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computer fundamentals

COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL
AND ORGANIZATION
(next page)Unit-1: Introduction
to Computers

Topics covered in this unit

Unit objectives
1. Introduction
1.1.
2.

What is a computer?

Generation of computers

3. Types of computers
3.1.
For Individual users
3.2.
For organization
4. Application of computers
4.1.
At home
5. Memory devices
5.1.
RAM
5.2.
ROM
6. Input and output devices
6.1.
Keyboards
6.2.
Mouse
6.3.
Monitors
6.4.
Sound Systems
6.5.
printers
7. Storage devices
7.1.
Magnetic storage
7.2.
Optical storage
8. Number system
8.1.
Binary and decimal
8.2.
Octal and hexadecimal
9. Complements
1

computer fundamentals
10. Addition and subtraction
11. Representation of negative numbers
12. Binary storage and registers
13. Binary logic
(next page)

1.

Introduction

1.1.
What is a computer?
Computer is an electronic device that converts data into information. All
the computers are controlled by programming instructions. There are two types
of computer, analog and digital. Analog computers are earliest computers that
represent data as variable points along a continuous spectrum of values.
Moreover, these computers were mechanical and very heavy. On the other
hand, digital computers represent data as having one distinct value or another,
with no other possibilities.

2.

Generation of computers
There are 5 generations of computers.

First generation:
Vacuum tubes were used as the internal computer components. To store data,
punched cards and magnetic tapes were used. Machine level programming
language was used.
Second generation:
Transistors were used. The removable disk pack replaced punched cards.
Assembly level languages and high level languages were used. Transistors
enabled smaller computers were manufactured.
Third generation:
Integrated Circuits (IC) were developed. They are complete electronic circuits on
a silicon chips. They led to the production of even smaller computers. These
computers were named minicomputer. Software was sophisticated and
interactive processing became possible.

computer fundamentals
Fourth generation:
Microprocessor or computers on a chip were developed.
Fifth generation:
The computers that are currently and beyond, artificial intelligence, neural
systems, voice recognition and so on.
3. Types of computers
3.1.
For Individual users
3.2.
For organization
4. Application of computers
4.1.
At home
5. Memory devices
5.1.
RAM
5.2.
ROM
6. Input and output devices
6.1.
Keyboards
6.2.
Mouse
6.3.
Monitors
6.4.
Sound Systems
6.5.
printers
7. Storage devices
7.1.
Magnetic storage
7.2.
Optical storage
8. Number system
8.1.
Binary and decimal
8.2.
Octal and hexadecimal
9. Complements
10. Addition and subtraction
11. Representation of negative numbers
12. Binary storage and registers
13. Binary logic