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SCIENTIFIC

Quality Solutions for
Air Sampling & Par ticle Analysis

2010 E DI T I ON

AE ROSOL CH AR AC T E RI SAT I ON AN D RE SE ARCH • M I L I TARY AN D CI V I L DE F E N CE • INDU ST R IA L H EA LT H A ND SA FET Y
DI E SE L E M I SSI ON AN ALYSI S • M I CROB I OLOG I C AL CON TAM I N ATI ON • NA NO PA RT IC L E R ESEA RC H

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INTRODUCTION

COPLEY SCIENTIFIC – A BRIEF HISTORY

Our Philosophy

Copley Scientific was founded by Frank Copley in 1946 to
manufacture and supply laboratory equipment and glassware
to the pharmaceutical industry.The company has been based in
Nottingham, UK, since that date.

Today, users of our instrumentation demand that it is (a) precise and
accurate (b) simple to use and operate and (c) robust and rugged.

In 1957, Copley Scientific began to focus on test equipment for
pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. As a result we have built
up a wealth of experience in supplying and supporting such
equipment in both the UK and internationally. As part of our
rapid expansion Copley Scientific is now responsible for the
manufacture and worldwide supply of its own innovative range
of tablet dissolution, disintegration, friability and hardness testers
in addition to test equipment for creams, ointments, powders,
suppositories and transdermal patches.
Whilst still operating as a family-owned company, Copley
Scientific has continued to expand and increase its range of
products and services. During the 1980s Copley scientific began
developing a new range of inhaler test equipment to meet the
growing demand for drugs delivered to the respiratory tract. We
are now recognised as one of the world’s largest manufacturers
of inhaler test equipment, with a broad range of equipment,
software and services to meet the requirements of inhaled drug
development for both topical and systemic applications.

The Copley philosophy is based on the premise that the accuracy
and reproducibility of test results, and hence the ability to discern
between products can only be achieved with instrumentation
conceived using “quality by design” principles and maintained
through the rigorous application of quality control standards within
a Quality Management System such as ISO 9001: 2008.
It is the application of this philosophy to the manufacture of all our
instruments that guarantees you, the user, an instrument of the
highest quality and reliability.
ISO 9001: 2008 Quality Management System
Copley Scientific is committed to delivering quality products and
services to our customers. Continual improvement is an essential
part of achieving customer satisfaction and we constantly strive to
exceed the expectations of the industries we serve.
In pursuance of these goals, Copley has gained certification for its
Quality Management System to the new ISO 9001: 2008 standard
published in November 2008 to replace the previous
ISO 9001: 2000.

In 2000, Copley Scientific formed a strategic partnership with MSP
Corporation (see Page 2), a US-based company that specialises in
aerosol particle science, to sell their range of instrumentation for
the aerodynamic particle size measurement of inhaled drugs. In
2006, this partnership was extended to include MSP’s range of air
sampling and aerosol characterisation products, making Copley
Scientific a major supplier of research grade aerosol analysis
equipment outside the USA.
In 2003, we opened a new sales and service company in
Switzerland to assist in supporting our increasing number of
customers on the European mainland.This was followed in 2005
by the relocation of Copley Scientific’s UK-based headquarters to
a new, larger purpose-built facility in Nottingham.
Copley Scientific also works closely with a number of specialist
distributors to ensure that our range of products is supplied and
supported around the world.
The combination of both experience and flexibility within the
industries we support ensures that Copley Scientific will
continue to provide innovative, high quality solutions to
our customers, well into the future.

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MSP CORPORATION - PIONEERING AEROSOL RESEARCH

Founded in 1985 by Professor Ben Y H Liu and Professor Virgil A Marple, both acknowledged experts in the field of air sampling
and particle analysis, MSP Corporation is a global applied aerosol/particle technology company providing advanced products and
services to the world of aerosol research. Copley Scientific distributes MSP’s air sampling and particle analysis products exclusively
in Europe.
Professor Benjamin Y H Liu

Professor Benjamin Y H Liu is the CEO and President of MSP
Corporation, a company he co-founded with Professor Virgil
Marple. He was a Regents’ Professor at the University of Minnesota
before his retirement in 2002. At various times at the University of
Minnesota, he served as the Director of the Particle Technology
Laboratory, the Environmental Division, and the Center for
Filtration Research. During his academic career he published more
than 400 papers and reports, and guided 42 PhD students to
completion.
He is a founding director and a past President of the American
Association for Aerosol Research and a founding Editor-inChief of the Aerosol Science and Technology journal. He was
elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1987 for his
pioneering contributions to aerosols. He was awarded the Fuchs
prize in 1994 by the aerosol societies of Europe, Japan and the
USA in recognition of his contributions to aerosol science and
instrumentation.
Professor Liu’s contributions to aerosol instrumentation include
some of the mostly widely used instruments in the world, such
as the differential mobility analyser, the vibrating orifice aerosol
generator and the Kr-85 and Po-210 aerosol charge neutralisers.
He also joined with Prof. Marple in developing the original Uniform
Deposit Impactor (MOUDI).
At MSP, he continues to guide the company’s effort in developing
new and advanced instrumentation, including for counting
airborne fibres, for counting low levels of particles in cleanrooms,
and for extending the range of the WPS down to 5 nanometres.

Professor Virgil A Marple

Professor Virgil A Marple, Vice President and co-founder of MSP
Corporation, is a recognised authority in the design of cascade
and virtual impactors. He has been a Professor of Mechanical
Engineering at the University of Minnesota since 1970, following
his dissertation work on the fundamentals of cascade impactor
performance.
At the University of Minnesota, he has pioneered the design
and implementation of multi-nozzle cascade impactors for use
in industrial hygiene, ambient sampling, pharmaceutical inhaler
testing, mining, fundamental research and cleanroom applications.
Products derived from this work include the Multiple-Orifice
Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDI), the Personal Environmental
Monitor (PEM), the Marple 290 Personal Impactor, the Marple-Miller
Impactor (MMI) and the Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor
(NGI).
He was a member of the National Research Council committee
on Measurement and Control of Respirable Dust in Mines in 1980,
received the Americal Aerosol for Aerosol Research David Sinclair
Award in 1988 and has many patents related to inertial classifiers.
In recent years, he has pioneered the extension of cascade
impactors to the nanoparticle range achieving cut-points down
to 5 nanometres as reflected in MSP’s NanoMOUDI product
offerings. Currently, he directs the Particle Calibration Laboratory
at the University of Minnesota, a world class facility with the
equipment and methods for passing monodisperse particles into
inertial separators, such as cascade impactors, for the purpose of
calibrating their performance.

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CONTENTS Specials Introduction (Air Sampling and Particle Analysis) Introduction Particulate Matter (Aerosols) The Study of Particulate Matter or Aerosols Air Sampling and Particle Analysis Range of Instrumentation Introduction 4 4 4 5 Wide Range Particle Sizing Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer Model 1000XP (WPS) Introduction General Principle of Operation Operation Summary Technical Specifications 6 7 8 10 10 11 Air Sampling & Particle Analysis in the Coarse to Nano range MOUDI Wide-Range Cascade Impactors Introduction General Unique Features Description Applications 12 13 14 15 16 9 Aerosol Generation and Monitoring Aerosol Generator and Monitor Model 1500 Tandem AGM Model 1040XP 30 31 Aerosol Concentration Aerosol Concentrator Model 4220 Aerosol Concentrator Model 4240 32 32 Real-Time Fibre Monitoring Real-Time Fibre Monitor Model 7400AD 33 Ancillaries Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 High Capacity Pump Model HCP5 34 34 Flow Meters Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 35 Calibration Services 35 Index 36 Air Sampling & Particle Analysis in the Coarse to Ultrafine range Introduction 3-Stage Impactor Model 100-S4 3-Stage Impactor for PM1. Neither does it convey any licence under its patent rights nor the rights of others. Any third party documentation or organisation mentioned herein is referential only and implies no company or product endorsement from.indd 3 28/7/10 11:44:34 . Personal Air Samplers Introduction 25 Personal Environmental Monitor Series 200 Single-Stage PEM Model PEM-2 Single-Stage PEM Model PEM-4 Single-Stage PEM Model PEM-10 26 26 26 Personal Environmental Monitor (Speciation Type) PMASS Aerosol Speciation Sampler Model 240 27 Personal Environmental Monitor (Marple Type) Multi-Stage PEM Model 135-6 Multi-Stage PEM Model 135-8 28 28 Universal Environmental Monitor (Marple Type) Multi-Stage PEM Model 135-10 Multi-Stage PEM Model 135-13 28 28 3 Air Sampling 2010. with Copley Scientific Limited. Copley Scientific Limited does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product described herein.3 L/min) Modified Versions for use at 60 and 90 L/min 20 20 5-Stage High Flow Impactor Model 130 5-Stage High-Flow Impactors Models 128-131 22 Micro-Environmental Monitor Model 400 Micro-Environmental Monitor (2.5 microns) Micro-Environmental Monitor (10 microns) Diffusion Denuder DDS Model 450 23 23 23 Universal Air Sampler Model 310 Universal Air Sampler Model 310 (PM2.5 and 10 Sampling 17 18 5-Stage Marple-Miller Impactors 5-Stage Marple-Miller Impactor Model 160 5-Stage Marple-Miller Impactor Model 150 19 19 8-Stage Andersen Impactors 8-Stage Andersen Std Version (28. 2. All rights reserved. No portion of this catalogue may be reproduced without the permission of Copley Scientific Limited.5) Universal Air Sampler Model 310 (PM10) 24 24 COPYRIGHT This edition of the Copley Scientific Limited brochure is copyright 2010. Copley Scientific Limited reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein to improve reliability or design. or affiliation.

health benefits brought about by Particulate Matter (PM) or Aerosols. MSP’s range of cascade impactors are world renowned. industry and construction. Anthropogenic aerosols emanate mainly from the burning of fossil fuels. Because of the well-documented environmental changes. products and services to the world of aerosol research. sulphur. MSP Corporation is a global applied aerosol/ particle technology company providing advanced instruments. etc. MSP also undertakes special and bespoke projects. volcanic activity and biological particulates such as pollen.1 microns). Fine Particles or Particulates. It is these roles combined with the increasing demands of emerging nanotechnologies that provide the current challenge in the continuing development of aerosol instrumentation. In many cases the physical properties will determine the effect. In the case of ambient air. sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.5 to 10 microns). in some instances. In the Aerosol Sampling field. black carbon (soot). can be hazardous to health.. NanoMOUDI and Hi-Flow Impactors. With a range of 10 nanometres to 18 microns. Air Sampling and Particle Analysis play key roles in determining the physical and chemical properties of particulate matter that are critical to aerosol characterisation. this Particulate Matter is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles many of which.indd 4 28/7/10 11:44:37 . fine (0. They range in size from less than 10 nanometres to more than 100 microns in diameter although only particles smaller than 10 microns in diameter are thought to have an adverse effect on human health. compact and user friendly instrument capable of automatically counting and sizing particles from 5 nanometres to 10 microns. if not more. forest and grassland fires. for example.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS PARTICULATE MATTER (AEROSOLS) AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS Particulate Matter (PM). One commerically available product that has resulted from such a project is the Aerosol Concentrator: a device for concentrating particles (<2 microns) from a 300 L/min Sample Flow into a 1 L/min output flow for collection and analysis. The size of such particles is normally classified as coarse (2. continue that tradition in providing a new generation of instrumentation for the sampling and sizing of coarse. and the chemical properties will determine the source and formation of the particles concerned. mineral salts and traces of toxic metals and secondary particles formed in the atmosphere from hydrocarbons. in the miniaturised Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer WPS. fine and ultrafine particles in a single instrument. sea spray. dust.5 microns) or ultrafine (below 0. health hazards and. comprises small particles of chemically and physically diverse solid or liquid suspended in a gas. smoke.1 to 2. their study is of increasing importance in a number fields: • Atmospheric aerosol research including global climate and air quality • Diesel and gasoline emission analysis and monitoring • Industrial hygiene and occupational health studies • Microbiological contamination: hospital. alternatively referred to as Aerosols. More specific particulate matter generated by industrial and construction processes can be equally. pollen. spores and soot. dangerous. combined the principles employed in Differential Mobility Analysis (DMA) and Condensation Particle Counting (CPC) with those of laser scattering to produce a single. as well as man-made sources resulting from incomplete combustion processes. food processing. The particles concerned can be divided into primary particles emitted directly into the atmosphere from sources such as vehicle exhausts and secondary particles formed in the atmosphere from vapour condensation or chemical reactions. sterile production • Military and civil defence • Nanoparticle research • Pharmaceutical inhalation research and quality control 4 Air Sampling 2010. such as bacteria. They are comprised of primary emissions from motor vehicle emissions and coal combustion consisting of unburned fuel (hydrocarbons). fungi. Founded in 1985 by Professor Ben Y H Liu and Professor Virgil Marple. THE STUDY OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) OR AEROSOLS In the field of Aerosol Counting and Sizing MSP has. both acknowledged experts in the field of Air Sampling and Particle Analysis. Airborne particles are produced by a number of natural sources including airborne dust. the new Wide-Range MOUDI.

II : 2nd Generation MOUDI Impactor with Stepper Motor Rotating (R) or Non-Rotating (NR) Stages 120 30 10 125 10 13 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 12 x x x x x x x x x x x 12 Marple Multi-Stage Personal Environmental Monitor for Personal Sampling and Laboratory Use 135-6 2 6 135-8 2 8 135-10 2 10 135-13 2 13 x x x x x x x x x x 28 x x x x x x x x x 28 x x x x x x x x x x x 28 x x x x x x x x x x x 28 IMPACTOR AND PARTICLE SAMPLERS Model Flowrate Stages (LPM) Cut-Point Diameter (microns) 0.9 to 90 L/min 8 Stages between 0.4 0. 60 or 90 L/min 8 Stages between 0.0 1.01 0.032 0.45 10 to 500 (SMS) 9 1100 High-Dilution CPC (CPC-HD) 0.56 1.056 0.4 2.18 0.8 3. 4.INSTRUMENT SELECTON GUIDE WIDE RANGE PARTICLE SPECTROMETER (WPS) AND COUNTERS Model Instrument Flow Rate (LPM) Size Range (nm) Page 1000 XP-A Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer (WPS) 1.4 and 10 microns 20 160 Marple-Miller Impactor: 4. PM2.32 0.000 (WPS) 6 1000 XP-B Scanning Mobility Spectrometer (SMS) 0.25 0.625 and 10 microns 19 310 Universal Air Sampler: 300 L/min x x x 24 5 Air Sampling 2010.5 10 x x x 18 x x x 22 x x x 22 4-Stage Micro-Orifice Impactor: for PM1.5 and PM10 Sampling 100-SA 30 3 High Flow Impactor (HFI) 128 100 3 129 100 4 x 130 100 5 x x x x x 131 100 6 x x x x x x 22 x x 26 22 Personal Environmental Monitor: for PM2.3.0 1.1 0.5 and PM10 Sampling 200 2.2 5.15 10 to 10.018 0.8 Page 1.6 10 18 MOUDI .indd 5 28/7/10 11:44:40 .10 1 Personal Environmental Aerosol Specification Sampler (PMASS) 240 4 x 27 Micro-Environmental Monitor 400 10 1 x x 23 Other 140 Andersen Impactor: 28.45 5-20 (User selectable detection limit 9 MOUDI IMPACTORS Model Flow Stages (LPM) Cut-Point Diameter (microns) Page 0.

differential mobility analysis and condensation particle counting in a single instrument to measure the diameter and number concentration of aerosol particles in a sampled air stream. Data analysis software is included to allow the export of data to ernal laptop/host an external er and converting computer count distribution data olume and surface to volume area distributions. The result is a spectrometer seamlessly covering three orders of magnitude in particle diameter. It is the only general purpose high-resolution spectrometer available on the market that combines laser light scattering. functions. The differential mobility analyser (DMA) and the condensation particle counter (CPC) can measure aerosol size distributions in the 5 to 500 nm particle diameter range in up to 96 channels. minimising set up errors and ensuring repeatable data collection. Data fitting routines are also provided to allow fitting of size ibution data by distribution mono-.indd 6 ������ 3/8/10 11:27:14 . Attention to detail has resulted in an instrument measuring only 43 cm wide x 52 cm deep x 32 cm high and weighing less than 25 kg. 6 Air Sampling 2010. bi. The software (WPS Commander) assumes complete control over all of the system components via the mouse and inbuilt plasma screen. Operation is extremely user friendly with programmed recipe-driven operation. This compact design makes the WPS particularly suited to those aerosol particle sizing and counting functions that demand frequent transportation between laboratory and field applications. The laser particle spectrometer (LPS) can measure aerosol size distributions in the 350 nm to 10 microns particle diameter range in 24 additional channels. The WPS Model 1000XP is also the only aerosol spectrometer on the market featuring integrated system design and control.or tri-modal aerosol distribution tions. giving a range of 5 nanometres – 10 microns in one single.Wide Range Particle Sizing INTRODUCTION The miniaturised Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer Model 1000XP (WPS) is a must-have instrument for the aerosol and environmental research laboratory. easy-to-use and compact instrument.

Cycle 1 minute The miniaturised Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer (WPS) Model 1000XP-A is a single. Simultaneously. 0. For the DMS. the remaining 0. voltage. 96 and 128 channels of size distribution. which is used in conjunction with the mouse for user interface. All units are calibrated at manufacture to NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable standards. is unaffected by high temperatures thus ensuring display data can be seen in both field and laboratory conditions. 24. the conventional approach to particle sizing has been a somewhat haphazard collection of laser particle counting.45 L/min is directed into the Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) for size classification and particle counting by the Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) between 5 and 500 nm. is directed into the Laser Particle Spectrometer (LPS Mode) which sizes and counts particles between 0. The instrument provides 12. 1. compact and hence portable unit designed to operate in the range from 5 nm to 10 microns. The in-built plasma display. The unit is designed to operate at a flow rate of 1. DMS and SMS) can be used singly or in combination in one of five operating modes: Particle size distribution in the 5 nm –10 micron range is a critical parameter in the characterisation of an aerosol cloud and is a vital area in environmental air monitoring and laboratory research. 48. Operational control of the 1000XP is managed by a powerful in-built computer running on Windows XP using software specifically written for the purpose. Cycle 1 minute Dual Range Mode • WPS Mode (LPS + DMS) : Range 5 nm – 10 microns. lightweight.5 and 10 microns. The CPC is of the thermal diffusion type where butanol condenses on the sampled particles making them a size capable of detection.indd 7 28/7/10 11:44:49 .15 L/min ��������� ��������� �������������� ���������� �������������������� ����������� ���� ���� ���������� ������ �������� ������������ ��� � ������������ ������������ ������ ������������ ������ ���� ������� ��� �� ��� ���� ���� ���� ���� ��������� ��������������� ���� ��� ��������������� ���������� ���� ���������� ������� ��� �� ���������� ���� ���������� ���� ���� ���� ����������� ��������� ���������� 7 Air Sampling 2010.15 L/min. the cycle time is adjustable between 2 and 5 minutes.7 L/min. The DMA voltage can be used in either the traditional stepped Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) mode or in the more rapid scanning Scanning Mobility Spectrometer (SMS) mode. Approximately 60% of the incoming sample. Cycle 2 to 15 minutes • SWS Mode (LPS + SMS) : Range 5 nm – 10 microns. temperature and pressure ensures the highest precision. The nominal cycle time for the SMS is 1 minute. The 1000XP-B has exactly the same functions as the 1000XP-A but without the LPS function (ie DMA functions only). differential mobility analysing and condensation particle counting equipment (see page 10). A second version of the 1000XP is available for those users who only require to operate in the 5 to 500 nm range. Multi-parameter control of air flow. Cycle 2 to 15 minutes • SMS Mode: Range 5 – 500 nm. Hitherto.000 particles/cm3.5 – 10 microns.WIDE RANGE PARTICLE SIZING WIDE-RANGE PARTICLE SPECTROMETER MODEL 1000XP (WPS) The three instrument components (LPS. Particle concentrations can be accurately determined using single particle counting from less than 1 to as many as 10. Stand-alone Mode • LPS Mode: Range 0. Cycle 1 minute • DMS Mode: Range 5 – 500 nm.

3. only particles with a specific electrical mobility enter the slit.indd 8 28/7/10 11:44:54 .5 to 5 L/min. The 1090 is designed to operate at flow rates of 0.70 L/min and focused with a 4.1.WIDE RANGE PARTICLE SIZING WIDE-RANGE PARTICLE SPECTROMETER MODEL 1000XP (WPS) PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION The schematic on the previous page shows the standard WPS Model 1000XP configuration.5 L/min flow of sheath air towards the centre of a ribbon-shaped laser beam generated by a laser diode (780 nm. can be entered in to the WPS Particle Properties screen for more accurate particle sizing if desired. 5 mW). The shorter DMA design reduces particle loss by diffusion leading to improved measurement accuracy for nanosized particles. The mean size of the particles that pass through the exit slot of the DMA into the Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is a function of the flow rate and the strength of the electrical field. The new Miniature Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) employed in the WPS is capable of classifying particles in the size range from 5 to 500 nm by capturing the narrow range of particles that have a common trajectory within an electrical mobility analyser and then passing them through a condensation particle counter (CPC). Particles are drawn from the aerosol inlet at a flow rate of 0. 2. The refractive index of the particles. The overall length of the DMA is just over 200 mm (about one third of the length of a conventional DMA). The conditioned aerosol is then introduced to the DMA where the central electrode voltage can be accurately controlled to any value between 10 and 10. Thus. The remaining particles (smaller than 500 nm) are then passed through a charge neutraliser in the form of an electrical ioniser such that the emerging particles carry a Boltzmann distribution of charges (the overall charge is zero. hence providing real-time particle sizing in 24 channels covering the 350 nm to 10 micron particle diameter range.000 volts. wideangle optical sensor used for measuring particle size from 350 nm to 10 microns. for any specific voltage. It uses an AC corona discharge to generate high concentrations of positive and negative ions for aerosol charge conditioning without generating undesirable extraneous particles. but the aerosol contains well defined portions of particles carrying +/. if known. The Laser Particle Spectrometer (LPS) is a single-particle. Sampled Aerosol High Voltage Supply Exit Slit Excess Air To Particle Counter Principle of the Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) WPS with Electrical Ioniser Model 1090 8 Air Sampling 2010. Light scattered by each particle is collected by a spherical mirror over a 20 to 100 degree range of scatter angle and projected on to a red-enhanced photomultiplier tube for real-time pulse-height analysis. The DMA flow is first conditioned by passing it through a singlestage impactor designed to remove any particulates larger than 500 nm. All other particles are collected on surfaces inside the DMA or leave with the excess flow dependent on their size. etc) Clean Air Charger Miniaturised DMA and CPC The Electrical Ioniser Model 1090 was originally designed as a stand-alone unit to provide a non-radioactive alternative to the Polonium 210 radioactive charge conditioner originally employed on the WPS.

whereupon the butanol condenses on the particles making them grow for easy optical detection.5 L/min accurately maintained by a feedback control system to improve size response and resolution. At the same time. DMA and CPC operating parameters. It also features rapid warm-up time and instrument response for accurate aerosol measurement. A feedback flow control system maintains the CPC flow rate at a constant of 0. appropriate alarms alert the user should they be exceeded. From this to this Is it time that YOU upgraded your existing aerosol testing system? 9 Air Sampling 2010. The miniaturised CPC is of advanced dual-reservoir design that has solved the traditional problems of water condensation and collection in the saturator in moderate to high humidity conditions by segregating the condensed water from the working fluid (butanol). acquisition of all system operating parameters. Please ask our sales team for further details. The aerosol particles are mixed with butanol vapour before entering the condenser which is maintained at 10 degrees C. the results of which are used to compensate for changes in environmental altitude and temperature. Note: The Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) with built-in high-dilution facilities employed on the WPS is now available as a separate unit in both original form (Model 1100) and new water-based version (Model 1110). The cylindrical DMA works in a re-circulating mode whereby the sheath air flow is in a closed loop with a steady flow of 4. sensors monitor the absolute pressure and temperature of the air flow. The resulting droplets are then counted by a light scattering droplet counter utilising a laser diode beam and photo detector. control of the LPS. the computer software assumes full control of the system operation including regulation of all flow rates.indd 9 3/8/10 11:28:27 . An ‘alarm’ screen allows the user to set limits for various of the operating parameters.45 L/min. During automated operation. The CPC is of the thermal diffusion type with a saturator maintained at 35 degrees C.WIDE RANGE PARTICLE SIZING WIDE-RANGE PARTICLE SPECTROMETER MODEL 1000XP (WPS) The DMA voltage can be either stepped (Differential Mobility Spectrometer or DMS Mode) or scanned exponentially (Scanning Mobility Spectrometer or SMS Mode). The aerosol leaving the CPC is mixed with clean air prior to exiting the exhaust at the rear of the instrument. monitoring of sensor outputs. execution of the measurement cycles according to the loaded recipe and data output storage. The particles extracted by the DMA are then transferred to a miniaturised Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) whereupon they are grown to a size at which they can be detected and counted.

Observe the measured size distribution in real-time (‘Graph’ screen) 6. Correct Status(Monitor Screen) The Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer Model 1000XP is currently the only stand-alone miniaturised spectrometer that combines the following features in a single instrument: • Wide-Range: 5 nanometres – 10 microns • DMA. Start the measurement cycle 5. CPC and LPS technology combined in a single instrument • Compact: 43 cm wide x 52 cm deep x 32 cm high (25 kg) • In-built computer with user friendly interface via mouse and in-built plasma screen • Choice of five recipe-controlled operating modes • Easy to transport and set up from lab to field • Choice of 12.indd 10 28/7/10 11:45:12 . End the programme * LPS. 24. Check for correct status of the main operating parameters on the ‘Monitor’ screen 3. Launch Programme 4. Description 3.WIDE RANGE PARTICLE SIZING 1. DMS. Launch the programme: allow 15 minutes to stabilise 2. 96 or 128 channels of size resolution • Hardware and software integrated into one system Cat. 48. Transfer/export the data files to an external source if required 7.No. Setup (WPS Mode) 9401 9402 Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer Model 1000XP-A Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer Model 1000XP-B* * As 1000XP-A but without LPS function (Range = 5 to 500 nm) 9403 9404 Condensation Particle Counter Model 1100 Condensation Particle Counter Model 1110 (water-based) 10 Air Sampling 2010. Results: Graph Screen (SWS Data) OPERATION The sequence for automatic operation of the 1000XP is as follows: 1. SMS. WPS or SWS Modes SUMMARY What distinguishes this instrument from similar instruments? 2. Set up the instrument by choosing or creating a measurement recipe from one of the five ‘Mode Setup’ screens provided* 4.

635 nm. 20.5” (318 mm) H. up to 128 channels from 10 nm to 10. 24. CPC 10 nm to 2 µm Mean Mobility Diameter: ±3% of NIST Traceable PSL (Standard Reference) Materials. 350 nm to 10.000 nm Miniature high resolution DMA Continuous flow Advanced Dual-Reservoir CPC High-resolution.45 L/min Recirculating mode.15 L/min 5 nm to 10.000 nm 500 particles per cm3 16 channels per decade. log scale in the SMS Mode. 5 mW 20 to 100 degrees Infrared-enhanced photomultiplier tube *Subject to change without notice 11 Air Sampling 2010.000 nm User-selectable. 47-67 Hz. 17.7 L/min 4. (single particle counting mode) n-butyl alcohol (butanol) < 10 sec 500 to 107 particles/cm3 (total aerosol concentration) 60 to 300 seconds. 4. 32. user selectable 12. single phase.4 kg) SWPS™ = SMS™ + LPS SCANNING MOBILITY SPECTROMETER (SMS™) 1 2 3 4 Sample Flow Rate DMA Sheath Air Flow Rate Particle Size Range DMA Sizing Accuracy 5 CPC Count Accuracy 6 7 8 9 10 11 CPC Concentration Range CPC Working Fluid CPC Response Time (95% response) DMA-CPC Aerosol Concentration Range Measurement Cycle Time Size Resolution 12 13 Sample Interval Time Sampling Average LASER PARTICLE SPECTROMETER (LPS) 1 Sample Flow Rate 2 Sheath Flow Rate 3 Particle Size Range 4 Particle Concentration Range 5 Size Resolution 6 Light Source 7 Light Collection 8 Detector DMA and CPC.7 and 269 nm) ± 10% (compared to standard MSP CPC). non-condensing 90-264 VAC. wide-angle LPS. Single particle counting mode 0 to 104 particles/cm3 .WIDE RANGE PARTICLE SIZING TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS* WIDE-RANGE PARTICLE SPECTROMETER (WPS™) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Sample Flow Rate Particle Size Range Size Resolution Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) Laser Particle Spectrometer (LPS) Sample Interval Time Sampling Average Instrument Modes Scanning Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer (SWPS™) Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer (WPS™) Scanning Mobility Spectrometer (SMS™) Differential Mobility Spectromer (DMS™) Laser Particle Spectrometer (LPS) Ambient Pressure Range Ambient Temperature Range Ambient Humidity Range Power 1. 1-96 channels. 0. log or linear scale in the DMS Mode 60 sec to 24 hrs. user selectable 2-999 scans Five mode of operation WPS™=DMS + LPS SMS DMS LPS 800 to 1050 mbar absolute pressure 10 to 35 ºC 0-90% RH. 100 W steady state. 100.000 nm 60 sec to 24 hrs. 140 W start up 14 15 Dimensions Weight 12. user selectable 2-999 scans 0. or 96 channels.5” (521 mm) D.indd 11 28/7/10 11:45:20 .0” (432 mm) W 47 lbs (21. 48. 10-500 nm. 24 channels total Laser diode.5 L/min DMA.5 L/min 300 nm to 10.

if not more. The particles concerned range in size from less than 10 nanometres to more than 100 microns in diameter. ultrafine and nanofine particles. MSP’s range of cascade impactors is world renowned. fine. dust. It has. Particles emitted from modern diesel engines are typically 100 nanometres in size. sizing and analysis of coarse. products and services to the world of aerosol research. is that it allows chemical analysis of the various size fractions collected thus providing the capability to differentiate and quantify the particle sources making up the sample mass based on particle type as well as particle size. More specific particles generated by industrial and construction processes can be equally. the new series of Wide-Range Nano MOUDI* Cascade Impactors continues that tradition in providing a new generation of instrumentation for the sampling. There is mounting evidence that the smaller the particle the greater the potential for damage. compared with alternative methods. In the Aerosol Sampling field. smoke. With a range of 10 nanometres to 18 microns. been proved that nanoparticles smaller than 100 nanometres can pass through cell membranes and migrate to the brain. dangerous. spores and soot to name a few. Air Sampling and Particle Analysis play a key role in nanoparticle research. where they can cause damage similar to that found in Alzheimer patients. for example. The primary advantage of the Cascade Impactor. MSP Corporation is a global applied aerosol/particle technology company providing advanced instruments.Air Sampling and Particle Analysis in the Coarse to Nano Range INTRODUCTION Airborne particles suspended in the air that we breathe can be hazardous to health. although only particles smaller than 10 microns in diameter (ie those that can be inhaled into the lungs) are thought to have an adverse effect on human health. or (MOUDI) * Micro-Orifice Uniform-Deposit Impactor 12 Air Sampling 2010. Every day we are exposed to an ever increasing number of threats: bacteria. pollen.indd 12 ������ 3/8/10 11:29:19 .

000 nanometres) plus a final filter. The particle size distribution is determined by weighing the particles captured on each stage.010 to 10 microns (10 to 10. unique microorifice stages and the ability to spread out the collected deposits ensures that the MOUDI range provides unparalleled capabilities and data confidence for the collection and study of the increasingly wide range of particles of interest to industrial and academic aerosol researchers. In common with the original Models 100 and 110 (which continue to be available on request).056 to 10 microns (56 to 10. particle bounce. The stages are assembled in a stack in order of decreasing particle size (where the nozzles are smaller. Collection Plate The NanoMOUDI Model 125 is similar in construction to the MOUDI but operates at 10 L/min and has 13 impactor stages from 0. The new generation of MOUDI impactors have additional attributes that make the impactors more user friendly and assist the user in gaining ever greater measurement precision. It also allows the collected particle mass to be greatly increased before over-loading occurs. The range of MOUDI impactors is noted for its aerodynamic stage design resulting in sharp cut-off characteristics and low interstage particle losses. In the case of the MOUDI. Rigorous adherence to aerodynamic principles. the new MOUDI Model 120 and NanoMOUDI Models 125A and 125B operate on the same basic principle as any other multiple-nozzle inertial cascade impactor. the range of the impactor has been extended down to 10 and 56 nanometres respectively by the use of thousands of small micro-orifices in the lower stages. the air velocity through the nozzles is higher and finer particles are collected) until the smallest particles are collected at an after-filter. These serve to reduce jet velocity. These design characteristics combined with stringent quality control processes have made the MOUDI the impactor of choice by researchers for whom high quality sample and data quality are essential.indd 13 3/8/10 11:30:13 . It is these characteristics that form the basis of the second generation of MOUDI impactors.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO NANO RANGE MOUDI WIDE-RANGE CASCADE IMPACTORS The unique aerodynamic design of the MOUDI (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) family of impactors makes it possible to collect size-fractionated airborne particulate matter over the widest possible range of particle sizes . Principle of Operation 13 Air Sampling 2010. whilst smaller particles with insufficient inertia will follow the stream lines and pass to the next impaction stage. Aerosol Flow Left: NanoMOUDI Rotating Wide-range Impactor Model 125B (Exterior) Right: NanoMOUDI Rotating Wide-range Impactor Model 125B (Interior) One of the unique features of the MOUDI is the ability (if desired) to rotate the impactor plates to spread out the particle deposit uniformly over the stage. Three new models are available in addition to the original 100 Series: The MOUDI Model 120 is a rotating model designed to operate at 30 L/min. pressure drop and evaporative loss from collected particle samples containing semivolatile material. particles having sufficient enough inertia will impact upon that particular stage collection plate. If desired. The MOUDI is designed such that as the aerosol stream passes through each stage. It has 10 impactor stages with cut-point diameters from 0.000 nanometres) plus a final filter. This minimises particle build-up under each nozzle and reduces possible particle blow-off by the jets.10 nm to 18 microns. the captured particles can also be analysed chemically by standard means.

• Choice of Analytical Procedures Choice of gravimetric or chemical analysis • Rotating Impactor Plates (optional) Internal stepper motors individual to each stage rotate the impaction plates during collection (at approx. Common to all MOUDI impactors. Sealed transport covers provide protection for the impaction plates and filter holders during transport whilst simultaneously reducing sample evaporation and/or chemical reaction with ambient gasses. predictable cut-points. 9. the new range of MOUDI impactors has a number of unique features: • Wide Range Use of micro-orifice nozzles extends range down to 10 nm: sizes particles according to their aerodynamic diameter between 10 nm and 10 microns. 12 and 13 at predetermined time intervals throughout the test plus subsequent download of results via built-in RS232 capability. Indeed. NanoMOUDI Non-Rotating Wide-Range Impactor Model 125A 14 Air Sampling 2010. in 10 or 13 logarithmically spaced stages (dependent on model). the Model 125A (nonrotating) and 125B (rotating). 10. • Data Acquisition Real-time monitoring of cabinet temperature and absolute pressures downstream of stages 7. The current range of MOUDI cascade impactors represents the very latest in air sampling and particle sizing technology. low pressure drop.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO NANO RANGE MOUDI WIDE-RANGE CASCADE IMPACTORS The Model 125 is available in two versions. multiple nozzles at each stage provide for the desired flow conditions resulting in low inter-stage losses.indd 14 28/7/10 11:45:44 . UNIQUE FEATURES At the same time. MOUDI Stage Schematic • PLC controlled operation (Programmable Logic Control) Use of a programmable VGA display/controller for manual or timed operation including pump start and stop with total sampling time selected by the user plus internal impaction plate rotation start and stop. the nozzles of corresponding stages are the same as the earlier versions such that a direct data correlation can be made between the MOUDI Impactors of both generations. 1 rpm) thus providing uniform particle deposition across the stage and avoiding particle overload. • Interchangeable Impaction Plates and Filter Holders Provides maximum flexibility whilst sample handling. 11. sharp cut efficiency curves and stable.

The combined unit measures 210 x 210 x 641 mm and weighs approximately 14 kg. 0. 1.18. it indicates that the nozzles in these stages are becoming dirty and should be cleaned.2. 0. Models 120 and 125B.0. 1. 0. The standard configuration is thirteen stages with cut-sizes at 10. 0.18. to form a near-uniform particle deposit on each substrate. These provide a readout of the cabinet temperature and also the six absolute pressure readings from the transducers used to monitor pressure between the more critical micro-orifice stages of the impactor. 1.018 and 0. 3. The MOUDI Model 120 has a flow rate of 30 L/min and cut-sizes from 18 microns at the inlet to 56 nanometres at the lowest stage. the pressure drop across the nozzle plates will increase. 10.056.56.0. The housing also contains electronics for precisely controlling the volumetric flow rate. The NanoMOUDI Model 125 has a sampling rate of 10 litres/min and cut-sizes spanning the range from 10 microns to 10 nanometres. the nozzle and impaction plates rotate at 1 rpm relative to each other.56. 0. 5. Other types of filter are available on request.32.056 microns plus final filter. The impactors were designed and calibrated based on the use of a 25 nm thick substrate having a diameter of 47 mm. for example. The micro-orifice nozzles used in the final stages are quite small and can become partially occluded due to particle deposition by impaction or diffusion (Brownian and turbulent). one or more of the absolute pressures on the stages begins to drop while the flow remains constant.032. A suitable vacuum pump is required to generate the desired flow rate.8. 0. When this occurs. Covers are provided for the plates to keep them clean during transit. 0. 0. these are secured to the impaction plate holder by means of a securing ring. The pictures at the base of the page illustrate the inlet and a typical impactor stage together with the Impaction Plate for Stage 13 (the final stage) and the filter holder.32. Power for the stepper motors is controlled via electronics contained with the housing of the impactor. with power being distributed to each motor by miniature flat-ribbon cables from stage to stage. 0.2. This has the effect of increasing the deposited particle mass by a factor of up to 1000. 0.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO NANO RANGE DESCRIPTION The MOUDI consists of two main parts: the cascade impactor itself and its associated housing.10 and 0. Inlet and Impactor Stage (NanoMOUDI Model 125B) Impactor Plate for Stage and Filter Holder (Model 125B) 15 Air Sampling 2010.8. The picture at the top of the next page illustrates all the parts of an individual stage. In the rotating versions. Stage Components The non-rotating version of the NanoMOUDI (Model 125A) operates as a conventional impactor and is supplied without the housing (see illustration on page 14). Schematic showing relationship of Rotating Motor to Impactor Plate If.6. The standard configuration is ten stages (eleven including the inlet) with cut-sizes at 18. Substrates are normally used to collect the sample.indd 15 28/7/10 11:45:48 . The rotational motion is generated by individual stepper motors which drive the impaction plates at each stage (see schematic). The impaction plates can be prepared in the laboratory and inserted into the impactor at the time of use.010 microns plus final filter.6.10. The flow stability data derived from these measurements provides a quick and easy means of identifying any problems emanating from leaks or blocked nozzles within the system. thus more particle mass can be collected without the risk of overloading. 1. 0. 5. with hinged door access. 3.

It is important that the weight of the sticky material applied to the substrate be stable. The sampling interval should be selected so as to provide sufficient mass for subsequent gravimetric or chemical analysis.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO NANO RANGE Main and Timed Operation Screens In some cases. the vacuum pump switches on. overall control of the impactor is assumed by a programmable VGA display/controller located on the front of the housing and accessed by means of a membrane keypad. Description 9405 9406 9407 MOUDI Model 120 Impactor (Rotating) NanoMOUDI Model 125A Impactor (Non-Rotating) NanoMOUDI Model 125B Impactor (Rotating) 7901 8764 High Capacity Pump Model HCP5 Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 Spare Parts 9408 9409 9410 9411 8603 Set of 11 Impaction Plate Holders/Final Filter (120) Set of 13 Impaction Plate Holders/Final Filter (125) Spare ‘O’ Ring Kit Pack of 300 Aluminium Foil Substrates.01 and 18 microns) Cat. civil & military defence • Size-fractionated gravimetric or chemical analysis • Diesel and gasoline emission analysis and monitoring • Pharmaceutical inhalation research Model 120 Flow Rate 30 LPM Stages 10 (between 0. This is normally the case if foils are used and the sampled particles are dry. Check the inlet flow rate using a suitable flow meter prior to the start of the test. The unit can be operated in two modes: manual or timed operation. It is essential therefore to ensure that all the solvent is evaporated completely before use. Under timed operation. Special coating masks (with a 37 mm diameter hole punched in the centre) used in conjunction with a silicone spray are available as options and are ideal for this purpose.indd 16 28/7/10 11:45:59 . the substrates must be weighed before and after a run. Additional controls serve to download and erase the environmental and pressure-related data from the memory. Sampling times can be adjusted between 5 minutes and 7 days with appropriate data logging intervals of between 1 and 15 minutes. Time Setting and Data Collection APPLICATIONS • Environmental monitoring • Sampling of atmospheric aerosols • Nanoparticle research • Chemical composition of ultra-fine particles • Industrial hygiene and occupational health studies • Process aerosol analysis • Biological contamination: hospital. 47 mm Pack of 100 Glass Fibre Filters. In the case of the rotating versions. all of the impaction plates start to rotate and the sensor outputs begin to transmit data to the screen immediately the ‘start’ button is pressed. Under manual operation. the start and end of the run is predetermined by the operator. If the mass size distribution is to be determined from the impactor. Operation will continue and data will be collected at 1 minute intervals until terminated by the ‘stop’ button. 47 mm 16 Air Sampling 2010.056 and 18 microns) Model 125 Flow Rate 10 LPM Stages 13 (between 0. No. it may be necessary to apply a sticky surface to the substrates to reduce particle bounce.

the MSP range of Cascade Impactors has been specifically designed to sample. occupational health studies. directing any airborne particles towards the surface of the collection plate for that particular stage. health hazards and. the particle mass relating to each stage collection plate can be measured gravimetrically and/or recovered using a suitable solvent and then analysed using an appropriate technique to determine the chemical makeup of the particles concerned.indd 17 17 3/8/10 11:30:50 . in some instances. diesel emission monitoring. PhaseDoppler particle size analysis (PDA). However only cascade impaction allows chemical analysis of the various sized fractions collected thus providing the capability to differentiate and quantify the particles making up the sample mass according to particle type as well as particle size. size and analyse airborne particles in the coarse. Such areas include atmospheric research into global climatic and air quality changes. Cascade impactors operate on the principle of inertial impaction.The stages are normally assembled in a stack in order of decreasing particle size. military/civil defence and industrial/medical research. At the end of the test. health benefits brought about by airborne particulates. Particles having sufficient inertia will impact on that particular stage collection plate whilst smaller particles with insufficient inertia will remain entrained in the air stream and pass to the next stage where the process is repeated. Aerosol characterisation is becoming increasingly important because of the well-documented environmental changes. Any remaining particles are collected on an after-filter. In many cases. Each stage of the impactor comprises a single or series of nozzles or jets through which the surrounding air is drawn. With a range from 56 nanometres to over 10 microns. The other methods provide no differentiation between one particle and another. fine and ultrafine size categories. the physical properties will determine their effect and the chemical properties the source and formation of the particulates concerned. Whether a particular particle impacts on that stage is dependent on its aerodynamic diameter. the air velocity increases and finer particles are collected. laser diffractometry (LD). they simply measure overall particle size distribution. ������ Air Sampling 2010. As the jets get smaller. Various sizing techniques are available for this purpose: particle time of flight (TOF). etc.Air Sampling and Particle Analysis in the Coarse to Ultrafine Range INTRODUCTION Airborne Particle Sampling and Analysis play key roles in determining the physical and chemical properties of particulate matter that are critical to environmental characterisation.

The M100-S4 measures 80 mm diameter x 216 mm high and weighs 1.5 and 1. 2. it may be necessary to apply a sticky surface (a silicone spray is suitable for this purpose) to the substrate to reduce particle bounce. for example. No. PM2. 47 mm and 1 x Final Filter Holder. The most important of these is the use of interchangeable impaction plates and filter holders.0 microns respectively. 47 mm Accessories 7903 8764 Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 18 Air Sampling 2010. Particles less than 1 micron are captured by a 47 mm diameter glass fibre filter positioned in the final filter holder. The design of the impactor incorporates several unique features that you.5 AND PM10 SAMPLING MODEL 100-S4 Airborne particles entrained in the air are a complex mix of varying sizes and chemical composition. The Copley Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 is suitable for this purpose. 47 mm Pack of 300 Aluminium Foil Substrates.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO ULTRAFINE RANGE 3-STAGE IMPACTOR FOR PM1.5 (fine) and 10 (coarse) microns respectively. some of which can be hazardous to health. The particulate matter (PM) results from a variety of sources including fuel combustion from power stations. Sealed transport covers are used to protect the impaction plates and filter holders from contamination during transport (to and from the test site) and to minimise evaporative loss and chemical reaction with ambient gases of samples during storage.5 and 10 microns) Model 100-S4: Component Parts Cat. Model 100-S4: Stage dis-assembled The sized particles are collected on 47 mm diameter aluminium foil impaction substrates secured by a ring to the impaction plate of each stage. etc.5 and PM10 Sampling Model M100-S4 Spare Set of 4 Impaction Plate Holders. This allows the user to add and remove the impaction substrates. The 3-Stage Impactor Model 100-S4 is a high-resolution cascade impactor intended for general purpose sampling and is ideal for atmospheric. PM1. Simply centre the mask on the substrate and apply the spray. advised as being essential to the ‘ideal’ air sampler. industrial operations and vehicle exhaust.5 kg. in the comfort of the laboratory as opposed to risking disturbance of the particle deposits in the field. Sampling is carried out at 30 L/min.5 and PM10 are airborne particles less than 1 (ultrafine). 47 mm Pack of 100 Glass Fibre Filters. PM2.indd 18 28/7/10 11:46:05 . the user. silicosis. Model 100-S4 Flow Rate 30 LPM Stages 3 ( 1. Fine particles also form in the air when combustion gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are chemically transformed into particles. PM2. Two coating masks (essentially a plastic sheet with a 37 mm diameter hole punched in the centre) are provided with each pack of substrates to facilitate this. The unit has three stages with nominal cut-points of 10. Some examples are more common than others ie asbestosis. In some cases. 2. Connect the impactor to the pump and adjust the air flow to 30 L/min using a suitable flow meter (see below). Description 9412 9413 9414 8603 3-Stage Impactor Model 100-S4 3-Stage Impactor for PM1. 2. industrial and health related studies.

particles are deposited directly onto the bottom of the stage collection cups which can then be easily removed after each test without dismantling the impactor. such that the same cut-points apply at 30 L/min.625 microns where.1 microns In this impactor. The Marple-Miller Impactor Model 150 has half the number of jets per stage. The interchangeable aluminium cups act as both a collection surface and a convenient cup in which to begin chemical analysis. may be calculated as follows: • Stage 1: • Stage 2: • Stage 3: • Stage 4: • Stage 5: D50’Q = D50’Qn (Qn/Q)1/2 10 microns 5 microns 2.25 microns 0. rather than at 60 L/min. Model 150 or 160 Flow Rate 12. The Marple-Miller Impactor Model 160 has five impaction stages and is calibrated for operation between 60 and 90 L/min. it is not necessary to frequently clean the interstage passageways between tests. with low inter-stage losses. n. the cut-off aerodynamic diameters of Stages 1 to 5 are as follows: The actual cut-off diameters of each of the individual stages of the impactor at the flow rate.9 to 90 L/min is covered. the cut-off diameter of Stage 2 is given by the formula: D50’40L/m = 5 microns x [60/40]1/2 = 6. Q. refers to the nominal values determined when Qn equals 60 L/min. is also available for operation at between 4. This version is calibrated for use through the flow rate range 30 to 60 L/min. the Marple-Miller Impactor Model 160 is a 5-stage cascade impactor. such that between the three impactors. Q. Each stage has a removable collection cup capable of holding 10 ml of solvent to assist in the quick and simple recovery of the particles. A GLA-5000 PVC Membrane Filter is incorporated after Stage 5 to ensure total mass balance. Because the impactor is designed to have very low interstage losses. Delrin caps are provided as standard to seal the collection cup after the sample has been collected to prevent sample evaporation. which has subsequently been used in a wide range of applications (eg the aerodynamic sizing of oil mist and soot particles from crankcase blowby of diesel engines). Schematic of Marple-Miller Impactor At a volumetric flow rate of 60 L/min. Thus when Q equals 40 L/min. the Model 150P.5 microns 1. No.indd 19 28/7/10 11:46:10 . Two other versions of the impactor are available. a flow range of 4. compared with Model 160. D50’Q is the cut-off diameter at the flow rate. and the subscript.9 L/min and 12 L/min. Description Marple-Miller Impactor 6901 6902 6903 Marple-Miller Cascade Impactor Model 160 Marple-Miller Cascade Impactor Model 150 Marple-Miller Cascade Impactor Model 150P 19 Air Sampling 2010.625 and 10 microns) Cat. A low flow rate version.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO ULTRAFINE RANGE 5-STAGE MARPLE-MILLER IMPACTOR MODELS 150/160 Originally designed for the size distribution analysis of pharmaceutical inhalers. 30 or 60 LPM Stages 5 (between 0.

1 microns 1.0 microns 5.3 • Stage 4: 2.4 .3. stages 0 and 7 are removed and replaced with two additional stages. The eight stages correspond approximately to the various parts of the respiratory system as follows: • Stage 0: 9. In the 60 L/min version.4 microns ----------- This restores the 28.7 microns 0.8 microns -----4.1 • Stage 6: 0. the human respiratory tract resembles an aerodynamic particle size classifying system. stages 0. -1 and -2.8 microns (pharynx) .8 • Stage 2: 4.1 microns 0. a cascade impactor is assembled from a series of stages with progressively decreasing cut-sizes such that an incoming aerosol is divided into a number of size related fractions. in the 90 L/min version. In the same way.3 microns (secondary bronchi) .3 L/min target cut-points at the increased flow rates of 60 and 90 L/min respectively. Andersen 8-Stage Non-Viable Impactor MODIFIED CONFIGURATIONS FOR USE AT 60 AND 90 L/MIN In addition to the standard 28.4. -0 and -1.1 microns 1.7 microns -----3.5. -0.3 L/min with eight cut-sizes between 0.indd 20 3/8/10 11:31:23 .3 microns 2.0.7 microns (trachea & primary bronchi) .7 microns 0.1 microns (alveoli) .1 • Stage 5: 1.1. which has evolved over a number of years.0 microns .10. In many respects.7 • Stage 7: 0. Changes are also made to the configuration of the collection plates (with and without centre holes). The Standard 8-Stage Non-Viable Impactor has been designed for use at 28. 20 Air Sampling 2010. These changes result in a new set of ‘target’ cut-points as follows: • Stage -2 : • Stage -1 : • Stage -0 : • Stage 0 : • Stage 1 : • Stage 2 : • Stage 3 : • Stage 4 : • Stage 5 : • Stage 6 : • Stage 7 : Diagram of the Human Respiratory System 60 L/min 90 L/min -----9.1 microns (terminal bronchi) . filtering out progressively smaller particles the deeper into the airways the air flow penetrates.0 • Stage 1: 5.0 microns 5.9.0 microns .AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO ULTRAFINE RANGE 8-STAGE ANDERSEN IMPACTORS The potential health hazards associated with exposure to fine particles have long been recognised and led to the development of the Andersen Cascade Impactor. 6 and 7 are removed and replaced with three additional stages.3 L/min version. It is therefore logical that cascade impactors be used to provide a guide as to the deposition of particles in the respiratory tract.2.7 microns (alveoli) A preseparator is normally mounted on top of the impactor stack to remove particles larger than 10 microns and to prevent particle bounce and re-entrainment errors.7 • Stage 3: 3.7 microns 3. two further versions of the Impactor are available for operating at flow rates of 60 and 90 L/min respectively.3 microns 2.8 microns 4.1 microns 0.4 and 10 microns. Similarly.4 microns ------ 9.

No. Those particles having sufficient inertia will impact on the collection plate whilst those of insufficient inertia will remain entrained in the airstream and will pass to the next stage where the process is repeated. directing any airborne particles towards the surface of the collection plate for that stage. At the end of the test. the exact nature and extent of the health hazard can be assessed.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO ULTRAFINE RANGE 8-STAGE ANDERSEN IMPACTORS DESCRIPTION The Andersen 8-Stage Impactor has been designed to measure the aerodynamic size distribution and mass concentration of solid and liquid particles in the surrounding environment. The size of the jets get progressively smaller for each succeeding stage. weighs 1. the air velocity increases and finer particles are collected. With knowledge of the chemical. Each stage of the stack contains a series of precision-drilled holes through which air is drawn. Model 140 Flow Rate 28. Impaction Stages and Reports The stages are assembled in a stack in order of decreasing particle size. Any remaining particles are collected on the after filter. Stainless steel and titanium versions are available on request.3.3 L/min ACI 8318 Conversion Kit for 60 L/min operation 8319 Conversion Kit for 90 L/min operation 7903 8764 Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 Preseparator. biological and/or radiological properties of the material collected. As the jets get smaller.indd 21 28/7/10 11:46:15 . The unit measures 216 x 95 mm diameter.3 L/min Andersen Cascade Impactor 60 L/min Andersen Cascade Impactor 90 L/min Andersen Cascade Impactor Preseparators 8401 28.6 kg and comes in a carrying case. 60 or 90 LPM Stages 8 (between 0. Cat. Description 8301 8301-60 8301-90 28. The impactor comprises of eight aluminium stages each equipped with a removable stainless collection plate capable of accepting approximately 10 mg of particulate matter. Whether a particular particle impacts on that stage is dependent on its aerodynamic size.4 and 10 microns) A constant volumetric air flow rate is generated by a suitable vacuum pump. plus a final filter stage.3 L/min Preseparator 8420 60 L/min Preseparator 8420-90 90 L/min Preseparator Conversion Kits for the Standard 28. Each impactor is machined to the same precision tolerances in order to guarantee reproducibility between impactors and is mensurated (calibrated) on a Mitutoyo QV404 Vision Inspection System prior to despatch. Stages and Plates 21 Air Sampling 2010. The particle size distribution is determined by weighing the mass of particles impacted on each plate or by analysing the chemical composition of the particles at each stage. the stainless steel collection plates relating to each stage are removed for analysis.

at 100 L/min. No.indd 22 28/7/10 11:46:30 . 4 and 6 stage versions are available and are listed below. Nozzle plates are hard-coat anodised aluminium to ensure dimensional stability of the nozzles with no oxide build-up or corrosion.25 microns) 6-Stage Hi-Flow Impactor Model 131 (10. making it the ideal impactor for sampling in relatively clean environments with low particulate concentrations.0 microns) 4-Stage Hi-Flow Impactor Model 129 (10.44 and 0. making it possible to divide each substrate into two or four equal parts for compositional analysis by differing techniques. Multiple nozzles at each stage provide flow conditions that result in sharp cut characteristics at each stage with predictable and stable cut-points and low pressure drops.80.4 kg.4 and 0. if desired.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO ULTRAFINE RANGE 5-STAGE HI-FLOW IMPACTOR MODEL 130 The Hi-Flow MOUDI Model 130 is a 100 L/min 5-stage cascade impactor for aerosol sampling and collecting size-fractionated particle samples in the range of 0. and still collect sufficient sample for analysis. the high sampling flow rate of the Model 130 makes it possible to sample for shorter periods.0. Description 9415 9416 9417 9418 9419 9420 Standard 5-Stage Hi-Flow Impactor Model 130 (2. 0.80.25 microns.5. 0.25 microns) Accessories 7903 8764 Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 Model 130: Component Parts Model 130 Flow Rate 100 LPM Stages 3 to 6 (dependent on model) 5-Stage Hi-Flow Impactor Model 130 22 Air Sampling 2010. Deposits are collected in four 90 degree quadrants on 75 mm aluminium foil impaction substrates. 2.5. 1. However. The standard Hi-Flo MOUDI Model 130 has five impactor stages with a 10 micron cut inlet and collecting stages at 2. 75 mm diameter Pack of 100 Glass Fibre Filters. Model 130: Impactor Plate Cat. 2. In more polluted environments with high particulate concentrations. the Model 130 has more than three times the flow rate.25 to 10 microns for gravimetric and chemical analysis.4. plus final filter.0 and 0. 0.4. 0.5. 1. It also means that sample substrates can be sub-divided to provide multiple samples for analysis by differing chemical techniques.44 and 0. 90 mm diameter (final filter) 3-Stage Hi-Flow Impactor Model 128 (10. The unit provides the same sharp cut-size characteristics as all MSP Impactors. The unit measures 18 cm diameter x 11 cm high and weighs 1. 1. 1.5 and 1. 2.25 microns) Pack of Aluminium Foil Substrates. 0. 1.5. Alternative 3.4.

up to four different gases can be removed from the airstream by diffusion deposition on porous plates and then analysed using. Particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than the impactor cut-size (2. The MEM can be equipped with an optional ultra-compact 4-Stage Diffusion Denuder Model 450 (DDS) if required. The impactor/classifier is based on multi-nozzle technology. The MEM uses a sampling flow rate of 10 L/min and is equipped with either a PM2. Micro-Environmental Monitor (MEM) The sampling flow rate is maintained by two compact.5 and PM10 versions. the MEM measures 240 x 230 x 300 mm and weighs 3. Air is sampled at 10 L/min from the ambient atmosphere through an omni-directional. NO2. In both PM2.5 or PM10 sampling head for determining the concentration of airborne particles in the surrounding environment of less than 2. for example.AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS IN THE COARSE TO ULTRAFINE RANGE SINGLE-STAGE MICRO-ENVIRONMENTAL MONITOR MODEL 400 (FOR PM2.00 am and stop at 6.5 microns) Micro-Environmental Monitor MEM (10 microns) Diffusion Denuder DDS Model 450 Spare Parts 9424 Pack of 500 Glass Fibre Filters. The sampling time is controlled by a seven-day. be programmed to start each day at 6. If the Diffusion Denuder is installed. each nozzle is designed to operate at 1 L/min.indd 23 28/7/10 11:46:38 . NH3 and other gases from the particles for acid aerosol measurement. the 10 L/min sampling flow rate can be maintained within +/. a PM2.6 kg (4. A schematic of the complete 400/450 System is shown below.Complete 400/450 System 23 Air Sampling 2010. flow meter and manual flow control valve.5 AND PM10 SAMPLING WITH CHEMICAL SPECIATION) The Micro-Environmental Monitor Model 400 (MEM) is a compact aerosol sampler comprising a single stage impactor and an after filter for indoor/outdoor air quality studies.5 or 10 microns) are removed from the sample stream by an appropriate impactor.5% for up to 2 weeks. Under typical. indoor conditions. 37 mm Schematic . a 37 mm after filter and supporting pumps. solid state timer capable of multiple start-stop functions. ten nozzles are used in parallel thus. Description 9421 9422 9423 Micro-Environmental Monitor MEM (2. The MEM Model 400 includes an omni-directional filter.00 pm to allow daytime samples to be collected over a seven day period. cylindrical inlet. This provides up to three stages of final filtration and is used to separate out SO2.5 and 10 microns respectively. ion chromatography. Extremely compact. quiet vacuum pumps with a near-critical flowmeter. The unit can.6 kg with Diffusion Denuder). timer. No. Model 400 Flow Rate 10 LPM Stages 1 (2. The remaining fine particles are collected on a 37 mm diameter after filter where the concentration can be determined by either gravimetric or chemical analysis. for example.5 or PM10 impactor classifier.5 or10 microns) Cat.

❐ AIR SAMPLING AND PARTICLE ANALYSIS SINGLE-STAGE UNIVERSAL AIR SAMPLER MODEL 310 (FOR PM1. be programmed to start each day at 6.0/PM10 Version) Universal Air Sampler UAS 24 Air Sampling 2010. Particles greater than 10 microns are removed from the sampled air by the PM10 classifier and discarded.5-10 micron aerodynamic size ranges (0-1 and 1-10 micron in the case of the PM1.5-10 (1-10) micron range are collected on one filter and those smaller than 2. solid state timer capable of multiple start-stop functions. Model 310 Flow Rate 300 LPM Stages 1 (1 or 2. PAHs. The flow entering the PM2.00 pm to allow daytime samples to be collected over a seven day period. The sampling time is controlled by a seven-day. No. The remaining particles less than 10 microns flow to the PM2. a PM10 (10 micron) virtual impactor classifier. a second PM2. Description 9425 9426 Universal Air Sampler UAS (PM2.0) virtual particle classifier is measured by the pressure differential across one of the classifier nozzles and should be set to 285 L/min. the Sampler is provided with an omni-directional inlet.5 (1) micron are captured on a final after filter. PM2.indd 24 28/7/10 11:46:44 . The two coarse particle minor flows are monitored by the differential pressure across a calibrated orifice flow meter in each line and adjusted by two manual flow control valves to 15 L/min each. In the case of the UAS. The air flow in the sampler is maintained by a vacuum pump controlled by means of a variable frequency drive.5 micron) or PM1. Virtual impactors differ from cascade impactors in that the impaction plate is replaced by a receiving tube which accepts and directs larger particles to one sampling substrate whilst the rest of the flow carrying smaller particles below the cut-point is diverted around the receiving tube downstream. The unit can. The use of two virtual impactors in the UAS allows the unit to operate as a high volume dichotomous sampler for the size fractionation of airborne particles in the 0-2.5 AND PM10 SAMPLING) The Universal Air Sampler Model 310 (UAS) is a general purpose air sampler for atmospheric aerosol sampling and mass. Ideal for air pollution and air quality research.5 + 10 microns) Cat.0 in that version) classifier located down stream whereupon particles in the 2.5 and 2.5 (2. for example.0 (1 micron classifier).5/PM10 Version) Universal Air Sampler UAS (PM1.0 version). a fine particle filter and a polyurethane foam (PUF) sampler. etc. The UAS measures 762 x 406 x 1422 mm and weighs 43 kg. UAS Flow Schematic PUF SAMPLER The filtered airstream is then directed through a polyurethane foam sampler (PUF) to collect any semi-volatile organic compounds eg PCBs.5 (or PM1. cylindrical inlet. air is sampled at 300 L/min through the omni-directional.5 (PM1.00 am and stop at 6. organic and inorganic analysis.

Personal exposure is determined by weighing the mass of particles on the particle collection stage(s) or by analysing the chemical composition of the particles at each stage for specific compounds.indd 25 25 28/7/10 11:46:47 . that is to say.Personal Air Samplers INTRODUCTION Unlike the stationary environmental Air Samplers described in the previous section.These accompany the user during the performance of their duties wherever they may be. they do not in themselves provide information on the overall size distribution and corresponding chemical composition of the particulate matter concerned. 10 and 13 stages) depending on the particle size ranges required. ������ Air Sampling 2010.5) whilst simultaneously differentiating between its organic and inorganic components.5 micron cut-off.5 microns (PM2. Copley Scientific offers three types of personal sampler. Whilst various sizing methods are available to measure airborne particulate matter.5 or 10 microns in accordance with the specifications laid down in the US EPA IP-10A method for Determination of Fine Particulate Matter in Indoor Air at inlet flows of 2.5 microns. lightweight impactors designed to monitor actual individual exposure levels. the PMASS uses two sampling channels: one with quartz filters used to measure elemental and organic carbons and one with Teflon filters to measure particle mass and inorganics such as sulphates. they collect all particles smaller than 10 or 2. Whilst the PEM Model 200 and PMASS Model 240 give an accurate assessment of an individual’s personal exposure to ambient particles based on a 10 or 2. 4 or 10 L/min.To accomplish this. Because of the complex nature of airborne particulate matter (PM). Personal Air Samplers are small.8. The Model 200 Series of Personal Environmental Monitors (PEM) provides a range of single stage impactors with cut-points at either 2. only inertial impaction provides the means to differentiate and quantify the various particles making up the sample mass by chemical means.The Air Sampler itself is normally clipped to the operator’s lapel or pocket and serviced by a Personal Sampling Pump strapped to the waist band. the components responsible for a specific health hazard are not always obvious. The Model 135 Series of Marple Type Multiple-Stage Personal Environmental Monitor is a miniaturised cascade impactor designed to overcome this problem. portable.The Model 240 Personal Microenvironmental Aerosol Speciation Sampler (PMASS) is a single-stage impactor designed to collect particles smaller than 2. It is currently available in four versions (6. nitrates and ammonium.

Particles smaller than the cut-size are collected on a 37 mm filter which can then be removed and analysed for potential health hazards.5 PEM-4-2. The Personal Environmental Monitor Model 200 (PEM) is a small.4 or 10 L/min sampling flow rates.0 10.5 2. 37 mm Personal Sampling Pump 26 Air Sampling 2010.4 or 10 LPM Stages 1 (1 or 2. The appropriate flow rate is provided by a small personal sampling pump secured to the operator’s belt and connected to the PEM by means of a flexible tube. PM2.5 or PM10 size ranges at 2.5 microns) Personal Environmental Monitor PEM-4 (2. it measures 60 x 65 x 22 mm and weighs 48 grams. The Personal Environmental Monitor is available in a number of variants (see specification table below).5 microns) PEM VARIANTS Cat. the PEM is equally well suited to indoor/outdoor air pollution and quality studies as well as industrial health and safety applications. Description Specifications Part Number Inlet Flow (LPM) CutColour Point (microns) Pressure Drop* (inwg) 9427 9428 9429 Personal Environmental Monitor PEM-2 (2. lightweight. industrial operations and vehicle exhaust. The filter may be analysed gravimetrically for particle mass and chemically for specific chemical compounds. asbestosis and silicosis.5 2. light and unobtrusive.PERSONAL AIR SAMPLERS SINGLE-STAGE PERSONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORS SERIES 200 (PEM) Airborne particles entrained in the air are a complex mix of varying sizes and chemical composition some of which can can be hazardous to health. Small. dependent on model.5 microns).5 and PM10 are airborne particles less than 2. personal sampling device for collecting airborne particles in the PM2.0 10. Some hzards are more obvious than others. This particulate matter (PM) results from a variety of sources including fuel combustion from power stations.5 PEM-2--10 PEM-4-10 PEM-10-10 2. Model 200 Flow Rate 2.0 4. It has been designed in accordance with the specifications laid down in the US EPA IP-10A Method: Determination of Fine Particulate Matter in Indoor Air using Size-Selective Impaction. Whilst the original unit was developed to assess the exposure to PM hazard in the individual.0 10. The PEM is designed to be worn on the operator’s lapel. Fine particles also form in the air when combustion gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are chemically transformed into particles. These criteria are consistent with the International Standards Organisation (ISO) definition for distinguishing particulate matter between thoracic (that penetrate through the larynx into the lung airways = 10 microns) and respirable (that penetrate beyond the terminal bronchioles = 2.5 (fine) and 10 (coarse) microns respectively.indd 26 28/7/10 11:46:48 . for example.5 10.0 4.5 PEM-10-2.5 or 10 microns.0 2.0 1 3 13 1 2 12 9430 9431 9432 Personal Environmental Monitor PEM-2 (10 microns) Personal Environmental Monitor PEM-4 (10 microns) Personal Environmental Monitor PEM-10 (10 microns) 9433 Personal Sampling Pump 909300/601900 (for 2 and 4 litre versions) Personal Sampling Pump 909500/601900 (for 10 litre versions) Blue Black Red Green Outside Gold Inside Gold 9434 *Vacuum at hosebarb with glass fibre filter in place Filter Diameter: 37 mm Dimensions: 60 x 65 x 22 mm Weight: 48 g Spare Parts 9435 9424 Calibration Cap Pack of 500 Glass Fibre Filters.0 2.5 microns) Personal Environmental Monitor PEM-10 (2.5 microns) PEM-2-2. No.0 10. Personal Environmental Monitors (PEM) The sample air enters the PEM through a multi-nozzle single-stage impactor which removes any particles above 2.

the various chemical constitutents can be collected and analysed. organic carbon. one channel is used for inorganic and mass analysis and the other for organic carbon analysis. Cyclone inlet Polyethylene body Filter channel screw cap The Personal Microenvironmental Aerosol SPECIATION Sampler Model 240 (PMASS) is designed to collect particles smaller than 2. The resulting air flow is split into two parallel sampling channels. whilst at the same time allowing passage of particles to the main filters. The sampler body itself is made of low density polyethylene. organic and elemental carbons • Studies of personal exposure in various environments • Microenvironmental sampling / epidemiology studies Model 240 Flow Rate 4 LPM Stages 1 (2. the PMASS consists of a dry non-greased size-selective inlet (cyclone principle) which removes any particles above 2.indd 27 28/7/10 11:46:51 .5 mass concentration. sulphates.both organic and inorganic. nitrates.5 mass. By varying the filter media employed in the main filters. The result is a lightweight.5) whilst simultaneously differentiating between the various chemical constituents . Light and compact enough to be worn by the operator.5 microns. compact (106 x 65 x 45 mm) design suitable for both general and use by children and the elderly. This and other design elements ensures a light (300 g). the components responsible for a specific health hazard are not always obvious. An adsorbing backup filter recovers particulate matter volatilised from the primary filter eg nitrate during sampling.5 microns (PM2.5 microns) Cat. elemental carbon. Typically. Denuder holder Upper filter support ring Teflon separator Backup filter Total denuderfilter pack w/ carbon multicell denuder Personal Microenvironmental Aerosol SPECIATION Sampler (PMASS) Air is sampled through the cyclone inlet at a flow rate of 4 L/min giving a flow rate of 2 L/min in each channel. To prevent electrostatic losses. No. sulphates and nitrates in a single instrument. compact personal sampler capable of the simultaneous measurement of PM2. A single battery powered belt mounting pump provides the flow for both channels. APPLICATIONS • Simultaneous measurement of inorganic and organic aerosols • Personal exposure to PM 2. Each channel accommodates a carbon multicell denuder which removes any unwanted gases. Description 9437 9433 PMASS Model 240 Personal Sampling Pump 909300/601900 PMASS Schematic 27 Air Sampling 2010.PERSONAL AIR SAMPLERS PERSONAL MICROENVIRONMENTAL AEROSOL SPECIATION SAMPLER MODEL 240 (PMASS) Because of the complex nature of airborne particulate matter (PM). all surfaces coming into contact with the aerosol upstream of the filter are made of aluminium.

0 and 0.18 microns. particles having ving sufficient inertia will impact upon that particular stage whilst smaller particles with insufficient inertia will remain entrained in the air stream and thus pass to the next impaction stage where the nozzles are smaller. The Marple Type Multiple-Stage Personal Environmental Monitor Series 135 is a miniaturised cascade impactor designed to overcome this problem.032. 3. 8.32 and 0.6. Marple Model 135 with Pump The particle size distribution is determined by weighing the mass of particles impacted on each stage or by analysing the chemical composition of the particles at each stage. The 6-stage unit (Model 135-6) separates the aerosol cloud into six size classifications based on cut-points of 10. namely 0. This continues on through the cascade impactor until the smallest particles unable to impact on the last impaction plate are collected by a final filter. 0. ed. It is currently available in four versions (6. 5.018 and 0. The 10-stage (Model 135-10) and 13-stage (Model 135-13) configurations require a less portable vacuum pump due to the larger pressure drop requirements and. they do not in themselves provide information on the overall size distribution and corresponding chemical composition omposition of the particulate matter concerned. Model 135 Flow Rate 2 LPM Stages 6 . 10 and 13 stages) depending on the particle size ranges required. the appropriate flow rate is provided by a small personal sampling pump secured to the operator’s belt and connected to the impactor by means of a flexible tube. 1.56 microns.1 and 0. The 8-stage unit (Model 135-8) has similar cut-points to that of the 135-6 but with the addition of two further stages having cut-points of 0. are suited to more general.5 micron cut-off. that is to say. they collect all particles smaller than 10 or 2. The sampling flow is 2 L/min.010 microns. the Series 135 is designed so thatt as the aerosol stream passes through each stage. 1. The resulting overall design is compact (86 x 57 x 40 mm) and light allowing the impactor to be attached to the lapel or pocket in a similar manner to the PEM.2. Description 9438 9439 9433 Marple Multiple-Stage PEM Model 135-6 Marple Mutliple-Stage PEM Model 135-8 Personal Sampling Pump 909300/601900 9440 9441 7903 8764 Marple Multiple-Stage PEM Model 135-10 Marple Multiple-Stage PEM Model 135-13 Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 Spare Parts 9442 9424 Pack of 300 Aluminium Foil Impaction Substrates 37 mm diameter Pack of 100 Glass Fibre Filters 37 mm diameter Marple Model 135 Marple Model 135 Substrate ate 28 Air Sampling 2010. as opposed to personal.5 microns. No. sampling applications. The 10-stage unit has similar cut-points to Model 135-8 but with further cut-points at 0.indd 28 28/7/10 11:47:00 .PERSONAL AIR SAMPLERS MULTIPLE-STAGE PERSONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITOR SERIES 135 (MARPLE TYPE) Whilst the Personal Environment Monitor Model 200 (PEM) and Personal Micro-environmental Aerosol SPECIATION Sampler Model 240 (PMASS) give an accurate assessment of an individual’s individual’ personal exposure to ambient particles based on a 10 or 2. the air velocity through the nozzles is higher and the cut-size is therefore smaller.13 (dependent on model) Cat. Like other cascade impactors. for that reason.8.056 microns whilst the 13-stage unit adds three further stages. Like the PEM.

As a result. It can also be used as a differential or scanning mobility spectrometer. ceramics and glass.Specials and Ancillaries INTRODUCTION This section of the catalogue covers those items of equipment that do not readily fall within the remainder of the brochure and also general details relating to the ancillaries used with the various impactors and samplers that we offer. The Aerosol Concentrator Model 4200 was originally designed for use in the detection of biological weapons. mineral wool. the section covers those Ancillaries that are required in addition to the sampler itself to make up a complete air sampling system such as pumps and flow meters. that of asbestos. the need arose for a device capable of concentrating particles from several hundred L/min into a low flow rate – a need fulfilled by the 4200. this technique requires a sample stream flow rate of 1 L/min whereas the sampling rate necessary to initially capture the bio-aerosol is of the order of 300 L/min. However. Finally. The Real-Time Fibre Monitor Model 7400AD meets an industrial concern. advanced composites. during and after asbestos removal. The Aerosol Generator and Monitor (AGM) Model 1500 is a versatile system for generating mono-disperse test aerosols in order to standardise and calibrate other aerosol instrumentation. and covers the essential subject of instrument calibration. earthquakes or explosions.The ability to detect potentially hazardous fibres in air is essential before. It is also a key analytical device in manufacturing operations that use any fibrous raw material and for monitoring air safety following uncontrolled releases such as fires. a technique capable of detecting the presence of potential threats as low as one particle per litre of air. the 7400AD emits a visible and audible alarm when concentrations exceed preset user-defined levels.indd 29 29 28/7/10 11:47:06 .The detection of these airborne weapons is difficult because of their lethal nature at relatively low concentrations. One method of identifying biological aerosols is by mass spectrometry. ������ Air Sampling 2010. Designed to automatically detect and count airborne fibres such as asbestos.

Left: AGM Model 1500 DMA 30 Air Sampling 2010. User interface is provided by a mouse in conjunction with an in-built plasma display. containing suspended solid polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres of a unit size. The AGM generates a mono-disperse aerosol by atomisation and electrostatic classification.indd 30 28/7/10 11:47:12 .The droplet spray is about 2 microns in volumemean diameter for an aqueous solution. (b) a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and (c) a condensation particle counter (CPC). AGM Model 1500 Description The figure on page 31 provides a simplified schematic diagram of the AGM. (a) an atomiser aerosol generator. such as water.This aerosol is then subjected to a physical or chemical change leading to a change in particle size which is then measured by the second DMA operating in DMS or SMS mode as an aerosol size distribution analyser. polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres suspended in water. As a stand-alone aerosol generator. 1% NaCl concentration by weight can be prepared by dissolving 1 gram of NaCl in 100 ml of Dl water.This droplet aerosol is then dried to form a poly-disperse aerosol comprised of residue particles formed from the dissolved non-volatile material in the atomised liquid.SPECIALS . In a typical TDMA study. etc. diesel exhaust monitoring. and organic materials such as oleic acid dissolved in ethanol. a solution of. other soluble salts and ammonium fluorescence dissolved in water.The aerosol can be sampled from an external source or generated internally by the built-in atomiser to provide a poly-disperse aerosol with a known and monitored size distribution. 0.This solution when atomised and dried will result in a solid NaCl having a volume-mean diameter of approx.33 microns. The atomiser used is a single jet Collison-type device operated by compressed air. Operational control of the AGM is maintained by a powerful in-built computer running on Windows XP using software specifically written for the purpose. one DMA is used to classify an aerosol into a mono-disperse fraction having a uniform and known particle size. The AGM Model 1500 comprises three main elements: 1. a PSL aerosol comprised of uniform PSL spheres can be generated. to ensure consistency of measurement results. The generation and measurement capabilities of the AGM also means that two such systems can be used together to perform studies using the tandem differential mobility analysis (TDMA) method.The AGM measures 525 mm x 610 mm x 450 mm (w x d x h) and weighs 40 kg.The resulting aerosol concentration is continuously monitored by the built-in CPC to provide a stable output of known particle size and aerosol concentration (10 nm to 1000 nm).The atomiser can also be operated by other compressed gases to generate an aerosol of particles suspended in the atomising gas. the AGM is eminently suitable for use in corporate standards laboratories to generate mono-disperse test aerosols for standardising and calibrating aerosol instruments for quality assurance purposes including aerosol particle counters. classification and monitoring capabilities for: • generating mono-disperse aerosols using mobility classification with automatic concentration detection and monitoring • size distribution by differential mobility and scanning mobility size spectrometry It incorporates three main elements. Atomiser Aerosol Generator The built-in compressed-air atomiser is used to generate a spray of fine droplets suspended in air. When a liquid. For NaCl aerosol generation.AEROSOL GENERATION AND MONITORING AEROSOL GENERATOR AND MONITOR MODEL 1500 (AGM) Introduction The Aerosol Generator and Monitor Model 1500 (AGM) is a multifunction aerosol system with aerosol generation. say. Drying is accomplished by allowing the droplet aerosol to flow through a NafionR membrane dryer to evaporate water from the droplets to form dry solid or liquid particles of the dissolved non-volatile material. Common materials used for laboratory aerosol generation include: NaCl. is atomised and dried. The built-in combination of differential mobility analyser (DMA) and condensation particle counter (CPC) also means that the AGM can also be used as a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) or as a scanning mobility spectrometer (SMS) to measure aerosol distributions from 10 nm to 1000 nm.

the concentration range of the CPC is from approx. When operated with a sheath flow of 10. 3. Description 9443 9444 Aerosol Generator and Monitor (AGM) Model 1500 Tandem Aerosol Generator and Monitor Model M1040 XP (with 2 x DMAs) AGM Model 1500 Schematic AGM Model 1500 Control Screen 31 Air Sampling 2010.000 particles/cm3. dilution-air flow at the rate of about 2 L/min and passes through an activated-carbon filter before it is exhausted.0 L/min.SPECIALS . At 3 L/min. the DMA has a mobility range to allow particles as small as 10 nm to be classified. When operating with a 35° C saturator temperature and a 10° C condenser temperature.indd 31 28/7/10 11:47:17 . A feedback control system maintains the CPC flow rate at a constant 0. typically 1-butanol and the other for collecting the condensate of butanol and condensed moisture in the condenser. The DMA is cylindrical in shape and has an overall height of 400 mm. AGM Model 1500 Atomiser Cat.The nominal flow of the CPC is 0. Under normal operation. The aerosol leaving the CPC is mixed with clean. the CPC has a nominal detection limit of 10 nm in particle diameter. The DMA is operated in a re-circulating sheath flow mode with the sheath flow being accurately maintained using a feedback control system. Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) The DMA flow is first passed through a charge neutraliser in the form of an electrical ioniser such that the emerging particles carry a Boltzmann distribution of charges.AEROSOL GENERATION AND MONITORING 2.1 to 10.3 L/min.No.The temperature and absolute pressure in the DMA are measured and used to correct for temperature and pressure effects when particle size is determined by electrical mobility.3 L/min. A heat exchanger is used to maintain the sheath flow at temperatures close to ambient. Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) The AGM uses a condensation particle counter to monitor the aerosol output concentration. particles as large as 1000 nm can be classified. with two separate fluid reservoirs: one containing the working fluid.The CPC is of patented MSP design.The charged particles can then be classified electrically by mobility via the in-built DMA to provide a mono-disperse aerosol at the output. The aerosol particle size selected for size classification can be adjusted by varying the DC high voltage applied to the DMA using the built-in power supply in the AGM. The output aerosol concentration in the AGM is automatically monitored by the built-in CPC so that the aerosol concentration is also known.

the Aerosol Concentrators Models 4220 and 4240 are high-performance particle concentrating aerosol samplers which can be used in any application where particle concentration presents a problem.5 to 10 micron (or 1 to 10 micron in the case of Model 4240) diameter ranges into a single 1 L/min stream for output to an external collector or detector (not provided).The design is such that those particles with sufficient inertia (above the desired cut-point) continue forward with a small portion of the flow into the receiving tube whilst the rest of the flow carrying only small particles below the cut-point is diverted around the receiving tube. but up to 90% of the ambient particles in the size range 2.5-10 microns thus increasing the sensitivity of the analysis by up to 300 times (1-10 microns in the case of Model 4240). The Aerosol Concentrator Series 4220 draws air at 300 L/min from the surrounding environment and then splits the air into a particle-rich stream and a particle-depleted reject stream. In a virtual impactor.3% of the inlet air ie 1 L/min. any delay in analysis could be potentially fatal and is therefore to be avoided. In so doing. One such case is the identification of biological aerosols by mass spectrometry. Secondly. that the mass rate of delivery of material to the pyrolysis tube is sufficient to allow biological aerosols having concentrations in the order of 1 particle per litre of air to be detected. Indeed.The resulting particle-rich stream contains only 0.The remaining 300 L/min sampled air flow then passes through a 2-stage concentrating virtual impactor which concentrates particles in the 2. firstly. it is essential.indd 32 28/7/10 11:47:30 .0 – 10 micron range) 4200 Showing Access to CVI Concentrating Virtual Impactor 32 Air Sampling 2010. periodically.5 – 10 micron range) 9446 Aerosol Concentrator Model 4240 (1. the concentration of particles is so low that it becomes necessary to sample for prolonged periods of time in order to obtain sufficient mass for chemical or biological characterisation.The precisely balanc Concentrator measures 356 x 394 x 254 mm and weighs 16 kg. a response time in the order of minutes is essential. Aerosol Concentrator Model 4240 The Aerosol Concentrator is effectively a 3-stage virtual impactor. Two lightweight. In a conventional impactor. particles are drawn through a series of nozzles and upon exit encounter a receiving tube. particles with sufficient inertia (size) impact and hence are collected on a series of collection plates where they remain for later analysis. Description 9445 Aerosol Concentrator Model 4220 (2. As a result. the need arose for a device capable of concentrating particles from several hundred litres per minute of air into a low flow rate compatible with the spectrometric technique outlined above.SPECIALS – AEROSOL CONCENTRATION AEROSOL CONCENTRATOR SERIES 4200 Originally designed for the detection of airborne biological weapons. for obvious reasons.No. high performance vacuum pumps draw the inlet air flow through the system. In many cases of particle sampling from ambient air.The air flow streams are balanced and no valves are used to control the flow. Ambient air is sampled at 330 L/min through an initial impactor which removes particles larger than 10 microns and discards them along with 30 L/min of the air flow. the aerosol sampler delivers a representative sample of the airborne particles to a pyrolysis tube which. converts the sample thermally and chemically to components that are then analysed by mass spectrometry. Conc Cat. In this application.

the 7400AD is laboratory calibrated prior to despatch to NIOSH Method 7400 for asbestos fibres. signal detection settings for the photomultiplier tube and subsequent signal processing.6 kg dependent on whether the battery pack is fitted or not. giving an instantaneous visible and audible alarm when fibre concentrations exceed preset user-defined levels. Operating on the proven principle of electric-field-induced fibre alignment. Description 9447 Real-Time Fibre Monitor Model 7400AD 9448 Pack of 100 Cellulose Ester Filters 0. M/AAWP02500 9449 Pack of 100 Cellulose Backing Filter Pads 5.8 and 12. ceramics and glass whilst ignoring non-fibrous background particles.REAL-TIME FIBRE MONITORING REAL-TIME FIBRE MONITOR MODEL 7400AD Description The Fibre Monitor Model 7400AD is a technologically advanced real-time fibre monitor that automatically detects and counts potentially hazardous airborne fibres such as asbestos. The 7400AD measures 370 mm x 295 mm x 360 mm (w x d x h) and weighs between 7. The rechargeable battery pack and hence portability of the Fibre Monitor makes it the ideal instrument to check and verify worker safety during asbestos remediation and removal operations. M/AP1002500 Fibre Monitor 7400AD 33 Air Sampling 2010. earthquakes or explosions. the computer software assumes full control of system operation including sample flow rate. Fully charged. mineral wool. Cat. periodically recording fibre data at preset intervals for further examination.SPECIALS . data acquisition and file storage.No. the 7400AD will operate unattended for eight hours. The operational control of the Fibre Monitor is maintained by a powerful in-built computer running on Windows XP using software specifically written for the purpose.indd 33 28/7/10 11:47:42 . AC and DC high voltages. User interface is provided by a stylus in conjunction with a touch screen. advanced composites. The 7400AD includes a filter positioned ahead of the exhaust outlet which can be used to collect samples for later chemical or physical analysis such as comparison with phase-contrast microscopy.0 micron Ref. and user-selected settings for scheduled or continuous sampling. Fibre Monitor 7400AD Schematic Features • • • • • • • • • Measures and reports fibre concentrations in real time Saves measured data over user-selectable periods USB port allows easy upload of data Alarm mode warns when fibre concentrations exceed user-selected concentration levels Calculates time-weighted-average exposure limits Back-up filter enables comparison with phase-contrast microscopy Colour touch-screen LCD provides easy operation and data display Fibre sampling intervals adjustable between 1 minute and 24 hours or up to 168 hours continuous Easily portable Applications • Use before and after asbestos abatement to monitor success and ensure safety • Measure fibre concentrations in manufacturing operations that use fibrous raw materials • Monitor airborne fibres resulting from uncontrolled releases such as fires.8 micron Ref. Under normal conditions.

60 Hz) The pump has an in-built cooling fan located on the top of the pump which. draws air through the ventilation grill on the front of the pump to cool the interior. Provision is also made to vent the exhaust to waste should this be required.indd 34 28/7/10 11:47:52 . Importantly. low maintenance. oil-free rotary-vane vacuum pump technology. FLOW METERS AND CALIBRATION 1000 ROTARY VANE VACUUM PUMPS Both pumps are fully encased with an internal acoustic lining and vibration damping to reduce noise levels to less than or equal to 60 db (A).The unit employs a 0. Being oil-free. 50 Hz) LCP5 (110 v. The Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 is a small footprint. the pump is provided with two vacuum inlets such that the user can decide whether to place the pump on the right or left side of the impactor/sampler concerned and has an in-built cooling fan located on the top of the pump which. routine lubrication or regular replacement of oil filters. Cat. high capacity pump suitable for high-resistance multi-stage impactors and samplers requiring flow rates up to 400 L/min. The LCP5 measures 270 x 310 x 300 mm (w x d x h) and weighs 18 kg.The flow rate can be adjusted between 0 and the 416 L/min maximum using the flow control valve mounted on the front panel for this purpose. Description 7903 7901 Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 High Capacity Pump Model HCP5 34 6 Air Sampling 2010. Both pumps come complete with the appropriate fittings to connect to your impactor/sampler and to allow the user to position the pump to either right or left of the system concerned for space efficiency.No. 60 Hz) 2 x HCP5 (230 v.SAMPLING PUMPS. High Capacity Pump Model HCP5 (left) and Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 (right) The HCP5 measures 320 x 560 x 390 mm (w x d x h) and weighs 45 kg.Two handles are located on the top of the pump for lifting and positioning. 50 Hz) HCP5 (110 v.The flow rate can be adjusted between 0 and the 133 L/min maximum using the flow control valve mounted on the front panel for this purpose. draws air through the ventilation grill on the front of the pump to cool the interior. 60 Hz) LCP5 (230 v.ANCILLARIES . the exhaust gases produced are guaranteed to be free of oil contamination and can therefore be vented to atmosphere if desired. Self-sealing compound carbon vanes continually adjust so that the pump effectively performs with ‘as new efficiency’ throughout their service life. during operation. during operation. Like the LCP5. 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Absolute Pressure (kPa) Performance Chart Key HCP5 (230 v.90 kW motor capable of generating a maximum of 416 L/min free flow (at 50 Hz mains frequency). rotary vane vacuum pump designed for optimal operation at low flow rates.42 kW motor capable of generating a maximum of 133 L/min free flow (at 50 Hz mains frequency).This makes it ideal for low-resistance impactors and particle samplers requiring flow rates up to 100 L/min. 900 800 700 Flow Rate (L/min) The Copley LCP5 and HCP5 represent the very latest in high performance. The High Capacity Pump Model HCP5 is a well-established.Two handles are located on the top of the pump for lifting and positioning. neither pump requires regular topups of oil. 50 Hz) 2 x HCP5 (110 v. The unit employs a 0.

Cat. The DFM3 operates on the Differential Pressure (Venturi) principle. The DFM 2000 operates on the principle of thermal mass. a resolution of 0.2% of flow rate. has a range of 0-200 L/min.indd 35 3/8/10 11:25:42 .SAMPLING PUMPS. FLOW METERS AND CALIBRATION FLOW METERS AND CALIBRATION The majority of impactors and samplers operate on the principle of inertial impaction which divides the aerosol cloud into various particle size classifications on the basis of particle inertia.the final decision must rest with the user based on the accuracy required and the price. Stage mensuration is an optical process used to calibrate impactors to ensure that the manufacturing tolerances that determine the stage nozzle dimensions critical to accurate particle size measurement are within specification.The normal procedure is to check the flow rate concerned prior to testing using a suitable flow meter.This leads to changes in impactor aerodynamics and hence particle collection characteristics. the most critical being the dimensions and spatial arrangement of the nozzles that make up the size classification stages. it is essential that the inlet flow rate (the flow rate at the entrance to the impactor/sampler) employed both prior to and during testing is both accurate and consistent.ANCILLARIES . Cat. Description 8002 8764 9450 In practice. impactor stages can corrode and wear with repeated use. Description 9451 9452 9453 Re-calibration – MOUDI-II Impactor Model 121 Re-calibration – MOUDI-II Impactor Model 125 Re-calibration – Andersen 8-Stage Impactor Flow Meter Model DFM3 Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 Flow Meter to Impactor Inlet Adapter Close-up of Single Impactor Stage Mitutoyo Vision Inspection System 35 Air Sampling 2010. Copley Scientific provides two flow meters that meet these criteria:.01 L/min between 0 and 90 L/min and 0.75% FSD. Copley Scientific provides a calibration service for all types of impactors featured in this brochure.1 L/min between 90 and 200 L/min and an accuracy of +/. has a range of 15-100 L/min. Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 The flow meter concerned must: Calibration • Be capable of measuring volumetric flow as opposed to mass flow • Be calibrated for exit flow as opposed to inlet flow • Allow prevailing environmental conditions to be taken into account The performance and reproducibility of an impactor/ sampler is dependent on a number of factors.No.No. Because velocity is directly related to the flow rate. a resolution of 0.1 L/min and an accuracy of 0. which in itself is a function of aerodynamic particle size and velocity. It is fitted with automatic temperature and pressure compensation as standard.

INDEX A Aerosols Aerosol Concentrator Model 4220 Aerosol Concentrator Model 4240 Aerosol Generator and Monitor Model 1500 (AGM) Airborne Particles Andersen Impactor Anthropogenic Aerosols Asbestos Monitor Model 7400AD Q 4 32 32 30 4 20 4 33 B Bio-concentrator Model 4220 Bio-concentrator Model 4240 32 32 C Calibration Coarse Particles Condensation Particle Counter Model CPC Contents. 2.5 & 10 Model 100-S4 3 31 18 U Ultrafine Particles Universal Air Sampler Model 310 (UAS) 4 24 V Vacuum Pumps 34 W H High Capacity Pump Model HCP5 High Flow Impactor Model 130 Quality Management System ISO 9001:2008 34 22 Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer Model 1000 XP (WPS) 6 I ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System 1 L Low Capacity Pump Model LCP5 34 M Marple-Miller Impactor Model 160 (MMI) Marple Multi-stage PEM Series 135 Mensuration Micro-Environmental Monitor Model 400 (MEM) Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) MOUDI Wide Range Impactor MSP Corporation Multi-Stage PEM Series 135 (Marple Type) 19 28 35 23 13 13 2 28 P Particle Concentrator Model 4220 Particle Concentrator Model 4240 Particulate Matter (PM) Particulates Personal Air Samplers Personal Environmental Monitor (PEM) Personal Speciation Sampler Model 240 (PMASS) PM (Particulate Matter) Primary Particles Pumps Air Sampling 2010.indd 36 32 32 4 4 25 26 27 4 4 34 28/7/10 11:47:59 . Table of 35 4 9 3 F Fibre Monitor Model 7400AD Fine Particles Flow Meter Model DFM 2000 33 4 35 1 R Real-Time Fibre Monitor Model 7400AD Rotary Vane Vacuum Pumps 33 34 S Secondary Particles Selection Guide Stage Mensuration 4 5 35 T Table of Contents Tandem Aerosol Generator and Monitor Model 1040 XP Three-Stage Impactor for PM1.

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c o p l e y s c i e n t i f i c . 2. G e r m a n y. c o p l e y s c i e n t i f i c .indd 1 . Ireland & International Sales: Copley Scientific Limited Colwick Quays Business Park Private Road No. Colwick Nottingham NG4 2JY United Kingdom Te l : + 4 4 ( 0 ) 1 1 5 9 6 1 6 2 2 9 Fa x : + 4 4 ( 0 ) 1 1 5 9 6 1 7 6 3 7 e-mail: sales@copleyscientific.co. F r a n c e . c o m A u s t r i a . c o m e-mail: sales@mspcorp. m s p c o r p.UK.ch we b s i t e : w w w.uk we b s i t e : w w w.com we b s i t e : w w w. I t a l y & S w i t z e r l a n d : USA & Canada: Copley Scientific AG Erlenstrasse 27 Postfach 152 CH-4106 Therwil Switzerland MSP Corporation 5910 R ice Creek Park way Suite 300. Shoreview Minnesota 55126 USA Te l : + 4 1 ( 0 ) 6 1 7 2 5 2 5 3 5 Te l : + 1 6 5 1 2 8 7 8 1 0 0 Fa x : + 4 1 ( 0 ) 6 1 7 2 1 3 1 8 7 Fa x : + 1 6 5 1 2 8 7 8 1 4 0 e-mail: sales@copleyscientific. c o m AE Air Sampling Cover.