case the Contractor shall submit full details of the proposed amendment together with such data as is necessary to support his submittal. The actual test procedure and type of equipment used shall be to the approval of the LSA.5 % ± 1. 3 BS EN 12697 shall be used in designing the bituminous mixtures. It is more open textured and it has more air voids in the mix than SC-TYPE 1.2. Amendment may also be directed by the Engineer. 6 Approval by the Engineer of the Job Mix Formula or amendments thereto shall in no way relieve the Contractor of his obligations under the Contract.

3 Priming or tacking of surfaces to be paved shall be carried out as designated. A joint verification of the mix shall be carried out with the LSA in the LSA laboratory.2 When an asphaltic concrete pavement course is to be placed on top of an existing pavement. 5. The design shall be submitted to the Engineer and the LSA. Providing the mix design conforms to the specification the mix shall be approved by the LSA. The contractor shall prepare the mix design with all necessary supporting documentation which shall include the results of the Contractor’s own laboratory Marshall procedures. 3 The job standard mix shall not be used until certification is issued by QS. the Contractor shall determine the required treatment of the existing pavement surface and submit his proposal to the Engineer for course is to be placed on top of an existing approval.7. The assistance of the Engineer or issuance of a certificate to the Contractor for the job standard mix by the QS in no way relieves the Contractor of the responsibility of producing a bituminous mix meeting the requirements of the Specification.8. dust-storms or other unsuitable weather. watertight joint. All asphaltic mixtures certificates shall be issued as BC-TYPE 1. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. 2 Based on the results of the trial batching and laying the contractor may be required to make amendments to the mix design. 4 The surface of kerbs. 5. The Contractor shall carry out a trial batching and trial laying of the particular mix design. fog. 2 When an asphaltic concrete pavement pavement. SC-TYPE 1 and SC-TYPE 2. calibrated and approved by the Engineer before use.0 Oct 2013 . 3 The LSA shall issue a certification for the job standard mix to the Contractor.3 to 5. 3 Adequate equipment and labour shall be used so that there is continual production and distribution of the asphalt course being constructed.8 PRODUCTION OF BITUMINOUS PAVING COURSES 5. 4 The surface of kerbs.1 Weather Limitations 1 Production and spreading of asphaltic Concrete mix shall not be permitted when the ambient temperature is less than 8 °C. The equipment shall be satisfactorily maintained and shall be used in an approved manner.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works 5. vertical faces of existing pavements and all structures in actual contact with asphalt mixes shall be painted with a thin and complete coating of tack coat as instructed by the Engineer to provide a closely bonded. IC-TYPE 1. The Testing and sampling of the mix design by the LSA will take place for both the laboratory verification and the trial batching and laying. vertical faces of existing pavements and all structures in actual contact with asphalt mixes shall be painted with a thin and complete coating of tack coat to provide a closely bonded.2 Equipment Required 1 The equipment required for construction of the asphaltic concrete courses shall include but not be limited to the equipment mentioned in Clauses 5. 5.2 Mix Design Procedure 1 The asphalt mix design process for all mixes shall be as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Page 18 The LSA shall act as the engineer for the preparation and approval of asphalt mix designs by the Contractor. together with such miscellaneous equipment and tools as required for the satisfactory preparation and performance of the work.8. the existing pavement surface shall be prepared as designated by the Engineer. 2 All equipment shall be checked.8. nor during rain.3 Survey and Preparation 1 The area to be paved shall be true to line and grade and shall have a properly prepared surface before the start of paving operations. watertight joint.6 of this Part.

Approval of the lengths of time for mixing shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities and obligations under the Contract. Wet mixing shall continue as long as it is necessary to obtain a thoroughly blended mix but shall not exceed 75 seconds nor be less than 30 seconds. as determined from the Temperature Viscosity Chart of the product used. 3 In batch type plants a dry mixing period of not less than four seconds shall precede the addition of the bitumen to the mix. 4 The Contractor shall propose the length of time for both dry and wet mixing for the approval of the Engineer. including the 8 °C tolerance permitted. Plant settings. Excess wet mixing shall be avoided. 2 Mineral filler. 3 In no case shall the materials be introduced into the pugmill with a temperature. in a cool dry state. once established. 3 Bitumen shall not be used if foaming occurs or shall it be heated above 177 °C at any time.5 Heating of Mineral Aggregate 1 When using 60/70 penetration bitumen the materials shall be thoroughly dried and heated so that their temperature is 165 to 180 degrees centigrade. of more than that at which the bitumen has a viscosity of 75 seconds Saybolt-Furol. drainage and other specified utilities shall be constructed and their positions and levels determined before the start of paving operations. 5 The quantity of materials fed through the drier shall in all cases be held to an amount which can be thoroughly dried and heated within the limits specified. 5. 5. 6 The heated materials shall be screened into sizes such that they may be combined into a gradation meeting the requirements of the Job Mix Formula and the hot aggregate storage bins shall be such as to minimise segregation and loss of temperature of aggregate.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 19 5 All openings or structures in the road for water. 5.6 Proportioning and Mixing 1 The heated ingredients together with the mineral filler and bitumen shall be combined in such a manner so as to produce a mixture which complies with the requirements of the Job Mix Formula. 2 When using bitumen of other penetration grade the materials shall be thoroughly dried and heated so that their temperature is within ± 8 °C of the temperature needed to satisfy the viscosity requirements of the asphalt cement. 7 Hot bins shall be drawn and cleaned of material at the end of each day's operation.8.4 Heating of Bitumen 1 The 60/70 penetration grade bitumen shall be heated to a temperature of between 150 to 165 degrees centigrade. 2 Bitumen of other penetration grade shall be heated to yield viscosity's in the range of 150 to 300 centistokes (175 to 150 seconds Saybolt-Furol) when delivered to the mixer. shall be proportioned into the mixer either with the aggregate or after the introduction of the bitumen to avoid loss of fines that may occur in dry mixing as a result of turbulence in the mixer.8. 4 The moisture content of the heated and dried materials shall not exceed 1%.8. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1.0 Oct 2013 . shall not be changed without the approval of the Engineer.

5. to the approval of the Engineer. Delivery temperature shall not exceed the maximum temperature specified for mixing at the plant. Delivery temperature shall not exceed the maximum temperature specified for mixing at the plant 6 Should a significant proportion of the mixture delivered to the paver fail to meet this requirement. 4 The Contractor shall supply accurate calibrated thermometers suitable for measuring the inner and surface temperature of the material. the output of the batching plant shall be exclusively reserved for the operations and no mixture shall be supplied to other sites or projects. or should cold lumps be found in the mixture. 6 If during laying. it shall not be used and shall be discarded. 2 The dispatching of the hauling vehicles to the job site shall be so scheduled that all material delivered may be placed in daylight.2 Spreading and Finishing 1 Prior to the commencement of delivery of the mix the Contractor shall erect and maintain an approved reference guide wire for controlling the levels of the laid mix. Materials still uncompacted and below this temperature shall be rejected. unless the Engineer has approved the use of artificial light.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 20 5 Once approved. The material temperature shall be checked immediately before rolling and at least every 30 minutes thereafter during forward progress. 3 The laid material shall be compacted as soon as rolling can be effected without causing undue displacement and while the temperature does not fall below 120 °C. the paving operations shall be suspended until measures are taken. Material still uncompacted and below this temperature shall be rejected.9. a transverse joint shall .9 DELIVERY SPREADING AND FINISHING 5. either over the entire width or over such partial width as may be required. or should cold lumps be found in the mixture. The reference guide wire shall be supported at intervals of not more than 5m. Material which has fallen below minimum temperature of 140 ºC before discharge shall be rejected and immediately removed from site. to ensure compliance.1 Delivery of Mixes 1 Sufficient plant capacity. 5 While paving is in progress. the asphalt mix shall be spread and struck off to the grade. 8 Should a significant proportion of the mixture delivered to the paver fail to meet this requirement. Upon arrival at the point of use. mixing times shall not be altered unless so ordered or further approved by the Engineer. 7 The mixture at delivery to the paver shall be not more than 163 ºC and not less than 140 ºC. If the material does not conform to the requirements. 5. elevation and cross-section shape intended. Delivery of material shall be at a uniform rate and in an amount well within the capacity of the paving and compacting equipment. 4 Hauling vehicles shall not be permitted to carry out tight turns on the laying surface. 2 The mix shall be laid upon an approved surface and only when weather conditions are suitable and as designated. A record of these temperatures shall be passed to the Engineer at the end of each day’s work. to ensure compliance. Material which has fallen below the minimum temperature of 135 °C before discharge shall be rejected and immediately removed from site. the paver is repeatedly delayed because of lack of mixture or if the paver stands at one location for more than thirty minutes (for any reason). 5 The mixture at delivery to the paver shall be within 14 °C of the Job Mix Formula temperature and above an absolute minimum temperature of 135 °C.9. haul vehicles and storage shall be provided so that adequate supplies of mixture are delivered to site to ensure that continuous paving can be achieved. 3 All precautions shall be taken to protect the mix from the weather during transit and while waiting to discharge. 3 The laid material shall be compacted as soon as rolling can be effected without causing undue displacement and while the temperature does not fall below 135ºC. the Engineer shall order that paving operations be suspended until measures are taken. to the approval of the Engineer.

overlapping on successive trips by at least one-half the width of tandem rollers and uniformly lapping each proceeding track. rolled and cooled. Paving shall not recommence until the Engineer is satisfied that paving will proceed uninterrupted and until at least four loaded vehicles have arrived at the paving site. Paving shall not be allowed in a greater width than 4 m unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer.3 Compaction of Mixes 1 At least three rollers shall be required at all times. and the Engineer may at his discretion request cleaning of the first layer and the application of a tack coat thereon if he so deems necessary. 3 The compaction trials shall involve all procedures specified for the permanent works including testing as specified for the asphaltic course under consideration and any equipment. 8 cm Wearing course : Min. 6 cm The maximum thickness for layers may be increased slightly when such increase is more adaptable to total pavement thickness and when in the opinion of the Engineer it is not detrimental to placement and rolling conditions. 9 When the same asphalt course is to be laid in more than one layer the second layer shall be placed as soon as practicable after the first layer has been finished. rises or depressions and within the tolerances stipulated. except leveling courses shall be laid at an uncompact thickness such that. 7 cm Max. rolling shall start longitudinally at the sides of the road and shall gradually progress towards the centre. rolling shall begin on the low side and progress to the high side. 11 The use of motor grader or hand spreading of the asphalt mix shall not be permitted except in places where it is impractical to use pavers and shall be only with the specific permission of the Engineer. 5 cm Max. 2 Before beginning construction of the permanent works. The rollers shall move at a slow but uniform speed with the drive wheels nearest the paver. Such approval shall in no way relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities and obligations stipulated in the Contract. Asphaltic concrete mixes. On superelevated sections. The asphalt mix shall comply with all conditions regarding trueness of level. the wheels shall be kept properly moistened but excess water shall not be permitted. one self-propelled pneumatic-tyred and two self-propelled steel-wheeled. the surface shall be checked and any irregularities adjusted and then compacted thoroughly and uniformly by rolling. 7 The asphalt course shall be constructed to proposed levels and shall be homogeneous. thickness. the Contractor shall carry out compaction trials for each type and thickness of asphaltic course to establish an approved compaction procedure which shall then be used as a minimum requirement for the compaction of the permanent works unless otherwise directed or agreed by the Engineer. 8 In no case shall construction of a new asphaltic concrete course begin until the previously laid course has been tested and approved. processes or procedures proposed by the Contractor which are not designated. 5 To prevent adhesion of the mix to steel-wheeled rollers. efficient and continuous manner. The operating speed shall be approved by the Engineer. 5 cm Max. 4 Immediately after the asphalt mix has been spread and struck off. Longitudinal joints shall be offset at least 300 mm. As many additional rollers shall be used by the Contractor as necessary to provide specified asphalt course density and surface characteristics in an orderly. 13 14 15 The Contractor shall plan the paving such that longitudinal joints occur on the line of future lane markings wherever possible.9.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 21 be constructed. 6 After the longitudinal joints and edges have been compacted. 12 Automatic electronic screed controls shall be required on all pavers and shall be used with a 9 m long articulated averaging beam or grade wire control as approved by the Engineer. 10 cm Intermediate course : Min. providing after compaction an even surface free from undulations. 5. and homogeneity of the mix. 10 Transverse joints in succeeding layers shall be offset at least 2 m. unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer. after rolling the thickness of the compacted layer shall be:Base course : Min. Construction of the permanent works shall not commence until a compaction procedure has been approved in writing by the Engineer. The speed shall not exceed 4-5 km/h for steel-wheeled rollers or 8 km/h for Pneumatic-tyred rollers. .

or the joint is distorted during the day's work by traffic or by other means. cleaned and painted with a thin coating of emulsified asphalt before the adjacent lane is placed. Joints shall be checked with a straightedge to assure smoothness and true alignment. 3 The roller shall be placed on the previously compacted material transversely so that not more than 150 mm of the rear rolling wheel rides on the edge of the joint. beginning on the low side and progressing towards the high side.0 Oct 2013 . in 150 to 200 mm increments.9. 5. Joints shall be formed with a bulkhead. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. 4 The longitudinal joints in the surface course shall be along the same line as the traffic lane markers. If rolling causes displacement of the material. Initial or breakdown rolling. shifting its position gradually across the joint. 2 If the joint has been distorted by traffic or by other means. The first lane placed shall be true to line and grade and have a vertical face. When paving in echelon the edges between the first and the second paver shall not be exposed more than 15 minutes nor 50m by distance without being rolled. The roller shall be operated to pinch and press the mix into place at the transverse joint. neat joint is obtained. Longitudinal joints. Particular attention shall be given to the construction of the transverse and longitudinal joints in all courses. Intermediate rolling. it shall be trimmed to line and the face shall be painted with thin coating of emulsified asphalt before the fresh material is placed against it. To obtain thorough compaction of these joints the material placed against the joint shall be tightly pushed against the vertical face with a steel-wheeled roller. until the joint has been rolled with the entire width of the roller wheel. 3 When the abutting lane is not placed in the same day. neat joint is obtained.9. Final rolling. the first lane placed shall be rolled in the following order: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Transverse joints. Outside edge. Rolling shall be done with a steel-wheeled roller.5 Longitudinal Joints 1 Longitudinal joints shall be rolled directly behind the paving operations. 8 When paving in a single width.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 22 7 The line of rolling shall not be changed suddenly or the direction of rolling reversed suddenly. such as a board. Rolling shall be continued until a thoroughly compacted. the affected areas shall be loosened at once with hand tools and restored to the original grade of the loose material before being rerolled. the edge of the lane shall be carefully trimmed to line. Rolling shall be continued until a thoroughly compacted. to provide a straight line and vertical face. 50 mm to 100 mm of the edge which the second paver is following shall be left unrolled. The roller shall continue to roll along this line. The rollers shall then be operated to pinch and press the fine material gradually across the joint. Heavy equipment or rollers shall not be permitted to stand on the finished surface before it has been compacted and has thoroughly cooled. 2 The roller shall be shifted over onto the previously placed lane so that not more than 150 mm of the roller wheel rides on the edges of the newly laid lane. 5. 9 When paving in echelon.4 Transverse Joints 1 Transverse joints shall be carefully constructed and thoroughly compacted to provide a smooth riding surface. The material being placed in the abutting lane shall then be tightly pushed against the face of the previously placed lane.

crossfalls. Finish rolling shall be accomplished while the material is still warm enough for the removal of roller marks.9 Finish Rolling 1 The finish rolling shall be performed with three-axle tandem rollers unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer. levels. compaction shall be performed by manual or mechanical tampers of such design as to give the desired density.9. density and thickness shall be checked and any irregularity of the surface exceeding the specified limits and any areas defective in texture. the material along the unsupported edges shall be slightly elevated with hand tools. 3 In places inaccessible for the operation of standard rollers as specified.9. Pneumatic-tyred rollers may be used as breakdown rollers. Before it is compacted. density or composition shall be corrected as directed by the Engineer. The control of the depth of cut and the slope shall be by an automatic system based on reference wires. 4 After final rolling. In no case shall traffic be permitted less than 24 h after completion of the asphalt course unless a shorter period is authorised by the Engineer. 5. 2 All rolling operations shall be conducted in close sequence. 2 The intermediate rolling shall follow the breakdown rolling as closely as possible and while the paving mix is still hot.9.10 COLD PLANING 1 The cold planing plant shall be to the approval of the Engineer. 1 The Contractor shall protect all sections of newly constructed pavement from traffic until they have hardened sufficiently to the approval of the Engineer. 2 Cold planing plant shall have sufficient power. density or composition shall be corrected. Turning of rollers on the hot paving mix which causes undue displacement shall not be permitted. 5. levels. In no case shall traffic be permitted less than 48 hours after completion of asphaltic course unless a shorter period is authorized by the Engineer. 2 Care shall be exercised in consolidating the course along the entire length of the edges. it shall be operated with the drive wheel nearest the finishing machine. Rollers shall be operated as close to the paver as possible to obtain adequate density without causing undue displacement. Rollers shall be used continuously after the initial rolling until all of the mix placed has been thoroughly compacted.9. traction and stability to maintain the required depth of cut and slope. 5. In no case shall the mix temperature be allowed to drop below 120 °C before breakdown rolling. . including removal and replacement as directed by the Engineer. the smoothness.7 Breakdown Rolling 1 Breakdown rolling shall immediately follow the rolling of the longitudinal joints and edges.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 23 5. cross falls. 2 If the breakdown roller is steel wheeled. the smoothness. density and thickness shall be checked and any irregularity of the surface exceeding the specified limits and any areas defective in texture. 5. 5. In heavily trafficked roads during the summer months a minimum period of 7 days must elapse before the newly compacted pavement is opened to traffic.8 Intermediate Rolling 1 Pneumatic-tyred rollers or Steel wheeled rollers shall be used for the intermediate rolling.6 Paving Edges 1 The edges of the asphalt course shall be rolled concurrently with or immediately after rolling the longitudinal joint. including removal and replacement of the lot in question if required.10 Protection of Laid Courses 1 Sections of the newly finished work shall be protected from traffic of any kind until the mix has been properly compacted and cooled. This will permit the full weight of the roller wheel to bear on the material to the extreme edges of the mat.9. 4 After final rolling.

mix composition. 10 Any cracks noted in the pavement shall be blown clean with compressed air. 2 When testing for compaction at joints the edge of the core shall not be more than 50 mm or less than 25 mm from the joint. 7 Cold planing shall be carried out in a longitudinal direction. ridges. A sample shall comprise a pair of adjacent cores and the average density of these shall be the density of the sample. 5 Existing kerbs. 5. it may be necessary to vary the depth of planing. The Engineer may determine the location of the sample. Each lot shall be approved by the Engineer before placing any subsequent asphalt concrete course. continuous grooves and shall have a reasonably uniform finish. Planing shall be to a tolerance of ± 5 mm of the designated amount. In cases where the asphalt course is laid in more than one lift. The Contractor shall submit a testing plan to the Engineer for approval that demonstrates how he shall prove compliance with the requirements for compaction. for testing by an approved laboratory. Samples shall be taken of the asphalt mix for the full depth of the course from the location directed by the Engineer at a rate of not less than one 2 sample per 100 m run of road or 1000 m of paving whichever is less. The core diameter shall be 150 mm. 8 After planing the prepared surface shall be thoroughly brushed and suction swept by mechanical means to the satisfaction of the Engineer. level.11. The average thickness of planing achieved shall be at least the thickness designated. . The Engineer will inspect the planed surface and may instruct that further work is carried out for treating cracks in the pavement. The Engineer shall determine the location of the samples. 3 Compacted samples shall be taken by coring in accordance with BS EN 12697. manholes and other features shall not be disturbed by the planing process.1 General 1 Each completed asphalt concrete course shall be tested and approved in accordance with the following requirements before placing any subsequent asphalt concrete course. The surface shall be free from gouges.11. 2 In addition to the following requirements one set of three laboratory-compacted specimens and one uncompacted coated sample for each mix type and mixer plant for each day’s production shall be delivered to the LSA no later than 12 h after compaction of the specimens.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 24 3 Cold planing shall be carried out to straight crossfalls to the designated thickness.2 Sampling 1 The Contractor shall cut samples from each completed asphalt course during the progress of the work and before final acceptance as directed by the Engineer. evenness and all other requirements of this Section 6. 6 Any joints at the edge of planed areas shall be cut vertically and straight using asphalt saws. 1 The Contractor shall cut and test samples from each completed asphalt course during the progress of the work and before final acceptance. 5. 1 Each completed asphalt concrete course shall be tested by the Contractor on a lot basis. Details of compaction date.11 SAMPLING TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE 5. 4 In areas where there is severe deformation of the existing pavement. 9 Cold planing shall be performed so that at the end of a day’s work the termination line does not present a hazard to traffic that may use the road. gullies. If any asphalt concrete course is laid in two or more layers. time and temperature of mix shall be provided with the specimens together with mix type and project details. where the Contractor fails to provide cores as required by the Engineer. The test results of each lot demonstrating compliance or otherwise with this specification shall be submitted to the Engineer. all the required testing shall be completed for each layer before the commencement of asphalt laying for the subsequent layer(s). This may require the use of smaller plant or removal by hand tools. the Engineer may arrange for the taking of cores on behalf of the Contractor at his cost. each lift shall be tested and approved in accordance with the following requirements before placing the subsequent asphalt concrete lift.

11. as determined from each core sample. 2 3 The density of the compacted mixes shall be related to the daily Marshall Density. Any individual result which varies from the mean by more than 0. and In-situ CBR tests shall be applied.8% of the job standard density of the mix. The daily Marshall Density shall not vary from the job mix Design Density by more than ± 0. (h) If after re-testing. Plate Bearing. 2 The field density.11. the asphaltic material shall be removed and new material to the specification laid at the Contractor's cost. the asphaltic material will be accepted in the Works subjected to 20% reduction to the billed rates. The field density.11. (g) The section of the Works in question shall be cored for density determination immediately after the completion of re-rolling. at the discretion of the Engineer re-rolling may be allowed subject to the following conditions: (a) Compaction to be achieved shall be 1% or less. CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. (b) Only PTR‟s to be used weighing no greater than 18 tons. Two copies of the density results and related air voids results shall be submitted to the Engineer within 24 hours of compaction of the lot. The locations of the samples shall be randomly generated whoever at least one set of samples per lot shall be at joints as defined in 5.3 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 25 Whenever deficiencies are noted in loose mix samples or core samples. the compaction achieved is 0. 5. Should any bituminous course fail to achieve the specified compaction. (c) Re-rolling to take place within 72 hours from the time of the initial rolling of the asphalt. 2 If it appears from the analysis of samples of loose mix or cores that the asphalt content or aggregate gradation are beyond the permissible tolerances specified for the Job Mix Formula (established for each respective asphalt course mix) and that.5% of specified compaction.5% below the specified compaction. Compaction 1 The degree of compaction determined in accordance with BS EN 12697 is the ratio of the bulk density of the pavement sample to the bulk density of the laboratory Marshall specimens prepared in accordance with the Job Mix Formula. paragraph 2. The mixture shall be compacted to the % compaction required for the layer using a vibrating hammer such as a Kango hammer. The portion of the asphalt course represented by these samples shall be rejected. (d) Re-rolling to take place at the time of the day when the asphalt has attained its maximum natural temperature. the Engineer may direct the taking of additional cores at the Contractor's expense in order to define the area of pavement involved. such variation affects the characteristics of the asphalt mix conformity to the designated requirements is concerned. which shall be determined by making four standard Marshall Specimens from samples of the mix taken from the mixing plant or paver (provided compacting temperature is retained). shall be a minimum of 98% of the job standard density of the mix for the wearing and intermediate courses and a minimum of 97% for the base course. If. but shall not be greater than 300 m run of road or 1 500 m². shall not exceed 101.0 Oct 2013 . The density of each sample shall be determined and compared with mean value. 4 The finished road surface shall be inspected by visual inspection techniques and if directed by the Engineer the DCPT.2. (f) Re-rolling to be carried out in the presence of the Engineer's Representative.000 m2 laid or at least twice per day from the paving machine for testing of the mix gradation and bitumen content. as determined from each core sample.QCS 2010 4 5 6 7 8 5. this shall be considered a major defect in the work.015 gm/cc shall be rejected. on the other hand. unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer. Marshall Tests shall be repeated on a daily basis to establish the daily Marshall Density for that particular day's production.75%. The size of a lot shall be as defined by the Contractor's quality system. Hot asphalt mix of the same type shall be placed and compacted in holes left by sampling. whichever is less. (e) Re-rolling to be applied for a maximum of two hours.4 Mix Composition 1 Loose samples of mixed material shall be taken at the rate of one for each 1. The Contractor shall provide a sample pair of cores to the Engineer at a rate of not less than 1 per lot for audit testing. 5 As directed by the Engineer the structural ability of the pavement in terms of layer modulus shall be assessed by using the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Light weight Deflector (LWD). 6 For safety purposes the pavement surface friction shall be measured by the pendulum Add new paragraph as follows: portable tester or locked wheel tester. compaction is not achieved within 0.

in each direction. the variations in the falls to cross sections of the road shall not vary from the required value by more than 0. the Engineer may allow adjustment in the succeeding course to correct the overall thickness of the pavement. or fifteen per cent (whichever is less). in accordance with the instructions and to the satisfaction of the Engineer. the thickness of the wearing course shall not be less than that specified by more than 5 mm and the total thickness of all asphaltic paving courses combined shall not be less than that specified by more than 10 mm. two (2) additional cores shall be taken from the area represented and if the average of the three (3) cores is not deficient by more than five (5) millimetres from the specified thickness of respective layer. Any asphalt paving course containing deviations or variations exceeding these tolerances shall be corrected or removed and replaced by the Contractor. Furthermore. the actual thickness of the bituminous paving course in this area will be determined by taking additional cores at not less than three (3) metre intervals parallel to the centre-line in each direction from the affected location until. full payment will be made. which are in excess of the specified thickness by more than five (5) millimetres will be considered as the specified thickness plus five (5) millimetres. When the measurement of any core is less than specified thickness by more than five (5) millimetres. or fifteen (15) per cent (whichever is less) from the specified thickness of total asphaltic pavement. 2 In addition. from the specified thickness of individual layer.11. Paved cross-section as shown on the Drawings and shall not vary by ± 6 mm for base course and ± 4 mm for intermediate and wearing course from the required elevation. As determined from each core. will not be included in the average. full payment will be made. 2 4 In calculating the average thickness of each bituminous paving course. but not more than ten (10) millimetres. If the core so taken is not deficient by more than five (5) millimetres from the specified thickness (individual layer). the measurements which are less than specified thickness by more than ten (10) millimetres or fifteen (15) per cent (whichever is less for total thickness). QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1.15%. 3 Where any individual course is marginally out of tolerance on the low side. the variations in the falls to cross sections of the road shall not vary from the required value by more than 0. In addition. If the average thickness of three (3) cores is deficient by more than five (5) millimetres.3 %.0 Oct 2013 . a core is found which is not deficient by more than five (5) millimetres. the thickness of a paving course shall not be less than that specified by more than 5 mm in the case of a single-layered construction.5 Thickness and Level 1 Cores shall be taken to determine the thickness of asphaltic paving courses. If the core is deficient in thickness by more than five (5) millimetres. or fifteen (15) per cent (whichever is less). Exploratory cores for deficient thickness may be used average for adjusted unit price.QCS 2010 Additional Page 5. measurements. Asphalt areas which are deficient by more than ten (10) mm or 15% (whichever is less – for total pavement thickness) shall be removed and replaced at the Contractor's expense. an adjusted unit price as provided in the bill of quantities will be paid for the area represented by these cores.

3 Wearing Course Road Surface Irregularity Length (m) Minor Roads Major Roads1 4 mm 300 40 20 7 mm 75 18 9 300 4 2 75 2 1 1. The acceptable IRI for ride quality shall be decided by the engineer. 8 For major roads the International Roughness Index (IRI) shall be used to monitor the roughness and condition of the pavement surface. Sections shorter than 300 m forming part of a longer pavement shall be assessed using the number of irregularities for a 300 m length prorated to the nearest whole number. 2 The Contractor shall put at the disposal of the Engineer a 3 m long straightedge and a crown template of sturdy and approved design and enough labour to assist in the checking operations.6 Evenness of Surface 1 The Engineer shall test the evenness of surface for each course of the various asphalt paving courses to determine compliance. Table 5.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 26 4 The tolerances herein specified shall not invalidate the tolerances set forth for the evenness of surface of the asphalt paving course. Minor Roads are all other roads. 5 As directed by the engineer the laid thickness shall be checked by cutting test pits and/or using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for the determination of the structural capacity of the pavement. 5 Any irregularity is a variation of not less than 4 mm or 7 mm of the profile of the road surface as measured by a rolling straight edge. whether or not it is constructed in shorter lengths.11. 6 Compliance with Table 5. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. The maximum allowable differences between the pavement surface and the straight edge shall be 3 mm.3. secondary and any dual carriageways. 5. 3 Any layer containing deviations or variations exceeding the tolerances specified here shall be corrected or removed and replaced in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer and to his satisfaction.0 Oct 2013 . 7 Pavements shall also be measured transversely for irregularities at points decided by the Engineer by a 3 m long straight edge placed at right angles to the centre line of the road.Major Roads shall mean primary.3 above shall be tested with a rolling straight edge along any line or lines parallel to the centre line of the pavement on sections of 300 m selected by the Engineer. No irregularity exceeding 10 mm shall be permitted. Where the total length of pavement is less than 300 m the measurements shall be taken in 75 m lengths. 4 The longitudinal regularity of the surface of the wearing course shall be within the relevant limits given in Table 5.7 Pavement Evaluation Techniques 1 Pavement evaluation tests shall be carried out for the completed pavement structure at any point of the road as directed by the Engineer to assess the serviceability condition of the pavement and verify compliance with specifications. 5.11.

IA 12/13 C 055 ST Construction of East Corridor P011 (PACKAGE 2) C2 / S6 / 28 October 2012 .3 above shall be tested with a rolling straight edge along any line or lines parallel to the centre line of the pavement on sections of 300m selected by the Engineer.11. 4 The longitudinal regularity of the surface of various pavement layers shall be within the relevant limits given in Table 5. 2 The Contractor shall put at the disposal of the Engineer a 3 m long straightedge and a crown template of sturdy and approved design and enough labour to assist in checking operations. Base Minor Roads only and Subbase layers Irregularity 4mm 7mm 4mm 7mm Length (m) 300 75 300 75 300 75 300 75 Number of Irregularities 20 9 4 1 40 18 9 2 5 Any irregularity is a variation of not less than 4mm or 7mm of the profile of the road surface as measured by a rolling straight edge. 6 Compliance with Table 5. whether or not it is constructed in shorter lengths. 3 Any layer containing deviations or variations exceeding the tolerances specified here shall be corrected or removed and replaced in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer and to his satisfaction. CBM. Where the total length of pavement is less than 300m the measurements be taken in 75m lengths. Sections shorter than 300m forming part of a longer pavement shall be assessed using the number of irregularities for a 300m length prorated to the nearest whole number. No irregularity exceeding 10mm shall be permitted. 7 Pavements shall also be measured transversely for irregularities at points decided by the Engineer by a 3m long straight edge placed at right angles to the centre line of the road.6 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SECTION 6: ROAD WORKS Evenness of Surface (Surface Roughness) Delete all paragraphs and substitute with the following: a- Minor Roads & all other pavement layer except wearing course of major roads 1 The Engineer shall test the evenness of surface for each course of the various asphalt paving courses and other pavement layers to determine compliance.TECHNICAL SUBMISSION SECTION C – PART 2 5.3: Irregularity requirements for asphalt courses of Minor roads and other pavement layer AC Wearing Course of AC Intermediate and AC Base Course of Minor roads.3 Table 5. The maximum allowable differences between the pavement surface and the straight edge shall be 3mm.

 The amplitude of the longitudinal profile of the road.5 m/km (not more than 2 values per 400 metres) – New construction and Pavement rehabilitation. filtered between (a) 1 metre and 3.3 1.TECHNICAL SUBMISSION SECTION C – PART 2 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SECTION 6: ROAD WORKS b. service roads. - Rigid Pavement: Average value over a 400 metre section < 1.05 m/km.  The minimum length of any pavement section to be tested shall be 500m. Two layers or more of asphalt o Average value over a 400 metre section < 1.90 m/km. U Turn lanes. unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer and shall have an IRI (International Roughness Index) not exceeding the following values: - Flexible Pavement: Average value over a 400 metre section < 0.Major Roads – Freeways. acceleration and deceleration lanes. parking areas and other links (with a length less than the minimum length specified or those constructed of closely spaced joints shall be excluded).0 m/km.  Directional ramps on bridges or interchanges and tunnels of minimum length of 500m and with widely spaced joints of more than 25m should be tested.0  All humps and depressions exceeding the specified tolerance shall be corrected by removing the defective work and replacing it with new material as directed by the Engineer at the Contractor‟s cost. Expressways and Arterials The rideability (Roughness) of the finished wearing course when tested with a Laser Road Surface Testing Machine shall have an IRI (International Roughness Index) not exceeding the following values:  New Construction - Average value over a 400 metre section < 0.  Peak individual value over a 25 metre section shall be < 1.  Individual roughness readings at joints in rigid pavement shall be excluded during processing of the roughness data and shall be ignored in the analysis.  Ramps.20 m/km. Pavement within 20m of Bridge decks or railroad crossings shall be also excluded.90 m/km. shoulders.  Pavement Rehabilitation - One layer of asphalt o - Average value over a 400 metre section < 1. loops.3 metres and 13 metres shall not exceed the following values: Filtering Length (m) Amplitude Tolerance (mm) 1 to 3. sides street tie-ins.3 metres and (b) 3.3 to 13 4. IA 12/13 C 055 ST Construction of East Corridor P011 (PACKAGE 2) C2 / S6 / 29 October 2012 .8 3.

measured with a 3m straight edge laid in any direction Surface Layer Finished Surface Tolerance (mm) Base Course 6 Binder Course 6 Wearing Course 4 IA 12/13 C 055 ST Construction of East Corridor P011 (PACKAGE 2) C2 / S6 / 30 October 2012 .  The minimum length of the rectification work undertaken shall be 100m. the finished surfaces of the individual layers shall fail within the following maximum tolerances. c.  All rectified segment shall be re-tested following the completion of rectification work at no additional cost to the client.Surface tolerance for Bituminous Courses At final compaction.TECHNICAL SUBMISSION SECTION C – PART 2 PROJECT SPECIFICATION SECTION 6: ROAD WORKS  The roughness measurements shall be undertaken at minimum 1 week before opening to the traffic.

3. motor graders.1 General 1 The work shall consist of furnishing and applying liquid asphalt and blotter material. 5. CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. The exact rate of application which may be varied to suit field conditions will be determined by the Engineer following trials to be carried out by the contractor.75 to 1. shall be a minimum of 55 % (by volume). 2 Prime coat shall not be applied when the ambient temperature is less than 13 °C nor during rain. destructive and none destructive. 5.12.12. rollers and water trucks shall also be provided. The Contractor shall ensure that excessive application of prime coat is avoided. 5.45 to 0. The Contractor shall ensure that excessive application of prime coat is avoided. all loose dirt. rotating nylon bristle brush of not less than 760 mm in diameter and not less than 1800 mm in length. if required. 3 The application temperature for the MC-70 liquid asphalt shall be between 60° C and 85° C as directed by the Engineer.6. The brush shall be capable of being angled to the right and left with adjustable ground pressure. 3 The Contractor shall allow and provide all necessary arrangements for the execution of all pavement evaluation test required by the engineer. to a previously prepared and approved subgrade or granular base/sub-base course as designated and to the full designated width. Where necessary for the proper preparation of the surface. 2 The application rate shall be between 0.12 PRIME COAT 5. soft spots or unacceptable irregularities in the surface shall be repaired in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer.4 Surface Preparation 1 Immediately before applying the prime coat.12. 2 The Engineer may direct that a light application of water be made just before the application of liquid asphalt to facilitate penetration. or as directed by the Engineer. as determined by the difference method. earth and other objectionable material shall be removed from the surface with a power broom of approved design and/or a power blower as required. If the Engineer so requires. the surface shall be lightly bladed and rolled immediately before the application of the prime coat.12.00 liter/m². dust storms or other unsuitable weather.3 Equipment Required 1 The equipment used by the Contractor shall include a liquid bitumen distributor as described in clause 5. The residue from the distillation test. fog. The power broom shall be self-propelled and equipped with a cylindrical. 2 If the surface is covered in wind-blown dust or fine aggregate then a power broom shall be provided.75 kg/m2.2 Materials 1 Liquid asphalt for use in asphalt works shall be MC-70 medium curing cutback asphalt in accordance with AASHTO M 82. and any ruts. 3 Priming will not be permitted when there is free water present on the surface. 3 QCS 2010 The application temperature for the MC-70 liquid asphalt shall be between 60 °C and 85 °C. 5. 2 The application rate shall be between 0.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 27 2 Pavement evaluation methods can be grouped into two main categories. 3 The prime coat shall be cutback bitumen consisting of a 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and kerosene. in which case brooming or blowing may not be required. carried out to 360 °C.0 Oct 2013 .

any surface irregularities shall be corrected and all excessive blotter material. 3 The prime coat shall usually be applied to 1/3 or 1/2 of the road width at a time. to provide bond for a superimposed course to the full designated width. 5.5 Application 1 After preparing the road surface as above. QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. 5. 2 Tack coat shall not be applied when the ambient temperature is less than 13°C nor during rain. 5.QCS 2010 Section 6 1 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 28 After preparing the road surface in accordance with Sub-Clause 5. When applying blotter material to an asphalt treated lane that adjoins a lane that has not been treated. 5. grade SS-1h (anionic) or CSS–1h (cationic) conforming to the requirements of AASHTO M140 and AASHTO M208 respectively.1 General 1 This work shall consist of furnishing and applying diluted emulsified asphalt to a previously prepared base or road surface.4. blotter material shall be applied as directed by the Engineer and traffic shall be permitted to use the lanes so treated. Handspraying of restricted. fog. 1 The material for bituminous tack coat shall be slow setting emulsified asphalt. dust storms or other unsuitable weather.2 Materials 1 Emulsified asphalt for use in asphalt works shall comply with BS 434: Part 1 class K1-40. subject to the approval of the Engineer. 3 Emulsified asphalt shall be of the slow-setting cationic or anionic type of the CSS-lh or SS-lh grades respectively and shall conform to the designated requirements.6 Maintenance and Traffic 1 Traffic shall not be permitted on the primed surface until the asphaltic material has penetrated and dried and. dirt or other objectionable materials shall be removed.13. 3 The Contractor shall maintain the primed surface in good clean condition and before the application of the next course.12. a strip at least 200 mm wide along the adjoining edge shall be left devoid of blotter material in order to permit an overlap of asphalt material.13.12. 2 The surface of structures. It should be noted that no overlapping is allowed at the transverse joints and that thick paper shall be used at the joint to protect the previous application and the joining application shall begin on the paper. subject to the approval of the Engineer. 2 Blotter material shall be spread from trucks operated backward so that the wheels will not travel in uncovered wet asphaltic material. inaccessible areas is permitted. Hand-spraying of restricted. the liquid asphalt shall be applied by means of the distributor at the temperature and rate directed by the Engineer. The paper used shall be removed and satisfactorily disposed of by the Contractor after use. inaccessible areas is permitted.13 TACK COAT 5. kerbstones and other appurtenances adjacent to areas being treated shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred. Excess bituminous material shall be removed from the surface. Care shall be taken that the application of bituminous material at the junctions of spread is not in excess of the specified amount.0 Oct 2013 .12. in the judgement of the Engineer. When applied in two or more lanes. the liquid asphalt shall be applied by means of the distributor at the temperature and rate determined by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. will not be picked up under traffic. If it becomes necessary to permit traffic before that time. but in no case sooner than 48 hours after the application of the asphaltic material. 2 Alternatively emulsified asphalt for use in asphalt works may be CSS lh or CRS-2 cationic emulsified asphalt in accordance with AASHTO M 208 or SS lh anionic emulsified asphalt in accordance with AASHTO M140 unless otherwise designated. there shall be a slight overlap of asphalt material along adjoining edges of the lanes.

as determined by the Contractor. The material should not be applied when the ambient temperature is less than 13 °C or during rain. a tack coat is not necessary between layers of freshly placed courses. a subsequent light application of tack applied to the surface.13. inaccessible areas is permitted. the Contractor shall protect the tack coat from damage. Any cleaning required in these areas shall be carried out before the application of the next course. 2 Until the superimposed course is placed. inaccessible areas is permitted. dust storms or other unsuitable weather.30 to 0.5 Application 1 Immediately after cleaning the surface. the Contractor shall supply and use efficient and approved equipment for diluting the emulsified asphalt with water. END OF PART QCS 2010 CHEC—Construction of East Corridor P011 Rev 1. All faulty or unsuitable patches. 1 Immediately after cleaning the surface. the tack coat shall be applied by means of the distributor at the temperature and rate directed by the Engineer.13. 3 If the tack coat is unavoidably damaged by rain or dust. Hand spraying of restricted. 5. The surface shall be dry when treated. 5.13. The application rate shall be between 0. rotating nylon bristle Brush of not less than 760 mm in diameter and not less than 1800 mm in length. In addition. he may give instructions in writing to omit the tack coat. subject to the approval of the Engineer. Tack coat shall be applied only so far in advance of the superimposed course placement as is necessary to obtain this proper condition of tackiness. Tack coat shall be applied only so far in advance to pavement courses to obtain the proper condition of tackiness and the Contractor shall protect the tack coat from damage during this period. 5.15 to 0. The brush shall be capable of being angled to the right and left with adjustable ground pressure. 5 After application the surface shall be allowed to dry to the proper condition of tackiness to receive the following pavement course. in the opinion of the Engineer. excess cracks or joint filler and all surplus bituminous material shall be corrected in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer.38 kg/m2 as specified by the Engineer. The application temperature for the diluted emulsified asphalt shall be between 10 °C and 60 °C. 2 3 4 The surface of structures. dirt or other objectionable materials. kerbstones and other fixed objects adjacent to areas being treated shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred.13.4 Surface Preparation 1 The full width of the surface to be treated shall be cleaned with a power broom or power blower to remove dust. 2 The diluted emulsion shall be applied at a rate between 0. The Contractor shall ensure that excessive application of tack coat is avoided. 3 The application temperature for the diluted emulsified asphalt shall be between 10°C and 60°C as directed by the Engineer. the tack coat shall be applied by means of the distributor at the temperature and rate determined by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. shall be cleaned again by a power broom or power blower and. The Contractor shall ensure that excessive application of tack coat is avoided.50 liter/m². Where. it shall be allowed to dry.QCS 2010 Section 6 Part 5 Asphalt Works Page 29 5.0 Oct 2013 . Hand-spraying of restricted. fog. subject to the approval of the Engineer. Power broom shall be self-propelled and equipped with a cylindrical. if required by the Engineer.3 Equipment Required 1 The equipment used by the Contractor shall include an asphalt distributor as well as a power broom and a power blower. the surface shall be allowed to dry until it is in a proper condition of tackiness to receive the superimposed course.6 Maintenance and Traffic 1 After application.