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CONTENTS

Sr. No.

Subject

Pages

1.

Turbovisory Instruments

1-29

2.

Control and Instrumentation

30-83

3.

Protections

84-150

PAGE 1

TURBOVISORY INSTRUMENTS
INTRODUCTION
Economy considerations in the field of power generation has dictated full use of increase
in steam parameters (temperature, pressure etc.) within the scope of existing materials and also
increase in power output to the limits of technical expertise.

Consequently large tandem

compound machines were developed having large turbine rotors and an increased numbers of
cylinders and bearing pedestals.
A complex rotating machine like steam Turbine needs very close moni toring and
supervising certain physical phenomena which it undergoes during various stages of operation
like start-up, 1oading, load changes and coasting down. The turbo supervisory instrument
system is an aid which enables to interpret the information for safe and proper operation of
steam turbine. The Turbovisory instrumentation provides information on:

1.

Misalignment between machines

2.

UnbalancebyaMultitudeofCauses

3.

Oil whirl of sleeve bearing

4.

Thrust bearing failure

5.

Thermally bowed rotor

6.

Machanically bowed bent rotor

7.

Babbit loss on radial bearing

8.

Misalignment internals (Seals, diaphragm)

9.

Radial rubs.

10. Partial and full thrust rub.


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11. Tilted wheels
12. Lubrication loss
13. Aerodynamic loss
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14. Aerodynamic unbalance


15. Cracked shafts
16. Loose parts
17. Foundation and piping resonance
18. improperly installed bearing
19. Self excited whirl
20. improper shrink fit of rotor elements
21. Improper gas seal--S
22. Gas whirl of diaphragm
23. Cavitation of pump
24. Gear wear
25. Gear Apex wander
26. Gear teeth high low mismeshed or broken.
27. Motor/Generator magnetic centre line wander
28. Coupling lock up
29. Restraint to casing sliding
30. Uneven thermal gradients and the stresses caused there of
31. Thermal growth differential and overall.
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Of these, 90% of the information can be obtained by monitoring the rotor behaviour, and
30% from the stator Monitoring.
1.2.

TURBOVISORY INSTRUMENTS
Though nearly 120 measurements are required for the complete monitoring of the turbine
the following instruments are found to be adequate to provide the necessary informations
under normal operating conditions. Therefore the discussion here will centre around the
following few most important turbovisory measurements.

The locations of these

instruments are marked in the Fig. No. 1.1.


TURBINE SUPERVISORY INSTRUMENTATION
LOCATION OF DE7ECTORS

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The discussion is generally based on a particular type of measuring Instruments used in


the present day turbines in the country. How even references are made to the other types
of Instruments in use elsewhere.
(i)

Shaft Eccentricity

(ii)

Vibration

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(iii)

Axial Shift/Thrust position of rotor

(iv)

Differential expansion

(v)

Casing overall expansion

(vi)

Speed

(vii)

Control valve servomotor position

(viii) Speed gear position


(ix)

Seal Interference

(x)

Seal Interference

(xi)

Turbine metal/steam temperature differentials

(xi)

Load limiting gear position

1.2.1. ECCENTRICITY..
Eccentricity is the very important parameterss to monitor the conditions of turbine.
Every machine, when built, is left with certain amount of inherent eccentricity on account
of the deficiency in machining, sag due to its weight and the clearances at thebearings.
This eccentricity level starts increasing temporarily during its starting, normal running
and shut down periods due to:
(i)

Temperature causes

(ii)

Other mechanical causes

1.2.1.1.

TEMPERATURE CAUSES:
(a)

If non-uniform heating and cooling of turbine rotor during turbine start up, load
changes and coastii-ig down period takes place, there is a possibility of the
eccentricity level going high temporarily.

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(b)

Possibility of the temperature gradient in its transverse direction in the gland seals
is there when the steam leakages are uneven or the seal steam

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temperature is abnormal. This uneven temperature gradient increases the eccentricity
level temporarily.
(c)

Unevencooling due to improper lagging or water splashes causes the eccentricity to


increase.

1.2.1.2.

MECHANICAL CAUSES:

Mechanical causes such as rubbing, faulty couplings, wearing of bearings etc. also
increase the eccentricity level.
All the above causes increases the eccentricity level, though temporarily, they get settled
to a permanent eccentricity if corrective measures are not taken i -n time and the
machines continued to run w- ith the increased eccentricity level.
Eccentricity is measured in micrones or millimeters. It is measured as a deviation of the
mass centre from the geometrical centre of the bearing journal.

This is simply

proportional to the maximum roto deflection occuring at the middle of shaft. The rotor
deflection shifts the centre of gravity of the rotor thus creating an unbalance in the
rotating mass which in vibrations wren the machine is running at normal
ity measurements provide information on the on set of vi a-chine is at barring gear speed
or at low speeds.
1.2.1.3.

ECCENTRICITY MEASURING SYSTEM PROVIDES:

(a)

Remote digital/analogue indication of the eccentricity level.

(b)

Continuous recording of the eccentricity level.

1.2.1.3.

TYPE OF MEASUREMENT:

The eccentricity is electrically measured by measuring the variation of an a.c. current in a


coil due to the variation in the proximity of the target material. There are two methods
being used worldwide to measure the eccentricity.
(i)

. Inductive transducer operating at excitation frequencies 50 HZ to 20 KHZ.

(ii)

Proximity (Eddy current) transducer operating at excitation frequencies 500 KHZ


to MHZ.

The transducers of both these types are so mounted as to measure the varying air
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gap of a collar specially machined on the rotor. The variation in the gap as the collar
rotates, provides the data of the peak to peak excursion of the rotor.
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1.2.1.5.

MEASUREMENT BY INDUCRIVE TRANSDUCERS:

One typical measuring system is shown in Fig. 1.2.

The measuring detector of this system consists of one active and one passive
magnetically separate reluctance type transducers both mounted inside the turbine casing
to prevent any error due to environmental changes. The two elements are connected in an
initially unbalanced bridge configuration which is excited by 10 V r.m.s. 1853 HZ
supply.
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The measuring unit comprises of a demodulator, low pass active filter, amplifier and
amplitude detector cum D.C. suppressor.
In case of an eccentricity, the bridge output is modulated by a percentage proportional to
the amount of eccentricity with a modulating frequency proportional to rotor speed. The
bridge output is demodulated and then filtered in a fourth order active filter to obtain the
modulating signal. This is further amplified and fed to the special amplitude detector
with built in electronic gate and gate timers which avoids any change in indication due to
sudden change in absolute rotor position or its speed. The design envisages the detection
of positive and negative peaks of the modulating signal and its differnce. This processed
signal is then fed to the digital analogue panel meter. The parameter is also confinuosuly
recorded in a single channel recorder. A separate analogue current output of 4-20 mm is
sometimes provided for datalogger or Data Acquisition system if required.

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The unique design of the detector allows a wide mounting tolerancein the air gap ,setting.
The range of measurement is normally 0 to 500 microns.
Similar measuring procedures are followed by different manufacturers also only with the
difference of excitation frequency and signal processing electronic system.
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Another type of measuring system is shown in Fig. 1.3
In this system two detectors each having two coils are mounted at each point of
measurement as shown in Fig. 1.3(a)

ECCENTRICITY DETECTOR FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM


FIG.- 1.3 a)
PAGE 9
The primary and secondary coils are connected as shown in Fig. 1.3.(b)

and the primary coil is excited with a constant 10 KHz supply.


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The induced output from the secondary windings will depend upon the air gap variation
between the detector. and the rotating face of the collar. For zero eccentricity, the out put
will be an unmodulated 10 KHz signal.

When demodulated and processed by the

measuring unit there will be zero output signal to the indicating instruments.
But when some eccentricity exists, the air gap changes thereby altering the coupling
between the primary ai id secondary windings. Now the Induce Voltage in the secondary
winding will be a modulated 10 KHz envelop of shaft rotational frequency.
The amplitude of these modulations is a measure of the eccentricity existing in the
rotation of the shaft. The 10 KHz modulated envelope is amplified and then
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demodulated to remove the 1 0 KHz component from the wave form. The remaining
amplitude of modulation is rectified and smoothed to provide a D.C. signal representing
the eccentricity in shaft rotation.
1.2.1.6.

MEASUREMENT BY PROMMITY TRANSDUCERS:

The transducer is a flat coil of wire, located on the end'of a ceramic tip. The coil is
protected by epoxy fibre glass. The ceramic tip extends out from the steel body of the
probe as shown in Fig. 1.3(c).

The probe is driven by a radio frequency voltage generated by a driver unit called
proximitor.

The probe coil radiates this signal into the surrounding area as electro

magnetic field. If there is no conductive material to intercept the magnetic field there is
no loss of R.F, signal. When a conductive material approaches the probe tip, eddy
currents are generated on the surface of the material and power is absorbed. This loss of
power is proportional to the gap between the conductive material probe tip. The nearer
the conductive material the tip,
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more the loss and vice versa. The proximeter senses this loss and generates a D.C.
voltage enveloped by the peak to peak eccentricity waves, as shown in the functional
diagram Fig. 1.3(d).
1.2.2.

VIBRATIONS:
Vibration is the other vital parameter tobe monitored in a turbine. Vibration is the back
and forth motion of the machine or machine parts under the influences of oscillatory
forces caused by dynamically unbalanced masses in the rotating system. Vibrations can
be the cause of trouble, the result of trouble, the symptom of trouble or a combination of
all the three. Like eccentricity, there will be a certain level of vibrations in any machine,
however, perfect it might have been built up. This original level of vibrations depend
:upon the net unbalance left in the machine during the manufacturing and erection stages.
But this initial vibration level increases in due course of operation of the machine on
account of:
(i)

Fast out of balance changes like fracture etc.

(ii)

Slow out of balance changes like corrosion, erosion, deposits, bends, etc.

(iii)

Self excited shaft vibrations like steam pulsations, oil pulsation, etc.

(iv)

Mechanical looseness in pedestal faults in coupling, bearing etc.

Excessive vibrations may lead to mechanical failure of the turbine components and calls
for extremely reliable monitoring system. Vibrations originate from the rotating mass
centre and are transmitted radially and axially to the supports i.e. bearing pedastals
called radial and axial vibration.
Thus bearing pedestals are the points where normally the vibration measurements are
made. Generally vertical and horizontal vibrations are measured as these are the radial
vibrations at 901 to each other.
1.2.2.1. Vibrations are usually measured as the amplitude of the maximum exercise of the
vibrating point in microns. It is either given as the single amplitude (peak) or double
amplitude (peak to peak).
The other way of measuring vibrations is by measuring the velocity of the motion of the
vibrating point. This measurement is being considered very useful as
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compared to that of amplitude, because this is a measure of fatigue whereas the
displacement gives only the "Stress". It is measured in mm/sec (R.M.S).
Sometimes a third mode i.e. the acceleration of the motion of the point adopted. The
acceleration measures the amount of vibrating "Force".
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1.2.2.2.

THE VIBRATION MEASURING SYSTEM PROVIDES:

(a)

Remote digital/analogue indication of the vibration level.

(b)

Continuous recording of the parameter senses by different detectors.

(c)

Annunciation in case of excessive vibrations beyond the safe limit.

1.2.2.3.

THE MEASURING SYSTEM:

There are two fundamentally different techniques for this measurement:


(i)

By velocity transducers

(ii)

By accelerometers

1.2.2.4.

VELOCITY TRANSDUCERS:

There are number of types available. All types basically comprise of a Siesmic mass
which as a result of the vibration, allows a magnet to move relative to a coil .in which is
generated an e.m.f. Either the magnet or the coil may be fixed to the vibrating body.
A typical detector consists of -two permanent magnets rigidly fixed to the casing with
coils arranged as sies-rnic mass as shown in Fig. 1.4(a)
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The two magnets coil assemblies are arranged to sense vibration in two mutually
perpendicular directions. The measurement system is designed to operate satisfactorily
over a vibration frequency range of 10HZ ton 150HZ with an acceleration not above 6g.

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The measuring unit comprises of preamplifier, integrater, special amplifier, rectifier. Fig.
1.4(b), gives the scheme of the measuring system.
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MEASUREMENT PRICIPLE OF BEARING VIBRATION -MARK-11

The transformation of mechanical vibrations into electrical signal is made in a seismic


sensor which works according to the electro dynamic method applying the plunger coil
principle. A voltage is induced in the coil due to relative movement between the plunger
coil and the magnet which is proportional to the vibrational velocity.

This sort of

vibration sensors are called "Velocity Pick Ups". The induced voltage is pre-amplified,
integrated'to obtain the amplitude of vibration and further amplified in special amplifier.
It is then rectified and the parameter is displayed on digital/analogue panel meter. The
parameter is also recorded in the multi point recorder. A separate analogue current
output of 4-20 mA can be made available in each channel for datalogger hook-up, if
required.
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1.2.2.5.

ACCELEROMETER:

Accelerometers, specially based upon the piezo electrical crystal, which generates an
e.m.f. when subjected to stress are gaining much importance now-a-days because of their
simplicity, lightness and.higher sensitivity. An electric signal is obtained between the
opposite faces of a piezo electric crystal subjected to mechanical vibration. The signal is
proportional to the acceleration of the vibration.

The construction details of an

accelerometer are shown in Fig. 1.4.(c).

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The piezo elec ' tric element, usually an artificially polarized ferroelectric ceramic is
arranged so that when the assembly is vibrated the mass applies a force to the piezo
electric element which is proportional to the vibratory acceleration. This can be found
from the law, force mass x acceleration.
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Accelerometers will be giving vibration in all the three modes namely Acceleration,
Velocity and Displacement.
1.2.3. AXIAL SHIFT OF ROTOR:
The thrust bearing is the anchor point of the rotor with the stator in axial direction. The
axial thrust is the result of the impact of the steam on either sides of the blades in each
stage. Though attempts had been made to balance and nullify the thrust by reversing the
direction of steam flow in H.P. and I.P. cylinders and providing double flow L.P.
cylinder, there exists,, however, a net thrust in the direction of generator called working
thrust.

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In order to take the thrust, thrust bearing is provided at the front end of the H.P. cylinder
where steam enters. The axil thrust may increase on either directions on the following
conditions:
(i)

More/less resistance developed in the steam flow path on account of salt


deposits/erosion, wearing off, etc.

(ii)

Thrust bearing failure.

(iii)

Oil flow failure/ inadequate flow to thrust bearing.

The axial thrust, causes the thrust collar to move either towards the working pads or
towards the surge pads depending on the direction of axial thrust. The measurement
system indicates the position of the thrust collar with respect to the working pads. The
indication determines the extent of wear of thrust pads. It is imperative to continuously
monitor the position of thrust collar as axial shift beyond permissible limits could lead
to mechanical interfernece and severe rubbing. -this service provides:
(a)

Protection of turbine in case of excessive axial rotor shift towards the generator or
towards the front caused by wearing out of thrust bearing pads.

(b)

Remote digital/ analogue indication and annunciation of the rotor position in the
thrust bearing when the operating conditions are changing.

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(c)
1.2.3.1.

Continuous recording of the rotor position in the thrust bearing.


The detector used presently and being discussed here is a two element variable
reluctance type" transducer connected in a bridge configuration which is excited by
highly stabilised 1OV r.m.s., 1953 HZ supply.
The measuring unit consists of detector coils, amplifier, rectifier, line ariser,
amplifier, and comparators for annunciation. The Fig. 1.5 gives the scheme.
The axial shift in the rotor alters the bridge output which is amplified and fed to the
line aris'ing circuits after rectification.

The line arising circuits line arise the

inherent non-linearity of the reluctance type transducers to enable inter


changeability of the detectors and repeatability of measurements.

This further

facilitates reasonable tolerance in mechanical mounting of the detectors. The line


raised output is amplified and then fed to the recorder, the annunciation circuits
through present comparators and analogue to digital converters for display.

separate 4-20 mA analogue current output can also be provided for hooking up data
logger circuit.

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The design of this service prevents any spurious tripping signal due to failure of
excitation or power supply as long as the actual axial shift is not high enough for
tripping. The range of measurement is from (-2) to (1.5) mm of axial shift. The'O'
reference position of the rotor is that position when the collar touches the working
pads. The positive axial shift as per convention is the movement of the collar i.e.
the rotor in the direction of the generator and the negative axial shaft occurs when
the collar moves towards front pedestal direction. Usually the working value under
normal condition will be from 0 to -0.5 mm which is called Free Floating Zone
beyond which on either direction, the collar will start rubbing the respective pads.
1.2.3.2.

Variable reluctance type transducers excited by low frequency (50 cycles/sec.)


power supply connected as a linear variable differential transformer was in use till
very recently and now found out of place.

1.2.3.3.

Here also eddy current pick ups as discussed in 1.2.1.6. and mounted facing the
collar axially, measure the gap and give the axial position of the rotor.

1.2.3.4.

Measure of the oil pressure on both sides of thrust collar will also give a relative

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position of the rotor. Measurement of temperatures of thrust pads on both sides gives the
position of -the shaft.
1.2.4. DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION OF ROTOR AND CYLINDER
The rotating and stationary parts of the turbine undergo different rates of expansion under
various conditions of operation. This is mainly due to inherent difference in the thermal
inertia between rotating and stationary parts.

Therefore, any sharp temperature

fluctuation would result in different magnitudes of expansion/ contraction.

The

difference of axial expansion between the rotor and the casing is termed as differential
expansion. A standard convention is followed that if the shaft expands more than the
casing it is said to be a positive expansion.
On the other hand if the shaft contracts or casing expands more than the shaft it is said to
be negative expansion. A high positive expansion occurs:
(i)

During start up conditions

(ii) After extended period of no load/low load running followed by sudden loading.
(iii) When the exhaust temperature is too high
(iv) Restraint of casing sliding/expansion
A high negative expansion occurs:
(i)

During cooling down/shut down

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(ii) After extended period of full load running followed by load/low load running
(iii) When exhaust hood temperature is too low.
The turbine supervisory instrument system monitors the differential expansion at any
instant and initiates alarm should the parameter exceeds its permissible limits. This
facilitates the operator to take corrective actions.
This service provides:
(a)

Remote digital/analogue indication of the differential expansion of HPT, IPT and


LPT.

PAGE 19
(b)

Continuous recording of the above parameters.

(c)

Annunciation in case of impermissible values.

1.2.4.1. The detector is also a two element variable reluctance type transducer connected in a
bridge configuration which is excited by the common 1953 Hz excitation.
The measuring unit consists of amplifier, active rectifier, linearising circuit, amplifier,
and comparators for annunciation.
The measurement principle is the same as in the case of axial shift service, described in
section 1.2.3.1. along with Fig. 1.5. No. trip, as has been envisaged in axial shift service,
is Provided here.

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Limiting values
The range of measurement of
HPT is -2 to +5 mm -1.2 mm - +4mm
The range of measurement of IPT is (-3. 5) to (+4) mm -2.5 mm +3mm
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The range of measurement of IPT is (-3.50) to (+5.5)mm -2.5, 4.5mm


The above figures are for a specifric21OMW machine (LMW)being manufactured in this
country. The normal figures for any machine is that there is 2/3 clearance for expansion
as compared to 1 / 3 for contraction.
1.2.5. CASING EXPANSION/OVERALL THERMAL EXPANSION
The turbine casing is anchored near the middle of LP casing and is free to expand
axially on either directions from the anchor point. Expansion measured at front pedestal
is the cumulative expansion of the casing from the anchor point and thus indicates the
degree of thermal soaking of casings. Expansion is also measured at the middle bearing
pedestal. Abnormal expansion indicates serious fault in the macl-iine. Lesserexpansion
indicatesjamming of pedestal on the pedestal mounting stool or lack of freedom of
movement of the steam chest. Higher expansion point out permanent creep of the
machine or material failure. This service provides:
(a)

Remote digital/analogue indication

(b)

Continuous recording of the parameter.

1.2.5.1.

MEASURING SYSTEM
Two types of measuring principles are in use
(i)

By L.V.D.T. transmitters

(ii)

By rectilinear potentiomenters.

PAGE 21
1.2.5.2.

L.V.D.T. TRANSMITTERS

The functional diagram is shown in Fig. 1.6(a).

GOVERNOR PEDESTAL EXPANSION FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM


FIG. 1.6 (a)
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The principle used to detect the overall expansion or the casing displacement is the
movement of a core within a linear differential transformer.
A constant 10kc/ssine wave current is supplied to the primary winding of alinear
differential transformers. The secondary consists of two windings connected in series
opposition so that the input to the amplifier is the difference between the voltage included
in each winding.
PAGE 22
With no pedestal displacement the core is fully extended from the transformer so that the
voltage in winding A, balances that of winding A 2 to give a zero input to the amplifier
and hence result in a zero output on the recorder. As the pedestal expands causing a
displacement between the pedestal and pedestal mounting stool, the core is inserted into
the transformer. This causes an imbalance between the two secondary voltages and this
difference is amplified, rectified and smoothed and fed to the indicating instrument.
1.2.5.3.

RECTILINEAR POTENTIOMETER

In this type the linear motion of the casing is converted to the rotary motion through a
suitable rack and pinion arrangement. The rotary motion is given to the driving shaft of
the rectilinear potentiomenter of very accurate electromechanical construction.

The

potentiometer is connected to measuring circuit as shown in Fig. 1.6(b).

which is energised from a constant d.c. current so that a signal proportional to the
position of the slider is obtainable. As the position of the potentiometer slider is itself
dependant on the degre eof overall expansion of the turbine the required electrical output
is realised and the value indicated in indicator/recorder and datalogger. The range of
measurement is 0 to 50 mm.
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PAGE 23
1.2.6.

TURBINE SPEED
Monitoring of turbine speed is necessitated especially during start-up till the TG set is
synchronised.

The speed measurement system provided in the turbine supervisory

instrumentation perform a dual function of measuring the turbine speed and actuating an
alarm signal in case of overspeed. The indicators provide:
(i)

Remote indication when the rotor is rotated by the barring gear.

(ii)

Remote as well as local digital indication of the turbine speed.

(iii)

Alarm signals at 10 and 16 per cent over speed.

1.2.6.1.

MEASURING SYSTEM

The speed detector consists of slotted disc with 60 radial slots distributed around its
periphery and magnetic probe mounted facing the slots. Rotation of the disc generates
voltage pulses in the search coil. The output is fed to the speed measuring unit, local as
well as remote.
The measuring unit consists of a zero crossing detector, a pulse shaper, and an electronic
counter with latch, decoder and display. The scare output for "data logger" is provided
by a standard digital to analogue convertor having an output of 4 - 20 mA.

The

annunciations at 1 0 and 16 per cent over speed are provided for recording till
synchronization. At barring speed, the speed display is blanked and indication is through
an indicator lamp.
The voltage from the detector proportional to turbine speed are preamplified and
transmitted to the measuring module in which it is fed to the zero crossing detector and
pulse shape. The output of the pulse shaper is a train of pulses of definite amplitude and
width, the frequency of which is proportional to the speed of the rotor. The train of
pulses is then, by a differential cum negative suppresor, converted to a train of very
narrow spikes of width of the order of nanoseconds to avoid any counting error. The
number of spikes are counted with a sampling time of one second, decoded and
displayed.

The display of the counted value is through a seriesof latches to avoid

continuous blinking of all the digits. The range of measurement is from 20-4000 r.p.m.
with a resolution of 1 r.p.m. This provides high speed annunciation only. The actual
overspeed 'Trip' is through
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Hydro mechanical governing system only. The functional diagram is shown in Fig. 1.7(a).

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1.2.6.2. Another type of speed measurement used in older units is by means of a permanent
magnet tacho-generator coupled to the main shaft of the turbine through gears of speed
ratio 1:1. Thus the output voltage of this techo-generator
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is proportional to the speed of the turbine., This voltage is rectified and measured by a
D.C. voltmeter calibrated in terms of speed as shown in,Fig. 1.7 (b).

FIG.1.7(b)
1.2.6.3. A third method is now being widely used by the advanced countries and may find its
place in our country also shortly for speed measurement. This method employs an eddy
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current pick up facing a notch or a projection on the main shaft. The pick up generates
a pulse when the notch /projection passes it. Count of these gives the speed of the
machine.
1.2.7. CONTROL VALVE SERVOMOTOR POSITION
On synchronization the speed of the turbine rotor remains more or less unaltered and the
change in load is reflected through the variation in control valve servomotor position. It is
therefore, imperative to monitor the control valve servomotor position continuously after
synchronization. This service provides:
(a)

Remote digital indication

PAGE 26
(b)

Continuous recording of the parameter after synchronization.

The detector consists of a wire wound potentiometer in a meter case. The slider shafts is
supported by a ball bearing and is coupled with the servomotor stem: through mechanical
linkage and gear train.
The principle of measurement is similar to the casing expansion service as described in
section (7). The display is on digital panel meters and the recording on a single channel
recorder.

A separate analogue signal also can be made available for data logging

purposes. The measurement range is 0 - 300 mm.


1.2.8. SPEEDER GEAR POSITION
The speeder gear position is continuously monitored to facilitate the operator to keep a
watch on the opening condition of the valves. This service provides:
(a)

Remote digital indication

(b)

Initiation of two logic input for switcing of the speeder gear motor at extreme
positions to avoid over travelling.

The detector is similar to that of the control valve servomotor position and is coupled
with the load/speed control pilot spool through a gear train.
The principle of measurement is similar to the casing expansion as described in section 7.
The display is a digital panel meters and the recording of the parameter is not necessary.
A separate analogue cuurrent output of 4-20 mA is envisaged for data logger hook-up.
The speeder gear has been provided with a free clutching mecl-xanism which prevents
the damage due to over travel of the speeder gear. However, as a backup protection two
switching circuits have been designed to sense the zero and maximum position of the
speeder gear position which switches of the speeder gear meter in these extreme
positions.
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1.29. SEAL INTERFERENCE


During the start-up and coastig down, gland seal rubbing may occur in the event
PAGE 27
of high differential expansion contraction and bowing of rotor. Consequently monitoring
of rubbing of gland seals is considered necessary during this period. This service provides:
(a)

Remote audio alarm through a common speaker and also a head phone.

The detector comprises of an electric-dynamic microphone with built in preamplifier and


filter.
The measurement unit comprises of an audio amplifier, a speaker and.a head phone with a
jack-in-plug, selector switch.
In case of a gland seal rub, a high frequency noise from direct metal to metal contact is
produced which is sensed by the detector. This signal is pre-amplified and through a high
pass filter fed to the measuring unit. It is amplified in the audio amplifier and fed to the
speaker. Each channel is selected through the selector switch to identify the exact faulty
gland seal.
1.2.6. TURBINE METAL AND STEAM TEMPERATURE
Metal temperature of the turbine is the most essential parameter to be monitored since it
directly reflects the amount of stress on the various components.
This service provides:
(a)

Continous recording of metal and steam temperature.

(b)

Continuous recording of differential metal temperature.

(c)

Audio visual annunciation in the event of impermissible differential metal


temperature.

The detector comprises of dupled type chromel alumel thermocouple with stainless steel
thermowell fixed at different locations of the turbine body.
The metal temperature and steam temperature are also recorded on dot type recorders.
The differential metal temperature is processed in separate differential amplifiers
PAGE 28
and fed to dot type recorder which is directly calibrated in terms of temperature
differential.
Incase of impermissible differential temperature provision exists for audio visual alarm
both in positive and negative directions.
1.2.11. LOAD LIMITING GEAR POSITION

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Monitoring of load lirniting gear position is necessitated to ascertain the optimum


allowable loading on the turbine.
This service provides:
(a) Remote di ital indication
The detector comprises a rotary potentiometer similar to that of speeder gear service.
The principle of measurement is similar to that of casing expansion service. The display
is on digital panel meters. A separate 4-20 mA current output can be provided for data
logger hook-up.
1.3.

PROTECTIONS
The turbine supervisory instrument system includes the turbine protection and associated
logic e.g. low lube oil pressure protection, low vaccum protection, high axial shift
protection etc. Control for electro hydraulic transducer, control for speeder gear etc.

1.4.

GENERAL CONSIDERATION
Keeping in view the important role of turbine supervisory instrumentation, every
conceivable effort is made to ensure the quality of measurement modules/ circuits. The
present day practice is that the circuit design uses semi-conductors and most of them are
integrated circuits for their obvious advantages. The component layouts follow the recent
trends in electronic industries and are

PAGE 29
assembled in draw out type plug in modules with printed circuit board inserts. A highly
stabilised crystal oscillator circuits is normally provided for excitation of measuring
circuits to prevent any error due to supply variations. Separate channels are provided for
different services. Necessary field check facilities are incorporated to check the complete
measuring system even while the turbine is on load. The various operating and adjusting
controls are provided on the face plates of individual modules. This modular concept
allows easy access to the circuit boards for test calibration, adjustment or replacement
and this ensures maximum flexibility in servicing and maintenance.
All the detectors are of compact and rugged construction and are epoxy coated for
hermetic sealing and preventing damage due to vibration etc. The detectors are subjected
to rigorous environmental tests, like dry heat, damp heat etc. for absolute reliability.
PAGE 30

CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION

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2.

ROLE OF ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS IN THERMAL


POWER STATIONS

1.2

IN TRODUCTION
The availability, reliability and efficiency of boiler turbine unit hinge around the close
control of the chemical regimes of the working fluid i.e. water/steam in the circuit as well
as the combustion in the boiler. The instruments monitoring the chemical regimes and
combustion are generally called Analytical Instruments. These instruments in a Thermal
Power Station fall under three categories namely.
(i)

Water/Steam Analysers

(ii)

Gas Analysers

(iii)

Smoke Monitors

The. following sections will broadly deal with the roll of the above instrumentations with
regard to their application and interpretations of the movement with the process
behaviour.
2.2.

WATER/STEAM ANALYSERS
To minimise the generating cost & to have rapid development of power, the unit sizes in
India have grown from 30 MW to 500 MW in a short span of time.

This led to

considerably increase in length of last stage blades of the turbine. In a 500 MW the
blades have grown to as large as 82.5 cms creating more possibilities for salt deposits.
Deposits of this kind cause:
-

Unbalance of rotating mass producing vibrational problems.

PAGE 31
-

Stress corrosion leading to cracking and thus to catastrop hic failure.

Loss of aerodynamic 'efficiency.

Thus the purity standards of steam which transports impurities (like Nitrates, Sulphates,
Nitr;.tes, Organic matters, Copper. Iron etc.) into the turbine have become very stringent
and the chemical controls have to be exercised so as to limit the impurities in PPb level.
The impurities that are likely to join the working fluid to the boiler can originate from
one or more different sources.
1)

A condenser leak.

2)

Contaminated make up water caused by faulty demineralisation.

3)

Contaminated water in the steam-drains the recovery system.

4)

Corrosion products from an improperly treated feed system.

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5)

Other sources peculiar to a particular Power Station Plant (e.g. a faulty non return
valve in the circulating water system of a rotary pump vacuum raising plant permits
circulating water to enter the condenser).

The various constituents that enter water are classified in accordance with the troubles
they create.
Corrossive substances.
Seale forming substances.
Foam forming substances.
2.2.1

Mechanical entrainment of boiler water in the steam and vapourous carry over of
dissolved salts are considered to be the leading mechanism for introducing impurities
into the turbine. From the theoritical considerations, the carry over is significant only at
high pressures. This is because the fraction of boiler impurities going to the steam is an
exponential function of the steam is an exponential function of the steam density
making the fraction significant at pressures above about 130 kg/CM2 in normal utility
boiler.

Although improvements in turbine materials and designs are attempted to

improve their reliaility, yet tighter control of water purity is considered to be the best
approach.
PAGE 32
2.2.2

The turbine manufacturers have been steadily reducing the acceptable limits for
impurities in steam. The impurities in trance levels during normal operation and their
wide variation during startup and other emergency condition thus can build up
compasitively to more harmful levels. This concentration in steam does not pose much
problem in high pressure section of the turbine; however the impurities get deposited
overtheregions where the pressure and temperature fall in the flow ath. Continuous
introduction of such steam transported chemical is to be avoided.

It is therefore

essential that the plant operators be correctly informed on the purity of water and steam
in their system at all times, and quickly advised of changing conditions that could signal
potential troubles.
The following steam purity limits (Table-1) recommended by turbine manufacturers
will show the gravity of the situation.

Table : l PURITY LIMITS


Constituent

Limits
Normal

100 Hrs.

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24 Hrs.

1) Cation Conductivity (mho)

0.2 - 0.3

0.3 - 0.5

0.5 - 1.1

2) Sodium Parts per billion (PPb)

3 -5

6 - 10

10 - 20

3) Chlorides (PPb)

5 - 10

10 - 20

4) Silica (PPb)

10

10 - 20

20 - 50

5) Iron (PPb)

20

6) Copper (PPb)

7) Oxygen (PPb)

10

10 - 30

2.2.3

30 - 100

Installation of proper type of analytical instrument to monitor water chemistry,


interpretation of their information properly, and prompt follow up remedial measures
provide the cheap insurance cover for the life of the plant and avoid unplanned shut
downs. Modern units are also provided with automatic chemical controls to maintain
the chemical regimes.

A good monitoring system serves two functions.


(i)

It monitors so that the water and steam meet prescribed chemical limits.

(ii)

It detects contaminate entering the system thus aiming.

PAGE 33
-

To keep track of performance of individual parts of the plant and hence the plant
as a whole.

Prevention of failure by early diagnosis.

To achieve a high standard of reliability and maximum plant availability.

To identify the causes in the event of failure from the recorded data.

2.2.4

Since the plant availability is a function of the quality of the working fluid viz
water/steam, the plant operators require continuous information about the plant in
respect of the following.
-

The foundation of protective layer and the inhibition of corrosion between the
condenser and the boiler inlet.

The growth and preservation of the protective layer and avoiding of deposits and
corrosion in the boiler.

2.2.4.1

The prevention of deposits on the turbine blades.

The ability of condenser material to withstand the corrosion.


Me choice of parameters to provide the above information depends upon.
1)

The type of steam generator

2)

Recommendations from equipment suppliers.

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3)

System metallurgy

4) Oprating conditions and they should take care of:


- Operational safety and reliability
- Providing information about long term performance - For any specific research
purposes.
2.2.4.2

In order to ensure the above, the sampling system must be well designed to have a
representative sample. In the case of contaminents, multiple sampling system should
pin point problem such as condenser leakage, contamined make up

PAGE 34
water, or substances being picked up from interior components. in general sampling
should be taken from all major fluid containing components like:
-

Cooling system

Make up water

Steam generating system

Condenser system

Fig. 2.1 gives the modern water/steam Analysers and their possible locations. Table
given in next page also lists out the various instrumentation in the water/ steam circuit.

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PAGE 35

Table 2: Power Plant Water Analysis


Sample

Conduc Cation

Point

tivity

pH Sodium Oxygen Turbi Hydra- Silica %H 2 in

Conduc-

Na

(02)

tivity
Hot well

zine

(S102) Steam

N20H4

Condensate Pump

Deaerater inlet

Deaerator outlet
Economiser inlet

dity

*
*

.Boiler Drum
Blow Down

Main Steam

2.2.4.3 Apart from, the above on line analysis, periodic laboratory analysis ?[re carried in
some cases for iron, copper, phosphates and ammonia. Laboratory analysis are also
carried out to calibrate on line instruments.
The control ranges for on-line instrument will be such that, they will give good
response at normal operating concentrations and at the same time they will be able to
indicate abnormal concentrations. In some cases instruments with multiple ranges are
used. Table 3. gives lists of typical instrument ranges need in power plants.

Table 3. Instrument Ranges


Required Parameter

Normal Operating

Typical Instrument

Range

Range

Condensate/Feed Water
Conductivity
Cation conductivity

<10 Mhos

0-100 * Mhos (NL)

<0.5 Mhos

0-5 * Mhos (NL)

pH

8.8-9.6

7-11

Sodium

<5 PPb

0-10 PPb

Silica

<7 PPb

0-10 PPb

Turbidity

<10 PPb

Hydrazine N2H2

<30 PPb 0-1

Dissolved Oxygen

<5 PPb

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0-1 Pm (M.R)
00 PPb
0-50 PPb

PAGE 36
Steam Generator
Conductivity

<100 Mhos

Cation Conductivity

0-1000 * Mhos

9-10.5

6-14

Cation Conductivity

< 0.1 Mhos

0-1 * Mhos (NL)

Silica

< 3 PPb

0. 1 0 PPb

Super Heated Steam

NL - Non Linear: M.R. Multirange.


2.2.5.

PARAMETERS BEING MEASURED AND THEIR IMPORTANCE


On-line analysis of number of parameters are essential by automatic instrumentation.
The following few are the most important among them.

2.2.6.1

SODIUM

Sodium measurement is more selective than the conductivity measurements to detect the
condenser leakage. Condenser leakage adds to the system specific corrosives such as
Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Chloride. Therefore it is essential that an immediate
indication is given of any condenser leak so that the Chemist and operator can take the
necessary action to combat the unwanted impurities which enter the condenser and
subsequently the feed and the boiler waters. The chemist will probably inject additional
treatment chemicals to minimize the effects of the impurities and the operator will be told
by the shift charge engineer to commence boiler blow down.
In modern power stations, the sensitive method of detecting condenser leaks is to
measure and compare the concentration of sodium in the steam which will be negligible
and in the condensate (also negligible under favourable conditions). When either a
condenser leakage occurs or impurities enter through other sources, sodium enters the
system and increase the concentration in the condensate relative to that in the steam.
Sodium salts are extremely soluble and can cause severe boiler and turbine corrosion.
Sodium is therefore measured in:
PAGE 37
(a)

Saturated Steam
The level of sodium after the boiler and before the super heater indicates the amount . of
carry over from the boiler and can be used to decide.
-

The operative boiler water level.

Anti foam dose rates

The load on the boiler.

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(b)

Condensate
The measurement is carried out at the extraction pump discharge point, to check the
ingress of cooling water in to the condensate.

Method of Measurement
Sodium is measured by electro chemical method. Where a selective sodium ion
electrode is immersed in the sample-which has previously been conditioned along to
a pH > 10with a reference electrode. Sample conditioning is necessary because
sodium glass electrodes are not perfectly specific sensors but are subject to
interference by other ions most truble some being hydrogen ion. Low level sodium
measurements, therefore, require that the [H+] of the sample water be adgusted to a
level several orders of magnitude below the level of sodium.

For this gaseous

ammonia is used to adjust the pH of the sample water. The potential developed
across these electrodes is a measure of sodiumi-on concentration and when connected
to a pH meter, it makes it possible to measure sodium in ppb level. Fig. 2.2 shows a
typical measuring system.
The unit of measurement is ppb (parts per billion) which is the same as Q gm/ litre or
parts per 101.
2.2.5.2 SILICA
Silica (SiO is one of the main constituents of sandy and clay soils. Water which
PAGE 38
has percolated through these soils tends to pick up silica and unfortunately this is not be
removed easily. Silica is sli ghtly soluble in steam and this makes it unwelcome in power
station water because it can be carried from boiler to turbine where it will tend.to deposit
on the turbine blades. The higher the operating pressure and temperature, the. greater the
solubility of the silica, so that less silica can be tolerated in higher pressure boilers than in
lower pressure boilers as shown in the Fig. 2.3.
The concentration of silica in boiler water must, therefore be kept as low as possible. For
example as the graph shows boiler operating at 1 10 bar can tolerate a silica level of 1.2
ppm where as 145 bar boilers can tolerate only 0.4 ppm silica.
Once silica has entered a boiler water it can be removed only by blow down.
Silica which enters the boiler poses a problem to the power generation due to its tendency
to build up in the boiler tubes thus impeding their efficiency or in extre me
casescausingme chanical failure. To minimise the risk of reduced operating efficiency,

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water

is

treated

before

use

in

boiler.

As

complete

removal

is

notpossible,silicabuildupoccurs in boiler and on turbine blades.

LIM175 OF SILICA CONCEN-RRAIIONS


F i 9.-2.3
Turbine spin at 3000 rpm to generate 50 Hz power. In modern day turbine the tip of the
blades at this speed will rotate at a velocity equal to twice thatof sound inside the
clearances of the order of a millimetre. When deposit occurs over the blades, these
clearances are hampered with and turbine looses efficiency also unbalance is created
developing vibrations leading to failure of the turbine blades.
PAGE 39
In order to trace the passage Of silica through the system, it is monitored at the following
points.
(a) Boiler Water
To check the silica levels in the boiler drum and to effect the blow down.
(b) Saturated Steam
To get the final silica level being carried to turbine. This guides the boiler operation
like
- Bloiv down
- Boiler load control
2.2.5.2.1 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

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On line silica analyser is an automated version of the molybdenum blue calorimetric


method in which the intensity of colour developed by, adding reagents to the sample is m.
easured photometricaly to give an indication of the concentration of silica in the sample.
Because the colour reaction takes time to develop fully, the analyser is not a continuous
monitor, but operates on a cycle time of 12 minutes i.e. a fresh sample is abstracted and
analysed every 12 minutes and the electronic readou t system'holds' the result of the
analys is until the neat cycle is performed and updates the result. The measuring system
is shown in fig. 2.4 and the working principles areiiscussed below.
PAGE 40

PAGE 41

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The analysis of trace concentrations of silica is based on the successive reaction of


selected reagents with the reactive silica as in the molybdenum blue method. Theoptical
density of the resulting reaction product is measured photometrically at 790 mm.
The sample from a constant head source is passed through the heat exchanger and then
divided into two streams, one for the actual silica analysis and the other for reference
purposes. The two sample streams and the four reagents are proportional continuously by
a multi channel peristaltic pump into the analysis cycle in the required volumes. The
sample passes through in a series of mixing chambers and delay coils. The reagents join
the mixing chambers and subsequent reactions take place in the chambers or associated
delay coils. This ensures that each reaction is completed before the solution reaches the
next stage.
The sequences of reactions are as under:
1.

Silica traces from the sample react with ammonium molyb date to form the yellow
silico-molybdic acid complex. The time duration for this reaction is 5 minutes.

2.

Oxalic,. acid suppresses interference by phosphate and aids colour development.


The time duration for the reaction is 30 seconds.

3.

Reduction of silico-molybdic acid by ferrous ammonium sulphate to the intensely


blue coloured silico-molybdenum blue complex.

The time of reaction is 60

seconds.
There sulting solution reactes the sample cuvette fully temperature equilibrated and
colour development completed. To ensure that the reference solution and sample reach
their respective cuvettees simultaneously and at the same temperature, the reference
solution is routed via two delay coils equivalent to all delays including mixing chambers
on the sample side.
OPTICAL SYSTEM
Two matched silicon photo calls are situated symmetrically about a quartz halogen light
source. Light of a suitable band of wavelengths is selected by a pair of gelatine cut off
filters, one in each light path. The sample cuvette is situated in the right-hand beam with
the reference cuvette in the left-hand
PAGE 42
ration in which a signal related to the beam. This gives true double beam opesilica
concentration is generated by the imbalance in the outputs of the two photocells. This
arises from the difference in optical densities in the 790 nm region of the chemically
treated sample and the untreated reference solution.
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Zeroing is achieved by automatically off-setting the slight imbalance of the outputs from
the photocells obtained when the liquid handling system is operating in the blanking
mode. In this mode the solution passing through the sample cuvette has had the reagents
added in such a sequence that any silica in them produces a colouration, but colour
development due to silica in the sample is precluded.
2.2.5.3

DISSOLVED OXYGEN

Corrosive substances are in the form of acids in solutions or as dissolved gases like
carbon-di-oxide, oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia etc. Carbon dioxide and oxygen
are dissolved in the feed water due to air ingress under vacuum or through leaking steam
under pressure.

These two. gases can cause many t . roubles in a power station

particularly in the feed system and boiler.


Dissolved oxygen hastens the corrosion when present where metal is in contact with a
solution by setting up electro chemical reaction as given
2Fe + 02 + 2H20

> 2Fe (OH)2

Dissolved oxygen affects the plant and leads to plant failure in a number of ways.
-

It attacks the protecting oxide coating.

It will remove the copper and iron from the feed pipe line which will be deposited
in the boiler leading to efficiency loss, overheating and ultimate failure.

Uneven distribution of oxygen in water sets up electro chemical action leading to


severe pitting.

In order to avoid the above reactions and damage, the oxygen level should be restricted
to minimum possible. There are a number of methods both mechanical
PAGE 43
and chemical available to remove the oxygen dissolved in water. In power stations
depending upon the design of the unit, these methods are employed and deaeration is
done in three stages.
2.2.5.3.1

DEAERATION IN THE CONDENSER

Make-up water is fed to the condenser in the form of spray into the condenser above the
water level allowing very large surface area to be in contact with condenser vacuum.
This makes the deaeration very efficient here the water is deaerated to a level less than 0.
01 5 ppm. However leakage through glands etc. hampers with this level.
2.2.5.3.2.

DEAERATION IN DEAERATOR

Steam is blown into a deaerator and the feed water is sprayed in the atmosphere of steam.
The steam reduces the partial pressure of the gases above the water and thus makes the
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gases less soluble in water and are swept away. An efficient deaerator can reduce the
concentration of dissolved oxygen level less than 0.005PPM.
2.2.5.3.3 CHEMICAL DEARATION
Mechanical deaeration, discussed above cannot alone keep the oxygen or carbon di-oxide
concentrations to an acceptable level in a modern power plant. Chemical deaeration is
also required not only to remove or neutralise the gases that have escaed mechanical
deaeration but also to cope with those gases that enter the system through the leakages or
as a result of poor operation of condenser or deaerator.
In modern stations liquid. chemical called Hydrazine (N 2 H 4) is used to remove the
oxygen from the feed water. This chemical is closed at the outlet of deaerator. The
following reaction takes place.
N 2H 4 + 02

> N2 + H20

N2and H20 are harmless components for boiler.

Surplus Hydrazine if present will

decompose into Ammonia


PAGE 44
3N 2H 4 ------------> 4NH3 + N2. Amonia and hydrazine by on-line analysers.
Dissolve oxygen measurement is done for:
- Protecting equipment against corrosion
- Determining the effectiveness of non-condensible gas removal system 1 air leakage
- Detecting the hot wel
Operating Principle.
The analytical module samples the water and introduces a controlled flow into a galvanic
cells consisting of a silver cathode, a lead anode and a gas permeable but is impermeable
to liquids. The membrane which allows oxygen to pass ensuing electrode reaction (oxygen
reduction) generates a DC-current, the magnitude of which is directly proportional to the
oxygen concentration. The built-in meter provides for readout in ppb of oxygen.
PAGE 45

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PAGE 46

Flow Diagram
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The sample water enters the analyzer at the bottom of the analytical module. One part
passes through. the Faraday calibration system, the other enters the oxygen measuring
cell by first passing a constant head overflow device.
The sample water fills the overflow cup to the level of the overflow, tube; the excess
exits the sampler through the overflow tube and is led to waste. The sample flow is
adjusted with a needle valve to adjust overflow to the overflow cup at a constant rate.
The cup is designed to accommodate most sample pressure fluctuation normally
encountered.

The height of the overflow tube may be adjusted, thus providing for

different rates of flow to the, oxygen measuring cell.


Sample water which has passed the oxygen cell is drained through a cell drain tube at the
bottom of the analytical -module.

PAGE 47
Oxygen Measuring Cell
The design of the sensor is based on a galvanic cell consisting of a silver cathode, a lead
anode, and a gas permeable membrane which allows oxygen to pass, but is impermeable
to water as well as any potentially interfering. The cell reactions are:
Anode:

Anodic oxidation of lead

2Pb.+40H 2Pbo + 2H20 + 4e


Cathode:

Cathodic reduction of oxygen

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02+ 2H20 + 4e 40H


The silver cathode is separate 'd from the sample solution by a gas permeable membrane
through which the oxygen diffuses prior to being cathodically reduced. The cell current
thus generated is linearly proportional to the oxygen concentration.
A Faraday cell serves to calibrate the system internaly. If supplied with a constant
current (supply built into the electronic unit) a known concentration of oxygen will be
generated, which is used to calibrate the analyzer. The calibration requires approx. 5
minutes to complete.
Alternately, water saturated with oxygen may serve to calibrate the system since the
measuring cell response is linear within zero to saturation (8400 ppb 02/250C.. at sea
level).

PAGE 48

Operating Principle
The analytical module samples the water and introduces a controlled flow into a polarographic measuring cell consisting of a platinum anode and a silver cathode. The cell
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voltage thus generated causes a current to flow which is proportional to the hydrazine
concentration in the sample water. This output is processed by solidstate circuit in the
Electronic Module, and a builtin meter provides a readout in ppb.
Measuring Cell The hydrazine measuring eTI1 is a mass transport, limited amperometric
galvanic cell consisting of an outer platinum anode aryd an inner silver/silver oxide
cathode separated by a porous ceramic tube.

The cell voltage generated by the.

electrodes causes a current to flow in accordance to the following cell reactions


Anode:

N2H4 + 4OH 4H2O + 4e + N2

Cathode:

2Ag2O+2H2O+4e

4Ag + 4OH

PAGE 49

Dissolved oxygen is measured continuosly at the following points:


Deaerator inlet

- To check efficiency of deaeration Deaerator outlet

Economiser inlet

- To check the performance of the oxygen scavenging reagent

Condensate pump discharge

- To check for leakage

Measuring System
Dissolved oxygen is measured by any one of the following methods
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i)

Conductometric methods

ii)

Amperometric method requiring external polarising voltage

iii) Galv,4nometric type self polarising


All the above methods work on electro-chemical cell principles and involves lot of
maintenance. A typical Galvanic cell dissolved oxygen analysis most commonly used, is
discussed below and the details are given in the fig. 2.5 &2.6
2.2.5.4

HYDRAZINE MEASUREMENT

Hydrazine concentration is measured as in sufficient quantity leads to corrosion and


excess is wasteful. Hydrazine is measured at the economizer inlet. Modern power
stations use automatic chemical dosing base on this measurement.
PAGE 50
The passage of current causes formation of hydroxyl ions and silver at the cathode, and a
depletion of hydrazine and hydroxyl ions at the anode. The current is limited by the rate
at which hydrazine diffuses to the anode. This rate of diffusion is a proportional measure
of the hydrazine concentration. At pH values greater than 8.5 (which is the case in most
power stations) the cell is essentially insensitive to pH variations, therefore, the addition
of NAOH is unnecessary.
2.2.5.5

Conductivity
Conductivity and cationic conductivity indicate concentrations of treatment Chemicals
and contaminants in the system.
This is still the simplest and most reliable measurement and is therefore employed
widely. The analysers permit the identification of sources of contaminants so that the
operators can take corrective action. The conductivity measurement can be used as a
direct control signal for the ammonia chemical feed pumps.

It is used to give the

measurement of the total concentration of ionic spe@s (and therefore impurities) -in
solution. Where ammonia or volatile amines are present like in condensate or feed water,
conductivity is increased not only by unwanted impurities but also from treatment
chemicals added deliberately. In such cases conductivity is measured after passing the
sample through cation exchange columns which remove the ammonium ion, the high
conductivity of which masks the presence of other species and also increase the
sensitivity of the reading.

Conductivity is measured at:


a)

Economiser inlet

to cheek the quality of the feed water

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b)

Boiler drum

to indicate the need for blow down

c)

Saturated steam

to indicate the degree of carry over

to detect condenser leaks

d)

Condenser outlet

e)

Extraction pump discharge

to detect condenser leaks

PAGE 51
2.2.5.5.1 METHOD OF MEASUREMENT
Conductivity is 'a measure of electrical resistance. A conductivity cell used to measure
water purity, consists of two electrodes immersed in the water.

The electrodes are

connected externally to an electrical supply and meter. if the ,Water contains a large
amount of impurities, the current is easily conducted through the water and the electrical
resistance, therefore is low.

The current is conducted between the electrodes of a

conductivity cell by ions from the impurities in the water. The ions present, the higher
the conductivity indication. A conductivity m eter is calibrated in micro siemens which
are reciprocals of meg ohms. Conductivity is proportional to resistance. Relatively pure
water has high resistance and therefore low conductivity.

Impure water has low

resistance and therefore high conductivity.


Sea water gives a conductivity indication of about 50,000 micro Siemens where as
condensate should give less than 0.3 micro Siemens.

Construction of Cells
The electrodes may be made of platinum. gold or carbon and the cell and electrode
insulation made of glass, plastic, vulcanite or ceramic.

Types of cells
The cells are constructed as per the requirement like, Insection cell (Dip cell, Scre in cell,
withdrawable cell), Flow in cell, Submersible cell, & Beaker cell etc.

Insertion Cell
The whole assembly is inserted in the pipe line carrying the liquid or gas, usually through
a pressure@ type gland and shut off valve to expedite easy withdrawal. the sealing
material if ceramic or some materials that will stand moderately high temperatures or
pressures (a maximum of 95C & 15 kg/cm respectavely.

For low temperature and

pressure or corrosive. fluids the cell 1 usually encased in glass.


PAGE 52

Continuous Flow Cells


The cell is arranged in a bye- pass so that a continues sample is passed through it and is
returned to the pipeline Fig. 2.9 show the cut section of a flow cell.
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PAGE 53

Submersible Cells
This type is submerged in open tanks.
Pressure reducing valves and water coolers may be installed when the cell design does
not permit direct connection with imersion into the fluid to its excessive temperature and/
or pressure.

Beaker cells
These cells are basically laboratory type where sample is collected and electrodes sense
the conductivity.

Measuring Instruments
There are different types of measuring instruments deferring mainl y in their measuring
circuits. The most commonly used circuits are described below

Conductivity Transmitters Type


In this type, a fixed voltage (A/C) is applied to the conductivity cell. the current which
varies with the conductivity of the sample with which the cell is in contact causes a
voltage drop in the range resistor R 42-5 (Ref Fig. 2.10) which is amplified to operate the
meter.

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PAGE 54
Temperature correction is made by varying the feed back of the circuit through a
resistance thermometer which senses the sample temperature.

Bridge circuits/potentiometer
The other type of circuit is either bridge or a potentiometer. Fig. 2.11 (a) shows the basic
bridge circuit.

The indicator may be either a milliameter or a self balancing

potentiometer.

In oder to provide for temperature compensation, the register R3is

replaced by a reference cell as shown in Fig. No 2.1 1 (b) & Fig no. 2.11(c) shows the
basic potentiometer circuit used for conductivity measurement.

TYPICAL A.C. BRIDGE CIRCUIT FOR CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT 2. 1.1,&PAGE 55

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TYPICAL A. C. POTENTIOMETRIC CIRCUIT FOR CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT


FIG. 2.11 (c)

PAGE 56
2.2.5.6 pH MEASUREMENT
pH is a measure of Hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. It is the negative log to the
base ten of Hydrogen ion presence.

Thus it measures the acidity/ alkalinity of the

solution under test. In most boiler systems, chemicals are added to the feed water to
control the pH (acidity/alkalinity) and remove oxygen. Typically,. pH is maintained on
the alkaline side at about 8.8-9.5 to prevent the acidic attacks on system tubes and pipes.
pH also gives indication about the leakage of acids forming contaminants into the system,
so the pH measurement is critical. The chemicals feed pump can be directly driven from
feed water pH measurement instead of conductivity signal.
In normal practice, copper alloy tubes are used in condenser and L.P. heaters while H.P.
heaters are fitted with carbon steel tubes. Carbon steel requires a mildly alkaline, pH of
about 9.5 for best heater operation; where as for the life of the non-ferrous metal tubes
the pH should be between 8.6 to 9.0. Thus for a system having both ferrous and nonferrous metal tubes a compromise value of pH around 9.2 is recommended. If stainless
steel is used instead of carbon steel, then feed,lieaters can be operated at a pH compatible
with copper base alloy (i.e. around 9.5).
It is important to minimise the corrosion rate of copper base alloys in steam system
because copper picked up by the feed water in condensers and feed water heaters later
plates out on boiler tubes and on turbine parts. This sets up galvanic cells with-ferrous
alloys, causing local corrosion of heater and turbine components.
Therefore a close measurement and control of pH is essential to avoid acid attack on
ferrous components or alkaline attack on non-ferrous components. Further the stable
build up of the protective magnetite layer is also dependent on the chemical condition
prevailing. Modern power station requires to measure this parameter to an accuracy of *
0.05 within a 0.2 pH band.
2.2.5.6.1

MEASURING SYSTEM

pH is measured by determining he e.m.f. produced by electrolytic action between two


electrodes immersed in the solution, this e.m.f being directly
PAGE 57
proportional to the hydrogen ion concentration. The two electrodes can be in one unit
or two separate units. One cell the active cell usually made out of glass produces a
voltage which is proportional to the hydrogen ion concentration. A second cell is used
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for reference purposes, the reference cell is generally made with calomel, which is a
compound of mercury. The electrodes together with the liquid form a very high
impedance cell developing a potential proportional to the pH. The measurement of
this potential poses a problem, since the current taken from the cell must be no more
than a few electrons per second. Special secondary instruments having very high input
impedance are used for pH meters to minimise the current draws through. The circuit
Fig. 2.12 shows a pair of electrodes connected to a measuring circuit proper shielding
and grounding also are essential for satisfactory performance.

PROPER SHILDING AND GROUNDING ARE BOTH ESSENTIAL TO SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE


pH MEASURING SYSTEM
Fig. 2.12

2.2.5.6.2

SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION

In most of the power stations, it will be a common scene that analysers have been
abandoned or are in disuse. The major problems with analysers are associated
PAGE 58
with their sampling and sample conditioning system. In recent years since the role
played by analysers grew to a greater proportion, a much dependable sampling and
sample conditioning system had to be developed and put into use.

ELECTRODES:
Reference Electrode
Reference Electrode is designed to be insensitive as for as possible to all ions. Ideally, its
potential should be the same regardless of the solution in which it is placed as ionic
measurements need a stable reference potential similar to thermocouple which needs a
cold junction; for correct temp measurements.

There are two types of Reference

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Electrodes widely used in process work, Silver - Silver Chloride Electrode and Mercury Mercurous Chloride (Calomel) Electrode. Both are normally filled with the Potassium
Chloride solution. Fig. 2.13 shows the Reference Electrode referred above.

CALOMEL ELECTRODE

Reference Electrodes

PAGE 59

PAGE 60

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Silver - Silver Chloride Electrode:


The Silver - Silver Chloride Electrode consists of Silver wire coated with insoluble Silver
Chloride and placed in a Solution of Potassium Chloride.

The Potassium Chloride

solution is saturated with Silver Chloride to prevent the dissolution of the Silver Chloride
coating from the Silver wire. The electrical contact between the process solution and the
Potassum Chloride solution (the liquid junction) is made throuogh a porous tip. The
Silver - Silver Chloride is itself an ion-selective Electrode.

Mercury - Mercurous Chloride (Calomel) Electrode


This Electrode consists of a layer of mercury covered with the paste of Mercury
Mercurous Chloride (Calomel) and Potassium Chloride all in contact with the solution
saturated both in Potassium Chloride and Mercurous Chloride.

Liquid junction Potential


When two solutions of differet composition are brought into contact, their ions tend to
diffuse from the concentrated into the dilute solution. However, different ions tend to
diffuse at different rates - this characteristics is known as 'Ionic Mobility'. The difference
in diffusion between cation and anion develops a charge known as the liquid junction
potential. In every ion measuring system containing a liquid junction, this potential must
be taken into account. Potassium Chloride solution has been ' chosen as a filling solution
for refernce electrodes because the mobilisation of Kt and CL ions are nearly identical.
Liquid Junction Potential can be eliminated by using a Reference Electrode without a
liquid junction or by using a salt bridge wif h the filling solution the same as the process
solution. When a reference Electrode is combined in a circuit with a sensitive measuring
electrode, a voltage difference is developed;
E = Emeas - -ERef +Ej
If the junction potential is significant, the electrodes may be standardised in a buffer more
nearly representative of the process solution.
PAGE 61

Ion Selective Electrodes/Measuring Electrodes


Ion selective electrodes or the measuring electrodes are constructed from specially
formulated glass membranes that responds to, ions by means of an exchange of mobile
ions within the membranestructure.Fig2.14 and the internal reference electrode. The
membrane shows the construction of the conventional ion selective pH electrode
identifying the three components essential to such electrodes; the membrane the internal
filling solution is fused to glass body so that the outer surface makes contact with the
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process while the inner surface makes contact with the internal filling solution. The later
contains a constant activity of the hydrogen while the process solution contains an
unknown activity of the same ion. Changes in the membrane potential are proportional to
changes in'the process pH. The change is measured by providing a stable electrical
connection with the internal solution.

MEASURING ELECTRODE
FIG. 2.14

PAGE 62
Most analysers today are relatively fragile instruments.

Therefore, they are being

mounted on a panel located in a central location. All samples are brought to this location.
Since many of these sampling points will be far frontal central analyser panel proper
velocity of sample flow is being ensured by right selection of sample pipe size and the lag
time is limited within 60 secs.
The sample flow is indicated by panel mounted rotameter and controlled by regulating
valve. Also the samole pressure is brought down to less than 1 0 kg cm' by means of
pressure regulators. All samples are cooled before analysis. The samples are cooled in
two stages, first by roughing cooler to below 550C located conventionally near the
sample point and then by precision coolers in selected cases. The roughing coolers use
clarified !circulating water for cooling purposes and no temperature control devices are
used. These coolers are designed on basis flow rate, temperature and heat transfer data.
The precision coolers use chilled water and the sample temperature is, closely monitored
and controlled through contact thermometers/thermostats which cause to operate solenoid
valves and safety plugs for controlling the cooling water flow and to cut off the sample
from the analyser in case of excessive temperature respecti vely. Further the change in
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sample temperature affects the measurement accuracy. Many industrial analysers are
provided with built;in temperature compensating circuits.
Sampling system is being designed to have minimum wastage' After analysing the
sample, provisions are made to let them to t@ system (i.e. condensate) if there is no
additive chemicals used in the analyser as catalysts. Some analysers particularly, the
conductivity meter and PH meter are used with multiple samples so that the operators are
able to pinpoint the source of almost any problem.
2.3

GAS ANALYSERS

2.3.1

INTRODUCTION
Fuel accounts for 90% cost of electricity generation. Therefore it is the demand of the
day to burn the fuel efficiently and utilise the heat.. thus released effectively without
wastage. The flue gas analysers indicate the status of combustion and thus play a major
role in modern power plants where huge amount of coal is being burnt every hour to
moinitor the combustion.

PAGE 63
2.3.2

COMBUSTION MONITORING INSTRUMENTS


Fuel requires adequate amount of air to provide the required oxygen to burn the
combustibles completely. A combustible like carbon which is a major constituent (32%529o) of coal, if supplied with adequate oxygen burns to catbon-di-oxide (COZ) and
release 33940 KJ/Kg amount of heat if the oxygen is insufficient it will burn carbon
ntoiio oxide and release only 10120 Kjl kg amount of heat thus incurringa 70% lossin
heat release. It is, there fore, essential to provide excess amount of air to ensure the
required oxygen for combustion. The excess air beyond stipulated limits also causes
efficiency-losses due the fact that in the air supplied onlv oxygen (i.e. 20.9% volume
only) takes part in the combustion and the rest inirt 79-.1-% Nitrogen gas which enters
the boiler at the ambient condition and leaves the boiler at a very high temperature carries
away the heat. In addition excess air also requires extra fan power and leads to super
heater temperature control problems. In order to keep all these losses a minimum and
improve upon the boiler availability, boiler is to be operated with optimum amount of
excess air necessitating a close monitoring and control of combustion.
Combustion conditions are monitored by:
-

A meter to measure the amount of carbon-di-oxide in flue gas (the operator


keeping the reading as high as lie can)
or

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A meter measuring the amount of oxygen in the flue gas (the operator keeping the
reading as low as he can without generating smoke)
or

A meter measuring the carbon monoxide (the operator'aiming for a lowest reading
or

A n-teter showing the smoke density.

PAGE 64
2.3.2.1 SMOKE
It has been the practice till recent times to adjust the combustion air on seeing the colour
of the smoke. Special provisions were made in some units for directly viewing the
chimney smoke from the control room. Abad combustion generates smoke. But this was
found to be a crude way of assessing the combustion since there were no reliable
instrumentation for this and the human eyes sense the smoke colour on a logrithmic scale.
Therefore the modern day boilers rely on the measurement of any one of the flu 2 gas
constituents like C02%, 02% or CO%, the values of which provide the necessary
information to analysers and assess the quality of combustion. Any of the components
mentioned, individually or collectively can be a guide to optimum combustion with
varying degrees of suitability. The selection of the component of flue gas for combustion
assessment is based on the following CO nsiderations.
i)

The availability of proven, simple, measuring techniq ues and instruments to


provide a reasonably reliable fast response of the change in the components.

ii)

The components possessing; an unambigous correlation to the combustion


conditions, i.e. the percentage of selected component corresponds to a definite
quantity of excess/insufficient air for the combustion.

iii)

The components should essentially be independent of fluctuations in the


composition of the fuels.

2.3.2.2

CARBON-DI-OXIDE (C02)

Monitoring of carbon-di-oxide as a guide the combustion has been in vogue for a long
time.
When a fuel such as coke (having no hydrogen) is used and exactly the right amount of
combustion airis admitted the flue gas generated will contain exactly 21%C02by volume
being the percentage of oxygen in air. But many of ordinary fuels contain hydrogen
which combines with part of the oxygen in the air and form ssteam. This condenses and

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does not appearin the gas analysis. Thus, even without excess air the percentage of CO
2 will be less than the theoretical maximum of 21
PAGE 65
In practice about 12% to 15% will be the best obtainable percentage when ordinary
bituminous coal is used owing largely to the fact that complete intimate mixture of the
fuel and air never takes place. The admission of e@cess air will not affect the actual
volumes of CO 2 percentage will fall and the presence of the excess air will be
immediately shown by the reading of the C02 meter.
In the recent time, the boiler combustion technology based on CO monitoring has
witnessed a decline in its importance as a guide to a combustion due to the following
reasons.
i)

The CO concentration is ambigious since the same concentration can occur for
two different values of air quantity, one under insufficient air and the other under
excessive air. This happens so because the peak concentration of the CO occurs
when the ratio

Actual air supplied


Stoichiometrically required amount of air

PAGE 66

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1 as given by the
curve 1 of Fig. 2.15

ii)

The percentage of CO, in the flue gas definitely depends upon the type of fuel and
its composition being burnt.

The variation in hydrocarbons will change the

percentage of C02 in flue gases as shown by the corresponding curves in Fig. 2.16.

For coal combustion with 40% excess air produces about 15% C02
For oil combustion with excess air <40% produces about 16% C02
For gas combustion with excess air <40% produces about 12% CO2
iii)

The measurement of CO2 suffers a7 great deal in accuracy with the presence of
hydrogen and S021 since the thermal conductivity of both these gases vary in
amount and direction.
These shortcomings make the C02% quite inadequate for the determination.

However the most efficient percentage of CO2will vary


The hydrogen carbon ratio
PAGE 67
-

The physical condition of the fuel

The volume of combustion chamber / grate area relation

The method of firing

The available draft

2.3.2.2.1

METHOD OF MEASUREMENTS

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Orsart apparatus is the chemists instrument for determining the CO2 % along with other
flue gas components like Co and O2. In this apparatus a sample gas is drawn by means of
a hand bulb. The apparatus as shown in Fig. 2.17 consists of a water cooled measuring
cylinder and three absorption bottles containing chemicals namely.

PAGE 68
Bottle A containing potassium hydroxide solution to absorb C02
Bottle B containing an alkaline pyrogallol solution to absorb 0 2
Bottle C containing acid cuprous chloride solution to absorb CO.
After passing the sample through the individual bottles, the sample is brought to the
measuring for which shows the amount of the gas component absorbed by the chemical
and thus determining the percentage volume of C02' CO and O2'
2.3.2.2.2. ON-LINE ANALYSER
The'on-line analyser works on the principle of thermal conductivity. The measuresof
how well a substance conductsheat is called its the rmalconductivity. If the thermal
conductivity of a mixture of two gases is know it is possible to calculate the ratio of
each gas. Flue gas consists of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide (all having thermal
conductivities of the same order) together with carbon-di-oxide having different thermal
conductivity. The mixture behaves as if it were a mixture of two gases and if the
thermal conductivity is measured, the fraction, of carbon-di-oxide present can be
determinist. @e measuring system is a wheat stone bridge with two of its arms made of
platinum wires fixed on metal blocks.

One wire is surrounded by the gas being

measured. The other wire is sealed in a 'reference gas. Both the wires are heated by the
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bridge supply.'ffie temperature of the wires and in turn their resistances will depend
upon the cooling effect of the gases. Thus the unbalance created is measured by a
galvanometer calibrated in temperature scale.
The presence of an unknown amount of water vapour will cause errors in the reading.
The sample and reference gas should therefore be either both dry or both saturated with
wafer.
2.3.2.3 OXYGEN IN FLUE GAS
As has been discussed under section 2.3.2 for complete combustion of a fuel certain
amount of theoritcal oxygen is required & to assure the complete combustion time
required is infinite. In a practical furnace, however combustion must take.place in the
shortest possible time for maximum burning efficiency.

So extra oxygen must be

supplied in the form of excess air to accelerate the combustion process. As all the
oxygen is not required some is discharged in the flue gases and a measure of this excess
oxygen concentration is a measure of the efficiency of combustion in the furnace.
However, in the interest of fuel economy there is a limit. to the amount of excess air
which should be supplied as the stack losses then become excessive. Hence,the lower the
reading of the 01, meter, the less heat is being wasted by excess air.
PAGE 69
The O2 % is found tobe a favourable component for combustion guide as it doe.@, not
dei"nd upon th fuel composition. It has a q ' iiite linear characteristic with the excess
air. It has a very consistent relation with th@ excess air, almost for all composition of
fuel as evidenced corresponding curves in Fig. 2.11.
Yet, as the trend towards greater efficiencies continued, another parameter was required
as a complementary tothe excess oxygen measurement. This was so due to the following
limitations of oxygen analysis.
-

Various burners different conditions and loads burning oil, gasor solid fuel require
different levels of excess air to give complete comt)ustion. Thus the important
question is "what level of oxygen is required"?

Since boilers operate with negative combustion chamber pressure a certain amount
of air ingress is inevitable. This air ingress causes direct and serious errors in
oxygen measurement.

At low excess air levels, small changes in oxygen level is undetectable and thus
the control becomes less sensitive.

2.3.2.3.1 METHOD. OF MEA9UREMENT


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Conveniently oxygen isbeingmeasured utilising the fact thatoxygen is the only


constituent in flue gas that has paramagnetic property (i.e. attracted into a megnetic
field).
The magnetic wind principle on which the measurement is done is s own in Fig. 2.18.

PAGE 70
The flue gas sample flows round the annular chamber, across which is mounted a thin
glass tube carrying a platinum winding through which a current is passed to heat the
tube. The winding is centre tapped, each half forming one arm of a wheat stone
bridge. The left half winding is subjected to a strong magnetic field produced by a
permanent magnet. The gas sample containing oxygen is attracted into the field at the
left hand and of the cross tube; the velocity being proportional to the oxygen
concentration in the gas sample. This wind cools the left hand arm of the winding
more than the right hand arm causing the resistance of the left hand arm to be less than
the right hand arm. The resulting bridge unbalance is picked up by a self-balancing
potentiometric recorder indicator and the result appears as percentage oxygen.
The conventional oxygen analyser described above had the following drawbacks:
i) A costly and unreliable sampling and sample conditioning system involving lot of
maintenance.
ii)

Long time delay before the results are known.

iii)

Analysis was on the basis of'DRY'sample rather thanWET'or'TOTAL' sample.

A ne 'In-site' type instrument based on Zirconium oxide cell has come into practice
overcoming the drawbacks listed. This cell when inserted into the flue gas path develops a
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voltage across the two sides when each side is exposed to different oxygen concentration.
The phenomenon is described by the nearest equation.

Pl (O2)

RT
i.e. e.m.f.

LogN
4F

where e.m.f. =

P2,(O2)

cell output voltage

gas constant

Faradays constant

Pl (O2)

Reference air partial pressure

P2 (O2)

Sample gas partial pressure

Cell constant

Absolute temperature

PAGE 71
In practice , the temperature is maintained constant by a heater element and air (20.95%
oxygen) is used either through a pump or from instrument air supply as reference air;
then the output becomes inverse logarithm of the partial pressure of oxygen in the
measured gas, Fig. 2.19 shows the working of the system.

PAGE 72
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2.3.2.4

CARBON MONOXIDE

Because of the drawbacks already discussed, oxygen level can only tell the opeator what
the effidency level is , since the efficiency level is directly related to the excess air fed to
the combustion chamber. But carbonmono)dde provides the operator with a tool to obtain
m@mumo perating efficiency prebence . ble of carbon monoxide in apprecla~-quantities
is an indication of incomplete combustion. Thus, together, carbon monoxide and oxygen
provide the complete combustion status to the operation.
CO determines the level of attainable efficiency and oxygen measures it. In addition CO
measurement possesses the following advantages: ,
i)

The control point on the basis of CO level is unaffected by variation in boiler load,
design type, fuel type etc. which influence 0 2 level as shown in Fig. 2.20.

ii)

Inleakage air does not affect the measurement results since the CO level is of the
order of PPm. This feature provides an additional advantage having the measuring
point as late in the system where a favorable condition of flue gas exist. (i.e after I
' D. fan where cleaner and colder sample is available in a thoroughly mixed state
avoiding startification effect).

iii)

CO directly detects the maldistribution of combustion air by being present in


appreciable level even while having high level of excess oxygen.

iv)

As the curves at Fig. 2.15 and Fig 2.20 show, the CO measurement is quite
sensitive to small changes in air when operating near/below the theoretical air
level.

While operating: a boiler or furnace, the operator the CO should ensure that is kept to a
minimum level which typically is 100 PPm - 150 PPm.
2.3.2.4.1 METHOD:OF CO MEASUREMENT
The measurement principle utilizes the fact that hetero-atomic gases absorb infra-red
radiation at wave lengths

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PAGE 73
which are characteristic for each gas between 2.5 * and 12 0. Carbon monoxide is one of
such several gases that will absorb infra-red radiation of a particular wave length. The
amount of absorption depends on the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gas being
tested, so if the absorption is measured the percentage of carbon monoxide can be
determined.
Fig. 2.21 shows a typical.instrument. Radiation from two sources is passed through
parallel path; first through identical filter calles containing gases (such as carbon dioxide)
which might be present in the measured gas and that also absorb infra-radiation. Thus
both beams loose that frequency of radiation removed and the errros due to such cross
action is eliminated.

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PAGE 74
Then. one beam passes through a measuring cell contaning the sample and the other
passes through a reference cell filled with nitrogen, a non absorbing gas. The measuring
cell absorbs the radiation depending upon the CO level in the sample gas. The receiver
system then receives the beam from the two cells. The receiver is a chamber in two
parts divided by a membrance each containing pure carbon monoxide which absorbs the
radiation and so heats up thus increasing its pressure. If the two bezims of radiation are
uneaqual (due to carbon monoxide in the gas being measured) the pressures in the
receiver will be unequal, thus'causing the flexible metal diaphragm to move in relation
to the perforated plate. The two plates together form a capacitor.
The infra-red. beam is made intermittent by a rotating shutters. Thus the capacitor
alternates in value as the diaphragm moves in sympathy. A direct voltage is applied to
the capacitor and the resulting signal is amplified and fed to a recorder.

2.4

CHIMNEY EMISSIONS

2.4.1 INTRODUCTION
The problems of atmospheric pollution has been with us since the discovery of
fireandhasbeenintensifiedby theuseo@coal in thehome and in industry.

Since the

airborne pollution is in an ever-increasing range and also is considered to be 'Prejudicial


to health' almost all countries have enacted 'Clean Air Acts' in thdir Parliaments.
2.4.2 STATUTORY REGULATIONS

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Some countries have laid very stringent statutory regulations under this Act and the
industries are compelled to closely monitor and control the.pollution. Some of the
requirements are detailed below.
1.

Prohibition of emission of dark smoke from chimneys (or to specify periods


during which smoke be tolerated).

2.

No,furnace shall be installed in a boiler unless it is capable of being operated


continuously without emitting smoke when burning fuel of a type for which the
furnace was designed.

PAGE 75
3.

Emission of smoke and fine particles from each furnace shall be monitored
continuously and recorded by means of instruments agreed with the inspectorate.

4.

Furnaces burning P.F. or solid fuel in excess of 1 Tonne/hour (0.28 kg/ sec) shall
be provided with appartus for arresting grit and dust and have to be approved by
the authorities.

5.

For coal fired plants the discharges should not contain more than 0.2 grain/ftl)
10.46 g/m3) or total particulate matter. In some countries it is even limited to
0.05 gr/ft' (0.115 g/M3).

6,

Abnormal readings of monitors shall be drawn to the attention of plant


management immediately and appropriate actions taken to correct faults. Records
shall be made available for scrutiny by the inspector.

7.

The height of chimneys should take care of the effluent rate and background
pollution.

These and many more similar requirements demanded the fitting of pollution detecting
instruments and pollution arresting equipments. While fitting of instruments costs a
little, fitting of dust removing equipments can cost considerably more. In both these
cases, there may be very little or no return to the industrialist - only the knowledge that
the environment inside and outside the factory is cleaner.
2.4.3 POWER STATION POLLUTION
Thermal power stations take all reasonable steps to combat chimney emission by the
installation of efficient fuel burning plant, supported by efficient extraction apparatus. It
is also the intention to monitor continuously every power station chimney for dust and
dark smoke.
2.4.3.1NUISANCE OF POLLUTION
Smoke causes the following two types of nuisance.
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i)

Visible pollution by smoke, grit and dust.

PAGE 76
ii)

Pollution by invisible gases, the most harmful being sulphur dio-oxide.

2.4.3.1.1 SMOKE
The definition of smoke states that it consists of particles less than 1 micron in diameter
(0.001 mm = 1 micron). The particles consist chiefly of carbonaceous matter including
tar. It results from incomplete combustion.
2.4.3.1.2 GRIT AND DUST
Grit and dust particles are larger than smoke particles and may be classified arbitrarily
as follows,
Dust:

76 micron to 1 micron particle sizes

Grit:

Over 76 microns particle sizes

2.4.3.2 DUST AND SMOKE NUISANCE


Smoke and dust emissions cause health hazards and economical losses.
2.4.3.2.1 HEALTH HAZARDS
Dust may be a source of nuisance or it may contribute of cause loss of health, actualiury
and even deaths. Man's personal air filter ation

systems is some times ineffective

against fine dust and smoke.


Dusts greater in size i.e. above 76 microns are filtered out in the nose and will not
penetrate to the depths of the lung. Only particles which are less than about 5 micron in
size and scarecely noticeable are capable of reaching the alevoli. This division between
'respirable' and non respirable ranges at 5 microns is today widely recognised. It has
been experimentally established that the maximum retention in the alevoli occurs when
the inhaled particles are about
1.5 micron in diameter. The percentage retention falls when the size approaches
0.3 micron the retention again increases for still smaller size particles.
PAGE 77
Epidemiological studies have indicated thatthere is a correlation between high
concentrations of atmospheric pollution and niorbility and mortality amongst
chronicbronchitics. The ultimate progress of this disease is sensitive particularly in
winter, due to many stimuli of which smoke and dust being one.
Smoke and dust also obscure natural light and thus reducing resistance to injection and
retard recovery from illness. The psychological effects of reduced light and sunshile are
equally serious as physical effects.

The graveness, grin and gloom of a srnoky

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atmosphere have a depressing effect which the medical authorities consider as the most
detrimental aspects of smoke pollution.
2.4.3.2.2 ECONOMIC LOSSES
The following are the losses on the monetary side on account of pollution.
1.

Direct losses in terms of laundry for clothing, painting, corrosion depreciation of


buildings etc.

2.

Indirectlosses in Agriculture,Iessof workingefficiency absenteeisrnetc.

3. Loss in fuel due to incomplete combustion.


2.4.3.3EMISSION ESTIMATION
The stack emission in a power station has a wide range of particle sizes ranging at least
from 1 micron to 1 00 micron. The fine dust in the range below 1 0 micron is largely
responsible for the visibilityof the plume. These finer dust particles do not present a
serious pollution problem as these are carried away by wind to much wider area. The
coarser particles over 10 micron grain sizes land in the building and property within 2 to
3 miles and are the main cause of dust pollution.
Based on the above segregation of dust on particle sizes theres are two types of
instruments in practice - one measuring the smoke density and the other measuring the
dust burden.
PAGE 78
2.4.3.4SMOKE DENSITY METERS
Initially smoke density was assessed by a trained human observer who judged on equal
capacity for any emission with reference to the 'Ringlemaun Chart. This well known
chart was used for observation of smoke density.

The density was estimated by

comparing the shade of the smoke against shade cards held 5Oft (15.24m) from the
observer and in line with chimney. The shade cards consist of grills of block lines on
increasing thickness, the charts being numbered 0-5, corresponding to no smoke at 0 to
dense balck at No.5. The chart is given in Fig. 2.22. However the judgement of smoke
density by this method tends to be influenced by several sources of error-position of the
sun, sky haze, subjective evaluation of the individual etc.

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2.4.3.5 ON LINE SMOKE DENSITY METERS


The problems associated with the direct observation and comparing with Ringlemaun
Chart lead to the development of on line meters. The on line smoke density meters
record the optical density of the flue gases. These instruments are designed to use the
obscuration of visual light as a reference and so are essentially electric optical
instruments. To provide good degree of resolution and for true correlation they utilise the
same spectrol response range as the human eye.
In one range of istruments (RM 4/ of ng/s SICK) the energy loss bf a focused light beam
caused by the dust particles in the emission is measured and expressed in the optical
measurement "Extinction". The quantity of dust contained in the emission through which
the light passes is proportional to the extinction value.
PAGE 79
2.4.3.5.1 MEASURING SYSTEM

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the system with its optical head mounted on one side of the stack, and the reflector unit
on the opposite side. 'The optical head contains the light source. a photo receiver and
electronic assemblies for signal generation. The reflector unit is a passive assembly
without any electronics.
The light transmitter in the optical head emits a uniform beam which is modulated at 1.5
KHz by a rotating aperture disc and impinges on a segment disc. The aperture disc and
the segment disc are on the same drive shaft. The segment discissodesigned-that, for a
quarterrevolution, the lightbeam is either reflected on,the surface of the disc or allowed to
pass across the stack via an opening in the disc.
PAGE 80
The reflected light beam is passed on to the photo-receiver via a beam splitting mirror. A
quarter revolution later, the same beam splitter directs the measuring light after it has
passed across the stack - to the receiver. A photo-cells converts these light beams into
electrical voltages which are compared and an output generated to be passed on to the
recorder on the relation that
Extinction E = log 1 where T = Transmission factor
I

Illumination received

IO

Illumination emitted

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FIG - 2.23

RECORDER CHART

Fig. 2.23 shows a typical recorder chart showing the actual Exinction value, Exinction
zero check and Exinction Control level.

For checking zero point and. control

pointspecial reference filters are provided which are broughtin lineby operating the
respective switches.
An air purging system is provided to serve three purposes to keep the optical surfaces
clean, to protect the optical surfaces condensation of moist stack gases
PAGE 81
and to minimise thermal conduction from the stack to the instrument. The system
consists of a blower and motor on either side of the stack. Failure of the blower system
is detected through an air switch which actuates a solenoid operated shutter which
closes and protects the optical system from stack gases.
The instrument control unit has a selector switch with associated electronics to switch
indicator to read % opacity or optical density.
DUST MONITORS
The coarser particles above 10 micron sizes are not monitored by the methods indicated
above and do not have any marked effect on plume visibility, but are entirely
responsible for the settlement of dust object at ground level and is the main cause of
complaints of dust pollution.
2.4.4.1METHOD OF MEASUREMENT
The dust monitor consists of sampling unit as illustrated in Fig. 2.24 and the nozzle of
this unit is pointed into the flue gases so that the finer particles are carried around it but
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the coarser particles enter the nozzle by their own inertia. These particles settle on the
lower glass window and a beam @f light is projected from a lamp outside the duct
through the collected dust and back to the photo cell as shown. This photo cell forms part
of one arm of a modified wheat stone bridge circuit (Fig. 2.24).
The output from the bridge is then transmitted to an electronic recorder. The signal
received by the recorder varies according to the intensity of the lilght by the photoelectric
cell and therefore varies inversely to the amount of dust on the window.

PAGE 82
The collected dust is cleared by a blast of compressed. air after a set periodusually 15
minutes and the window is automatically wiped mechanically every 24 hrs. For older
units where the dust arresting equipments are poor, the collecting time could be reduced
to one quarter.
2.4.4.2INTERPRETATION OF RECORDING

Fig. 2.25 FORM OF CHART RECORD


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Fig. 2.25 shows a chart of a dust monitor. The appearance of the chart record is of a
number of saw-teeth. The correct reading is the difference between the top and the
bottom of a tooth. The imaginary line joining the bottom points of the saw teeth
represents the effective zero. Likewise a line joining the top points represents a reading
of the omission averaged over 15 minutes. Drift in the zero occurs mainly due to the
gradual accumulation of dirt on the optical system, & also by ageing of the lamp and
cell.
The relation between the instrument and the probability of emitted dust causing
nuisance is linear. The effect of dirty optical system or anything else which would
reduce the amount of light falling on to the photo cell is to offset the normal calibration
curve, but it remains linear and parallel to the original. The effect on the record is
merely to move the saw-teeth bodily across the chart.
PAGE 83
Fig. 2.26 shows another r~@ded chart. The trace here consists of a low fi.equency
analogue level to which is added a train of higher frequency spikes. Each spike is caused
by discharges of dust released throughout one cycle of the predpitator rapping equipment.
The spikes occur at a frequency dependent upon the rapping equipment duty cycle. An
assessment of precipitator performance can be obtained from considering the amplitude
and frequency of the spikes. It is possible to optin-dse the tuning cycles of both the plate
and the electrode pappers from a study of recorder charts. The level of emission is
obtained from the chart by taking an averaze value of the low frequency analogue level
over a period of 8 hours.
The acceptable level of emmission of matter for a given plant depends-on the area of
duct, height of chimney and the gas velocity and also the grain size.
The lin-dt for modem station is being fixed at 8% obscuration per minute where as in
older units a level of even 32% obscuration per minute is accepted.

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PAGE 84

PROTECTIONS
3.

PROTECTION AND INTERLOCKS

3.1

SCOPE:
The discussion under this section pertains briefly to the different types of protections and
interlocks normally required to take care of the unit against any abnormal and dangerous
operating conditions on the thermal side. The discussion is generally based on particular
210 M.W. (Badarpur) unit but may as well suit to other units also with little improvement
or modification. Also protections exist to take care of the electrical accessories such
as1)rea rs etc..schemes and valve / damper numbers please refer to the scheme Book
brought out by PETS.

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3.2

GENERAL INFORMATION:
As we all know power generation is not creation but conversion of energy from one form
to other. In order to have stable generating conditions, the heat energy supplied through
the fuel must balance the electrical energy output of the generator plus the normal losses.
This balance often gets disturbed by one factor or other which some times leads to
abnormal and dangerous operating conditions both with respect to the equipment and to
the process as well. The following are some such dangerous conditions.

ABNORMAL AND DANGEROUS OPERATING CONDITIONS


1.

Loss,.orlfall of voltage level.

PAGE 85
2.

Very low vacuum in condenser.

3.

Very high level in H.P. Heater.

4.

High axial shift.

5.

Low. lub, oil pressure.

6.

Low relay oil pressure.

.7.

Over speeding of turbine.

8.

Turbine/Generator bearing babbit temperature high.

9.

Fire on turbine.

10.

Vibration and other emergencies.

11.

Main stream temperature low.

12.

Electrical fault in the grid/ transmission system.

13.

Generator/ transformer fault.

14.

Loss of A.C. and D.C. Control voltages.

15.

Less than fire ball.

16.

Loss of fuel.

17.

Loss of flame.

18.

Air flow less than 30'7c, with boiler load than 30%

19.

High/low drum level.

20.

High/low furnace pressure.

21

Both I.D. fans tripped.

22.

Both F.D. fans tripped.

23.

Reheater metal temperature.

PAGE 86
24.

Tripping of all boiler feed pumps.

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25. Hydrogen seal oil pressure


26. Leakage of water into generator.
Some of these emergencies are not provided with automatic trip out. In such cases the
operators have to make their own discretion either to trip out the machineorcontinue
tooperateundertheabnormal conditions. Whereautomatic protective devices are provided,
the following groupings protective actions are generally followed.
3.3

ROTECTIONS AND INTERLOCKS


Protections are generally categorised under the following:

3.4

i)

Protections causing the unit shut down.

ii)

Protection causing the turbine shut down

iii)

Protection causing the unit to run on house load.

iv)

Protection causing the gradual load reduction.

v)

Protection requiring partial load reduction.

vi)

Protection and interlocks of Turbine auxiliaries.

vii)

Protection and interlocks of boiler auxiliaries.

viii)

Other miscellaneous interlocks and protection.

PROTECTION CIRCUITS
Protective Circuits are built up around the following features of operation
i)

Fault Initiation:

Fault Initiation is realised through open/ close contacts of instruments, relays, limit
switches, transmitters, breaker, contactors etc. The contact is shown as F.C. in fig 3.1.
PAGE 87
ii)

Fault Establihing and Recognition:

This is established through a flag relay in the control room for information to the
operator regarding the fault that has occured Ref WSR in Fig. 3.1.
iii)

Fault Locking:

Thisisdone through relaycontactmanipulations. This is toensure that the fault that.has


occurred has been frozen and remains intact even when the fault condition has
disappeared. Ref WTCR in fig. 3.1.
iv) Protective Actions:
These are multiplied by Auxiliary relays to trip out any number of equipments Ref WTR
Fig. 3.1. The above features ensure the Protection Philisophy so that the protection
provided for any equipment should be
i)

Selective to the fault

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ii)

Sensitive to the fault

iii)

isolate only the relevant equipment/process from theda'ngerous operating


conditions.

iv) Annunciation well before the protective action.


The following sections deal with the inividual protections as we come across in Thermal
Power Station Boiler Turbine unit.
3.5

PROTECTIONS CAUSING UNIT SHUT DOWN:


Each condition leading to unit tripping shall be annunciated and means shall be provided
for fixing the first condition which led to unit tripping as well as identification of the
other conditions which occurred thereafter.

3.5.1 Suitable protections and interlocks shall be provided for instantaneous (direct) shut down
of fuel supply to the boiler by energisation of unit lock out relay under the following
conditions:
PAGE 88
3.5.1.1Loss of voltage: This protection shall act when the voltage on the 6.6 KV unit auxiliary
bus bars drops below 50% of rated value for a duration of about 5-1 0 seconds.
3.5.1.2Very low vacuum in condenser: Refer Clause 3.8.1.3.
3.5.1.3Very very high level in any of the H.P. Heaters: Refer clause 3.8.1.4 and 3.14.6.
3.5.1.4Trippings of all the three boiler feed pumps: This protection shall operate with a time
delay of 18 sesconds through a short time impulse when all the three BFPs trip. (Each
Condition leading to trappings of BFP shall be identified by its individual flag relay to be
provided in BFP rear panel).
3.5.l.,5 BOILER TRIPPINGS:
This protection will act when the 'boiler lockout relay' of FSSS is energised owing to the
following conditions:
3.5.1.5.1 Loss of 22OV D.C. supply to FSSS for more than 2 seconds.
3.5.1.5.3 Less than fireball and loss of A.C. at any elevation in service: This protection
shall act when heavy oil firing has been started in any elevation (CD or EF) and light
oil or heavy oil has been started in elevation AB and the elevation 11OV A.C. fails
before fire ball condition is fully established. (A fire ball is said to be established if
any feeder in the case of coal firing and if a minimum of three heavy oil nozzle
valves are open at any oil elevation and the elevation loading is above 30%).
3.5.1.5.3 LOSS OF ALL FUEL TRIP:

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This protection shall act only after once a minimum of three ignitors have been put on at
any elevation and if all the following conditions occur:
i)

All R.C., feeders are off.

ii)

Either the ignitor trip valve is not open or more than one of the ignitor valves are
not open at all oil elevations.

PAGE 89
iii)

Either the heavy oil trip valve is not open or more than one of the heavy oil nozzle
valves are not open at all oil elevations.

iv)

Either the warm up oil trip valve is not open or more than one of the warm up oil
nozzle valves at elevation AB are not open.

v)

A.C. supply to FSSS is available.

3.5.1.5.4 FLAME FAILURE TRIP:


This protection shall act if there is no fire ball condition at all elevations and either feeder
is on or any heavy oil nozzle valve is not closed at any elevation where less than three of
the four associated ignitors are proven on at an elevation. "No fire ball" condition is as
described below for the respective elevation.
i)

Elevation A and B

(a)

Elevation AB flame scanners do not sense flame and either loss of this elevation
A.C. for more than 2 seconds or less than 3 of the 4 elevation AB warm up oil
nozzle valves are'open when warm up oil has been selected.

b)

Both feeders A and B are off and either there is failure of this elevation A.C. for
more than 2 seconds or less than 3 of the 4 heavy oil nozzle valves at this
elevation are open or elevation AB flame scanners do not find flame while less
than 3 of the 4 ignitors are on.

ii)

Elevation C and D: Similar to (i) above.

iii)

Elevation E and F: Similar to (i) above.

3.5.1.5.5 VERY LOW DRUM WATER LEVEL:


This protection shall act when the level of water in the boiler drum goes below N.W.L.
by 175 mm. 'The operator shall also be given alarm when the boiler/ drum water level
falls below NWL by 100 mm.
3.5.1.5.6 VERY VERY HIGH DRUM WATER LEVEL:
PAGE 90

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This protection shall act if the water level in the drum rises to 175 mm above normal
level.

Before the operation of this protection, actions as described under clause

3.10.2.6 shall take place.


3.5.1.5.7. FURNACE PRESSURE VERY HIGH:
This protection shall act when the furnace pressure reaches a very high value of
22Ommof wd. (The operators hall also be givian alarm when furn acepressure reaches
25 mm of wcl).
3.5.1.5.8. FURNACE VACUUM VERY HIGH:
This protection shall act if th' e furnace vacuum goes up to a very high value of 200
mm of wcl. (The operator shall also be given alarm when furnace vacuum reached a
set value of 25 mm of wcl).
3.5.1.5.9.

Air flow less than 30% and boiler load less than 30%

3.5.1.5.10

Both I.D. fans tripped (short duration impulse).

3.5.1.5.11

Both F.D. fans tripped (Short duration impulse).

3.5.1.5.12

Both the tip P.Bs on the FSSS console pressed simultaneously. (Boiler
manually tripped).

3.5.1.5.13

REHEATER PROTECTION TRIP:


This protection shall actunder the condition of furnace outlet temperature more
than 1 OOOOF and. there is no flow through the reheater.

3.5.1.5.14

Generator trappings due to its electrical protections.

3.5.1.5.15

Excessive axial shift of turbine rotor (Refer clause 3.5.1.1).

3.5.1.5.16

Very very low turbine l ub. oil pressure (Refer clause 3.5.1.2).

3.5.2

The coils of unit lockout relay shall be suitably minitored and a common

PAGE 91
annunciation 'LOCKOUT UNHEALTHY shall be provided.
3.5.3 One link for each protection shall be provided to facilitate switching the protection to
either 'MP' or 'SICNAI!.
3.6

ACTION TO RE INITIATED ON UNIT SHUT DOWN:

3.6.1 The shut down of the unit shall be initiated through the unit lockout relay by giving
simultaneously impulses for the following:
3.6.1.1.

To energise boiler lockout relay of FSSS to stop all fuel input by tripping the
feeders/mills in service and closing the ignitor oil, warm up oil and heavy oil trip
valves and to trip PA fans.

3.6.1.2.

To energise turbine lock-out relay.

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3.6.1.3To energise turbine trip solenoid.


3.6.1.4To energise generator-transformer lockout relay (master trip for the generator unit).
3.6.1.5To close the superheater and reheater spray water isolating valve (BF-57) with a time
delay of about 0 to 3 minutes.
3.6.1.6.

To disconnect the Burner tilt regulator's impulse on burner tilt mechanism and to
bring the burner tilt mechanism in the horizontal position.

3.6.1.7. To trip one B.F.P. if two B.F.Ps are in operation (SHORT DURATION IMPULSE).
Same action as in 3.6.1 (viii).
3.7.0 CANCELLATION OF PROTECTION AT THE TIME OF START-UP
One cancellation switch each shall be provided to cancel the protection leading to unit
trip due to:
i)

Very low drum water level.

PAGE 92
ii)

All the three boiler feed pumps tripped.

3.8.0 PROTECMONS CAUSING TURBINE SHUT DOWN


3.8.1 The turbine shall be tripped through the turbine lockout relay which shall energise the
turbine trip solenoid acting on the hydraulic system to close ESVS, IVs and control
valves of HPI and IPI under the following conditions:
3.8.1.1

EXCESSIVE AXIAL SHIFT OF TURBINE ROTOR

This protection shall act when axial shift of turbine rotor corresponds to 1.2 mm wear of
either pad of thrust bearing.
3.8.1.1.1

Under the operation of this protection simulatenous impulses shall also be given for
the following:

i)
ii)

To energise the unit lockout relay.


To open the shut off valve (VP-6) on the;vacuum break off line to break the vacuum
in condenser.

iii)

To close the regulation valve (AS-2) on steam supply to main ejector-A.

iv)

To close the regulating valve (AS-3) on steam supply to main ejector-B.

v)

To close the regulating valve (AS-4) on steam supply to starting ejector.

3.8.1.2TURBINE LUBE OIL PRESSURE VERY LOW


This protection shall operate when the turbinelube oil pressure decreases to very very low
value i.e. 0.3 kg/cm' (g).
3.8.1.2.-1

This protection is designed to switch on automatically and remain operative if any


of the following conditions prevails:

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i)

Both the emergency stop valves are open.

ii)

Both the interceptor valves are open.

PAGE 93
iii)

Barring gear is in operation.

3.6.1.2.2 This protection is designed to switch off automatically if emergency stop valves and
interceptor valves close and barring gear motor is switched off.
3.8.1.2.3 Under the operation of this protection simultaneous impulses shall also be given for
the following:
i)

To energise theunit lockout relay.

ii) To open the shut off valve (VP-6) on the vacuum break off line to break the vacuum in
condenser.
iii)

To close the regulation valve (AS-2) on steam supply to main ejector-A.

iv)

To close the regulating valve (AS-3) on steam supply to main ejector-B.

v)

To closethe regulating valve (AS-4) on steam supply to starting ejector.

3.8.1.2.4

Theinitiatingcontactsforthispurposeisprovidedfromtheturbinesupervisory scheme.

3.8.1.2.5.

At the same set value of 0.3 k/cm2, the interlocks described under clause
3.11.10.6

shall also take place.

3.8.1.2.6 Before the operation of this protection, action as descri:)ed unc er c ause 3.1 1. shall
take place.
3.8.1.3VERY LOW VACUUM IN CONDENSER:
This protection shall act in the event of vacuum fall in the condenser to low set point
No.2 (540 mm HgC). There shall be a pre-trip alarm at vacuum fall to low set point No.
1 (650 mm HgC). The initiating contacts for 'trip' and 'alarm' are provided from the
turbine supervisory scheme.
3.8.1.3.1

This protection is designed to switch on automatically after the vacuum has risen
above the low set point no. 1 and thereafter remains operative till any of the
following conditions is prevailing.

PAGE 94
i)

Any of the main stop valves(MS-landMS-2) and their by pass stop valves (MS-3 and
MS-4) remains even slightly open.

ii)

Both the emergency stop valves remain open.

iii)

Both the intercepter valves remain open.

3.8.1.3.2.

This protection is-designed to switch off automatically if all the following c


conditions are fulfilled:

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i)

All the main stop valves and their bypass stop valves fully close, and

ii)

Emergency stop valves and interceptor valves close.

3.8.1.3.3 Under the operation of this protection simultaneous impulse shall also be given to
energise the unit lockout relay.
3.8.1.4VERY VERY HIGH LEVEL IN ANY OF THE H.P. HEATERS:
This protection shall act when the level in any of the H.P. heaters rises to 4250 mm (3rd
high set value) provided 2nd high level condition also sustains. Under the operation of
this protection simultaneous impulses shall also be given for the following:
i)

To energise the unit lockout relay.

ii)

To open the solenoid valves (MC-101 & MC-102).

iii)

To open the motor operated backup FW bypass valve (BF-40).

iv)

To close the motor operate dinletand outlet valves(BF-38andRF-39)after full


opening of bypass valve (BF-40).

v)

To close the motor operated valves (ES-3, FS-4 & ES-5) in the extraction lines H.P.
heaters.

Before the operation of this protection, actions as described under clause 3.11.3 shall take
place.
PAGE 95
3.8.1.5 VERY LOW MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE:
This protection shall operate in case the temperature of main steam after boiler and of
main steam in the emergency stop valve on the R.H.S. or L.H.S. decreases to 4500C.
There shall be a pre-trip alarm when the temperature of main steam in any of the
emergency stop valves decreases to 5200C.
3.8.1.5.1 The protection shall be automatically switched on once the main steam temperature in
any of the emergency stop valves decreases to 5200c and thereafter shall remain
operated till any of the following conditions prevails provided the protection
cancellation switch on the desk is in 'ON' position:
i) Any of the main steam stop valves (MS-1 & MS-2,) and their bypass valves (MS-3 &
MS-4) remains even slighltly open.
3.8.1.5.2 This protection is designed to switch off automatically if all the following condition
are fulfilled.
i)

All the main stop valves and their bypass stop valves fully close.

ii)

Emergency stop valves and intercepter valves close.

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3.8.1.5.3

provision shall also be made to manually switch off this protection while preparing
for manual unloading of the T.C. set at recommended rate due to slow rate of
temperature fall.

3.8.1.6Unit tripping due to energisation of the unit lock out relay as per clauses 3.3.1.2
3.8.1.7. Generator tripping due to its electrical protections.
3.8.2

The turbine shall be tripped due to the energisation of turbine trip solenoid acting on the
hydraulic system to close ESVS, IVs and control valves of HPT & IPT under the
following conditions:

3.8.2.1 Energisation of unit lockout relay: The turbine trip solenoid is energised under the
conditions requiring unit trip out through the energisation of unit lockout relay.
3.8.2.2. Energisation of turbine lockout relay. The turbine trip solenoid is energised
PAGE 96
under the conditions requiring turbine trip out through the energisation of turbine lockout
relay.
3.8.2.3. Manual tripping : The simultaneous operation of switch and push button provided on
the control desk of the UCB.
3.8.2.4Fire push button: The pressing of push button provided in a box covered with glass cover
at turbine operating in the event of fire in the turbine house.
3.8.3 The turbine shall be tripped directly by hydraulic system under the following
conditions:
3.8.3.1Turbine tri solendid is energised.
3.8.3.2Shut down knob at the turbine front standard is pressed down.
3.8.3.3Turbine speed exceeds the rated speed by 11-12%.
3.8.3.4Turbine speed exceeds the rated speed by 14%.
3.8.3.5Relay oil pressure falls below 10 kg/cm'/-.
Under the above conditions, the hydraulic system acts in closing the emergency stop
valves, interceptor valves and control valves of HPT and IPT.
3.9.0 ACTION TO BE INITIATED FOR TURBINE SHUT DOWN:
3.9.1 Actions to be initiated on energisation of turbine lockout relay: Under the conditions
leading to the energisation of turbine lockout relay the turbine shall be tripped by giving
simultaneous impulses for the following:
i)

To energise the'turbine trip solenoid.

ii)

To close the main steam stop valves (MS-1 and MS~2).

iii)

To close the bypass stop valves (MS-3 and MS-4).

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iv)

To close the stop valves (FS-6 and FS-7) on the extraction lines for supplying
steam to deaerator.

PAGE 97
v)

To open the stop valve (AS-57) on the auxiliary steam line from 16 ATA header to
deaerator for supplying steam to deaerator.

vi)

To open stop valves (MS-22 and MS-23) on the evacuation lines to condenser to
release entra ,pped steam in the H.P. turbine to condenser within 40 seconds.

vii)

To, energise the generator transformer. unit lockout relay through low forward
power relays (two numbers connected in parallel).

vili)

To trip one BFP if two BFPs are in operation. (B.F.P.A. will trip if running in
conjunction with BFP-C, otherwise BFP-B will trip).

ix)

Switching on HP/ LP bypass station.

x)

Energising the solenoid valve leading to force closing of non return valve in the
extraction lines.

3.9.2 Actions to be initiated on the closure of emergency stop valve(s) and interceptor valve(s):
If one or both. of emergency stop valve(s): and one or both of interceptor valve(s) close
after the synchronisation of the generator, impulses shall be given for the following:
i)
ii)

To close the main steam stop valves (MS-1 and MS-2).


To close the bypass stop valve (MS-3 and MS-4).

To close the stop valves (ES-6 and ES-7) on the extraction lines for sypplying steam to
deaerator.
iv)

To open the stop valve (AS-57) on the auxiliary steam line from 16 ATA header to
deaerator for supplying steam to deaerator.

v)

To open stop valves (MS-22 and MS-23) on the evacuation lines to condenser to
release entrapped steam in the HP turbine to condenser within 40 seconds.

vi)

To force close the non-return valves on the extraction line by opening valves (MS53 and,MC-54). (Refer clause 3.11.9).

PAGE 98
vii)

To energise the generator transformer unit lockout relay through low forward
power relays (two numbers connected in parallel).

viii)

Tripping of one boiler feed pump in case two boiler feed pumps are working.
Same action see 3.6.1 (VIII).

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3.9.3.1The initiating contacts for the above impulses is provided from the turbine supervisory
scheme. These impulses get withdrawn automatically once the main stop valves and their
bypass valves get closed.
3.10.0 ELECTRICAL PROTECTIONS REQUIRING THE UNIT TO RUN ON HOUSE
LOAD
3.10.1 Operating of electrical protections which trip only the generator transformer circuit
breaker (external load thrown off): Under this condition simultaneous impulses shall be
given for the following:
i)

To energy is electro- hydraulic transducer intended for anticipatory closing of


control valves for a duration of 2 seconds and thereby reducing the transient overspeed peak. This interlock is designed to come into operation automatically once
the emergency stop valve and the interceptor valve are in open position and the
generator breaker is closed. This interlock is automatically cutting out when one
or both of the emergency stop valve(s) and one or both of the interceptor valve(s)
are closed.

ii)

To bring the HP and LP bypass stations into operation provided the vacuum in the
condenser is healthy. Under this condition, the turbine shall operate with HP &
LP sections only.

iii)

To force the non-return valves on the extraction lines by opening valves MS-53
casing -to condenser for one minute.

3.11.0 PROTECTION REOUIRING GRADUAL LOAD REDUCTION ON THE


TURBINE
3.11.1 When the pressure drops before the emergency stop valves the load on the turbine shall
be reduced by closing the control valves with the help of the unloading gear which is an
electrical servometer operated valve of the hydraulic
PAGE 99
speed control system and shall be used as a final control element of a proportional plus
reset type electronic controller to maintain main steam pressure ahead of emergency stop
valves.
3.11.2 The controller output signals should be transmitted to the unloading gear servometer
through a 3 position (hand-off-auto) stay-put type selectro switch to facilitate remote
manual operation during controller adjustment and turbine starting with low main stream
pressure.

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3.11.3 If the main steam pressure should decrease by 10% (1 17 ATA) below normal, the
controller will start to close the control valves and will continue closing them until the
turbine steam flow is reduced sufficiently to match the lower boiler capability. The
turbine shall be completely unloaded if the main steam pressure should decrease by 30%
(91 ATA) below normal. The unloaded gear valve is equipped with an adjustable stop
that prevents if from closing the control valves below a preset low position.
3.11.4 When the emergency condition that has caused the boiler pressure to decrease is
corrected and the rate of firing is increased the controller will gradually reopen the
control valves as the pressure builds up. An isolating valve in the hydraulic system can
block the unloading gear completely out of action to facilitate on-load-testing.
3.11.5 All signals to electric servometer to reduce load shall be blocked until the main of
emergency stop valves decreases to 117 kg/ 2 (abs). steam pressure ahead cm Should the
pressure decrease below this point, the blocking shall cease, to allow unloading to start.
Such blocking shall be reintroduced when the pressure builds upto 120 kg/cm2 (abs).
3.12

PROTECTIONS REQUIRING PARTIAL LOAD REDUCRION

3.12.1 Tripping of one induced draft fan:


If one of the two operating induced draft fans trips. simultaneous impulses shall be given
for the following:
i)

To trip preselected F.D. Fan if two F.D. fans are in operation.

ii)

To energise the partial load relay.

PAGE 100
3.12.3.Tripping of one forced draft fan:
If one of the operating forced draft fans trips simultaneous impulses shall be given for the
following:
i)

To energise the partial load relay.

3.12.3 Tripping of one P.A. fan:


If one of the two operating P.A. fans trips, impulse shall be given to:
1)

Energise the partial load relay.

ii)

FSSS to reduce the boiler output suitable in a sequential manner.

3.12.4 TRIPPING OF ONE BOILER FEED PUMP


If one of the two operating boiler feed pumps trips and the stand by boiler feed pump
does not come into operation within a period not exceeding 60 seconds, partial load relay
will be energised.
3.12.5

TRIPPING OF ONE CW PUMP :

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If one of the two CW pump trips partial load relay will be engerised.
3.12.5 TRIPPING OF ONE CONDENSATE PUMP
If one of the two operating condensate pumps trips and the standby condensate pump
does not come into operation within a period of not exceeding 60 seconds, partial load
relay will be energised.
3.12.7

On the energisation of partial load relay, simultaneous impulses shall be given for the
following:
1)

To reduce the load on turbine to a present value (105 MW) by operating the
turbine speeder gear motor.

ii)

T o tri the preselected PA fan if two PA fans are in operation to reduce the
boiler output suitably in a sequential manner through FSSS scheme.

PAGE 101
3.13.0 INTERLOCKS OF BOILER AUXILIARIES
Interlocks for boiler auxiliaries are divided into following two groups.
i)

Interlock covered under FSSS logic.

ii)

Interlock other than those covered under FSSS logic.

3.13.1 Inter ock covered under FSSS logic are the following:
3.13.1.1 PURGE INTERLOCKS
3.13.1.1.1 ControlsonFSSSconsole: 1 pushbutton (white) tostartpurge3 lampsof green, white,
yellow colour for indications purge ready, purging and purge complete respectively.
The boiler shall be provided with a purge interlock as detailed below:
3.13.1.1.2 The various trip valves shall beprohibited from openingunless the furnace is purged
(initially or after a boiler trip).
3.13.1.1.3 Furnace purging can @ started by pressingpurge Start'push button after ensuring that
AC and DC supplied to FSSS are'ON'drum level is adequate, one I.D. and one F.D.
fan have started and at least 30% air flow is established and provided the following
permissives have been satisfied:
i)

All oil trip valves and nozzle valves are closed.

ii)

All the pulverisers and feeders are off.

iii)

All the hot air gates are fully closed and all the cold air dampers are less that 5%
open.

iv)

All the elevation flame scanners show 'No flame'.

v)

All auxiliary air dampers are modulating to maintain an adequate windbox to


furnace differential pressure.

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vi)

None of the boiler trip conditions exist.

3.13.1.1.4

The 'purge ready' indication lamp (green lamp) will glow if the above

PAGE 102
permissives are fulfilled. on pressing the 'purge stare push button the furnace is purged
for 5 minutes. The 'purging' indication (white lamp) will come up once the operator
presses the 'purge start' push button and after the furnace is successfully purged, 'purge
complete' indication (yellow lamp) will come up if none of the boiler trip conditions is
existing.
3.13.1.1.5

Once the purge is complete. the 'close' circuits of the trip valves are deenergised
permitting the operator to open the various trip valves.

3.13.1.2

INTERLOCKS FOR FUEL OIL VALVES

3.13.1.2.1

IGNITOR OIL TRIP VALVE

A)

Controls: Luminous open-close buttons on FSSS console.

B)

This valve shall be prohibited from opening unless all the following conditions
are satisfied:

i)

Ignitor oil supply pressure is adequate (12.5 kg/m2).

ii)

All the ignitor oil nozzle valves are proven closed.

iii)

None of the boiler trip command is present.

iv)

Purge is complete.

v)

None of the conditions requiring closing of the ignitor oil trip valve exists.

C)

The above valve shall close automatically under any of the following
conditions:

i)

Boiler trips

ii)

Ignitor oil header pressure is low (9.1 kg/cm2) for more than 2 seconds and any
ignitor valve is not closed.

3.13.1.2.2

WARM UP OIL TRIP VALVE


A)

Controls: Luminous open/close push button on FSSS console.

PAGE 103
B)

This valve can be opened if all the following conditions are fulfilled:
i)

Warm up oil supply pressure is adequate (5.6 kg/ cm2)

ii)

All warm up oil nozzle valves are closed.

iii) No boiler trip impulse is present.


iv)

No valve close impulse is present.

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v)

Purge is complete.

C)

This valveshallclose automaticallyunderanyof the followingeonditions:

i)

Boiler trip occurs.

ii)

Warm up oil headerpressureis low (I.Skglcm2)formore than 2seconds and any


warm up oil nozzle valve is not closed.

iii)

Differential pressure between warm up oil and atomising air is low (0.4 kg/cm2)
for more tham 2 seconds, when no pair of warm up oil guns are in start up or shut
down and any warm up oil nozzle valve is not closed.

.13.1.2.3

HEAVY OIL TRIP VALVE

A)

Controls: Luminous open/close push button on FSSS console.

B)

This valve can be opened by pressing the 'open push button' provided the following
conditions are satisfied:

i)

Heavy oil header pressure is adequate (9.8 kg/cm2).

ii)

All heavy oil nozzle valves are closed.

iii)

No boiler trip condition is there.

iv)

No valve close impulse is there.

v)

Purge complete.

C)

This valve will close automatically under any one of the following conditions.

PAGE 104
i)

Boiler trip occurs.

ii) Heavy oil header pressure is low (1.5 kg/cm2) for more than 2 seconds when any
heavy oil nozzle valve is not closed.
iii) Differential pressure between heavy oil and atomising steam is low (0.4 kg/cm2) for
more than 2 secs when any heavy oil nozzle valve is not closed, and no heavy oil
guns in star[/stop condition.
iv) Heavy oil temp. low (105OC) for more than 2 secs. when any heavy oil valve is not
closed.
Note 1) Provision has been made in FSSS to open H.D trip valve without 'purge complete' to
facilitate heating of H.O. upto nozzle valves.
Thus H.O. trip valve can be opened before.purge complete'provided all H.O.nozzle
valves are closed and H.O. Recirculation valve is open.
3.12.1.2.4
A)

HEAVY OIL RECIRCULATION VALVE


Control.5: Luminous open/close push buttons on FSSS console.

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B)

The valve can be opened provided the heavy oil trip valve and all the heavy oil
nozzle valves are closed. This valve will close automatically when any of the
heavy oil nozzle valves is not closed.

3.13.1.3

INTERLOCKS FOR PULVERISERS

3.13.1.3.1

PULVERISER-A

Controls
Pulveriser A motor

Start and stop push buttons (luminous type) on the


FSSS console. Ammeter in UCB.

Hot air gate (BA-26)

Open and close luminous push button on the console.

PAGE 105
Cold air gate (BA-38)

Manually operated.

Automatic regulating

1.

Automanual switch in UCB.

Hot air damper (BA-32)

2.

Position indication in UCB.

Automatic regulating cold

-do-

air damper (BA-44)


Discharge valves (PC-1, PC-2)

Luminous

PC-3 and PC-4)

Open and close push buttons on the

Seal air valve (BA-87)

console

a)

Pulveriser A motor shall be prohibited from starting unless all the following
conditions are fulfilled.

i)

Discharge valve (PC-1 to PC-4) are open

ii)

Seal air valve (RA-81) is open

iii)

Cold air damper (BA-38) is open

iv)

2 of the 3 R.C. feeder inlet dampers (RC 1,2,3) are open (Operator's check onlv).

v)

Tramp iron hopper valve (RC-31) is open.

vi)

Primary air pressure is adequate (> 650 mm wcl).

vii)

D.C. power to FSSS is available.

viii)

Fuel and air nozzle tilts placed in the horizontal posiiton and air flow adjusted
between 30'Yc, and 40% of full load air flow if no feeder is 'ON'.

ix)

Pulveriser outlet temperature is less than 200"F (93OC).

x)

Either minimum of 3 elevation AB warm up nozzle valves or heavy oil nozzle


valves are open orpulveriser B is workingatgreater than 50% load andboiler load is
greater than 30 %. If all the above conditions aresatisfied "pulveriser ready light
for pulveriser'A" will come up.

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b)

When the pulveriser A is started ,in-ipulse shall be given for the following:

i)

Permission to open the hot air gate (BA-26).

ii)

Permission to star the R.C. feeder A.

PAGE 106
iii)

Permission for regulator's impulse to act on hot air damper (BA-32).

C)

Pulveriser A shall trip under the following conditions:

i)

Boiler trip condition is present.

ii)

Loss of unit D.C. supply (for more than 2 seconds).

iii)

Discharge valve (PC1 to PC-4) are not open

iv)

Primary air tri (when both primary air fans are tripped or primary air duct pressure
falls below the low set point,(650 mm wel) for more than 5 seconds OR primary
air duct pressure falls below the very low set point (450 mm wcl) OR when one
primary air fan is tripped and four or more pulverisers are in service).

v)

If the permissive condition at 3.13.1.3.1 (a) (x) above disappears before 180 secs
from feeder start or less than 3 of the 4 associated oil gun are in service.

d)

When pulveriser A is tripped remote manually or automatically impulses shall be


given for the following:

i)

To trip the R.S. feeder A motor.

ii)

To close the hot air gate (BA-26).

iii)

To disconnect the regulator's impulse and to close the hot air damper (BA-32).

iv)

To permit the closing of discharge valves (PC-1 to PC-4) (close push button to be
depressed by the operator).

v)

To bring cold air damper to minimum (5%).

e)

The hot air gate (BA-26) is prohibited from opening unless the pulveriser is on.

f)

If the hot air gate (BA-26) is open, impulses shall be given to release the hot and
cold air dampers control to regulator provided the pulveriser is still on and there is
no closing cammand to hot air gate.

g)

The hot air gate (BA-26) shall close automatically after 30 seconds under any of
the following conditions:

PAGE 107
i)

Pulveriser is tripped. (In this case hot air gate shall trip immediately).

ii)

Pulveriser outlet temperature is high (>93OC).

iii)

The feeder stops within 5 secs of its starting.

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h)

When the hot air gate is closed impulseshalibe given for opening the cold air

damper provided the pulveriser is 'ON'.


i)

Discharge valves:

i)

These valves have to be opened remote manually.

ii) When these valves are opened permissive impulse will go for starting the pulveriser.
iii)

The discharge valves @an be closed remote manually provided the pulveriser is
off.

j)

Mill air and temperature control loop shall be released to auto only after RC. feeder
speed is more than 50%.

3.13.1.3.2

PULVERISER - B

(a)

(i) to (a) (ix) similar to items (a) (i) to (a) (ix) fpr pulveriser 'A'.

(a)

(x) Either a minimum of 3 elevation AB warm up or heavy oil nozzle valves are
open or boiler loading is greater than 30% and either pulverizer A or
C is working at 50% loading.

(b)

Similar to (b) for pulveriser 'A'.

(C)

(i) to (C) (iii) similar to (c) (i) to (c) (iii) pulveriser 'A'

(c)

(iv) If P.A. pressure is low (650 mm wcl.) for more than 5 secs. or very low (450
mm wcl.) OR both P.A. fans trip OR one of the operating P.A. fans trips when 4 or
more pulverisers are working and pulveriser A is off.

(c)

(v) similar to (c) (v) for pulveriser 'A'

(d)

to (i) similar to (d) to (i) for pulveriser 'A'.

PAGE 108
3.13.1.3.3 PULVERISER - C
(a).(i)to(a)(ix)similartoitems(a)(i)to(a)(ix) for pulveriser. A'.
(a)(x)Eitheraminimumof3elevationCLheav oil nozzle valve sare open. OR y
Boiler loading is greater than 30% and pulveriser B or D is loading for more than 50%,
OR
A minimum of 3 elevation AB warm up oil or heavy oil nozzle valves are open and
pulveriser B is loaded for more than 50%.
(b)

similar to (b) for pulveriser 'A'.

(C)

(i) to (c) (iii) similar to (c) (i) to (c) (iii) for pulverisor 'A'.

(c)

(iv) P.A. pressure is low (<650 mm wcl.) for more than 5 secs. OR very low

(<450 mm wcl.) OR both P.A. fans are off OR one of the operating P.A. fans trips when
four pulverisers are working provided pulverisers a and B are of.
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(c)

(v) c,pimilar to (c) (v) for pul veriser 'A'.

(d)

to (i) similar to (d) to (i) for pulv-eriser 'A'.

3.13.1.3.4

PULVERISER - D

(a)

(i) to (a) (ix) similar too (a) (i) to (a) (ix) for pulveriser -'A'.

(a)

(x)Minimum of 3 elevation CD heavy oil nozzle valves are open, OR boiler


loading is greater than 30% and pulveriser C or E is loaded more than 50%.

(b)

similar to (b) for pulveriser 'A'.

(c)

(i) to (c) (iii) similar to (c) (i) to (c) (iii) for pulveriser.A'.

(c)

(iv) P.A. pressure is low for more than 5 secs. OR very low OR both P. A. fans
trip.

(.c)(v) similar to (c) (v) for pulveriser @A'.


PAGE 109
(d)
3.13.1.3.5

to (i) similar to (d) to (i) for pulveriser 'A'.


PULVERISER - E

(a)(i) to (a) (1x)'similar to (a) (i) to (a) (1x) for pulveriser 'A'.
(a)

(x) A minimum of 3 elevation EF heavy oil nozzle valves are open, OR Boiler
loading is greater than 30% and pulveriser D or F is inservice at more than 50%
loading, OR

A minimum of 3 elevation CD heavy oil nozzle valves are open and pulveriser D is
loaded for more than 50%.
(b)

similar to (b) for pulveriser "A".

(c)

(1) to (c) (iii) similar to (c) (1) to (c) (iii) for pulveriser 'A'.

(c)(iv) P.A. presure is low (<650 mm wcl.) for more than 5 secs, OR very low (<450 mm
wcl.) OR both PA fans trip.
(c)(v) similar to (c)(v) for pulveriser 'A'.
(d)
3.13.1.3.6

to (i) similar to (d) to (1) for pulveriser"A'.


PULVERISER - F

(a)(!) to (a) (ix) similar to (a) (i) to (ix) for pulveriser 'A'.
(a)

(x) A minimum of 3 elevation EF heavy oil nozzle valves are open, OR Boiler

loading is greater than 30% and pulveriser E is in service atmore than 50% loading.
(b)

similar to (b) for pulveriser 'A'.

(c)

(i) to (c) (iii) similar to (c) (i) to (c) (iii) for pulveri.5er "A'.

(c)

(iv) P.A. pressure is low (<650 mm wcl.) for more than 5 secs. OR very low
(<450 mm wcl.) OR both P.A. fans trip.

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(c)

(v) and (d) to (i) similar to (c) (,V) and (d) to (i) for pulveriser 'A'.

PAGE 110
3.13.1.4

R.C FEEDERS

Associated equipment
R.C. feeder motor

Controllindication
Luminous start/stop push button with built in
indicating lamps on console

Speed Variator
a)

Aut@manual switch and position indicator in UCB.

R.C. feeder motor can be started provided all the following conditions are
fulfilled:

i)

No boiler trip condition prevails.

ii)

Elevation D.C. is available.

iii)

Elevation A.C. is available.

iv)

ignitor energy is available.

v)

Pulveriser is on.

vi)

Hot air gate is open.

vii)

No stop signal

viii)

Fuel air dampers closed

b)

When the R.C. feeder is started the following impulses shall be given:

i)

To include feeder output in totalising circuit after 15 secs.

ii)

To release feeder speed control to auto after 50 secs.

iii)

To modulate fuel air dampers according to feeder speed after 50 secs.

iv)

To permit feeder speed variator to move.

c)

The R.C.. feeder motor shall trip automatically under any of the following
conditions:

PAGE 111
i)

Boiler trips.

ii)

Elevation D.C. fails after 2 seconds time delay.

iii)

Elevation A.C. fails.

iv)

Ignitor energy disappears before 180 secs. from the starting of the feeder.

v)

Pulveriser trips.

vi)

Loss of coal flow and pulveriser amps low (18 AMPS). This impulse will act only
after 5 secs from feeder start.

d)

When the R.C. feeder motor is tripped the following impulses shall be
given:

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To close hot air gate.


e)

When either the pulveriser amps motor current/load is abovemaximum (30AMPS)


set point or pulveriser bowl differential pressure is high 250 mm wcl. an impulse
will be given to bring the R.C. feeder sp@ed to minimum.

3.13.1.5 SECONDARY AIR CONTROL


Operation of the auxiliary and fuel air dampers are effected by the Furnace Safeguard
Supervisory System as described below:
3.13.1.5.1
i)

ALTXILIARY AIR DAMPERS


During the furnace purge period and initial operation of the unit (upto 30% loading),
all elevations of auxiliaries dampers modulate to maintain a predetermined
(approximately 40 mm wcl.) set points differential pressure between the wind box
and furnace.

ii) When the unit loading exceeds 30% of maximum continuous rating, the. differential
pressure set point is changed and ramps up to a higher setting (approximately 4 mm
wcl.). Simultaneously, the auxiliary air dampers associated with the coal or oil
elevations not in service close in timed
PAGE 112
sequence starting with the upper elevations of dampers and progressing to the lowest
setting.
iii) When the unit loading is reduced below 30% loading, then auxiliary air dampers
open in a timed sequence starting with the lowest elevation of dampers.
Simultaneously the differential set point changes to its lower setting.
iv) All the auxiliary air dampers maintain the status quo upon a boiler trip and will open.
fully when both F.D. fans are off.
v) The auxiliary air dampers associated with the oil elevation AB open to a preset
position whenever warm-up oil is being fired or modulate as a functions of oil header
pressure when heavy oil is being fired. Otherwise, they open and close with the
balance of the auxiliary air dampers. Auxiliary air dampers associated with the oil
elevations CD and EF mopdulate as a function of oil header pressure when heavy oil
is being fired. Otherwise, they open and close with the balance of the auxiliary air
dampers.
Auxiliary air dampers associated with the oil elevations CD and EF modulate as the
function of the oil header pressure ' when heavy oil is being fired. Otherwise they open
and close with the balance of he auxiliary air dampers.
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Auxiliary air dampers associated with the oil elevations CD abd EF modulate as the
unction of the oil header pressure when heavy oil is being fired. Otherwise they open
and close with the balance of the auxiliary air dampers.
3.13.1.5.2
i)

FUEL AIR DAMPERS


All fuel air dampers are normally closed. They open fifty seconds after tie associated
feeder speed is started, and modulate as a function of feeder speed.

ii) Fiftysecondsafterthefeedersisremovedfromservice,theassociatedfuel

air

dampers

close.
iii) The fuel air dampers will open fully when both F.D. fans are off.
PAGE 113
3.13.1.6.

INTERLOCK FOR SCANNER AIR FANS

Associated equipment

ControllIndication

Scanner air fans A and B

Common start/stop push buttons at FSSS


console insert,, Red/Green indicating lamps at
console insert. Selection of scanner air fan A or
B has to be done by a select or switch to be
mounted on the scanner at fan motor starter
control panel.

Outlet damper of scanner air fan A (BA-1022) 3 push buttons at U.C.B Red/Green indicating
lamps.
Outlet damper of scanner -doair fan B(BA-1 03)
Scanner air emergency damper -do(BA-99)
3.13.1.6.1

Scanner air fan 'A' or B (as selected).

a)

Scanner air fan 'A' (or B as selected) shall start.

i)

When the start push button is pressed.

ii)

When scanner duct to furnace differential pressure is less than 1 15 mm of wcl.


and fan B is running.

iii)
.b)

If the fan B fails to start wihtin 5 seconds.


When scanner air fan 'A' is started, impulses shall be given for

i)

Opening the damper BA-102.

ii)

Closing the damper BA-103 with a time delay of 5 secs. provided the scanner air
fan B is off.

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c)

Scanner air ran A can be tripped by pressing the stop push button, provided the
scanner duct to furnace differential pressure is more than 115 of wcl.

PAGE 114
d)

When scanner air fan 'A' is tripped, impulse shall be given to close automatically
the damper BA-102 with a time delay of 5 secs. provided the scanner air fan B is
'ON'.

3.13.1.6.2

SCANNER AIR FAN "B'

(a)

Interlocks similar to those at 3.13.1..1.

(b),

(c) and (d) for scanner fan 'B' will be similar to (b), (c) and (d) for scanner fan 'A'.

3.13.1.6.3

The "red" lamp shall glow when any scanner fanis 'ON'.

3.13.1.6.4

The "green" lamp shall grow when both the scanner fans are'off'.

3..13.1.6.5

The damper BA-99 shall open both ID/FD fans are tripped.

3.13.1.6.6.

The schemes for darnpers for BA-99,BA-102,BA-103arenotcoveredunder


FSSS.

3.13.1.7

INTERLOCK FOR IGNITOR FANS

Associated equipment

Control/Indication

Ignitor air fan A and B

i) Common start/stop pushbutton on FSSS


console insert.

Outlet damper BA-106 of ignitor for A

ii) Indicating lamps(redandgreen) on FSSS


console insert.

Outlet damper BA-1 07 of igni tor for B A selector switch to select fan A ro B will be provided
in MCC. 3 push buttons at UCB red, green indicating lamps.
3.13.1.7.1

Interlocks for ignitor air fan A and B (common).

a)

Ignitor air fan 'A' (or B as selected) can be started by pressing the push button.

b)

Ignitor'air fan'A'(or B as selected) shall start automatically when any oil

PAGE 115
elevation (AB or CD of EF) start is initiated.
c)

Ignitor fan A (orB asselected) can be tripped by pressing the pushbutton provided
all ignitor valves are in closed position.

d)
3.13.2

The fan will start automatically when any ignitor or oil elevation start is initiated.
INTERLOCKS

OTHER

THAN

THOSE

COVERED

CIRCUITRY
3.13.2.1 I.D. FAN INTERLOCKS

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UNDER

FSSS

3.13.2.1.1

CONDITIONS EXISTING WHEN THE UNIT IS SHUT DOWN i.e. PRIOR


TO STARTING I.D. FANS.

ID fan A and ID fan B 'Off'


Regulating vanes FG-1 0 and FC-1 1 fully open.
Outlet dampers FG-1 2 and FC-1 3 fully open.
Inlet dampers FG-14,16 and FC-15,17 fully open.
nterconnecting damper FC-5 and FG-18 closed.
The regulating vanes will be on manual control during shut down.
3.13.2.1.2.
a)

STARTING ID FAN "A" (IF FAN "B'OFF)


Operator shall give impulse to bring the regulating vanes FG-10 to the minimum
positions and to close the outlet damper FG-12.

b)

ID fan'A'shall be prohibited from starting till the following conditions are


satisfied:

PAGE 116
i)

Regulating vanes FG-10 in minimum position.

ii)

Outlet damper FG-12 closed.

iii)

Lubeoil pressure to the fan m'otorbearing adequate 0.5 kg/cm2 (Lube oil pressure
lamp indication shall be provided on the control desk).

iv)

Fan/fan motor bearing temperature not very high (95/80OC).

c)

When I.D. fan A is started (ID fan B is off) impulses shall be given for:

i)

Opening the putlet damper FG-12 after a time delay of 45 secs.

ii)

Connecting the regulating vanes FG-10 to the regulator.

iii)

Opening the interconnecting damper FG-5 and FC-18.

iv)

Cl ' osing the inletdampers FC-15 and FC-17and theoutlet damper FC-13 of ID fan
B and bringing the inlet vanes FG-11 to minimum position.

v)

Permission to start either FD fan A or FD fan B.

3.13.2.1.3.

STARTING ID FAN B (ID FAN A IS.'OFF')

Interlocks similar to@-those at clause 3.13.2.1.2. shall hold good for this condition.
3.13.2.1.4.
a)
i)

TRIPPING OF ID FAN A (ID FAN B IS OFF)


ID fan A shall trip automatically under the following conditions:
ID fan A bearing temperature too high (90"C).

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ii)

ID fan A motor bearing temperature too high (SOIIC) prior to this ID fan A
motor lube oil system trouble shall be aiinounciated in,',UCB when motor
bearing temperature is high (75OC).

iii)

Lube oil pressure for motor bearing low with a time delay of 3 minutes (oil
pressure low will be reflected through lube oil system).

ix,)

Air liciter A and Air heater B is off.

PAGE 117
b)

When ID fan A trips (ID fan A is off) impulses shall be given for:

i)

Opening the outlet damper FG-13 of ID fan B (short duration impulse)

ii)

Oprning of inlet dampers FG-15 & FG-17 of ID fan B.

iii)

Opening of regulation vane FG.411 of ID fan B (short duration impulse)

iv)

Disconnecting the regulators impulse from acting on regulating vane FG10 of ID


fan A.

v)

Opening the regulating vane FG-10 of ID fan A (short duration impulse)

vi)

Closing the interconnecting dampers FG-5 & FG-18.

vii) Tripping the working FD fan and working PA fan.


3.13.2.1.5

TRIPPING OF ID FAN B (ID FAN, A IS OFF)

Interlocks similar to the seat clause3.12.2.1.4shallhold good for this condition.


3.13.2.1.6
a)

STARTING OF ID FAN B (ID FAN A IS ON)


ID fan B shall be prohibited from starting unless the following conditions are
satisfied:

i)

Outlet damper FG-13 is closed.

ii)

Regulating vane FG-1 1 is on minimum position

iii)

Lube oil pressure to the fan motor bearing is adequate 0.5 kg/cm2 (Lube oil
pressure lamp indication shall be provided on the control desk).

iv)

Fan/fan motor bearing temperature not very high (95/80"C).

b)

When ID fan B is started, impulses shall be given for:

i)

Opening the inlet dampers FC-15 and FG-17 after a time delay of 45 seconds.

PAGE 118
ii)

Opening the outlet damper FG-13 after a time delay of 45 seconds.

iii)

ConnectingtheregulatingvaneFG-11 to the regulator. The impulseof the regulator


shall actonboth the regulating vanes FG-10 and FG-1 1 through electronic
synchroniser.

iv)

Closing the interconnecting dampers FG-5 and FG-18.

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v)

Permission to start the tripped FD fan.

3.13.2.1.7 STARTING OF ID FAN A (ID FAN B IS "ON')


Interlocks similar to those at clause 3.13.2.1.6 shall hold good for this condition.
3.13.2.1.8

TRIPPING OF ID FAN B (ID FAN A IS "ON')

a)

ID fan B shall trip automatically under the following' conditions:

i)

Fan bearing temperature too high (90OC).

ii)

Pan motor bearing temperature too high (85OC). (prior tothis fan motor bearing
temperature high (75OC) shall be annunciated in UCB through ID fan B motor
lube oil system trouble)

iii)

Lube oil pressure is low with time delay of 60 seconds (lube oil pressure low
condition will be reflected through ID fan B motor lube oil system trouble
annunciation in UCB).

iv)

Air heater B is tripped.

b)

When ID fan B trips (ID fan A is on) impulses shall be given for:

i)

Disconnecting the regulator from acting on the regulating vane FG-1 1.

ii)

Bringing the regulating vane FC-11 to the minimum position.

iii)

Closing the inlet dampers FG-15 and FG-17.

iv)

Closing the outlet damper FG-13.

v)

Opening the interconnecting dampers FG-5 and FG-18.

PAGE 119
vi)

Tripping the preselected FD fan, provided other FD fan is 'ON'.

viii) Energisation of partial load relay.


3.13.2.1.9

TRIPPING OF ID FAN A (ID FAN B IS "ON")

Interlocks similar to those at clause 3.13.2.1.8 shall hold good for this condition.
Note:
i)

Each ID fan shall be provided with a deinterlocking switch which will have two
positions 'interlock' and 'deinterlock'. When this switch is in 'off' position and if
this ID dan is started then the impulses initiating by this fan 'on' position shall be
locked and also the impulse to trip this ID fan & air heater trips shall be blocked.
These will again act when the deinterlocking switch is brough to 'interlock'
position.

ii)

'Short duration impulse means inter impulse which will act only for a short
period (say 1 niin or so).

3.13.2.2

FD FAN INTERLOCKS

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3.13.2.2.1

CONDITIONS PRIOR TO STARTING FD FANS

FD fan A and FD fan B off,


Fan impeller BA-1, BA-2 in maximum position, outlet dampers BA-3, BA-4 fully
open. Interconnecting damper BA-11 may be in open or close position.
3.13.2.2.2
a)

STARTING FD FAN A (FD FAN B IS OFF)


Operator shal 1 give impulses to bring the fan impeller (BA-1) to the minimum
position and to close the outlet damper (BA-3).

b)

FD fan A shall be prohibited from starting until the following conditions are
satisfied:

PAGE 120
i)

ID fan A or ID fan B is on.

ii)

Control oil pressure adequate (8 kg/cm2) (oil pressure adequate lamp indication
shall be provided on the control desk).

iii)

Fan impeller (BA-2 in closed position).

iv)

Outlet damper BA-3 in minimum position.

v)

FD fan A bearing tempera ture not very high (1 OOOC).

vi)

FD fan A motor bearing temperature not very high (65OC).

c)

When FD fan A is started (FD fan B is off)


Impulses shall be given for:

i)

Opening the outlet dampe BA-3 with a time delay of 30 secs.

ii)

Connecting the impeller (BA-1) control drive to the regulator.

iii)

OpeningtheinterconnectingdamperBA-11.

iv)

ClosingtheouterdamperBA-4oAIFDfanBandbringingtheimpeller(BA-

2)

of FD fan B to the minimum position.

3.13.2.2.3

STARTING FD FAN B (FD FAN A IS OFF)

Interlocks similar to these at 3.13.2.2.2 shall hold good for this condition.
3.13.2.2.4

TRIPPING OF FD FAN A (FD FAN B IS OFF)

a)

FD fan A shall trip under the following conditions:

i)

FD fan A bearing temperature too high (100"C) (prior to this FD fan A bearing
temperature high (90OC) condition will be annunciated through the annunciation
FD fan A lube oil system trouble in UCB).

i) FD fan A motor bearing temperature too high (65OC).


iii)

Both ID fans trip.

PAGE 121
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b)

When FD fan A trips (FD fan B is off), impulses shall be given for:

i)

Disconnecting the impeller (BA-1) control drive from the regulator.

ii)

Bringing the impeller (BA-1) to the maximum position (short duration impulses).

iii)

Bringing the impeller (BA-2) of FD fan B to the maximum position (short


duration impulse).

iv)

Opening the outlet damper BA-4 of FD fan B (short duration impulse).

v)

To open the emergency scanner air damper BA-99.

3.13.2.2.5

TRIPPING FD FAN B (FD FAN A IS OFF)

Interlocks similar to those at 3.13.2.2.4 shall hold good for this conditon.
3.13.2.2.6
a)

STARTING FD FAN B (FD FAN A IS ON)


FD fan B (FD fan A is on) shall be prohibited from starting until the following
conditions are satisfied:

i)

Both ID fans are on.

ii)

Control oil pressure adequate (8 kg/cm2) (oil pressure adequate lamp indication
shall be provided on the control desk).

iii)

Impeller (BA-2) in the minimum position.

iv)

Outlet damper (BA-4) in the closed position.

v)

Fan/ fan motor bearing temperature not very high.

b)

When FD fan B is started (FD fan A is on) impulses shall be given for:

i)

Opening the outlet damper (BA-4) with a time delay of 30 secs.

ii)

Connecting the impeller (BA-2) control drive to the regulator.

iii)

Closing the interconnecting damper BA-11.

PAGE 122
3.13.22.7 STARTING FD FAN A (FD FAN B IS ON)
Interlocks similar to those at 3.13.2.2.6 shall hold good for this condition.
3.13.2.2.8

TRIPPING OF FD FAN B (FD FAN A IS ON)

a)

FD fan B shall trip (FD fan A is on) under the following conditions:

i)

One of the ID fans trips and this fan is selected.

ii).

FD fan B motor bearing temperature too high.

iii)

FD fan B bearing temperature too high (prior to this 'FD fan B bearing
temperature high'condition shall be annunciated through'FD fan B lube oil
system trouble' annunciation in UCB).

b)

When FD fan B trips (FD fan A is on), impulses shall be given for:

i)

Disconnecting regulator impulse from acting on impeller (BA-2) control drive.

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ii)

Bringing impeller (BA-2) to the minimum position.

iii)

Closing the outlet damper BA-4.

iv)

Opening the interconnecting damper BA-1 1.

v)

Energisation of partial load relay.

3.13.2.2.9

TRIPPING OF FD FAN A (FD FAN B IS ON)

Interlocks similar to those at 3.13.2.2.8 shall hold good for this condition.
Note:

Each FD fan shall be provided with a deinterlocking swutch which will have two
positions - 'interlock' and 'deinterlock' position when the switch is in deinterlock
position and FD fan is started, then the impulses initiating from FD fan 'on' condition
shall be blocked and also the impulses to trip the fan in the event of unit trip of ID fan
trip shall be blocked. These will again act when the deinterlocking switch is brought to
interlock position.

PAGE 123
-3.13.2.3 PA FAN INTERLOCKS
3.13.2.3.1

CONDITIONS PRIOR TO START UP

PA fan 'A' and PA fan 'B' off.


Outlet dampers BA-19 and BA-20 open.
Regulating vanes BA-17 and BA-18 in wide open position.
Interconnecting damper BA-21 may be in open or close position.
3.13.2.3.2 STARTING PA PAN "A'(PA FAN.B" IS OFF)
a)

Operator shall give impulses to close the outlet damper BA-19 and to bring the
regulating vane BA-17 tothe minimum position.

b)

PA fan A shall be prohibited from starting until the following conditions are
satisfied:

i)

Regu ating vane BA-17 in t e minimum position.

ii)

Outlet damper BA-19 in closed.position.

iii)

Lube oil pressure adequate (0.5 kg/cm2). (Lube oil pressure adequate lamp
indication shall be provided on control desk.)

iv)

PA fan A bearing temperature not very high (100OC).

v)

PA fan A.motor bearing temperature not very high (SOOC).

vi)

Any, one FD is on.

c)

When PA fan A is started (PA fan B is off) impulse shall be given for:

i)

Opening the outlet damper BA-19 with a time delay of 45 secs.

ii)

Connecting the regulating vane BA-17 to the regulator.

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iii)

Opening the interconnecting damper BA-21.

PAGE 124
iv)

BringingtheregulatingVaneBA-18ofPAfanBtotheminimumposition.

v)

Closing the outlet damper BA-20 of PA fan B.

3.13.2.3.3

STARTING PA FAN B (PA FAN A IS OFF)

Interlocks similar to those at 3.13.2.3.2 shall hold good for this condition.
3.13.2.3.4

TRIPPING OF PA FAN A (PA FAN B IS OFF)

a)

PA fan A shall trip (PA fan B is off) under the following conditions:

i)

PA fan A bearing temperature too high (100OC).

ii)

PA fan A motor bearing temperature too high (80OC) (prior to this operator will
be alarmed through PA fan A motor lube oil system trouble annucciation in UCB
when motor bearing temperature is high (75OC).

iii)

Lube oil pressure at entry to the PA fan A motor bearing low with a time delay
available range is upto 5 min. (operator will be alarmed of this condition through
PA fan A motor lube oil system trouble annunciation in UCB).

iv)

Any boiler trip condition is present (impulse from FSSS).

v)

Both the FD fans are tripped.

b)

When PA fan A trips (PA fan B is off), impulses shall. be given for:

Disconnecting the regulating vane BA-17 from the regulator.


ii)

Bringing the regulating vane BA-17 to wideopen position (short duration


impulse).

iii)

Opening the outlet damper BA-19 (short duration impulse).

iv)

Bringing the regulating vane BA-18 of PA fan B to wide open position (short
duration impulse).

v)

Opening the outlet damper BA-20 of PA fan B (short duration impulses).

PAGE 125
3.13.2.3.5

TRIPPING PA FAN B (PA FAN A IS OFF)

Interlock similar to those at 3.13.2.3.4 hold good for this condition.


3.13.2.3.6
a)

STARTING PA FAN B (PA FAN A 15 ON)


PAfan Bshall be prohibitedfrom starting unless the followingconditions are
satisfied:

i)

Both FD fans are on:

ii)

Regulating vane BA-18 in the minimum position.

iii)

Outlet damp@r vane BA-20 in closed position.

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iv)

Lube oil pressure adequate (0.5 kg/cm2) (Lube oil pressure adequate' indication
shall be available on control desk).

v)

PA fan B bearing temperature not very high (100OC).

vi)

PA fan B motor bearing temperature not very high (80OC).

b)

When PA fan B is started (PA fan A is on) impulses shall be given:

i)

Opening the outlet damper BA-20 with a time delay of 45 secs.

ii)

Connecting the regulating vane BA-18 to the regulator.

iii)

Closing.the interconnecting damper BA-21.

3.13.2.3.7

STARTING PA FAN A (PA FAN B IS ON)

Interlocks similar to those at 3.13.2.3.6 shall hold good for this condition.
3.13.2.3.8
a)
i)

TRIPPING OF PA PAN B (PA FAN A IS ON)


PA fan B shall trip (PA fan A is on) under the following conditions:
Eitherof two working FD fans trips and this fan is selected.

PAGE 126
ii)

PA fan B bearing temperature too high (10OoC).

iii)

PA fan B motor bearing temperature too high (80OC). (Prior to this operator will
be alarmed by the PA fan B motor lube oil system trouble annunciated in UCB
when the motor bearing temperature is high (75OC).

iv)

Lubeoil pressure atentry to PA fan B motor bearing low with a time delay of 5
minutes (operator will be alarmed of this condition through PA fan B motor lube
oil system trouble annunciation in UCB). -

b)

When PA fan B trips (PA fan A is on), im ulses shall be given for:

i)

Disconnecting the regulating vane BA-18 from the regulator.

ii)

Bringing the regulating vane BA-18 to the minimum position.

iii)

Closing the outlet damper BA-20

iv)

Opening the interconnecting damper BA-21.

v)

Energisation of partial load relay.

vi)

To FSSS to reduce the boiler load suitably.

3.13.2.3.9

TRIPPING OF PA FAN A (PA FAN V IS ON)

Interlockssimilar to thoseatcaluse3.13.2.3.8shall hold good forthisconnection.


3.13.2.3.10

Both the PA fans shall trip simultaneously when any boiler trip condition

is present (impulse from FSSS).

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Note

Each PA fan shall be provided with a deinterlocking switch having two positions 'interlock'and'deinterlock'.

When this switch is puton'deinterlock' position, then

impulses initiating from fan 'on' position shall be blocked and also the impulses to trip
the fan when boiler trip condition is present.
Note:

Following contacts shall be made available for FSSS from the electrical scheme of ID,
FD and PA fans:
1) ID FAN A ON

2) ID FAN B ON

PAGE 127
3) ID FAN A OFF

4) ID FAN B OFF

5) FD FAN A ON

6) FD FAN B ON

7) FD FAN A OFF

8) FD FAN B OFF

9) PA FAN A ON

10) PA AN B ON

1 1) PA FAN A OFF

12) PA FAN B OFF.

3.13.2.4 SEAL AIR FANS


Control:
3.13.2.4.1
a)

Switches and indicating lamps in UCB.

INTERLOCK FOR SEAL AIR FAN "A'


Seal air fan'A'shall be prohibited from starting until PA fan A or PA fan B is
running.

b)

Seal air fan 'A' can be manually tripped only if all the mills are tripped or fan B is
ON.

c)

Seal air fan 'A' will be tripped automatically with a time delay of 60 secs when
both PA fans trip.

Note:

When seal air fan 'A' is working and if seal air pressure low annunciation comes,
operate has to start the seal air fan B. afterwards the seal air fan A shall be tripped
manually.

3.13.2.4.2

INTERLOCKS FOR SEAL AIR FAN B

Interlocks similar to those at 3.13.2.4.1 shall hold good.


3.13.2.5

AIR HEATER INTERLOCKS

3.13.2.5.1 AIR HEATER "A'


PAGE 128
a)

Airheater Aelectricmotorshall trip automatically when the temperature of


support/guide bearing of air heater A is very high (700C approx.) under this
condition air heater A air motor shall also trip if in operation.

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b)

Whenever air heater 'A' electric motor trips. a short duration impulses shall be
given for:

i)

Starting air heater A air motor (shoter duration impulses) provided the
temperature of support guide bearing of air heater A is less than 700c.

c)

Whenever both the electric motor and air motor of air heater A trip, impulses
shall be given for:

i)

Closing the dampers FG-1, FG-3, BA-12, BA-14, BA-22, and BA-24 (see note
below).

ii)

Tripping of ID fan A provided ID fan B is on and air heater B is on.

iii)

Tripping both the ID fans if air heater B is off.

iv)

Opening the interconnecting damper BA-10 if air heater B is on.

This

interconnecting damper shall close when both the air heaters are started.
Note:

These dampers cannot be opened unless either the air motor or electric motor of A.H. is
started.
d)

Interlocks of lube oil pumps

i)

Whenever the temperatureof supportbearingof air heater A ishigh (300c approx.)


impulse shall be given for its lube oil pump of start. This pump shall trip when
the temperature of the support bearing falls below this value.

ii)

Whenever the temperature of guide bearing of air heater A is high 450c approx)
impulse shall be given for its lube oil pumps to start. This pump shall trip when
the temperature of guide bearing falls below this value.

3.13.2.5.2

AIR HEATER B

Interlocks for air heater B will be similar to those for air heater A.
PAGE 129
3.13.2.6 BLOW DOWN VALVES (BD-6 AND BO-7)
i)

When drum water level rises to 100 mm above normal water level, an
annunciation 'Drum' level high' shall be given in UCB.

ii)

When drum level rises to 125 mm above normal water level, blow down valves
BD-7 shall open and this condition shall be annunciated.

iii)

Blowing valves will close automatically when the water level falls down to
NWL. One deinterlock switch shall be provided for both the valve BD6 and BD7.

3.13.2.7

SCANNER FAN OUTLET DAMPERS (B-102 AND B-103)


a)

Damper BA-102 shall open under any of the following conditions:

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i)

Both the scanner fans are off.

ii)

Scanner fan A is on.

b)

Damp erBA-102shallcloseunderthefollowin conditions:

i)

Scanner fan (A) is tripped (with a time delay of 5 secs) provided scanner fan B is
n.

3.13.2.7.2

SCANNER FAN B OUTLET DAMPER BA-103

a)

Damper BA-'103 shall open under any of the following conditions:

i)

Both the sciiiiner fans are off.

ii)

Scanner fan B is on.

b)

Damper BA-103 shall close under the following conditions:

i)

Scanner fan B is tripped (with a time delay of 5 secs) provided scanner fan A is
on.

3.13.2.7.3 SCANNER AIR EMERGENCY DAMPER BA-99


PAGE 130
The damper BA-99'shall open when both ID/FD fans are tripper
3.13.2.8

IGNITOR AIR FAN

3.13.2.8.1

IGNITOR AIR FAN OUTLET DAMPER BA-106

a)

Damper BA-106 shall open under any of the following conditions:

i)

Both the ignitor air fans are off.

ii)

Ignitor air fan A is on.

b)

Damper BA-106 shall close under the following conditions.

i)

Ignitor air fan A is tripped (with a tinie delay of 5 secs) provided fall B is on.

3.13.2.8.2

3.13.2.9

IGNITOR FAN B OUTLET DAMPER BA-107

a)

Damper BA-107 shall open under any of the following conditions:

i)

Both the ignitor air fans are off.

ii)

Ignitor air fan B is on.

b)

Damper BA-107 shall close under the following conditions:

i)

Ignitor air fan B is tpipped (with a time delay of 5 secs) provided fan A is on.
INTERLOCK FOR ID FAN MOTOR LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

As'sociated equipment

Coiitrollindication

Pump A of ID fan A motor lube oil system

i)

Start and stop push buttons on local

control board.
ii)

Two indicating lamps (red and green)


on LCB.

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Pump B of ID fan A motor lube oil system

i) Start and stop push buttons on LCB.

PAGE 131
ii)

Two indicating lamps (red and green) on

LCB. Common auto-manual switch for motors


of pump A and pump B on LCB.

Pum A of ID fan B lube oil system

i)

Start and stop buttons on LCB@

ii)

Two indicating lamps (red and green)


on LCB.

Pump B of ID fan B lube oil system

i) Start and stop push buttons on LCB.


ii)

Two indicating lamps (red and green).

Common auto-manual switch for motors of


pump A and pump B on LCB.
Heater for lube oil tank
3.13.2.9.1
a)

Auto manual switch. local annunciations.

Interlocks for ID fan A motor lube oil system:


i) Pumps A will start automatically if pump B trips provided A/M switch is in
auto position.

ii)

Pump A will start automatically with a time delay of 3 secs if lube oil pressure
falls below 10 kg/cm2 and the pump B is working provided auto-manual switch
is in auto-position.

i)

Pump B will start automatically with a time delay of 1 see if pump A trips
provided A/M switch in in auto position.

ii)

pump B will start automatically with a time delay of 3 secs if lube oil
pressurefallsbelow 10kg/cm2and the pump Ais workingprovided A/ M switch is
in auto position.

c)

Pum" A or pump B can be started/tripped by pressing the respective push buttons


provided on LCB, only when A/M switch is in manual position.

PAGE 132
d)

i) Whenever the lube oil pressure at entry to ID fan A motor bearing falls
belowO.9 kg/cm2 impulse shall be given aftera time delayof 60 secs to trip the
ID fan A.

ii)

ID fan A shall be prohibited from starting until the lube oil pressure at entry to
ID fan A motor bearing is adequate.

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3.13.2.9'.2 Interlocks for ID fan R motor lubricating oil system.


Interlocks similar to those at a, b, c, and d shall hold good for ID fan B motor
lubricating oil system also.
3.13.2.1

INTERLOCKS FOR FD FAN LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

Associated equipment

Control/indication

Pump A of FD fan A lube oil system

i)

Start and stop push buttons on LCB.

ii) Two indicating lamps (red and green) on


LCB,
Pump B if FD fan A lube oil system

-doCommon auto-manual switch for motors of


pump A and B on LCB.

Pump A of FD fan B lube oil system

i)

Start and stop push buttons on LCB.

ii) Two indicating lamps (red and green) on


LCB.
Pump FD fan B lube oil system

-doCommon A/ M switch for motors of pump A


and B on UCB.

3.13.2.10.1
a)

Interlocks for FD fan A lube oil system..


i) Pump A will statrt automatically after time delay of 3 secs if pump B trips
provided A/M switch is in auto position.

ii)

Pump A will sart automatically with a time delay of 3.0 secs if oil pressure falls
below 5.0 kg/cm2 and the pump is working provided A/M switch is in auto
position.

PAGE 133
b) Pump B will start automatically with a time delay of 8 secs if pump
A trips provided A/M switch is in auto position.
ii)

Pump B will start automatically with a time delay of 9 secs if lube oil pressure
falls below 5.0 kg/ cm2 and the pump A is working provided A M switch is in
auto position.

c)

Pump A or pump B can be started/tripped by pressing the respective push buttons


provided on LCB only when A/M switch is in auto position.

d)

FD fan A shall be prohibited from starting until the control oil pressure is
adequate.

3.13.2.10.2

INTERLOCKS FOR FD FAN B LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

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Inter locks similar to those a ta,b, cand d shall hold good for FD fanblubricating oil
system.
3.13.2.11

INTERLOCKS FOR PA FAN MOTOR LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

Associated equipment

Control/ Indication

Pump A of PA fan A motor lube oil system

i)
ii)

Start and stop push button on LCB.


two indicating lamps (red and green) on
LCB.

Pump B of PA fan A motor lube oil system

-doCommon A/M switch for motor of pump A and


pump B on LCB.

Pump A of PA fan motor B lube oil system

i)
ii)

Start and stop push buttons in LCB.


Two indicating lamps (red and green) in
LCB.

Pump B of PA fan motor B lube oil system

-doCommon A/M switch for motors of pump A


and B LCB.

PAGE 134
Heater for lube oil tank A/M switch local
annunciation.
3.13.2.11.1
a)

INTERLOCKS FOR PA FAN A MOTOR LUBE OIL SYSTEM


i) Pump A will start automatically with time delay of 3 secs if pump B trips
provided A / M switch is in au to position.

ii)

Pump A will start automatically with a time delay of 3.0 secs if lube oil pressure
falls below 1 kg/cm2and the pump Bis working provided auto manual switch is in
auto position.

b)

i) Pump B will start automatically with a tinie delay of 8 secs if pump A trips
provided A/M switch is in auto position.

ii)

Pump B will start automatically with a time delay of 8 secs if lube oil pressure
falls belowl.Okg/cm2 and the pump A is working provided A/ M switch is in auto
position.

c)

Pump A or pump B can be started/tripped by pressing the respective push buttons


provided in LCB only when A/ M switch is in manual position.

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d)

i) Whenever the lube oil pressure at entry to PA fan A motor bearing falls below
0.8 kg/cm2 impulse shall be given after a time delay of 60 secs to trip to the PA
fan.

ii)

PA fan 'A' shall be prohibited from starting until the lube oil pressure at entry to
PA fan A motor bearing is adequate.

3.13.2.11.2

INTERLOCKS FOR PA FAN B MOTOR


LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM

Interlocks similar to those at a, b, c and d shall hold good for PA fan B motor lube oil
system also.
3.13.2.12

Furnace temperature probe:

PAGE 135
i)

Furnace temperature probe can be advanced retracted using the push buttons
provided in UCB as well as at site.

ii)

Furnace temperature probe shall be prohibited from being advanced further into
the furnace if furnace temperature sensed by it is more than (540"C).

iii)

If furnace temperature probe is inside the furnace and temperature exceeds 540"C
it will be retracted back automatically.

3.14.0 INTERLOCKS OF TURBINE AUXILIARIES


3.14.1 Lubrication oil pumps of turbine
3.14.1.1
3.14.1.1.1

A.C. MOTOR DRIVEN STAND BY LUBRICATION OIL PUMP


The A.C motor driven standby lubrication oil pump is provided to supply bearing
oil when the T.C. set is on barring gear operation or at emergency condition. This
pump is also used to supply oil to bearings and hydraulic mechanism for flushing
the turbine at standstill.

3.14.1.1.2

When the de inter locks witch is in' inter lock position' the pumps shall start if the
pressure in turbine lube oil system should fall to 0.6 kg/cm2 (g) (low set point
No.1) and should be arranged not to stop automatically when the pressure is
restored the annunciation 'turbine lube oil pressure low shall also come up under
this condition.

3.14.l.'1.3
3.14.1.2
3.14.1.2.1

An alarm shall come up whenever the de-interlock switch is'De-interlock' position.


EMERGENCY LUBRICATION OIL PUMP
The D.C. motor driven emergency oil pump is used as a final back-up to supply
bearing oil.

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3.14.1.2.2

When the de inter locks witch is in inter lock' position the pumps shall start if the
pressure in the turbine lube oil system should fail to 0.5 kg/cm2 (g)

PAGE 136
(low set point No.2) and should be arranged not to stop automatically when the
pressure is restored.
3.14.1.2.3

An alarm shall come up whenever the de inter locks witch is in "de interlock'
position.

3.14.2

Main condensate pumps:

3.14.2.1

Normally two pumps shall be running whereas the third one shall be kept as 'Stand
by 'pump. Each pump shall be provided with one control switch for starting and
stopping the pumps and one selector switch having three positions i.e.
'WORKINC,' position for-selecting the pump as working pump, 'TESTING'
position for removal of interlocks on the pump working during testing, 'STAND
BY' position for selecting the pump as standby pump.

3.14.2.2 Thefollowinginterlocksshallbeprovidedforworkingpumpsandthestandby pump:i)

The standby pumps shall start when either if the service pumps trips or the
pressure in the common header after the discharge of main condensate pump is
low after once the normal value has been attained.

ii)

The working pump shall trip when the discharge pressure before its non return
valve falls to present low value. This impulse shall be effective only after a time
delay not exceeding 3.0 minutes after its starting.

iii)

If one of the two working condensate pump trips and the standby condensate
pump fails to come up and into operation within a period not exceeding 60
seconds, partial load relay shall be energised.

3.14.2.3 In case all the three condensate pumps are tripped the solenoid valve DM-105 on the
emergenc sealing line to condensate pumps shall open and supply the sealing water to
condensate pumps.

The valve shall close in case any of the condensate pump is

restarted.
3.14.3.1 Level in H.P. Heaters:3.14.3.1 When the level in any of the H.P. heaters (HPH5 thro HPH-7) falls to 250 mm
PAGE 137
(lst low set-value), the annunciation, 'H.P. heater level-low' shall come up. Similarly
when the level in any of the H.P. heaters rises to 550 mm (l st high setvalue), the

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annunciation,' H.P. heater level-high shall come up. The alarm contacts of remote heater
level indicators shall be used for these an nuciation.
3.14.3.2

When the level in any of the H.P. heaters rises further to 750 mm (2nd high set
value), simultaneous impulses shall be given for the following:
i)

To open the solenoid valves (MC-101 and MC-102)

ii)

To open motor operated back up FW by pass valve (BF-40)

iii)

To close the motor operated inlet and outlet valves (BF-38 and BF-39) after full
opening of bypass valve (BF-40).

iv)

To close the motor operated valves (ES-3, ES-4 and ES-5) in the heaters of
extraction lines.

v)

To give the annunciation 'H.P. heater level very high'.

3.14.3.3 The initiating contacts for the conditions given in clause 3.14.3.2 shall be from the level
switches and remote heater-level indicators and those shall be connected in 'OR' logic.
3.14.3.4 When the level in any'of the H.P. heater still further rises to 4250 mm 3rd high set
value) action as described in clause 3.2.1.3 and 3.5.1.4 shall take place.
3.14.4 LEVEL IN L.P. HEATERS
3.14.4.1 When the level in any of the L.P. heaters (LPH-2 thro LPH-4) falls to low set point
No. 1 i.e. 200 mm in case of LPH-2 and LPH-3 and 215 mm in case of LPH4, the
annunciation 'LP heater level-low' shall come up. Similarly, when the level in any of
the L.P. heaters rises to high set point No. 1 i.e 1050 mm in case of LPH-2 and LPH-3
and 1065 mm in case of LPH-4, the annunciation'LP heater level high' shall come up.
The alarm contacts of remote heater level indicators shall be used for these
annunciations.
3.14.4.2 When the level in any of L.P. heater rises to high set point No. 2. i.e. 1350 mm in case
of LPH-2 and LPH-3 and 1365 mm in case of LPH-4, simultaneous
PAGE 138
impulses shall be given to close the motor operated valvesES-12,ES-13 and ES14 on the
extraction lines to the L.P. heaters and to give the alarm 'L.P. heater level very high'. The
contacts of level switched shall be used for this condition.
3.14.5 MAIN CONDENSATE PUMPS:
3.14.5.1

Normally two pumps shall be running whereas the third one shall be kept as
'Standby' pump.

Each pumps shall be provided with one control switch for

starting and stopping the pump and one selector switch having three positions i.e.
WORKING'position for selecting the pump as working pump, TESTING' position
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for removal of interlocks on the pump working during testing, 'STANDBY'


position for selecting the pump as standby pump.
3.14.5.2

Thefollowinginterlocksshallbeprovidedforworkingpumpsandthestandby
pump:
1)

The standby pump shall start when either of the service pumps trips or the pressur
in the common header after the discharge of main condensate pump is low afer
once the normal value has been attained.

ii)

The working pump shall trip when the discharge pressure before its nonreturn
valve falls to 10kg /CM2 . This impulse shall be effective only after a time delay
not exceeding 1.0 minute after its starting.

iii)

If one of the two working condensate pump trips and the standby condensate
pump fails to come up into operation within a period not exceeding 60 seconds,
partial load relay shall be energised.

3.14.5.3 In case all the three condensate pumps are not is operation tripped the solonoid valve
DM-105 on the emergency sealing line to condensate pumps shall open and supply the
sealing water to condensate pumps. The valve shall close in case any of the condensate
pump is restarted.
3.14.6 LEVEL IN H.P. HEATERS
3.14.6.1 When the level in any of the H.P. heat ers (HP5) through HPH-7) falls to 250 mm (lst
low set value), the annunciation, "H.P. heater level low' shall come up. Similarly
when the level in any of the H. P. heaters rises to 550 mm (1 st high set
PAGE 139
value), the annunciation, "H.P. heater level-high' shall come up. The alarm contacts
of remote heater level indicators shall be used for these annunciations.
3.14.7 DRIP PUMPS
3.14.7.1

For forcing the drain from LPH-2 in the main condensate discharge line two drip
pumps have been provided.

Normally one pump shall run as 'Working' pump

whereas the second one shall be kept as standby. It should be possible to select
remotely any one of the pumps as 'working' pump and the other as "Standby' pump.
3.14.7.2

For level control in LPH-2, two different regulation zone viz. high level regulation
zone and low level regulation zone have been envisaged. the high level regulation
zone shall be selected below 1050 mm (lst high set point) and thelevel
differencebetweenthe tworegulation zonesshallbe sufficient to avoid overlap actions
of the level controllers. The regulating valve HD-2 shall act as a final conttrol

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element for the high level controller and shall maintain the level at high zone by
cascading the heater drain to condenser. The regulating valve HD-3 shall act as a
final control element for the low level controller and shall maintain the level at low
level zone by regulating the drip pump discharge.
3.14.7.3

When for opeacion under interlock by keeping the de inter lock switch in the
'interlock' position, the pumps shall operate in accordance with the conditions
stipulated below:
i)

The low level controller shall be out of action and the regulating valve HD-3 shall
be fully closed if both the drip pumps are under tripped condition. Such blocking
signals shall cease to act and the controller would be free to actuate the regulating
valve HD-3 if one or both the pumps are running.

ii)

The 'working' pump shall start if the regulating valve HD-3 is closed and the
opening of the regulating valve HD-2 is more than 90%.

iii)

If the level in LPH-2 should fall to 200 mm (1 st low set value) or both the
regulating valves HD-2 and HD-3 got closed, the 'working' pump shall trip with a
time delay of 20 secs. but the standby pump, if in o eration, shall trip without any
time delay.

PAGE 140
iv)

The 'standby' pump shall start if the 'working 'pump motor is tripped for reasons
other than those mentioned at clause 3.14.7.3 (iii) above or the discharge pressure
of working pump ahead of its non-return valve is below 15kg/cm2 value for 10
seconds after starting of the 'working' pump.

3.14.8

H.P. HEATER DRAIN DIVERSION:

3.14.8.1 When selected for operation under interlocks by keeping the de-interlock switch in the
'Interlock' position, the drain diversions shall be accordance with the conditions
stipulated below:
i)

If the steam pressure in the extraction line to HPH-5 falls below 10.8 ATA the
drain from HPH-5 shall cascade to LPH-A by giving simultaneous impulses to
open the valves HD-21 and to close the valve HD-31.

ii)

If the steam pressure in the extraction line to HPH-6 remains above the

11.3 ATA when the drain from HPH-5 is cascading to LPH-4 i.e. valve HD-21 is fully
open and valve HD-31 is fully closed, the drain from HPH6shall cascade to the

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deaerator by giving simultaneous impulses to open the valve HD-30 and to close
the valve HD-29.iii)

If the steam presure in the extraction line to HPH-6 falls below the 10.8 ATA, the
drain from HPH-6 shall cascade to HPH-5 by giving simultaneous impulses to
open the valve HD-29 and to close the valve HD-30.

iv)

IfthesteampressureintheextractionlinetoHPH-5risesabovell.3ATA, the drains from


HPH-6 and HPH-5 shall cascade to HPH-5 and the deaerator respectively by
giving simultaneous impulses to open the valves HD-29 and HD-31 and to close
the valves HD-21 and HD-30.

3.14.8.2 The steam pressure in the extraction lines for the above mentioned interlocks are
envisaged to be measured at the heater ends by the bourden tube pressure gauges
provided with one maximum and one minimum signalling contacts.

Further the

present value of pressure referred in clause 3.14.8.1 above shall ensure natural flow of
drain from respective heaters to deaerator. The minimum and maximum pressure set
values should be selected so as to avoid hunting of the 'system.
PAGE 141
3.14.9

PRESSURE DROP IN THE TURBINE EXTRACTION(S) SUPPLYING


STEAM TO DEAERATOR

3.14.9.1 There are three sources of steam supply to deaerator.

These sources are

extractionNo.3extractionNo. 2and the auxilliarysteam source 16 ATAheader. Of these


three sources, the extraction No' 3 is the normal source of steam supply. When
selected for operation under interlocks by keeping the de-inter lock switch in the
'interlock' positions, transfer of steam supply to deaerator from one source to another
shall be carried out automatically as detailed below:
a)

When the steam pressure in the extraction No. 3 builds upto 9.0 ATA, the valve
ES-7 on the line from 3rd extraction to deaerator shall open and when it is fully
open, impulses shall be given to close the valve ES-6 on the line from 2nd
extraction to deaerator.

b)

When the steam pressure in extraction No. 3 falls below 8.5 ATA while the steam
pressure in extraction No. 2 is more than 10.0 ATA, the valve ES-6 shall open and
when it is fully open, impulse shall be given to close the valves ES-7 and AS-57.

c)

When the steam pressure in extraction No.2 also falls below 9.5 ATA, the valve
AS-57 shall open and when it is fully open, impulses shall be given to close the
valves ES-6 and ES-7.

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d)

When the turbine trips out, valves ES-6 and ES-7 shall close and the valve AS-57
shall open simultaneously notwithstanding the conditions mentioned in clauses
3.14.9.1 (a), 3.14.9.1(b) and 3.14.9.1 (c) above.

3.14.10
3.14.1

MAIN STEAM SUPPLY TO GLAND SEALS OF HPT AND IPT


0.1 Provision has been made to inject main steam to the front seals-of HPT and IPT in
the event of turbine trip out. The injection of main steam is intended to be carried out
remote manually. The motor operated valves AS-43 and AS-47 on the main steam
injection line to HPT front seals and on the leak off line from HPT front seals to
extraction

No.4

respectively

shall

have

common

'open'

and'

pushbuttons.SimilarlythemotoroperatedvalvesAS-44andAS-48onthemain

close'
steam

injection line to IPT front seals and on the leak off line from IPT front seals
PAGE 142
to extraction No.4 respectively shall have another set of common open and 'close'push
buttons. While operating these valves remote manually' they shall have interlocks
opening and closing sequence as mentioned below:
a)

On pressing the 'open' push button common for valves AS-43 and AS-47, the
valve AS-43 shall begin to open after full closing of valve AS-47 while on
pressing the 'close' push button common for these valves, the valve AS-47 shall
begin to open after full closing of the valve AS-44.

b)

On pressing the 'open' push button common for valves AS-44 and AS-18, the
valve AS-44 shall begin to open after full closing of valve AS-48. While on
pressing the 'close' push button common for these valve AS-48 shall begin to open
after full closing of the valve AS-44.

3.14.11

NON-RETURN VALVES IN TURBINE EXTRACTION LINES

3.14.1

1.1 The non-return valves in the extraction lines are basically intended for stopping
reverse flow of steam during turbine trip out through the closure of emergency stop
valve(s) and interceptor valve(s) or loss of load through the opening of generator
circuit breaker and are equipped with power cylinders operated by two solenoid
valves MC-53 and MC-54 which when open, would charge the cylinders with main
condensate discharge. The solenoid valves MC-53 and MC-54 shall be energised
under the following conditions:
i)

If one or both of emergency stop valves and one or both of interceptor valves close
after synchronisation of the generator these shall reclose after closing of main stop
valves and their bypass valves in the extraction lines.

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The impulse for this

interlock will be from supervisory scheme. (Refer clause 3.6.3 also) Closed
condition of all F.C.N.R.V.S shall be indicated by green lamp provided on the
desk.
ii)

If the generator breaker opens the valves MC-53 and. MC-54 shall open for one
minute and then reclose. If the loss of load results in closure of ESVS and IVS
within one minute, reopening and reclosing of valves MC53 and MC-54 shall be
in accordance with the preceding condition i.e. caluse 3.14.1 1.1 (i).

PAGE 143
3.14.11.2

Remote manual closing of the valves MC-53 and MC-54 overriding the interlocks
described at clause 3.14.9.1 shall not be possible.

3.14.12

BARRING GEAR

3.14.12.1 The barring gear can be engaged either manually by hand lever at site or remote
manually from UCB/turbine hall operating a solenoid valve which in turn would
charge the oil powered servometer meant for engaging the barring gear mechanism.
The driving motor shall be switched on with a time delay not exceeding 1 0 seconds
after the energisation of the solenoid or immediately after the engagement through
the limit switch which trips on engagement of mechanism.
3.14.12.2 After engagement the solenoid valve shall automatically close and normally the oil
pressure above the oil powered servometer would fall as the oil drains out. If this
pressure does not fall to atmospheric pressure within about 10 sec of closing of
solenoid valve, an annunciation 'barring gear locked, no steam rolling' shall come up
as the turning gear may be damaged if speed increases (when being driven by steam)
while the servometer is charged with oil.
3.'14.12.3 The turning gear will automatically disengage when the torque output of the turbine
(when being driven by steam) exceeds the driving torque produced by the turning
gear. As the disengagement occurs the limit switch will reset and the driving motor
shall be tripped.
3.14.12.4

There shall be a selector switch on the desk of UCB to select the point of control
and under no circumstances simultaneous control from both the places should be
possible. In addi6on tonormal indicating pilot lamps for ON-OFF conditions, pilot
lamps to indicate engaged position of turning gear should be provided.
A push button near the turbine shall be provided to trip the driving motor in case of
emergency irrespective of mode of starting-

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3.14.12.5

The driving motor shall be tripped if in operation and the turbine lube oil pressure
decreases to low set point No. 3 (0.3 kg/cm2) (g) and it shall be prohibited from
starting if not in operation and the turbine lube oil pressure is not above the, low set
point No.3 (0.3 kg/ cm2) (g).

PAGE 144
3.14.13 CONTROL GEAR (SPEEDER GEAR) MOTOR
3.14.13.2

All signals to control gear motor for load increase will be blocked if the load
limitsetbytheturbineload-limiterhasbeenreached.Suchblockingwillprevail so long as
turbine continues operating at that load level. For this purpose, a change over load
limit switch has been provided in the turbine front standard.

3.14.13.3

In the event of turbine trip out sensed by closing of one or both of emergency stop
valves and one or both of interceptor valves, the motor will be reversed at fast speed
to bring the control gear back to'zero'position.

Stopping of the motor will be

effected from the subsequent pressure fall to a present low value in the charging oil
line to emergency governor pilot.
3.14.13.4

Soon after the emergency stop valves and interceptor valves start opening, the
motor circuit will be interlocked for slow speed operation only and the indicating
lamp provide to alarm the operator to put the speed selection switch should be kept
in 'slow' positon till ESV and IV remain open.

3.14.13.5

Interlocked operation of control gear motor under the conditions of protections


reguiring partial load reduction will be achieved through the energisation of
partialload relay and the present low load would be sensed from the proporfional
fall on steam pressure after first stage.

3.14.13.6
i)

For remote manual facility the following control switches are provided:
One number, 3-position stay out type selector switch for selecting two operating
speeds of the motor viz. 'slow' and 'fast' on turbine control desk only.

ii)

Threenumbers,3-position self return to neutral type operating switches, one each


of turbine control desk, generator control desk and switch yard control board to
increase and decrease load overriding interlocks other than those stipulated against
clauses 3.14.13.2 and 3.14.13.3.

iii)

One number, 2-position stay put type selector switch for selecting the point of
control viz. 'unit control board' and switch yeard control board' on the generator
control desk.

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PAGE 145
3.14.14 CIRCULATION WATER PUMPS
3.14.14.1 The unit is provided with two 50% capacity circulating water pumps which shall be
provided with the interlocks enumerated below:
i)

Any circulating water pump shall be prohibited from starting unless the
corresponding condenser outlet valve (CW-1 or CW-2) as the case may be) is
open.

ii)

When any circulating water pump is stared its corresponding valve (CW3 or CW-4
as the case maybe) on the circulating water line to unit mechanism from the
circulating water pump discharge shall open.

iii)

The circulating water pump shall trip under the following conditions:

a)

The discharge valve ((CW-1 or CW-2 as the -case may be) on the CW discharge
line from the corresponding condenser is closed.

b)

The corresponding CW pump motor bearing temperature exceeds a preset high


value.

iv)

When the CW pump is tripped, the corresponding valves (CW-1 and CW-3 or
CW-2 and CW-4 as the case may be) shall close and the partial load relay shall be
energised only if the othe- pump is 'ON'.

v)

When both the CW pumps trip, impulse shall be given to trip the gas cooler
booster pumps.

3.14.15

HP-LP BYPASS SYSTEM

3.14;15.1

The HP-LP bypass system shall come into operation under the following condition:

i)

Opening of the generator transformer circuit breaker (external load thrown off) on
the operation of electrical protection(s) provided the vacuum in the condenser is
healthy.

ii)

Closing of one or both of emergency stop valve(s) provided the vacuum in the
condenser is healthy.

PAGE 146
3.14.15.2

The HP-LP bypass system, if in operation, shall be put out of action if the vacuum
in the condenser falls below a preset value.

3.15

INTERLOCKS FOR B.F.P.S AND ITS ASSOCIATED VALVES AND


AUXILIARIES
BFP (A and B) shall have a control switch and a selector switch with three positions,
working testing and standby. BFP-C shall have two control switches and a selector

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switch with 5 positions breaker 4A working, breaker 4A standby, testing. Breaker 4B


working, breaker 4B standby.
3.15.1

Boiler feed pump 'A' shall be prohibited from starting unless all the following
conditions are fulfilled:
i)

Suction pressure at the suction of the booster. Pump A is more than 2.2 kg/cm'

.ii) Suction valve (BFP) is full open. / CM2) (g).


iii)

Lubricating oil pressure is adequate (0.8 kg

3.15.2 Whenever boiler feed pump A is started impulses shall be given.


i)

To open the cooling water valve CW-6 on the cooling water line to motor cooler
and the working oil cooler of hydraulic coupling. .

ii)

To the recirculation valve BF-22 as to maintain a flow of 125 T/hr in the suction 1
line of the BFP.

iii)

To dose the warm-up valve BF-19.

iv)

When BFP'A'is started with its selector switch in test position, when the impulse
to trip the BFP when suction pressure is low shall be blocked.

Under this

condition, this pump shall be treated as off for the purpose of determining the
number of working pumps.
3.15.3 Boiler feed pump 'A' shall trip under any of the following conditions:
i)

Suction pressure at the suction of main boiler feed pump is less than a preset
value. (This impulse shall beeffective only 20secs after the starting

PAGE 147
of the BFP.) There shall be two low set values (Hot-10 kg/crn' Cold-2.2 kg/cm2) for
boiler feed pumps. The settings being different under normal working conditions and
under the hot restart conditions. There will be two pressure gauges. The interlock will be
shifted to another pressure gauge in the hot restart conditions.
ii)

Lubrication oil pressure is very low (0.5 kg/cm2) (g).

iii)

Temperature of feed water at delivery of BFP is high (1 75OC).

iv)

Delivery pressure is low (50 kg/cm2). (This impulse shall be effective only after a
time delay of 20 secs after starting of BFP).

v)

BFP flow is high (450 t/hr).

vi)

BFP motor bearing temperature very high (80OC).

vii)

Unit trappings provided B.F.P. 'B' or B.F.P. 'C' is ON.

viii)

Turbine trip out provide B.F.P. 'B' or B.F.P. 'C' is ON.

3.15.4 Whenever BFP @A" trips, the following impulses shall be given:
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i)

To start standby BFP provided unit trip or turbine trip condition is not present.

ii)

To close the delivery valve (BF-7) with a time delay of 1.0 minute.

iii)

To start its auxiliary starting lube oil pump (short duration impulse)-

iv)

To close the cooling water valve CW-6 with a time delay of 1.0 minute.

v)

To open the warm up valve (BF-19) with time dela . of 60 secs.

vi)

To close the recirculation valve (BF-22) with a -time delay of 1 minute if it is


open.

vii)

To energise unit lock out relay with a time delay of 18 seconds if BFP 'B' and 'C'
are also in tripped condition.

viii)

To energise partial load relay with a time delay of 0.60 secs. if BFP 'B' in
working and BFP'C'is in tripped condition. OR BFP'C'is working and BFP 'B' is
in tripped condition.

PAGE 148
ix)

Start the standby pump if unit trip or turbine trip condition is present and all the
three pumps trip condition exists.

3.15.5 When BFP 'A' is selected as standby, impulse be given:


a)

To open discharge valve (BF-7)'and its bypass valve BF-7(A) provided atleast
one BFP is on and pressure in the common header is adequate.

b)

To switch on its ASP.

3.15.6 The standby pump shall start automatically under the following conditions:

3.15.7

i)

Working BFP trips provided unit trip or turbine trip condition is not present.

ii)

Pressure in common header after discharge of all the pumps is 90 kg/ cm2.

Interlocks for BFP 'C' will be similar to those for BFP 'A' at clauses No 3.15.1 to
3.15.6.

3.15.8

Interlocks for delivery value BF-7 (BF-8, BF-9) and its bypass valve BF-7A (BF8A,
BF-9A).
a)

Delivery valve BF-7 and its bypass valve BF-7A shall open under any of the
following conditions:

i)

BFP ',A' is chosen aas standby and either BFP 'B' or BFP 'C' is 'ON' or pressure
in the common header is adequate.

b)

Delivery valve BF-7and its bypass valve shall close on the trippingof BFP 'X
with the time delay of 1.0 mtrs. (Short duration impulse).

3.15.9 INTERLOCKSFORRECIRCULATIONVALVES.BF-22,BF-23ANDBF-24

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The redrculation valve BF-22 shall open automatically so as to maintain a flow of 125
t/hr in the suction line of the BFP:
a)

When the feed water flow on the pump suction drops below 220 t/hr.

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b) When BFP 'A' is started (short duration impulse).
This valve shall'close automatically under any of the following conditions.
a)

Feed water flow on the discharge side of the pump reaches 100 t/hr.

b)

BFP 'A' is tripped.

3.15.10

Interlocks for Auxilliary starting emergency lube. oil pump (ASP).


a)

The ASP shall start automatically under any of the following conditions:

i)

The lube oil pressure is low (1 kg/cm')

ii)

The BFP is tripped (short duration impulse)

iii)

The BFP is chosen as standby.

b)

The ASP shall stop automatically after a time delay of 10 seconds if the lube oil
pressure is 4 kg/cm'.

3.15.11

SCOOP TUBES:
i)

Scoop tubes of all the boiler feed pumps (whether running or tripped) shall
operate in synchronism.

ii)

Scoop tubes shall be driven to the minimum position when all the feed pumps
trip.

3.16.0

MISCELLANEOUS INTERLOCKS:

Valve DM~23 (DM water line to unit drain tank)


i)

Valve DM-23 shall open when the level in the unit drain tank is low.

ii)

Valve DM-23 shall close when the level in the unit drain tank is normal.

iii)

The valve DM-23 shall not open unless one of the DM make up water pumps, is
working.

PAGE 150
3.16.2 Valve DW 136 (drain from deaerator to unit flash tank).
i)

Valve DW-136 shall open when the level in the deaerator feed tank exceeds 2800
mm wcl.

ii)

The motorised integral bypass valve BF-49A, BF-50A etc. shall not close the
corresponding main valve such as, BF-50 etc. is in fully closed position.

3.16.4 STATOR WATER COOLING SYSTEM,PRIMARY CYCLE DM PUMPS:

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Two pumps have been provided. One will be working, one standby. Any of the two
pumps can be started/tripped with the help of the push buttons and selector switch
provided on the local control board. .
The pumps shall. be interlocks in such a way that the standby pump shall start under the
following conditions:
1)

' The workling pump tripped.

2)

The pressure in the discharge header lower than the preset value.

3.16.6 DM WATER MAKE UP PUMPS:


Two pumps have been provided. One will be working and the other standby. Anyof the
twopumps can be started /stopped with the help of pushbuttons and selectorswitch
provided on the local board. The standby pump shall start under the conditions when the
working pump has tripped.
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