You are on page 1of 72

Control System

1

Learning objective
At the completion of this lesson, the student will be able to:
• locate and Identify the control panel components
• Understand the function of main logic and inverter controller.
• Explain the purpose of using CAN-bus
• Understand how to discharge an inverter controller.
• Understand what is a MOS-FET

All Registered trademarks herein are the property of their respective
respective owners.
The information set forth herein is confidential and is not for distribution beyond MCFS and its authorised Mitsubishi Forklift Trucks and
MIT ® Forklift Trucks dealer network.
Copyright © by MCFS. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this material in any form is Prohibited without written permission of MCFS.

2

System Layout

MC Block Diagram

CAN-bus electrical system

The data transmission is handled via a CAN-bus system.

CAN-bus ensures quick and reliable and at the same time the CAN-bus
simplifies the wiring harness in the vehicle as well as the diagnostic
troubleshooting should anything go wrong. This makes maintenance
easier and less components are required.

The logic unit is the heart of the control system for the forklift truck, but
with a CAN-BUS system, there are more than one independent
controller on the Controller Area Network to communicate with each
other to control the truck.

The inverters are connected to each motor.

The logic unit is connected to the other devices.

The MC system units that are located in this network are

Logics unit

Right Running inverter

Left Running inverter

Pump inverter

Input unit

Left/Right running AC motor

Pump AC motor

3

Major Components Location
Hydraulic Line Contactor
Logic Unit

AC Traction Motors

Traction Line Contactor
Pump Inverter
Tractors Inverter

Hyd. Pump and AC Mtr
Hydraulic Oil Reservoir
Steering Hydraulic Priority Valve

Major Components location
1.

Traction inverter

2.

Pump inverter

3.

Steering hydraulic priority valve

4.

Logic unit

5.

Hydraulic oil reservoir

6.

Hydraulic motor and pump

7.

Traction line contactor

8.

Hydraulic line contactor

9.

AC Traction motors

4

Identification of Control Panel
Hydraulic Inverter

Traction Line Contactor

Left Traction Inverter

Right Traction Inverter

Hydraulic Line Contactor

Identification of control panel
1. Left traction inverter
2. Right traction inverter
3. Hydraulic inverter
4. Traction line contactor
5. Hydraulic line contactor

5

Outline of Logic unit




It consists of power card and logic card
Control truck operation based on the operator’s input.
Monitor truck speed and residual battery power
Management role of truck operation control
Model information, fault detection, service management

Outline of Logic unit

This controller includes the power card and logic card

It controls all the jobs for the truck based on the operator’s input

The controller sends a motor control command to the right and
left traction inverter through the input of the direction lever or
the accelerator pedal. It also monitors malfunction of the traction
system.

The lever input triggers to send the motor control commands to
the pump inverter. It also monitors malfunction in the hydraulic
control system. In the FC specifications, this controller sends a
control command to the solenoid valves from the output unit by
the lever input. A malfunction in the valve control system is also
monitored by this controller.

The truck speed and residual battery power are monitored and shown on
this display unit.

The logic unit sets its model information and optional default data into
internal memory. The information is secured when the power supply is
turned off. This information is set at the factory.
If the truck model information is not set correctly, the truck will not
work properly.

6

Main Logic

Main Logic
DRS Switch

• Improved serviceability
• PDA or Laptop socket via
main logic
• DRS switch underneath
footstep
• New drive features:
• Boost function
• Controlled roll back
• CAN bus electrical system

Main Logic

Improved serviceability

Laptop socket via main logic

DRS switch underneath footstep

New drive features:

Boost function

Controlled roll back

CAN bus electrical system

GSE Connector Cap P/N 97005-18700

7

CAN-bus System




Data transmission by CAN-Bus system.
CAN-bus ensures quick and reliable control
Simplifies the wiring harness in the vehicle
Easier fault finding

CAN-bus System
Block Diagram of CAN Communication between components

Data transmission by CAN-Bus system.

CAN-bus ensures quick and reliable control

Simplifies the wiring harness in the vehicle

Easier fault finding

8

Model Information

NOTICE



The data of a group 3 has no default value, but it needs to set data
by the actual truck type.
When you set up for the first time, set up a group 3 first, and then set
default data of group 1 and group 2.
If SUO data is not set, “| |” is displayed.
The model information and various features are set during factory
shipment

Model Information

Notice:
1. The data of a group 3 has no default value, but it needs to set data by the actual
truck type. If the value and the truck model aren’t in agreement, the truck does
not operate normally.
2.

When you set up for the first time, set up a group 3 first, and then set default
data of group 1 and group 2.

3.

If SUO data is not set, “| |” is displayed.

4.

The model information and various features are set during factory shipment.

9

Pictorial of Logic Card

Pictorial of Logic Card
Logic Card and Pin Connectors

CN1 – Logic card side

CN3 – Harness B side

CN2 – Harness B side

CN1 – Harness B side

10

Pictorial of Logic Power Supply Card

Pictorial of Logic Power Supply Card
Power Supply Card and Pin Connectors
• CN1 – Power supply card side
• CN4 – Harness B side

11

Traction Inverter Decal

Parallel Mosfet

Generation

InVerter
Generation
Qty of Mosfet Mod.

Rated input Volt

How to read Traction Inverter Decal
PM-1000 AC System
New generation controller
Mitsubishi Forklift Trucks in-house design. Latest Technology
MOSFET transistor control: maximum performance, optimum energy use
and low operating noise
"PM-1000" is a product-name for MITSUBISHI, and "IVA 1-48" is a
model-number.
*PM-1000 PM from Parallel Mosfet (Power device of main circuit).
1000 means the generation.
Before, we used the name such as TR-1000, TR-2000, TR-3000 and TR4000.
*IVA1-48
IV from InVerter.
A means the generation.
1 is the quantity of MOSFET module. It means the capacity.
48 means rated input voltage.
We use one IVA2-48 and two IVA1-48 for 3 wheel AC. The "2" on IVA2
means : two power boards per phase (look at the controller components
where you will see for traction only 3 power boards (1 per phase) and 6
power boards for the hydraulic inverter. This one is also bigger by physical
size)
12

Hydraulic Inverter Decal

Parallel Mosfet

Generation

InVerter
Generation
Qty of Mosfet Mod.

Rated input Volt

How to read Hydraulic Inverter Decal
PM-1000 AC System
New generation controller
Mitsubishi Forklift Trucks in-house design. Latest Technology
MOSFET transistor control: maximum performance, optimum energy use
and low operating noise
"PM-1000" is a product-name for MITSUBISHI, and "IVA 1-48" is a
model-number.
*PM-1000 PM from Parallel Mosfet (Power device of main circuit).
1000 means the generation.
Before, we used the name such as TR-1000, TR-2000, TR-3000 and TR4000.
*IVA1-48
IV from InVerter.
A means the generation.
1 is the quantity of MOSFET module. It means the capacity.
48 means rated input voltage.
We use one IVA2-48 and two IVA1-48 for 3 wheel AC. The "2" on IVA2
means : two power boards per phase (look at the controller components
where you will see for traction only 3 power boards (1 per phase) and 6
power boards for the hydraulic inverter. This one is also bigger by physical
size)
13

Pictorial of Traction Inverter

Pictorial of Traction Inverter

Traction Inverter (Right and Left) with Pin Connectors

Traction Inverter DSP (Digital Signal Processor) Right and Left Inverters with
Pin Connectors
• CN2 – Inverter card side
• CN7 – Traction right, Harness B side
• CN6 – Traction left, Harness B side

14

Pictorial of Pump Inverter

Pictorial of Pump Inverter

Hydraulic Pump Inverter with Pin Connectors

Hydraulic Pump Inverter DSP (Digital Signal Processor) with Pin Connectors

CN2 – Inverter card side

CN5 – Harness B side, pump

15

Inverter Discharging Procedure
WARNING
Inverter discharging procedure :
1.
Turn off the key switch.
2.
Disconnect the battery plug.
3.
Lift up the seat.
4.
Place a 150Ω/25 W resistor
between P and N terminals in the
right traction inverter to discharge
electric charges stored in the
inverter.
5.
After touching resistor to the P
and N terminals for approx. 5
sec., measure the voltage
between the terminals with a
multi-meter and confirm a reading
of 5 V or less.
6.
Perform the same procedure for
left traction inverter and pump
inverter in order to discharge
electric charge from all inverters.

BEFORE you start to work on any of the inverters, you MUST discharge the integrated capacitors.
DO NOT underestimate the power of these “little” components. Together they can store between 300 ~
500Amp.
Therefore you MUST discharge the capacitors per module before working on them.
The procedure is:

Disconnect the battery connector.

Remove counterweight cover

Use ceramic resistor 0358280 (150Ω / 25W) with two leads and crocodile clips and connect between
the + (POS) and – (NEG) terminal pole.

Wait for approximately 20 ~ 30 seconds for the capacitors to discharge.

Repeat the same for the other inverter modules.
Now you are free to work safely with the controller modules.
Optional you can also use a 48V or 80V work light to discharge the capacitors. The light will also be an
indicator if the capacitors are discharged.

16

Removal and Installation Inverter Procedure

Removal
1. Raise the front wheels.
2. Perform step 1 to 5 in Inverter Discharging Procedure.
3. Disconnect all five power cables from P, N, U, V and W terminals. For the
pump inverter, leave P terminal as it is, and disconnect F terminal.
4. Disconnect the connector.
5. Remove M10 bolts (four places) fixing the inverter, then remove the inverter.
Installation
1. Wipe off the dirt and thermal paste from the inverter mounting surface once,
and also remove dirt from the mounting surface and the aluminum base plate of
the inverter.
2. Apply thermal paste approx. 1 mm (0.04 in.) thick to the area where the
aluminum base plate of the inverter comes into contact with the truck body.
3. Fix the inverter with M10 bolts.
4. Connect the power cables to P, N, U, V and W terminals. For the pump inverter,
include F terminal.

17

Replacing DSP Card

Refer to Service Manual

Replacing DSP (Digital Signal Processor) Card
Refer to service manual.

18

Power Board Heat Conducting Paste

CAUTIONS
The power board is mounted
directly to the counterweight.
There are two different types of
heat conducting paste for
following models:
3 wheeler, AC : Silicone paste
(White)
4 wheeler, AC : Heat Cement
(Non-hardening graying colour)

Power Board Heat Conducting Paste
The power board is mounted directly to the counterweight.
There are two different types of heat conducting paste.
BEWARE:
On the 3 wheel 48V – AC models : Silicone Paste (white !)
On the 4 wheel 48V – AC models : Heat Cement
(non-hardening grayish color)
Reason: the counterweight of the 3 wheel models are machined, so fine
surface and the 4 wheel models
Have a non-machined surface. This results in a much rougher surface and
requires the heat-cement.
This is for ALL controller models that are fitted to the counterweight.
Do not mix up. Result could be burned-out power boards ! Or overheating
conditions.

19

What is Inverter?
The inverter is a motor drive controller that
consists of:
• Digital Signal Processor (DSP) card,
• Insulated Metal Substrate (IMS) module
• Drive boards
Using IMS to convert DC power to AC power
which features a transformer isolated sine
wave output.
It drives the AC induction motors according
to the motor control command from the logic
unit.
It also monitors malfunctions of motors and
its own condition. When a malfunction
occurs, it stops the motors and informs to the
logic unit.

Traction Inverter

What is Inverter?
The inverter is a motor drive controller that consists of:
• Digital Signal Processor (DSP) card,
• Insulated Metal Substrate (IMS) module
• Drive boards
Using IMS to convert DC power to AC power which features a transformer
isolated sine wave output.
It drives the AC induction motors according to the motor control command
from the logic unit.
It also monitors malfunctions of motors and its own condition. When a
malfunction occurs, it stops the motors and informs to the logic unit.

20

DSP Card

• Is a micro-processor card with
digital signal processor.
• Performs adaptive control.

DSPs have the speed
capabilities to concurrently
monitor the system and control
it.
A dynamic control algorithm
adapts itself in real time to
variation in system behaviour.

Traction Inverter,
DSP Card

DSP card

Is a micro-processor card with digital signal processor.

Performs adaptive control.

DSPs have the speed capabilities to concurrently monitor the
system and control it.

A dynamic control algorithm adapts itself in real time to
variation in system behaviour

21

Speed Control of Induction Motors

Speed control of induction motors
Refer to service manual.

22

Insulated Metal Substrate (IMS) Module

U – Phase connection

MOSFET Banks
[One for each phase]

V – Phase connection

V – Phase connection

Traction Inverter, IMS
The IMS module has plural MOS-FET modules and converts the battery DC
current to AC current for supplying to the drive and pump motors

Insulated Metal Substrate (IMS) Module
The IMS module has plural MOS-FET modules and converts the battery DC
current to AC current for supplying to the drive and pump motors
As you see, a different lay-out than the hydraulic version.
The traction controller is smaller by dimensions.
There are only 3 power boards mounted on this base plate.
The U, V and W connections are also lined up differently compared with the
hydraulic inverter.

23

MOS-FET

MOSFET

Metal Oxide Semiconductor
Field Effect Transistor

The MOSFET, or Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor, is by far the
most common field effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits (The 'Metal'
in the name is an anachronism from early chips where gates were metal; modern
chips use polysilicon gates, but are still called MOSFETs).
The MOSFET is composed of a channel of n-type or p-type semiconductor material
and is accordingly called an NMOSFET or a PMOSFET. Usually the
semiconductor of choice is silicon.
A MOSFET is a switch with no moving parts that can be turned on and off a a very
fast rate.

24

MOS-FET

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

25

MOS-FET

26

MOS-FET

SOURCE (S) and DRAIN (D) are connected with a flexible tube.
There is NO flow of water between the GATE (G) and the other two
connections.
This model shows that the SOURCE (S) Collector and DRAIN (D) are fully
identical.
When the voltage pressure on the GATE (G) connection increases, the
flexible hose between the DRAIN (D) and SOURCE (S) is compressed.
Result will be a reduction of water flow from DRAIN (D) to SOURCE (S)
.
With many FET’s the DRAIN and SOURCE are allowed to be reversed.
Note: The design of a transistor allows it to function as an amplifier or a
switch. This is accomplished by using a small amount of voltage to control a
gate on a much larger supply of electricity, much like turning a valve to
control a supply of water.

27

MOS-FET

The PM-1000 AC controller uses solid state MOSFET switches
arranged in banks to create the 3 phase supply. These switch about
7000 times per second, making operation very smooth.

The PM-1000 AC controller uses solid state MOSFET switches arranged in
banks to create the 3 phase supply. These switch about 7000 times per
second, making operation very smooth.

28

“PWM Inverter Principle No 1”
A device that changes the battery DC current into
alternating current is generally called “Inverter.

Inverter

DC

AC

Lets take a closer look at the PWM inverter, and discuss some of basic
principles.
Inverter principle number 1 – A device that changes the battery DC current
into alternating current is generally called “Inverter”.
The inverter is comprised of two sections;
1.) Capacitor bank
2.) The Inverter section that changes the DC current to AC current.
So when we call a variable frequency drive an inverter, this is technically
incorrect

29

“PWM Inverter Principle No 2”
The output transistors work like switches
(+)
S1

S3

S4

S6

S5

Battery
S2

T1
T2
T3

(-)

The output transistors of the inverter work like switches. They turn on and
off in a specific pattern to produce an output voltage waveform. What we
will do is move through the next few screen and watch the switch closures as
we progress through time.
Click on the mouse button and watch the switches close ( the closed
switches will turn red ).

30

“PWM Inverter Principle No 2”
The output transistors work like switches
RED Indicates
Closed Switch

(+)
S1

S3

S4

S6

S5

DC Bus
S2

T1
T2
T3

(-)
S1 – on
S6 – on
S5 – on
0

60

The output transistors of the inverter work like switches. They turn on and
off in a specific pattern to produce an output voltage waveform. What we
will do is move through the next few screen and watch the switch closures as
we progress through time.
Click on the mouse button and watch the switches close ( the closed
switches will turn red ).

31

“PWM Inverter Principle No 2”
The output transistors work like switches
RED Indicates
Closed Switch

(+)
S1

S3

S4

S6

S5

DC Bus
S2

T1
T2
T3

(-)
S1 – on
S6 – on
S5 – on
0

60

S2 – on
120

The output transistors of the inverter work like switches. They turn on and
off in a specific pattern to produce an output voltage waveform. What we
will do is move through the next few screen and watch the switch closures as
we progress through time.
Click on the mouse button and watch the switches close ( the closed
switches will turn red ).

32

“PWM Inverter Principle No 2”
The output transistors work like switches
RED Indicates
Closed Switch

(+)
S1

S3

S4

S6

S5

DC Bus
S2

T1
T2
T3

(-)
S1 – on
S6 – on
S5 – on
0

60

S3 – on
S2 – on
120

180

The output transistors of the inverter work like switches. They turn on and
off in a specific pattern to produce an output voltage waveform. What we
will do is move through the next few screen and watch the switch closures as
we progress through time.
Click on the mouse button and watch the switches close ( the closed
switches will turn red ).

33

“PWM Inverter Principle No 2”
The output transistors work like switches
RED Indicates
Closed Switch

(+)
S1

S3

S4

S6

S5

DC Bus
S2

T1
T2
T3

(-)
S1 – on

S4 – on

S6 – on
S5 – on
0

60

S3 – on
S2 – on
120

180

240

The output transistors of the inverter work like switches. They turn on and
off in a specific pattern to produce an output voltage waveform. What we
will do is move through the next few screen and watch the switch closures as
we progress through time.
Click on the mouse button and watch the switches close ( the closed
switches will turn red ).

34

“PWM Inverter Principle No 2”
The output transistors work like switches
RED Indicates
Closed Switch

(+)
S1

S3

S4

S6

S5

DC Bus
S2

T1
T2
T3

(-)
S1 – on

S4 – on

S6 – on
S5 – on
0

60

S3 – on
S2 – on
120

180

S5 – on
240

300

The output transistors of the inverter work like switches. They turn on and
off in a specific pattern to produce an output voltage waveform. What we
will do is move through the next few screen and watch the switch closures as
we progress through time.
Click on the mouse button and watch the switches close ( the closed
switches will turn red ).

35

“PWM Inverter Principle No 2”
The output transistors work like switches
RED Indicates
Closed Switch

(+)
S1

S3

S4

S6

S5

DC Bus
S2

T1
T2
T3

(-)
S1 – on

S4 – on

S6 – on
S5 – on
0

60

S3 – on
S2 – on
120

180

S6 – on
S5 – on

240

300

360

The output transistors of the inverter work like switches. They turn on and
off in a specific pattern to produce an output voltage waveform. What we
will do is move through the next few screen and watch the switch closures as
we progress through time.
Click on the mouse button and watch the switches close ( the closed
switches will turn red ).

36

“PWM Inverter Principle No 2”
Switch pattern
S1 – on

S4 – on
S3 – on

S6 – on
S5 – on
0

60

S2 – on
120

180

S6 – on
S5 – on

240

300

360

Resultant output voltage
T1-T2
T2-T3
T3-T1
0

360

The switch pattern that we just demonstrated will produce an output voltage
that looks like this, with each waveform being 120 degrees out of phase just
like a commercial power supply.

37

“PWM Inverter Principle No 3”
The output voltage changes with frequency

Volts
Typical Volt
per Hertz
Curve for a
Standard
460Volt
Motor

460V

230V

30Hz

Time
60Hz

The output of a PWM type inverter is both variable frequency and variable
voltage. This can be simply explained by what is called a V/f pattern. The
V/f pattern sets up a ratio of output voltage to output frequency. You will
see a little later that it is very important to keep this ratio constant for
optimum motor performance. What this shows me is at 60Hz the output
voltage will be 460V and at 1.5Hz the output voltage will be 23V.
Now this question probably comes to mind. A little while ago we said that
the DC bus of the PWM inverter was at a fixed level. So how does the
inverter vary the output voltage when the DC bus is fixed ?
Well this leads to our next topic, pulse width modulation.

38

“PWM Inverter Principle No 4”
“How the output voltage changes if the DC bus
voltage is fixed ”

Ton
Tc

Ton
Tc

= 50%

• The output voltage is changed
by modulating the width of the
output pulses that make up the
output waveform
• The higher the ratio of on time
as compared to the switching
time, the higher the voltage
• This method is called Pulse
Width Modulation

Ton: Turn on time of the transistor
Tc: Switching time

To change the output voltage of the inverter when the pulse amplitude is
fixed, the width of the pulse must be adjusted
( or modulated). The
higher the ratio of turn on time as compared to the switching time of the
transistor, the higher the resultant voltage will be. This method is called
pulse width modulation.

39

“PWM Inverter Principle No 4”
More on time means higher output voltage
Ton
Tc

= 50%

Ton
Tc

= 75%

Ton
Tc

Ton

Ton

Ton

Tc

Tc

Tc

= 90%

40

“PWM Inverter Principle No 4”
Producing an output waveform

41

“PWM Inverter Principle No 4”
Producing an output waveform

42

“PWM Inverter Principle No 5”
Producing an output waveform
Triangle
Carrier
Frequency

Triangle
Carrier
Frequency

Reference
Sine Wave

Reference
Sine Wave

Output
RMS Voltage

Output
RMS Voltage

The method used to produce this pulsed waveform can be simply described.
The first step of producing a PWM output waveform begins with the output
frequency reference. The output frequency reference is the commanded
frequency given to the inverter.

43

“PWM Inverter Principle No 5”
Why keep a constant V/f ratio?

460V

460V
60Hz

= 7.67

Volts

23V
= 15.3
1.5Hz

23V
0

“This ratio does
not look
constant to me”

1.5Hz

60Hz

Frequency

So far we have talked about the V/f pattern of the inverter and that it is
important to keep a constant volts per hertz ratio. If we do some
investigation, we can see that the V/f ratio at 60Hz is about 7.67 and the
ratio at 1.5Hz is about 15.3. This does not look constant to me! Lets look at
this a little closer.
Click

44

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Equivalent motor circuit

L1

L2

R1

M

R2
S

This is called an equivalent motor circuit. If you took a 3 phase motor you
could represent it with 3 separate equivalent motor circuits. The left portion
of the circuit is representative of the stator portion of the motor (consisting
of R1- stator resistance, L1-stator inductance , M-mutual inductance). And
the right portion of the circuit is representative of the rotor portion of the
motor ( consisting of L2-rotor inductance, R2/slip- rotor resistance divided
by the motor slip).

45

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Equivalent motor circuit

L1

L2

R1

460V

M

R2
S

This is called an equivalent motor circuit. If you took a 3 phase motor you
could represent it with 3 separate equivalent motor circuits. The left portion
of the circuit is representative of the stator portion of the motor (consisting
of R1- stator resistance, L1-stator inductance , M-mutual inductance). And
the right portion of the circuit is representative of the rotor portion of the
motor ( consisting of L2-rotor inductance, R2/slip- rotor resistance divided
by the motor slip).

46

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Equivalent motor circuit

L1

L2

R1

12V DROP

460V

M

R2
S

This is called an equivalent motor circuit. If you took a 3 phase motor you
could represent it with 3 separate equivalent motor circuits. The left portion
of the circuit is representative of the stator portion of the motor (consisting
of R1- stator resistance, L1-stator inductance , M-mutual inductance). And
the right portion of the circuit is representative of the rotor portion of the
motor ( consisting of L2-rotor inductance, R2/slip- rotor resistance divided
by the motor slip).

47

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Equivalent motor circuit

L1

L2

R1

12V DROP

460V

448V M

R2
S

This is called an equivalent motor circuit. If you took a 3 phase motor you
could represent it with 3 separate equivalent motor circuits. The left portion
of the circuit is representative of the stator portion of the motor (consisting
of R1- stator resistance, L1-stator inductance , M-mutual inductance). And
the right portion of the circuit is representative of the rotor portion of the
motor ( consisting of L2-rotor inductance, R2/slip- rotor resistance divided
by the motor slip).

48

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Equivalent motor circuit

L1

L2

R1

12V DROP

460V

448V M

R2
S

448V
= 7.46
60Hz

This is called an equivalent motor circuit. If you took a 3 phase motor you
could represent it with 3 separate equivalent motor circuits. The left portion
of the circuit is representative of the stator portion of the motor (consisting
of R1- stator resistance, L1-stator inductance , M-mutual inductance). And
the right portion of the circuit is representative of the rotor portion of the
motor ( consisting of L2-rotor inductance, R2/slip- rotor resistance divided
by the motor slip).

49

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Equivalent motor circuit

L1

L2

R1

12V DROP

23V

M

R2
S

This is called an equivalent motor circuit. If you took a 3 phase motor you
could represent it with 3 separate equivalent motor circuits. The left portion
of the circuit is representative of the stator portion of the motor (consisting
of R1- stator resistance, L1-stator inductance , M-mutual inductance). And
the right portion of the circuit is representative of the rotor portion of the
motor ( consisting of L2-rotor inductance, R2/slip- rotor resistance divided
by the motor slip).

50

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Equivalent motor circuit

L1

L2

R1

12V DROP

23V

11V M

R2
S

11V
= 7.34
1.5Hz

This is called an equivalent motor circuit. If you took a 3 phase motor you
could represent it with 3 separate equivalent motor circuits. The left portion
of the circuit is representative of the stator portion of the motor (consisting
of R1- stator resistance, L1-stator inductance , M-mutual inductance). And
the right portion of the circuit is representative of the rotor portion of the
motor ( consisting of L2-rotor inductance, R2/slip- rotor resistance divided
by the motor slip).

51

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Why keep a constant V/f ratio

11V
= 7.34
1.5Hz
• A constant V/f ratio
produces a constant
motor flux

448V
= 7.46
60Hz
• A constant motor flux
produces a constant
torque

This leads to the optimum amount of motor torque
per amp

So the voltage and frequency ratios at 1.5Hz and 60Hz are basically the
same if you compare the voltage used for producing torque. This constant
voltage will produce a constant motor flux in the motor throughout the speed
range and
Click

52

“PWM Inverter Principle No 6”
Effects of improper V/f ratio
High V/f ratio results in

Low V/f ratio results in
• Reduced motor flux
which leads to reduced
motor torque
• Motor starving for
voltage which leads to
high current

Over saturation
condition that leads to
high current but no
more torque production
Motor overheating

If the V/f pattern is set improperly, the performance of the motor will suffer.
If the V/f ratio is set too low;
The motor flux will be reduced which will lead to a reduction of motor
torque. This can lead to problems starting the motor or running at low
speeds. As well as sluggish response to load changes.
Low voltage to the motor will also cause higher than normal current draw.
This condition may lead to motor overheating or inverter overload faults.

53

Hydraulic Pump Inverter

Hydraulic (Pump)
DC to AC Inverter

View from the top of a Pump DC to AC Inverter

54

Hydraulic Pump Inverter – DSP Card

DSP (Digital Signal Processor) Card Pump Inverter

55

Hydraulic Pump Inverter – IMS Module
MOSFET Banks
[Two for each phase]

w

MOSFET Banks
[Two for each phase]

v

MOSFET Banks
[Two for each phase]

U

56

Hydraulic Pump Inverter – Capacitor Bank

Negative
Capacitor
Banks
(Qty: 88)

Positive
W-Phase

V-Phase

Current
Sensor [V]
U-Phase
Current
Sensor [U]

Pump and Traction Inverters are not the same.

57

Traction Inverter

Traction DC to AC
Inverter

View from the top of a Traction DC to AC Inverter

58

Traction Inverter – DSP card

DSP (Digital Signal Processor) Card Traction Inverter

When ordering this part, you will also get the 4 plastic positioning
clips.

59

Traction Inverter – IMS Module

MOSFET Banks
[One for each phase]

U

v

w

Traction Inverter

As you see, a different lay-out than the hydraulic version.
The traction controller is smaller by dimensions.
There are only 3 power boards mounted on this base plate.
The U, V and W connections are also lined up differently compared
with the hydraulic inverter.

60

Traction Inverter – Capacitor Bank
Current
Sensor [U]
U-Phase
Current
Sensor [W]
Negative

V-Phase
W-Phase
Positive

Capacitor
Bank
(Qty: 40)

Traction Inverter Terminals

61

Caution when working on the inverters

Typical items to be aware of when working
with DC to AC Inverters!!!!!!!!
Go to next slide.

The Pump and Traction Inverters have three possible weak points!

62

Inverter’s weak points

Inverter’s weak points
a) 10-line flat cable can be pinched between plastic top cover and heatsink.
b) Incorrect terminal torque on phase connection result in excessive heat or
breakage of PCB (Printed Circuit Board)
c) Incorrect heatsink paste resulting in burned power boards

63

Phases Terminal Torque!!
WARNING Use the correct terminal torque !!

M8 Nut
11.77 ± 1.96 N.m
1.20 ± 0.20 kgf.m
8.68 ± 1.45 lb.ft

In case you over tighten the U, V and – or W terminal torque, the following
issue will happen:
Fault code will be displayed on your operator display or even a burned
inverter could occur.
When you over-tighten, the thread-end could break inside the plastic stud,
resulting in bad contact with buss bar.
In the other case the buss-bar W phase will be forced out and the small PCB
(Printed Circuit Board) studs will bent and snap the board.
In these cases you will NOT have any warranty !! Be aware, these are
high costs repairs !!

64

Over Current to MOS-FET

Typical Over Current Damage to MOSFET’s

“Punch-through” of the FET’s .
This is a typical defect caused by over current on the FET’s.

65

Ribbon Cables Pinched

Traction or Hydraulic Pump Inverters
Watch that ribbon cables are not pinched when cover is
installed!!!!!!!!!!!

Be aware there is a chance for the flat cables to be pinched between the
plastic cover and
The base plate – heatsink.

66

Terminal on Contactor Coils
“X” and “Y” terminal on contactor coils

Traction line contactor coil:
Red = wire 249
Green = wire 247
Pump contactor coil:
Red = wire 250
Black = wire 248
Wire 249 & 250 are joined and connected together to CN1-63 of the master
logics (con VE)
Wire 247 is connected to CN1-59
Wire 248 is connected to CN1-60

See next slide for wiring schematic.

67

Correct Connection of wires

Line and Pump Contactor Wiring Schematic
Correct connection of wires is critical to correct contactor operation.

68

Connection for Main Harness & GSE plug

Connection for Main
harness and GSE plug

Master Logic Card

The fuse holder, the GSE connector and the logic card power & in-outputs
are all
Separate connectors to Harness B.

69

Know your forklift Truck
Controlled Rollback Function
When the accelerator pedal is released on a grade, regeneration braking is applied
and the truck goes down slowly.
If the operator leaves the operator’s seat for approximately 3 seconds and truck
speed is lower than 0.5km/h, motor power is shifted to neutral and the regeneration
braking does not work.
When the motor is overheated, the regeneration braking is restricted and the going
down speed is increased

Controlled roll back with regeneration function
1.Lever regen.
When:(1)Direction lever is in F or R(opposite direction against the truck movement)
(2)Acceleration pedal is ON
(3)Regardless of BRAKE pedal
Regeneration: According to accel. pedal and SUO #22
2.Auto regen
You can select ACCEL. regen or BRAKE regen by SUO #21
2.1 ACCEl. regen
When:(1)Direction lever is in F or R
(2)Acceleration pedal is OFF
(3)Regardless of BRAKE pedal
Regeneration: Constant. According to SUO #23
2.2 BRAKE regen
When:(1)Direction lever is in F or R
(2)Acceleration pedal is OFF
(3)Press the BRAKE pedal
Regeneration: Constant. According to SUO #23
3.Controlled roll back
When:(1)Direction lever is in F or R
(2)Acceleration pedal is OFF
(3)Truck speed is slow enough ( < 0.2km/h)

70

Trouble Shooting

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Talk to the Operator.
Perform an Operational Check to verify the Operators description.
Visually inspect Cables, Connectors, Contactor Tips etc.
Perform a basic Battery cable to frame resistance test. (must be at
least 20kΩ) Panel negative to frame and all fuses to frame.
Check the Battery condition. (Not less that 2.0 volts per cell at rest
voltage)
Always check each option & write down the finding.
Carry out Self Diagnostics & write down the findings.
Write down any stored Error Codes from the History Folder.
Verify any carried out repairs

Testing Tools: a)Circuit tester b) Clamp meter c) IC clip

Note Red Letter.
Basic Check
Refer to service manual.
Always follow basic troubleshooting steps.
• Talk to the operator.
• Confirm his description of the problem with an operational check.
• Visually inspect cables, connectors, contactor tips, etc.
• Perform basic battery cables to frame resistance test. (at least 20 k ohm)
Panel negative to frame and all fuses to frame.
• Check battery condition. (Not less that 2.0 volts per cell at rest voltage)
Always check each option and write down the reading.
Testing Tools
(a) Circuit tester
(b) Clamp meter
(c) IC clip
Note Red Letters

71

Any Questions?

72