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http://www.sscmjscm.org/v13/no1/vanasperen.html
ISSN:1089747X
Copyright19952012bytheBoardofTrusteesoftheUniversityofIllinois

Volume13,no.1:

BobvanAsperen*
ANewFrobergerManuscript
Abstract
AnautographkeyboardmanuscriptbyJohannJacobFroberger(16161676),LivrePrimiere,
fromhislastcreativeperiodandhithertounknown,wassoldatSothebysinLondonon30
November2006.Thevolumecontains20works,15completelynew,andoffersnewbiographical
dataaswell.Inthisfaircopytheagingcomposerseemstoofferadigestofhislastsojournin
Paris,usingFrenchdevicesassociatedwithLouisCouperinandFranoisRoberday.Particularly
surprisinginthismanuscript,whichcouldaptlybecalledFrobergersSixth,FrenchBook,is
theinnovative,sensuousstyleoftwohithertounknownlaments,whichinvitestylisticcomparison
withtheknownlaments.Fortheworkshithertounknowninautographmanuscripts,thisnew
sourcegivesgreatlysuperiorandauthoritativereadingsofwhatmustbeconsideredFrobergers
mainmasterpieces.
1.Introduction
2.TheManuscriptsAppearance
3.TheManuscriptsContentsandProvenance
4.TheFantasiesandCaprices
5.TheNewReadingsoftheDanceMovements,Mditations,andTombeaux
6.ThreePreviouslyUnknownWorks
7.TextualCharacteristicsoftheNewManuscript
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8.MusicalCharacteristicsoftheNewManuscript
9.ContributionstoFrobergersBiography
10.GenesisofthisFrenchBook:FrobergersLastSojourninParis
11.Conclusion
Acnowledgements
References
Table
Figures
Examples
1.Introduction
1.1JohannJacobFroberger,whowasborninGermany(Stuttgart)in1616anddiedinFrance
(HricourtintheFrancheComt)in1667,mayberegardedasakeyfigureofseventeenth
centurymusicandtheinventorofGermanidiomatickeyboardstyle.Ontheonehand,the
polyphonicoutputoftheimperialchamberorganist,whoexcelledinarangeoffugalgenres,
contributedgreatlytothedevelopmentsthatledtoBachsfuguesandlaterMozartstarteda
transcriptionofFrobergersHexachordFantasia(K.Anh.A60).Ontheotherhand,Froberger
mustbeconsideredthefirstexpressivekeyboardvirtuoso/composer,directlyinfluencingthesuite
andtoccatastylesofcomposerssuchasBhm,Reinken,Weckmann,Buxtehude,Pachelbel,and
J.S.Bach.Frobergerslamentsondeaths,includingameditationonhisownfuturedeath,have
greatemotionaldepth.1(Twofragmentsofthisworkareprovidedinfacsimileonpages4,8,and
9ofMaguire,SothebyscataloguedevotedtothismanuscriptbySimonMaguire.)Becauseof
thisexpressivenessandthefactthatFrobergercomposedalmostexclusivelyforthekeyboard,the
panEuropeancomposerhasoftenrightlybeencalledtheChopinoftheseventeenthcentury,a
romanticcomposeravantlalettre.Thenewmanuscriptaddssignificantlytoourunderstanding
ofthewholeFrobergercanon.Toputits20worksinperspective,thepreviouslyknownauthentic
corpuscanbesaidtoconsistofapproximately95compositions:20Toccatas,7Fantasias,6
Canzonas,14Ricercars,17Capriccios,26(or29)suites,2Tombeaux,andpossibly2Motets.2
1.2TogetafirstimpressionofthismanuscriptandofwhatseemtobeFrobergerslast
compositionsbeforehedied,IspentthreedaysinLondontoviewit.Earlier,apresentationofit
hadtakenplaceintheWrttembergischesLandsmuseuminStuttgart,whereJrgHalubekplayed
thefirstCapriceasasampleofthemanuscriptscontents,inaperformancebroadcaston
television.
2.TheManuscriptsAppearance
2.1ThefrontandbackcoversareadornedwiththeHabsburgdoubleeagleholdingtheAustrian
OldBurgundiandoublecrest(Maguire,pp.23,145),comparabletotheLibroSecondoof
1649,aswellastheLibroQuartoof1656(bothdedicatedtoEmperorFerdinandIII),aswellas
theLibrodicapricci,ericercati(1658,dedicatedtoLeopoldI)thiswasthecoatofarmsused
byEmperorsLeopoldI(d.1705),JosephI(d.1711),andKarlVI(d.1740).3Foraphysical
descriptionofthemanuscriptseeMaguire,p.3.Themusicoftheelegantmanuscriptiswritten
almostexclusivelyinahandthathasallofthecharacteristicsofthegracefulstyleknownfrom
theViennavolumes.Allfourmanuscriptsshowaremarkablyconsistentandidentifiablehand
overtheyearscompare,forexample,apageoftheLamentationonthedeathofFerdinandIVin
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Suite12intheLibroQuarto,Figure1,withtheexamplesofthehandwritinginthenewly
discoveredmanuscriptshowninMaguire.Acharacteristicofthenotationinallfourbooksisthe
frequentuseofbrevelengthmeasures.ThebooksallusesmallcrossesforthedotsofFclefs(see
Maguire,p.10),inthefinaldoublebarsofpieces,andflankingthefinal.S.signs(Maguire,p.
13).TheyalsouseanAndreascrossforremotesharpssuchasAsharporEsharp.
2.2Othernoticeablefeaturesarethe.S.signandtheMshapedzigzagleadingintowhat
appeartobetheletterspriathefinalfermatasinthemanuscriptareeyeshapedinthesame
styleasintheLibri(forafacsimileofatypicalendingofapiece,seeMaguire,p.13).Thealla
brevesigntendstohavethebarlinecrosstheC.
2.3TheabundanceoflettersintheelaboratetitlesprovidemanyexamplesoftheLatinletterstyle
thatweseeinFrobergersletterstoAthanasiusKircher.4Almostalllettertypesinthenew
manuscriptcanbefoundinFrobergerstwolettersaswellasintheaddress,whichisalmost
completelyinRomanstyle(seeFigure2).Onemustremember,however,thatthenewmanuscript
isafaircopy,whereasthelettersobviouslyrepresenteverydayhandwriting.Theprominent
capitalMsintheheadingsofthetwomeditations,nos.29and33,andinthemottoMemento
Moriforno.29(Maguire,pp.4,10,and9,repectively)areclearlydifferent,butFrobergermight
wellhavecreatedthemonthebasisofotherlettersinhisformalhand.Wemaythereforesafely
concludethattheheadingsinthenewmanuscriptareinFrobergershand,inadditiontothe
music,hisViennesecalligraphernotbeingavailableinMontbliard/Hricourt.Thisprovides
confirmationthatthethreeViennesevolumesareindeedautographs.5
2.4Thecapricesandfantasiesthatopenthevolumeuseopenscorenotation,whichistypicalfor
thetime,withtheusualC,F,andGclefs(C1,C2,C3,C4,F3,F4,G2),withonesystemperpage
(seeMaguire,p.11).ThislastfeatureisincontrasttothethreeViennesevolumes:theformat
herehasroomforonlyfourstavesperpage.Thefreeworksareprincipallynotatedontwofive
linedstavesusingsopranoandbassclefs(C1,F4),asistruewithalmostallthesuitesinthe
Viennesemanuscripts.
2.5TheopeninggeneraltitlepageistranscribedinMaguire,p.3,andmyreadingofthepageis
givenbelow(par.3.1).6Intherighttopcorner,inamorerecenthand,isadateinpencil:Anno
16[?]6.Thethirddigit,notquitelegible,isprobablya6,rendering1666,oneyearbefore
Frobergersdeath.Judgingbytheconsistencyofthehandwriting,thecontentsofthevolume
seemtohavebeenwrittenwithoutsignificantinterruptionsinanycaseitcannothavebeen
completedearlierthanJuneof1662,thedeathdateofLeopoldFriederichofWrttemberg
Montbliard,whoismemorializedwiththelastpieceinthemanuscript.
2.6Thevolumecontainsthreesections,eachprecededbyaseparatetitlepage.ThetitlePrimiere
[sic]Partieissurprisingbecauseofthecarefulandunfrobergianexuberantcapitalletters,but
apartfromthatitseemspossiblethatitisinthecomposershandthedotattheendeven
resemblesacross.AssumingthatFrobergerherewrotetheseparatetitlepageshimself,itis
possiblethathecreatedtheseshapesforthePsfortheoccasion,asheprobablydidforthe
Ms.Thatthecomposertookspecialcareinthecalligraphyforthismanuscriptcanbeobserved
moregenerally,forexampleintheexceptionallyconnectedstyleofwritinginthemotto
MementoMoriFroberger?forno.29(Maguire,p.9).IfthistitlepageisindeedinFrobergers
hand,theidiosyncraticspellingofprimierewouldbeFrobergers.
2.7Themaintitlepageiswritteninanunknownhand,differentfromthatofthetitlepagesforthe
sections.NeitherhandresemblesthatofDuchessSibylla,Frobergerspatronduringthatperiod,
basedonacomparisontooneofherletterstoConstantijnHuygensin1667.7Inanycasethe
princesswasnotversedinFrench,assheherselfstates.Thewordsonthemaintitlepagecontain
severalirregularitiesinspelling,particularlyinthedancemovements,divergingfromthosein
Frobergershandelsewhereinthevolume.8
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3.TheManuscriptsContentsandProvenance
3.1AninventoryofthemanuscriptisinMaguire,pp.102tothisIofferfollowingcomments:
Location
Titlepage

No.2
No.8
Nos.1335
Nos.1316

No.13

No.14
Nos.1720

No.17

Nos.2124
Nos.2932

No.29

No.34

Comment(seeSourcesandEditionsforidentificationsofshorttitlesof
sources)
LiurePrimiere.
DesFantasies,Caprices,
Allemandes,Chigues,Couranttes,
Sarebandes,Meditations.
Composes.
par
JeanJacqueFroberger.Organist.
delachambredeSaMajesteImperiale.
ThisFantasyisinG(major),notE(minor).9
ThisCapriceisinG(major),notE(minor).
Thegenericheadingsforthetonalgroupings(partita)areeditorial.
ConcordancesarefoundinBulyowsky(Allemande,Gigue[duple
version],Courante,SarabandeRoger(Allemande,Courante,
Sarabande,Gigue[tripleversion]Bauyn(Gigue[tripleversion],
placedbetweentheAllemandeofSuite28andtheCouranteofSuite2.
ThisAllemandecanbedatedfairlypreciselybecausethecoronationof
LeopoldItookplaceintheDomorStiftskircheSt.Bartholomaeiat
Frankfurt,12Julyto1August1658.
ThisGiguewasincorrectlyassociatedwithhisSuite28inAdler.
ConcordancesincludeMinoritenSuiten(Allemande,Sarabande,[
laterinthemanuscript:]Gigue)Bulyowsky(Allemandefait
lhonneurdeMad.SybilleDuchessedeWirtemberg,Giguenomm
laPhilotte,Courante,SarabandeRoger(Allemande,Courante,
Sarabande,Gigue)Bauyn(Allemande,Gigue,Courante,
Sarabande)EdgeworthandEgerton(bothhavetransposedand
obviouslycorruptedarrangementsinDminor,perhapsderivedfrom
thesamesource:Allemande,Courante,Sarabande,Gigue).
Titletranscription:Allemande,faictMontbeliard,alhonneurdeSon
AltesseSerenis[si]meMadameSiblle,DuchessedeWirtemberg,
PrincessedeMontbeliard.Theplaceofcomposition,Montbliard,was
notpreviouslyknown.
TheGiguefollowstheAllemande(asinthenewmanuscript)in
Bulyowsky,butfollowstheSarabandeinRoger.
ConcordancesincludeMinoritenAria(Courante,Sarabande,
fragmentofGigue)Neresheim(Gigue)Hintze(Mditation)
SA(Mditation,Gigue,Courante,Sarabande)Roger(Mditation,
Courante,Sarabande,Gigue.
Titletranscription:Meditation,laquellesejoelentementavec
discretion,faictsurmaMortfuture.ThepieceisdatedinSA:
Parisle1MaAnno1660,providingnewandmorespecificevidence
forFroberger'ssojourninParisaround1660.
ThetitleinSAisLamentation,faitesurlamorttresdouloreusede
SaMajestImprialeFerdinandletroisiemeetsejouelentementavec

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discretion.An.1657.EmperorFerdinandIIIdiedon2April1657.
DukeLeopoldFriedrich,spouseofSibylla,diedon15June1662in
Montbliard

3.2ThismanuscriptisthefirstknownautographofsomeofFrobergersmostimportantworks,
probablyalldatingfromthelastdecadeofhislife.Theseincludehisopusmagnum,the
lamentationforhispatron,EmperorFerdinandIII(no.34,1657)theequallyimportantSuite20
(nos.2932)includingtheMementoMoriFroberger(no.29,1660),whichonemaywellcall
hismusicaltestamentandSuites15(nos.1316,presumably1658,thecoronationofLeopoldI),
18(nos.1718)andmatureSuite19(nos.2124,whichcouldwellbeanothertombeau).In
addition,thefifteenhithertounknowncompositionsincludethetwelvepolyphonicworks(nos.1
12),anothersuiteforSibylla(nos.2528),theMementoMoriSibylla(no.33),andamemorial
forherhusbandLeopoldFriedrich(died1662no.35).
3.3Forwhomwasthisbookwritten?ThecuriousFrenchtitlepageseemsnotalikelychoice
underthearmsofaHapsburgEmperor.Apartfromthis,therepertory,includingthreeworks
explicitlydedicatedtotheLutheranPrincessofMontbliard,seemshardlyappropriateasagiftto
anemperor.Thevolumecarriesnodedication,neithertoanyEmperornortoSibylla,nordoesit
haveashelfmarkfromtheimperiallibrary.10Further,thelanguageusedinalldedicationsofthe
LibriisItalian,inaccordancewithpracticeattheimperialcourt,notFrench.Itseemsasifthethe
caligraphyofthegeneraltitlepagewasmadetoconformtothevisualstyleofthewords
"PrimierePartie,withtheirexuberantcapitals.ThegeneraltitlepagesheadingofLivre
Primiereisdifficulttoscrute:inwhatsenseisthisafirstbook?Thefirstbooktobeownedby
theintendedrecipient?Onemaywellconcludethattherewasachangeintheintendedpurpose
forthevolumeatsomestage.
3.4Thegeneraltitlepage(cf.par.2.7)wasclearlywrittenwithoutthesupervisionbythe
composer,unlikethosefortheLibri,orevenafterhisdeath.Itisonlyonthistitlepagethatthe
composersnamewasattachedtothevolume.Possiblythiswasdonefollowingthewishofanew
owner,perhapsSibylla,whocalledherselfhisKeinLachenderErb.11Morelikely,atastill
laterstagesuchafirstbookwastobeapoliticalgiftfromtheHouseofWrttembergtothe
Habsburgs,asthepresenceofthecoatofarmsonthecoverssuggests.Onecouldimaginethatthe
Princesswouldnoteasilyhavepartedwithsuchaposession.Theplanwasapparentlynever
realizedandthevolumewasforgotten,torestinanunknowncollectionformorethan300years.
Thesehypothesesdemandthetestofaclosestudyofthephysicalstateandbindingofthe
manuscript,particularlyastheyrelatetothemaintitlepage.
3.5ThissmallvolumemayhavebeenintendedtoremainFrobergersprivatecopy:itwas
certainlypracticaltocarryontravelsandsuitabletobecopiedfrombymusicians,whichheonly
allowed,asweknowfromSibyllasletters,tothoseheknewwouldnotmisrepresenthisworks,
peoplelikeConstantijnHuygens.Forperformance,ontheotherhand,thesmallformatisless
practical,sinceinthepolyphonicpiecesapagehasonlyonesystem.Forthecomposerhimself,
thiswouldhavebeenlessproblematic.Itisseducingtothinkthatthemissingvolumesof
Frobergersautographs,whichheprobablycarriedwithhimonhistravelsalloverWestern
Europe,willonedaycometolight.
4.TheFantasiesandCaprices
4.1Theopeningtwelvepolyphonicworks,hithertounknown,mayhavebeenintendedtobe
playedontheorganorharpsichord.Theorganwouldsometimeshaveadvantagesbecauseofits
possibilitiesforcolorfulregistration,fromwhichtheskippingdottedendingsofsomeofthe
Capriceswouldprofit.ItisherethatweencounterelementsfromtwoofFrobergers
contemporariesLouisCouperin(ca.16261661)andFranoisRoberday(16241680).
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4.2TheFantasies,basicallybuiltononerelativelysolemntheme,consistofseveralsections.The
firstFantasyopenswithathemethatcouldbecalledtheLouisCouperintheme:itistheone
quotedbyFranoisRoberdayintheeighthFugueofhisFugues,etCapricespourlOrgue
virtuallyamusicalliberamicorum.12RoberdaywritesinhisAvertissementthatthethemeshe
usedweregiventotohimbyseveralcomposers,includingCouperin,Froberger,andFrescobaldi.
ThethematicideausedinthisfirstFantasyappearstohavebeeninCouperinsmindoverthe
years:apartfromvariousallusionsintheorganworks,itappearsclearlyinaGigueinDMinor.13
TheopeningofthisFantasy,withthesopranoandaltointroducingthetheme,isalmostidentical
toRoberdaysexposition.Itsfirstsectionisalsoexactlythesamesizeasthecorrespondingpart
ofRoberdaysFugue.Itthereforecouldbeessentiallythesamework.Thesecondsection,in3
asisRoberdayssecondsectioniswritteninblacknotation.Atthebeginningofthethird
section,Frobergerdidnotmarkthequadrupletimesignature,ashappenselsewhereinthe
manuscript.ThefactthatthislatemanuscriptopenswithLouisCouperinsthememaybe
understoodasanexplicithomagetohisyoungerPariscolleagueFrobergermaywellhavebeen
intheFrenchcapitalatthetimeofCouperinsprematuredeath.
4.3ThethemeofthesecondFantasyrepresentsoneofthebetterknownsoggettiofthe
seventeenthcentury.FrobergerusedcloselyrelatedthematicmaterialinhisRicercar2(1658),
anditssubjectisalsofoundintheFantasiasextitoniinGBLblAdd.Ms.23623,f.113,
attributedtoJohnBull,butperhapsactuallybyPeeterCornet(seeDirksenFerrard,pp.ixx).A
variantofthethemewasalsousedbyCornetinhisFantasies5and6,andbyPeterPhilips
(Fantasy13)allthreeofthesecomposerswereorganistsinBrussels.Thistraditionprobablygoes
backtoPhilipssteacher,WilliamByrd(Fantasy62).Achromaticvariantofthethemealso
circulated,suchastheFantasy6byAnthonyvanNoordt(Amsterdam,1659).Frobergerusedthis
variantinhisCanzona4andFantasy7,thetriplesectionofwhichappearsrelatedtothefinal
triplesectionofthesecondFantasyinthenewmanuscript.Thistripletimeendingisnotunique
inFrobergersworks:hisRicercar2andFantasy4alsoclosein3.
4.4IntheCaprices,theinitialthemes,whicharegenerallylively,undergoatransformationin
eachsection(asintheFantasies)withchangesofmeterinthemannerofavariationcanzona.The
firstCaprice(no.7inthemanuscript)usesavariantoftheLouisCouperintheme(seeExample
1a)andthuscanbeseenasrelatedtothefirstFantasy.TheCapriceuseselementsrelatedtono
fewerthanthreecomposers.Frobergerisundoubtedlyresponsiblefortheopeningsection,butthe
nexttwosectionsarealmostentirelythesameasthoseofRoberdayseighthCaprice,whichis
itselflinkedthematicallytotheeighthFuguecitedabove.InthefinalcadenzasFrobergers
compositiondivergesfromRoberdays.
4.5ItseemsclearthatFrobergermustbetheauthorofthefirstsection,ashisstylecanbe
recognizedthroughout.ThethemeresemblesthatofhisCaprice2(Example1b),thevoicesenter
inthesameorder(soprano,alto,tenor,bass),andtheepisodesaresimilar,reflectingFrobergers
characteristicplayfulness.Someepisodesareinfactidenticaltopassagesfoundinotherknown
worksbyFrobergertheyspinoutideas,sometimestheinitialmotive,inirregularphraselengths.
TheyusesuchtypicalFrobergiandevicesasparallelthirdswithsuspensionsandempty
momentswhenavoiceissilentattheconclusionofitsphrase,acharacteristicalsofoundinthe
musicofFrobergersteacher,Frescobaldi.OtherFrobergiancharacteristicsaremaintainingan
alteredendingofatheme,onlytorestoretheoriginalversionlaterendingwithstrettoorfalse
strettoandacontinuousmildchromaticism.Conspicuouslyabsent,inthisfirstsectionandinthe
otherpolyphonicworksinthenewmanuscript,aretoccatalikepassages.Suchwritingdiminishes
graduallyinFrobergersoutput:theLibroQuartofrom1656stillcontainedfiveworkswith
endingviruosicflourishes,the1658Librodicapricci,ericercationlytwo.
4.6Roberdayscraftmanship,notalwaysfreefromacademicism,canbeseeninthesecondand
thirdsectionsofthisCaprice,however.Episodesarecompletelyabsentduringthethesecond
section(Example2a).ThisisquiteunlikeFroberger,whonormallyenlivenshisexpositionsinan
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asymmetricalwaywithepisodes(Example2b).Moreover,theregularlyoccurringsyncopated
entriesofthethememayberegardedasatypicalRoberdaydevice:intherareinstanceswhere
Frobergerdoesthis,itisforoneentryonly.Inthethirdsection,thetransformationofRoberdays
tripletsintodactylsmatchesFrobergersidiomwelltheyarecomparabletothedactylicsections
ofCanzona1,andduplemetergiguesinmoreharpsichordisticstylesuchastheonefromSuite
20.SeeExamples3ac.
4.7Theconclusionsofbothsectionstwoandthree,however,seemtoreflectFrobergersmore
radicalinterventions.Inthesecondsection,insteadofRoberdaysconventionalfinalcadenceon
thefifthdegree,themanuscriptsCapriceusesthemorecolourfulsixthtonaldegreewithseventh
asappogiatura(seeExample4a).ThisFrobergiandramaticdeviceisonethecomposermusthave
beenparticularlyfondofforchordalendings(Example4b).Moreconsequentialisthechangeat
theendofthethirdsection,whichconcludestheworkoneandahalfmeasureshavebeen
removed,achievingamoreeffectiveconclusion,replacingthestaticpedalpoint.Roberdays
sopranoentryisthuscutoffhalfwayandreforgedintoapseudoentrytheheadmotiveis
immediatelyfollowedbythebassstatingthethemeinunabridgedform.Thefinalresultofthis
operationisanewlycreatedfalsestretto.AharmonicgestureinFrobergersversionisthe
introductionofthemajor/minorseconddegree.Thisdaringprogressioncanbefoundelsewhere
inFrobergersoeuvre.SeeExamples5ab.
4.8TheborrowingofpassagesandthemesseenhereremindsusofacommentbyFrobergers
friendConstantijnHuygens,writingon6April1655tocomposerHenriDuMontinParis:You
givetoomuchhonortooneofmyallemandesbyhavingborroweditsopeningtoapplytooneof
yours.14Suchcreativereuseofmaterialhasaparallelintheworkofanothercontemporaryof
Froberger,Rembrandt,whoradicallyreworkedaHerculesSeghersetching,undoubtedlyin
admiration.15Aquestionthatremainsunanswerediswhetherthismusicalfusionoriginatedin
Parisaround1660,whenRoberdayandFrobergerapparentlymet,orifitdatesfromthefollowing
yearswhenFrobergerwasmainlyinHricourt.Inanycase,thereareotherborrowingsinthenew
manuscript(includingonefromRoberdayssecondCapricethatwas,inmyview,inturn
borrowedfromFrescobaldisthirdCanzonafromthesecondbookoftoccatasof1627)thatcan
onlybediscussedindetailwhenandifthenewmanuscriptismadeavailableforcarefulstudy.
ThissecondCapricehasnothematiclinkwiththesecondFantasy.
5.TheNewReadingsoftheDanceMovements,Mditations,andTombeaux
5.1Thethirdsectionofthemanuscriptincludesfivepreviouslyknownworks:theTombeaufor
FerdinandIII(no.34)andSuites15,18,19and20(nos.1316,1720,2124,and2932)which
constitutethecoreofFrobergersmaturecompositionsandforwhichmostlynoauthoritative
versionsexistinothersources.Thenewmanuscriptoffershighlyinterestingreadings,obviously
divergingfromthoseinanymodernedition.Thediscussionbelowdealswithselectedexamples,
suggestingthepotentialforfuturestudyofthemanuscript.
5.2TheopeningoftheTombeauforFerdinandIIIhastwoFminorchordsfollowedbytwoBflat
minorchordsthiscontrastswiththepreviouslyknownversionswhichhaveFfbflatbflator
FfBflatbflat(inSAandMinoritenSuitenrespectively).16Otherwise,thereadinginthe
newautographconfirmsthehithertobestversion(inSA),includingthesurprisingconnecting
figurewrittenaftertheending(seeMaguirepp.5and6):itleadsbacktothelastrepriseafterthe
ascentontheconcludingFharmonythatcouldbeunderstoodasaJacobsLaddertoheaven
(seealsothecomparableheavenlyscaleendinginFigure1).Thispotentiallysymbolicgesture
seems,however,tobeapurelymusicalgesture.Thenewsourceofferstieswhichseemomissions
inSA,aproblematiccharacteristicofthatmanuscript.17MinoritenSuitenalsohassomenot
unskilledvariantsinpitchesandrhythms,raisingthequestionofwhethertheymaystemfromthe
composer.
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5.3Suite15appearsinthismanuscriptinwhatseemsanoptimalreadingthatlargelyconfirmsthe
readinginBulyowsky,whichclaimsthatthispiecewascopiedexautographo.Surprisingly,
manyFrenchornamentsinBulyowskyarealsointhenewsource,quiteunliketherelatively
unadornedstyleofthesuitesintheLibri.Bulyowskygivesamoreelaborateandextended
versionincludingevenoneadditionalmeasurethanisfoundinRoger.Itissurprisingthat
severaloftheseelaborationsarenotinthenewmanuscript,orareonlypartiallypresent.
ExamplesaresuppliedbytheAllemande(Example6),includingBulyowskyscompleted
arpeggiationintheopeningmeasure.Itwouldseem,therefore,thattheseembellishmentsarenot
Frobergers,thatthephraseexautographowasalreadypresentinthesourcebeingcopiedin
Bulyowsky,orthatitrepresentedamoreorlessreliableoraltraditionknowntoBulyowsky.
5.4IntheGigueofSuite15,ontheotherhand,thesourcesmainlyagree:thisweightyfugal
movementishereinquadruplemeter,castingseriousdoubtontheauthenticityofthetriple
versionthatisalsoknown,butnotfromanautographsource.Thiscouldchangeourgeneralview
ofothertriplemetergiguesintheFrobergercanon:thethreeeasygoing6/8versionsofthis
Giguearesurelyarrangementsbylesserartists,denyingFrobergersbasicfugalconceptand
notatedinonecasebythreedifferenthands(Gigue13).18Therhythmicallychangedupbeattothe
CouranteinBulyowskyisnotinthenewautograph,noristhedoucementappearingtowards
theendinRoger.Infact,nosuchinstructionappearsanywhereinthenewmanuscript.Inshort,
wemightwellquestionthefulltrustworthinessoftheclaiminBulyowskythatthesuitewas
copiedfromanautograph.Thelatedateofthenewsourcediminishesthelikelihoodthata
currentlyunknownautographwouldhavearevisedversionofthework.
5.5ThenewassociationoftheAminorAllemandeofSuite15withthecoronationofEmperor
LeopoldIismystifyinginviewofitsplaintivefigures,suchtheexlamatiotheemphaticly
ascendingminorsixthandthedescendingchromatictetrachord.Foranothercoronation,of
FerdinandIVasKingofHungaryandBohemiainJune1653,Allemande11,thecomposerchose
amajorkeyandhightessitura,openingwithadottedfigure,forhishomage.Giventhattheother
movementsofthesuiteseemnotofradicallycontrastingcharacter,itissurprisingthatitsGigue
usesaharrowingcrossrelation(Example7).Thismajor/minorseconddegreefiguretheF
sharpisfirstfollowedchromaticallybyFbeforeprogressingtothefifthdegree,thusmakinga
major/minorminorpassageroundedoffbyaPicardythirdiscertainlyoneofFrescobaldis
compositionaltraitsthatFrobergerbroughtbacktoVienna.Itseemsrathersuitedforaplaint,and
FrobergerdidindeeduseitinthenowfamousTombeaudeMrBlancrocher.19Inaddition,the
SarabandeofSuite15usestheNeapolitansixthchordseveraltimes,anotherharmonyoften
associatedwithsorrowandneverusedbyFrobergeragain.20Finally,onewonderswhythepiece
wasnotofferedtotheEmperorimmediatelyin1658whensurelytheLibrodicapricci,e
ricercatiwasdedicated(thoughapparentlyinvain)tothesacraCesareaMaestdiLeopoldo
primo.
5.6InmatureSuite18,theAllemandeisthefirstcompositiontocometolightthatwasdedicated
toprincessSibylla,inBulyowskyandnowinthenewmanuscript.Moreover,thenewsource
tellsusthatitwascomposedinMontbliard,perhapsduringoneofhisvisitsfromParisaround
1659/60.ThenewmanuscriptconfirmstheorderofmovementsinBauynandBulyowsky,as
opposedtotheorderinRoger:theGiguefollowstheAllemande,nottheSarabande,in
accordancewithFrobergersneworder(seepar.8.4).TheGiguessubtitlehere,nommLa
Philette,correctsthespellingPhilotteinBulyowsky.Wedonotyetknowwhothepersonin
questionwas,andtheuseofsuchaFrenchstyletitleisuniqueforFroberger.Theopeningofthis
dottedgigueinquadruplemetermayforthatmatterquoteagiguebytheFrenchlutenist,Franois
Dufaut.21TheSarabandecorrespondsforthemostpartwiththereadinginBulyowsky,albeit
withenlighteningvariants.
5.7InSuite19,theAllemande,withitsrepeatedemphaticuseoftheminorsixthinitsexclamatio
mightpossiblybeatombeau.Thereadingoftheworkinthenewmanuscriptseemslargelythe
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sameasthatinBulyowskyratherthanthatofRoger,confirmingbetterreadingsforseveral
complexplaces.However,itisremarkablethattheindicationNB.avecdiscretionlentement
towardstheendoftheGigueinBulyowsky,againclaimingtobecopiedFroberg.Ex
Autographo,islackinghere.ThisagainsuggeststhatBulyowskycontainsadditions,albeit
somewithmusicallogic.
5.8Suite20hasacentralplaceinFrobergersworks,andthereadinginthenewmanuscriptis
generallythesameastheoneinSA.TherelativelyabundantuseofFrenchornamentsfound
thereishereconfirmedasauthentic,andbothsourcesuseacrossforAsharpandEsharp.Itis
remarkable,however,thatthetitleinthisautographdoesnotincludethedatefortheMditation
foundinSA:Parisle1MaAnno1660,suggestingthatthecomposerdidnotalwaysmark
orcopyhissubtitlescompletely.AclearexampleisthatthelengthysubtitlesforSuite11inSA
aremissinginLibroQuarto,dedicatedtoFerdinandIII.Thissuggeststhattheexplanatory
passagesfoundinMinoritenforvolandBlancrocher(translatedintoLatinandthereby
certainlyabbreviated)arenotnecessarilycorrupt,eventhoughtheyarenotinSA.SAhasa
slurattheendofthefourthmeasurethatisnotinthenewmanuscriptmanuscriptcopiesof
workstypicallyomitsomeslursandties,whichiscontradictedhere.Thenewmanuscript
frequentlyhastiesthatarenotinSA.
5.9ThefourfacsimilesinMaguireoftheMditation,no.29inthemanuscript,provideagood
dealofthepieceforstudy.Frobergerusesdoublelengthmeasurescomparedtomodernstandards
andthereadingsinHintze.ItmaybedaringtosuggestthatFrobergerconceivedthisandother
piecesinC(4/4),thoughnotatingtheminmeasurestwicethatlong,butthatseemstobethecase:
itistheonlylogicalexplanationforthefrequenthalfmeasures.ThenewmanuscripthasAF
sharpinthebassofm.16,notes34,asinHintze(whichisinthehandofFrobergersfriend,
MatthiasWeckmann),whereasSAhasGFsharp.TheornamentonthatFsharpinHintzeis
notinthenewmanuscript,whichdoesprovidetwomordentsinm.13foundinnoothersource.
5.10GiventhepatternofthevariantsseeminglyauthenticvariantsinSAandHintzethatdo
notappearinthenewmanuscript,andvariantsherethatarenotinSAnorHintzeitis
possiblethatatleastonemoreautographofthisparticularworkmayhaveexisted.Onecandidate
isthevolumeSibyllareferstowhenshewritesin1667toHuygensthatshepracticedthis
Mditationwithspecialdiligence,havinglearneditfromFrobergerhimself.Shecouldbe
referringtothemanuscriptunderdiscussionherewhenshewrote,it[theMditation]isdifficult
tounderstandfromthescorealthoughithasbeennotatedclearly.22
5.11TheGigue,no.30inthemanuscript,confirmstheinstruction,towardstheend,NB.avec
discretion,alsofoundinSAandtheRoger.AcentralpassageinAminorintheCourante
(no.31)hasasurprise.Onthesecondbeatofm.11,SAhasanf'sharpinthealto,resultingin
major/minor,whilethefrequentlyfaultyRogerhasf'natural,bycancellingthef'sharpofthe
keysignature.ThenewsourceconfirmsRoger,onemoreillustrationoftheproblemsofediting
Froberger.IntheSarabande(no.32),inapassagethatisotherwiseharmonicallyparalleltothe
onejustcited,thecomposerdoesnothesitatetousemajor/minorharmony,perhapsemphasizing
themoreemphaticcharacterofthisdance.Thereadinginthenewmanuscriptofthismovement
introducesnewimportanttiesrightfromthebeginningSAhasagain,curiouslyenough,one
more.
6.ThreePreviouslyUnknownWorks
6.1TheSuiteinFMajor(nos.2528)openswithamovementdedicatedtoFroberger'spatroness
Sibylla,DuchessofWrtttemberg(16201707).23TheGigueisinthestyleoftheFrench
predominantlyhomophonicevensimplegiguein6/4time.24Itelegantlycombinesafull
voicedbutuncomplicatedtextureinlowtessiturawithbrokenstyleandliltingsyncopationson
thesecondbeat.Theharmonicrhythmisrelativelyslow,inastylewhichissurprisingly
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reminiscentofoneofLouisCouperinsFmajorGigues(no.79inMoroney).Itisnotclear
whatcausedFrobergertoabandonhereoneofhismajorachievements,thepolyphonicduple
metergigue,wherehismasteryoffugalartificecouldbedisplayedtothefull.ThisGigue,being
lessfugalthananyofitsknownpredecessors,mighthavebeentheresultofthecomposers
strivingforamoderatedegreeofcomplexity.Itisnotinconceivablethatthisrelatestothe
dedicationtotheduchess.TheSarabandeistrulyinfullvoicedstyle,comparabletothe
sumptuousoneinSuite28.
6.2TheMditationforSibylla(no.33,seeMaguirep.10)andtheTombeauforLeopold
Friedrich(no.35)showasurprisingdeparturefromFrobergersknowncompositionsinthese
genres.Thecomposerseemssuddenlytoindulgeinalavishandmeditativejeucoul,abandoning
hisearlierrhetoricalstyle.ThestyleisdifferentfromthatoftheAllemandeforSybilladescribed
above(no.17),whichprobablyhadbeencomposednotlongbefore.ThestyleoftheSibylla
MditationandtheTombeauforherhusbandthatfollows(no.34)aregenerallymorefantastic,
reminiscentattimesofFrenchunmeasuredpreludes,agenrethecomposerseemstoevoke
particularlyhere.Thereareseveralpedalpointslastingaslongasfoursemibrevesoverwhich
therearesubtleharmonicchanges,creatingasereneatmosphereratherthantheanimatedonewe
generallyassociatewithFroberger.25Theopeninglombardicrhythmsofno.33areappliedinan
unusualskippingway:thecomposerstraditionalhandlingofsuchaccentandohavethefalling
pairsofnotesimbeddedinamorelineartexture.26
6.3Inthesetwomeditativeworksinthenewmanuscript(nos.33and35)Frenchpreludestyle
seemstobeevokedbythemanyascendinganddescendingarpeggiosinaquasiunstructured
fashion,repeatedlytastingtheharmonypreviously,Frobergerpreferredthesebroken
harmoniestosoundinadelicate,incompleteway.Thedevice(seeMaguire,p.10,m.3onthe
lowersystem)issomewhatcomparabletosomerareascendinganddescendingapeggiofiguresin
otherpiecesbyFroberger.27ThekinshipwiththeFrenchunmeasuredpreludeisconfirmedbythe
identificationofaborrowing:aphraseintheTombeauforLeopoldFriedrichappearstobea
lenghthyparaphraseofapassageinaPreludebyLouisCouperin(Figure3).Frobergerfollows
theFrenchmansdistinctiveharmonicprogression,includingthedoublearpeggio.Pseudo
polyphony(orquasihomophony),aparticularlyFrobergeriandevicecreatedbysustainingnotes
thatwereinitiallyperceivedaspartofamelodicline,isoftentobefoundintheseworks:
elaboratedinminutedetail,heusesacomplexnotationforit,especiallyinhismatureworks.
(Unfortunately,thismostbeautifulofFrobergersartificesbecameastumblingblockformanya
copyist.)
6.4Certainwaveringmelodictwists,hithertonotknowninFrobergeroneresemblesthe
openingofaToccatabyMichelangeloRossi28seemdifficulttoexplain.Despitehis
recognizablepersonallanguage,thecomposerobviouslyusedcertainformulasonlyonce.29One
ofthesenewfiguresisadottedtriplerepetitionofatone,foundconspicuouslyintheupper
voiceoftheTombeauforLeopoldFriedrich(no.35)alwaysoccurringonthelast(weak)beatofa
barandevenservingasitsfinalOneisremindedofthepreviouslyuniqueelevatedendingofthe
TombeauforFerdinandIII(no.34,Maguire,p.5),albeitthereinundottednotation.Inboth
Tombeaux,thefigurewasprobablyinspiredbyFrenchunmeasuredpreludestyle:Couperin
seemstousethedeviceandJeanHenryDAnglebertwasalsoacquaintedwiththis
configuration.30
6.5ThefactthatthisinfluenceoftheFrenchpreludeinFrobergerappearshereforthefirsttime
(perhapsfrom1662on),couldsuggesteitherthatmanyofCouperinspreludeswerewrittenafter
FrobergercompletedhisfirstvisittoParis(whichwasprobablyattheendof1652)orthat
FrobergerhadbecomemoresusceptibletothegenreduringhissecondstayintheFrenchcapital.
Inmyopinion,however,aboutadozenquotationsfromFrobergersworksinthoseofCouperin,
mostlyfromthe1649book,makeitapparenthowdeeplyCouperinspreludestylewasindebted
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toFrobergerthemostobviousexampleisthePrludelimitationdeMrFroberger.31A
FrenchtasteofthePrincessmayormaynothaveplayedarolehere,butitappearsthatFroberger
intendedtomemorializethedeceasedCouperin:theStuttgartmasterunexpectedlyuseselements
ofParisiancomposerspreludeidiom,aswellastheCouperinthemeatthebeginningofthe
firsttwosectionsofthenewmanuscript.
6.6Numerousprogressionsandmelodiclinesinthesetwomeditativeworks,however,bear
Frobergersunmistakabestamp.Oneoftheplacesthatallowsacomparisontotheknowncorpus
istheexuberanttoccataflourishalsofoundinCanzona1(Example8a),aversionofwhichisalso
usedintheTombeauforFerdinandIII(no.34,Maguire,p.5).Thisisofparticularinterest,
becausethepassagewasapparentlyonceborrowedbyCouperininaPrelude.Alsorecognizable
isacertainmildlywavingarpgementfigurfromtheTombeauforFerdinandIII,here
modernizedbyaraisedleadingtone.AlsofamiliarfromToccata6perlaLevationeisthe
mysticchromaticprogression,asisthecompositemelancholicchainofwaveringchromatisms
fromLamentationsurcequejaytvol.(SeeExamples8be.)
7.TextualCharacteristicsoftheNewManuscript
7.1Anelegantsign,somewhatresemblinganSflankedbytwodotsshapedascrossmarks,closes
bothheadingsandmovements,justasintheLibrodicapricci,ericercati(seeMaguire,p.13
fortheclearestexample).(IntheLibroSecondoandLibroQuarto,wherethetitlesareinthe
calligraphyofanotherhand,itappearsonlyattheendings.)Thisstimulatesarenewed
investigationintotheoriginandsignificanceofthisseeminglyenigmaticmark,whichhasbeen
interpretedindivergentwayswithouthavingbeenthoroughlystudied.32Itiscertainlya
humanisticcursiveS,notasomewhatsimilarlyshapedgothicH.Onlyafewofthenumerous
specimensinFrobergershandslightlyresemblehisromanSperhapsforhimithadbecome
merelyaglyph.TheuseofthehumanisticcursivecertainlymeansthatitreferstoaLatinor
Italianword.
7.2The.S.signservedasacanonizationandverificationmarkinlegaldocumentsandletters
alloverEuropesinceatleastthesixteenthcentury.Reducedforms(./..//)canbefoundas
earlyas1519attheVatican.Thesignwasplacedaftertheaddressortheheading,oratthethe
endofthemaintext,eitherbeforeorafterasignature.Itistraditionallyunderstoodtostandfor
scripsi,LatinforIhavewrittenthis,possiblyareferencetothewellknownquotationfrom
PontiusPilate,quodscripsiscripsi(whatIhavewritten,Ihavewritten,John19:22).33We
maythusspeakofthescripsisign.Thehabitofplacingsuchanabbreviationbetweentwodots
stemsfromamedievaltraditionofsigla,oneletterabbreviationsforcommonwords,suchas
.e.(est)or.sc.(scilicet).34Inmusicalscoresitisattachedtoatitleofacompositionor
movement,eventuallyassociatedwiththenameofitsauthor,andattheendofapiece,sometimes
followingthewordfinorfine.ExamplescanbefoundinBauyn,Parville,Oldham,
Brussels,LeipzigSuiten,FPsgMS2348,andnumerouspartbooks.J.S.Bachusedit
regularlyaboveworkandfolionumbersAnnaMagdalenaBachimitatedhishabitandsometimes
addediteventotitles(BWV691inDBMus.ms.BachP225),ormarkingitattheendofaset
ofsuites(BWV10071012inDBMus.ms.BachP26).
7.3ThevariousshapesofthescripsisignsinFroberger,alwaysassociatedwithapreceding
[pro]pria,suggestthatthetwonotationswerenotalwayswrittenasasinglegesture.Evenwhen
therewaslittlespace,thenatureofthesignapparentlydictatedthatitbeplacedimmediatelyto
therightoftheverylastwordofthetextthereisnotasingleinstanceofitbeingbelowthelast
wordtosolveaspaceproblem.InaboutadozeninstancesintheLibrithisresultedina
problematicsituation,wherenotenoughspacehadbeencalculated:thesignlandedintheclefs,if
atthebeginningofacomposition,or(attheendofacomposition)deepintothefoldoratthe
extremeouteredgeofthepage,beingeasilytrimmedofflater.35Theseobservationssuggest,in
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myview,boththeimportanceofthescripsisignandthatitwasaddedlaterthantheothertext.It
ismostlikelythen,thatthesignwasaddedafterproofreading.Thesignwouldthenserveasa
statementofcorrectnessofthepreceding.Ifthisiscorrect,.S.functionsbothasafinal
canonizationofatext,36title,heading,postscript(seeMaguire,p.5)orcomposition(attatchedin
thatcasetotheformulapropriamanu)andasaconfirmationofapreviouslymentioned
copyistsorauthorsname.Sincethescripsisignisfoundinbothincopiesandautographs,itis
obviousthatbyitselfthesigndoesnotactuallyrepresentanauthentificationofawork.Inthe
caseofthenewsource,then,eitheritwasFrobergerspersonalcopy,notneedinghisnameinit,
ortherewasanoriginaltitlepage,nowmissing,withhisnametowhichthescripsisignsrefer.
7.4Frobergerusedastylizedversionofthetraditionalformulamanupropria[scripsi],(with
[my]ownhand[Iwrotethis])attheendsofmovements.First,thereisanextensivedescending
Mshapedflourishthatroundsoffeverymovement,immediatelyfollowingitsfinalchord,inan
obliquedirectionwhenspaceallowed(seeMaguire,p.13).Itisconnectedwith,orevensprings
from,Frobergerscharacteristiceyeshapedfinaldoublefermatas.Asimilar,usuallyoblique,
idiosyncraticzigzagcanbefoundinnumerousoldlegaldocumentswhereittraditionally
replacesthewordmanu.Theabbreviationpriaforpropriawasinusesincethemedieval
era,andhereitisattachedtothelowerendofthischainofMs.Thepriaconsistsoftheletter
pwithacurledlinebisectingthedescender,sometimesformingaloopontheleftsideofthe
descender,followedbythelettersriaitisfoundinthenewsource(Maguire,p.13)andmore
carefullyexecutedintheLibroSecondo(Figure4a).Thisbisectoroftheptraditionally
replacedthelettersro,resultinginameaningofpro.Thepalsoservesasthebeginningof
pria,completingtheformulamanupropria[scripsi],proofofauthenticity,attimesproudly
copied,andprobablyrecopied.37
7.5Theoriginalshapeofthep,inwhichthestrokemakesasquigglebeforeactuallycrossing
thedescenderofthepcomparethecomparablyshapedqinFrobergersRequiescat
(Maguire,p.5)isregularlyfoundintheLibroSecondo.IntheLibroQuartoitisformed
lessliterally,anditdisappearscompletelyintheLibrodicapricci,ericercati,whereatthemost
thedescenderandstrokepartlycoincide.(SeeFigure4af).AsfarasIwasabletoobservein
personandjudgingbythefacsimilesinMaguire,theearliershapedoesnotreturninthenew
manuscript,inaccordancewithitspresumeddate.
8.MusicalCharacteristicsoftheNewManuscript
8.1Themanuscriptusesornamentsconsiderablymorefrequentlythananyotherknown
autographbyFroberger.Inaddition,wefindanewdifferentiationbetweenwhatmustsignifya
shorttrillsomewhatresemblinganmorattimesawandamordent,thesamesignwitha
crossstroke(seeMaguire,pp.8and9).ThiscontrastswiththeuniversaltintheearlierLibri,a
signthatallowsbothinterpretations.38TheFrenchdistinctionofornamentsignsfoundinSA
andtosomeextentinBulyowskyisherebyconfirmedasauthentic.Atthesametimewelearn
thattheotherornamentsymbolsinBulyowsky,partlydifficulttointerpret,areundoubtedlyan
addition,notreflectingFrobergersconcept.39ThusthenewsourceshowsthatFrobergers
interestinFrenchornaments,aswithhisadoptionofpreludestyle,ismoreevidentonlyinhis
lateryearsthanintheperiodimmediatelyfollowinghisfirstParissojourn.
8.2Thevolumecontainsonlythreesections,whereasthefirsttwoLibrihavefour.Conspiciously
absentherearetoccatas,suggestingthatthisidiommaynothaveheldFrobergersinterestany
more(asinthecaseofJ.S.Bach,whowroteallhisharpsichordtoccatasinhisyouth).Thatthe
canzonaisnotrepresentedinthislaterepertoryisalsonosurprise:itseemstohavedisappeared
fromFrobergerspaletteafterhepresentedsixintheLibroSecondoof1649whenthegenre
seemstointegratewiththecapricciothevenerablestyleofthericercarapparentlysurvived
longer,astheirpresenceintheLibroQuarto(1656)andLibrodicapricci,ericercati(1658)
shows,butitwaseventuallyabsorbedbythefantasy.
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8.3FrobergerssuddeninterestinFrenchstyleisseeninanumberofcharacteristicsinthis
manuscript:
Theadoptionoffreefloatingarpeggios,lutestyle,andapreferenceforlargerharmonic
blocksobviouslymodelledafterLouisCouperinsunmeasuredpreludes,astylistic
innovationforFroberger.
Developmentofamorereflective,lyricalstyle,contrastingwithFrobergersearlier
ItalianateimitativeFigurensprache.
AssimilationofRoberdaysfugalcompositions.
ThoroughelaborationofCouperinsthemefromRoberdaysFuguesetCaprices,
conspiciouslyattheveryopeningofthemanuscript.
ApplicationofFrescobaldisthematicmaterialasinterpretedbyRoberday.
AbsenceofItalianatetoccatastylesectionsandtoccatasasagenre.
TheexclusiveuseofFrenchfortitlesofpieces,sections,andthebookitself,incontrast
withtheearlierautographs.
IntroductionoftheFrenchgenreofthemusicalportrait.
ApplicationofFrench,differentiatedornamentsigns.
TheuseofLouisCouperin'shomophonicgiguestyle.
8.4Theorderofthedancesinthesuitesinthislatenewmanuscript,alwaysplacingthegiguein
thesecondplace,confirmswhatcouldbeconcludedonthebasisofSA:Frobergersneworder
foralmostallhis[dance]movements(asmentionedbyWeckmanninHintze)wasprobably
introducedbetweenthesummersof1653and1654.40
8.5AtonalexpansionisnoticeablehereasifFrobergerwereexploringtonalityatthecostof
modality.Ontheonehand,thechoiceofBflatmajorintwocompositionscanbeseenasa
logicaldevelopmentfollowingtheincidentalexplorationofthecircleoffifthstotheAflatmajor
chordintheTombeauforFerdinandIII(1658)andtheFsharpmajorchordintheMditationon
hisowndeath(1660).OntheotherhandwehaveseenhowtheDminorscalesupersededthe
dorianandaeolianmodesinLeopoldFriedrichsTombeau(1662,no.35)andhowFroberger
acceptedtheNeapolitansixthchordintheSarabandefromSuite15(seePar.5.5),thuspavingthe
wayforamoretonalapproach.Thismoderntrenddoesnotsurpriseus,sinceWerckmeister
suggeststhatitwasjustaroundthesametime(ca.1667)thatthecomposerwroteaCanzona
passingthroughall12keysandthecircleoffifths,untilhereturnedtothekeyhestarted
in.41
8.6ThenewmanuscriptalsoallowsustofollowFrobergersuseofaccidentals,whichundergoes
achangeovertheyears.Thenaturalsign,youngestamongaccidentals,wasusedinonlyone
pieceintheLibroSecondoof1649,theHexachordFantasiaforKircherwhereheapparently
followedaversionhepreparedforKircher)anditisnotusedatallintheLibroQuarto(1656).
IntheLibrodicapricci,ericercati(1658)itappearsnotinfrequently,anditisonanequal
footingwithsharpsandflatsinthisnewmanuscript.
8.7AcomparablemodernizationtookplaceinLouisCouperinsnotationofkeysignatures,
wheretonalnotationwassometimesintroduced,albeitapparentlynotwithoutpain,asthe
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ambivalentnotationofAllemandedelapaix(no.63inMoroney)maysuggest.Thatthis
transitiontookplaceinthelate1650scanbededucedfromSarabandeinA(no.113):inBauyn
thetwosystemsforkeysignaturesareusedinthesamepiece,andthedanceseemstoquote
FrobergersSarabandefromSuite8(1656).TheprobableoccasionfortheAllemandedela
paixwasthePeaceofthePyrennees,1659,supportingthisdatingofthetransitiontotonalkey
signaturesforthesecomposers.
9.ContributionstoFrobergersBiography
9.1ThenewelaboratetitlesprovidesomenewinformationaboutFrobergerslifeafter1658:
AjourneytoMadrid,perhapsinSibyllaspresence.Asapossibleoccasion,David
SchulenberghaspointedtotheweddingofprincessMargheritaTeresatoLeopoldI
byproxyin1666(seeRecentEditionsandRecordingsofFroberger,par3.5.The
actualpreparationofthematchhadstartedasmuchasfouryearsearlier,when
Leopoldagreedtoit.
FrobergersapparentstayinFrankfurtJulyAugust1658.
ThereestablishmentofhiscontactwiththeWrttembergcourt,eventuallyleading
tohissojournatMontbliard,mightbemovedbacknowbytwoyearsto1662or
before.42
10.GenesisofthisFrenchBook:FrobergersLastSojourninParis
10.1FollowingtheapparentdebacleofViennain1658Frobergerspostasimperialorganist
wasnotrenewedbythenewemperorLeopoldI43Parisisthefirstplacewherewefindatrace
ofthecomposer,intheheadingoftheMementoMoriinSA(no.29inthenewmanuscript).
HehadlivedintheworldofmusicianslikeBlancrocherprobablyfrommid1650untiltheendof
1652,exceptforajourneytoLondonthatheapparentlymade.Itispossiblethathisvisitshada
politicalaspect,withFrobergeractingasanobserverfortheHabsburgcourt.44Atleastduring
thisfirstParissojourn,theperiodoftheFronde,FrobergerhadbeensupportedbytheMarquisde
Termes,asshownbytheantiMazarinheadingoftheSuite13inSA.45Politically
independentbutprobablywithoutmeansin1658,thecomposer/virtuosomaywellhavesetoff
fromViennatoParisinthesummerofthatyear,withhisformerbenefactorinmind.Thealledged
personalcontactwithRoberdayduringtheperiodprecedingtheappearanceofhis1660edition
seemstosuggestthis,anditwouldconcordwiththedateofhisMditationonhisowndeath,
Parisle1MaAnno1660(no.29).TherenewedcontactwithSibyllacouldhavebeeninitiated
aroundthattime.
10.2ThearrestofLouisXIVssuperintendantoffinance,NicolasFouquet,inSeptemberof1661
ledtotheruinoffinancierslikePierreAubert,inwhosePalaisSaltheflamboyantMarquisde
Termeslived.(ThiscouldinturnhaveresultedinanendtoFrobergersresources,leadingtothe
acceptanceofSibyllasinvitation.)Thus,Frobergermaywellhaveperformedworksfromthe
newFrenchBookinthismansion,thegrandestandmostmagnificentlydecoratedintheMarais
districtofParis,todaythePicassoMuseum.
11.Conclusion
11.1Theauthoritativeversionsofknownpiecesinthenewautographmanuscriptmakeitclear
thatthewidedisseminationofFrobergersworksresultedincorruptionofthetexts,creative
copyingwithrhythmicadaptations,arrangements,andadaptationsfordifferentinstruments.The
wideadmirationforFrobergersstylealsoledtonumerousstylisticimitationsthatcirculated
underhisname,suchaspiecesincorrectlyattributedtoFrobergerinBulyowsky,Brussels,
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Kloeckhoff,andGrimm.
11.2ThefactthatanautographversionofFrobergersmostpersonalpiece(theMditationonhis
owndeath,no.29)comestogetherinasinglesourcewithanautographofanothermasterpiecein
thesamegenre(theTombeauforFerdinandIII,no.34)characterizesthismanuscriptasthemost
significantdiscoveryevermadeinthisfield.Itsreadingsofpiecesthatithasincommonwith
SAandBulyowskyalsoconfirmthehighqualityofthosemanuscripts,eventhoughthey
sometimeshavereadingsthatarenotintheauthoritativenewsource.Onthewhole,however,the
newautographoffersimportantsolutionsforplaceswhereothersourcescontradictedeachother.
Acknowledgements
TheauthorisgratefultoGustavLeonhardtforcallinghisattentiontothenewmanuscriptandto
SimonMaguire,StephenRoe,andthestaffofSothebysLondonforallowinghimtoviewitto
DavidSchulenbergandDiezEichlerforsharingtheirobservationsaboutthemanuscriptandto
OlivierBaumont,FrancescoCorti,AlanCurtis,HendrikDochhorn,JohannesJansen,Clemens
Kemme,IrmgardMsch,GuyOldham,AlexanderSilbiger,andSonjavanLondenfortheir
friendlyhelpandsupport.
References
*BobvanAsperen(bobvanasperen@hetnet.nl),professorofharpsichordattheConservatoryof
Amsterdam,isarecitalistonharpsichord,clavichord,andorgan,andascholarandteacherof
masterclasses.AformerpupilofGustavLeonhardt,hehasmadeover60soloharpsichord
recordingsofmusicfromthesixteenththrougheighteenthcenturies,includingJ.S.Bachsmajor
works.HeiscurrentlyengagedinrecordingthecompleteworksofLouisCouperinandFroberger
onhistoricalharpsichordsandorgansforAEOLUS.
1Aninterpretationofthecomposersintentionisperforceamodernone.However,weshould

notethatRembrandtwasexplicitabouthismeaninginhispassionseriesforthePrinceofOrange,
whenhedescribeshisintentiontodepictMeesteenddieNatureelsteBeweechgelijkheit(the
greatestandmostnaturalemotion)inalettertoConstantijnHuygensof12January1639.Fora
transcriptionoftheletterseeConstantijnHuygens:deBriefwisseling,ed.JacobAdolfWorp,6
vols.(TheHague:MartinusNijhoff,19111917),no.2020theentireWorpeditionisnow
availableandsearchableathttp://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten/Huygens/en/index_html.
2Icountthesuiteshereasonework,theinventoryinMaguirenumbersthe18movements

individually.ThenumberingoftheworksusedherefollowsthatestablishedinAdlerand
essentiallymaintainedbySchott(foridentificationofsuchabbreviationsseeSourcesand
Editions).TheworklistbySiegbertRampeinDieMusikinGeschichteundGegenwart(2nded.
s.v.Froberger)andRampecombinesclearlyauthenticworkswithbothattributedand
dubiousonesinasinglenumberingsystem,FbWV.Atthesametimethecorpuswas
increasedbyaroundthirtypiecesforthemostparttheseconcernsuites,predominantly
anonymusworksinGrimm,Stoos,andLeipzigSuiten.Inmyopinion,allofthesehaveno
relationshiptoFroberger.Inaddition,Ihesitatetoacceptthefollowingcanonizedworks:Suites
22,25,and26and,toalesserextent,Suites21,29nova,andtheAriaFroberger.Concerning
newcandidates,possiblytobeaddedtothiscorpus,seeBobvanAsperen,Frobergeriana:Neue
ErkenntnisseberdieAllemande,faiteenpassantleRhin,Teil1,andTeil2Concerto
(March,2004):258and(April,2004):2730,esp.endnote11(http://www.concerto
verlag.de/projekte/BvA.pdf).
3SeeSourcesandEditionsforidentificationsandcommentsontheseandallcitedmanuscripts.

InformationonthearmswaskindlysuppliedbythesterreichischesStaatsarchiv,Vienna.
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4ClaudioAnnibaldiobservedthatthecapitalRsandcrossshapedperiodintheaddressofone

oftheselettersareverysimilartocorrespondingsymbolsintheRicercariintheLibrodi
capricci,ericercati.Itconcernsthe1654letterthatFrobergeraddressedtoKircherinItalian
(Rome,PontificiaUniversitGregoriana,AUG,vol.557B,fols.309r310vtheothersurviving
letterfromFrobergertoKircherisinthesamecollection,fols.305r306r,dated18September
1649).SeeClaudioAnnibaldi,FrobergerRome:delartisanatfrescobaldienauxsecretsde
compositiondeKircherinFroberger,musicieneuropen(Paris:Klincksieck,1998),3966,esp.
p.51,no.43anEnglishversionofthisarticleappearedasFrobergerinRome:from
Frescobaldi'sCraftmanshiptoKirchersCompositionalSecrets,CurrentMusicology58(1995):
527.ThecomparisonofthehandwritingcouldnotbemadewiththeLibroSecondoand
LibroQuartosincethosewereexecutedbyagraphicartist.
5TheinitialAinAllwhichopenstheaddress(Figure2c)mayhavebeenamodel.
6ThetranscriptioninMaguiremodernizesChiquestoGiguesandhasotherslightdifferences

intranscriptionstyle.AFrenchformofFrobergersnameappearshereforthefirsttimeevenin
theFrenchBauynmanuscriptandontitlepagesinFrench,whereheiscalledMonsieur(asin
Roger),heisreferredtoasGiovanniGiacomooranabbreviationofthatsuchasGiacomo,
Gio.Giacomo.FrobergerhimselfusedaGermanformofthenameinthethreeknown
autographsignatures,HannsJacobFroberger,buttheStuttgartbaptismalrecordreadsJoannes
Jacob.IamindebtedtoHaraldShukraftforthislastinformation.
7ForatranscriptionandEnglishtranslationoftheHuygensFrobergerSibyllacorrespondence

seeRudolfRasch,TheHuygensFrobergerSibyllaCorrespondenceinTheHarpsichordandits
Repertoire(Utrecht:STIMUFoundationforHistoricalPerformancePractice,1992),23345.A
newlytranscribed,largercollectionisofferedinDriehonderdbrievenovermuziekvan,aanen
rondConstantijnHuygens,collectedandtranslatedbyRudolfRasch(Hilversum:Verloren,
2007)afacsimileofthisletterisincluded(no.6607).SeealsoWorpno.6607,and
CorrespondanceetuvremusicalesdeConstantinHuygens,ed.W.J.A.JonckbloetandJ.P.N.
Land(Leiden:E.J.Brill,1882),pp.CCCCII.Acopyoftheoriginalwaskindlyprovidedtome
byRudolfRasch.
8ThemainirregularitiesarePrimiere,Chigues,Couranttes,Sarebandes,Composes,Jaqueand

Organist.Similarspellingvariants,ChiqueorChiqve,forGigueareencounteredinseventeeth
centurymanuscriptsfromthewestern,central,andsouthernpartsofGermany.Examplescanbe
foundinseveralmanuscriptsthatcontainFrobergersmusic:Bulyowsky,Brussels,Leipzig
Suiten,Neresheim,andPartiturBuchLudwig.ThespellingOrganistinaFrenchcontext
mightalsopointtoGermaninfluence.
9Theuseofthetonaltermsmajorandminorthroughoutthisarticlereflectstheraisedor

loweredthirdscaledegreeinthisquasimodalmusic.
10ThiswasconfirmedbybyPeterWollny(privatecommunication).TheLibroSecondoand

Librodicapricci,ericercatiaremarkedN.1.N.3andN.1.N.4,afeaturehitherto
unmentionedintheliterature.TheseareshelfmarksfromthefamousSchlafkammerbibliothekof
LeopoldIFrobergerstwovolumesobviouslystoodtogetherthere,onlyonevolumeawayfrom
MonteverdisoperaIlritornodUlisseinpatria(N:1:N:1)seetheeditionofthisoperabyAlan
Curtis(London:Novello,2002),p.xix,n.2.
11LettersentfromMontbliardtoConstantijnHuygenson25June(oldstyle5Julyinnew

style)1667.Seeref.7formoderneditions.

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12Paris:Sanlecque,1660foramodernedition,seeFerrard,44.
13No.122inMoroney.Fortheorganworks,seeLouisCouperin:picesdorgue,ed.Guy

Oldham(Monaco:LOiseauLyre,2003),nos.24,29,49,and64cf.nos.26,57.
14Alunedemesalemandesvousfaictestropdhonneur,denavoirempruntlentre,pour

lappliquerunedesvostres(transcribedinWorp,no.5399RaschBrieven,no.5399and
Jonckbloet,p.23).
15SeghersTobiasandtheAngel(ca.1615/20)wasmetamorphosedbyRembrandtintohis

FlightintoEgyptca.1653,afterscrapingawayaboutonethirdoftheimageontheoriginal
copperplate,thusactuallyreplacingitsmaintheme.
16ThekeysignaturehasonlyoneflatinthenewmanuscriptandinSAMinoritenSuiten

alternatesbetweenoneandtwoflats.ThisisnotFrobergersonlypieceinminormodethatusesa
keysignatureinwhichthethirdisnotloweredinthekeysignature:Suite19andtheTombeau
deBlancrocherareinCminor,butthereisnoEflatinthesignature.
17Ontheotherhand,itappearstousthat,asinFrescobaldiscarefullyengravededitions,

Frobergerhimselfdidnotmarkallofhisties.Oursuppositionthat,forexample,considerably
moretieswereintendedinFrobergersElevationToccatasthanhewrotereceivessupportby
comparingtheopeningsofToccatas6(m.3)and11(m.5)intheautographs,containingthesame
material.AnotherexampleofasimilardivergenceisFrobergersToccata5mm.112,
comparabletoFrescobaldisToccataperlalevationeintheMessadegliapostolimm.45,and
evenLouisCouperinsunmeasuredPrelude13inFMajor,lines1011inMoroney,both
suggestingatie.OnemustassumeinFrobergersfaircopiessuchmissingtieswerenotjust
forgotten,butconsciouslynotmarked,probablyfollowinganoldorganistictradition.Asseveral
Italianseventeenthcenturyauthorssuggest,tieddissonantnotesmayundercertaincircumstances
berepeated,albeitgentlyandwithcharm(leggiadramente,asDirutadescribesitsowell)outof
considerationfortheessentiallyconcealeddissonance.
18Thusthetermvariant,practicaltodesignaterelevantauthenticversions,isnotapthere:

assigningnumberstothesearrangementsasauthenticworksbyFroberger,isthesameasgiving
BWVnumberstoarrangementsofBachworks.
19SeeFrescobaldissixthToccataperlorganosopraipedali,esenzafromhisIlsecondolibro

ditoccate(Rome,1627),m.76andFrobergersTombeaudeMrBlancrocher,m.5.
20Seethesecondbeatsofmm.22,26,and30forexamples.
21Seetheopeningofno.75,p.83,inuvresdeDufaut,ed.AndrSourisandMoniqueRollin

(2nded.,Paris:CNRS,1988).
22dasMementomoriFrobergeristschwerausdenNottenzufinden.Habeesmit

sonderlichemFleisdarumbetracht,wiewolesdeutlichgeschrieben,Undbleibeauchdeshern
GrieffgensseinerMeinungdaswerdieSachennitvonihmeHernFrobergerseliger.gelernet,
unmglichmitrechterDiscretionzuschlagen,wieersiegeschlagenhat(transcribedinRasch,
Brieven,no.6629A,withEnglishtranslationandJonckbloet,p.CCIV).
23TherenewedcontactwithSibyllamayhavebegunaround1659,possiblystimulatedbythe

presenceinParisofherbrotherUlrich,whohadenteredtheserviceofLouisXIVin1658seemy
Frobergeriana.Forherbiography,seeYvesRuggeri,FrobergerMontbliardinFroberger,
musicieneuropen(Paris:Klincksieck,1998),2337DasHausWrttemberg:ein
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biographischesLexikon,ed.SnkeLorenz,DieterMertens,andVolkerPress(Stuttgart:
Kohlhammer,1997),p.183andJeanMarcDebard,LeGrandMusicienetcompositeurbaroque
JJFrobergerHricourt(16641667),MmoiresdelaSocitdEmulationdeMontbliard86,
fascicle113(1991):34161.HermovingcorrespondancewithConstantijnHuygensafterthe
deathofFrobergerisintroducedandtranscribedinJonckbloet,pp.CXCVIIICCVaFrench
translationisgivenbyRuggeri,pp.289.Seealsothenotestomyrecording,FrobergerEdition
(AEOLUS(Germany),2000)vol.2,AlhonneurdeMadameSibylle.
24ThetimesignatureisC6/4.OtherauthenticgiguesintriplemeterarefromSuites27,12,30,

and19,allofwhicharepredominantlyhomophonicandinC6/4intheautographandrelatively
reliableSAhowever,theyareinfactin6/8rhythmnotatedindoublelenghthmeasures.
FrobergersfugalGigueinSuite10hasametersignatureofC3,whichisrhythmicallythesame
as6/4inthiscase.
25ConstantijnHuygensheardexcellentFrobergheron16September1665attheelectoral

archiepiscopalcourtinMainz.Hecommentedthatnothingpleasedmesomuchastohearethat
excellentFrobergherhisrareimprovements[i.e.,innovations].Thisletterrepresentstheonly
earwitnessofthemastersperformancesintheselateryearsandprovidesarareglimpseinto
FrobergersstateofmindaroundthattimethroughthelineHuygensfinisheshisphrasewith,
andtoseehimtakethepatiencetohearemewithsomeindifferentsatisfaction(letterinEnglish
toUltriciaOgleSwannof29December1666Worp,no.6594Rasch,Brieven,no.6594).One
wondersifFrobergerstillincludedtheextroverted,daringtoccatagenreinhisperformancesatall
duringthatperiod,forexampleinHricourtandMainz.
26AccentandoisusedbyGregorioStrozzi,CapriccidaSonare(Naples:N.diBonis,1687).

ForanexampleofFrobergersuseofthefigure,seehisToccata6,Dasonarsiallalevatione,
mm.378andToccata11,mm.324.
27SeethePlainteinSuite30,m.2,theAllemandefromSuite18,mm.6and7,andthe

TombeaudeBlancrocher,m.3.
28TheopeningfigureoftheseventhtoccatainhisToccateecorrente(Rome,[1634?]).
29Forexample,thesopranolineofthefinalmeasureoftheMditationsurmamortfuture,no.

29,isuniqueinallofFrobergersAllemandes,despiteitsotherwisetraditionalcadence(see
Maguirep.9).
30Seethethreeoccurrencesoftriplerepetitionsofanoteinimitativepassages,reminiscentofthe

TombeauforLeopoldFriedrich,intheopeningpassageoftheeleventhPrludebyLouis
CouperintheendofanotherPrlude,inGmajor,bythesamecomposer(Moroneyno.129)
andadotteddoublerepetitioninthesopranoattheendoftheGmajorPrludebyDAnglebert.
31Parville,pp.7989Moroney,no.6.
32TheexplanationofferedherewasinspiredbySibyllasletterandRudolfRaschscommenton

it(Rasch,privatecommunication).Onegetstheimpressionthattheincreasingelaborationsofthe
.S.signmayhaveledtosomeofthecurls,inthehandofartistJ.F.Sautter,intheadornedtitles
intheLibroSecondowhichevolvedintomereillustrationsintheLibroQuarto,culminating
inthereligiousrebusPsalm126:5whichconcludesthebook(seemyFrobergerEdition,vol.
4).
33IamgratefultoRedmerAlma,DrentsArchief,Assen(NL)forhiskindassistanceinthis

matter.
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34TheheadingonBulyowskystitlepageusessuchanabbreviation:Notae.S.Signaquaedam

inSeqq[uentibus]occurrenta/1.PollexHerethe.S.obviouslymeansscilicet(namely),
functioningasapunctuationmarksuchasacolon,Notes:thesignsfollowinghereafter/1.
thumb.
35ExamplescanbeseenintheLibrodicapricci,ericercati,fol.19r,wheretheretherewasno

roomforthesignfol.68v,wherethewritingdisappearsintothefoldandintheLibro
Secondo,fols.39r,96r,and107r,wheresomeofthesignwastrimmedawayinthebinding
process.
36Thestrikingoccurrenceofan.S.signintheSAcopy,roundingoffthelengthy

descriptionsofthePlaintefaiteaLondresandtheAllemandefaiteenpassantleRhin(where
itprecedestheconcludingword,Vale)mightwellstemfromstillundiscoveredautographsof
Froberger(SA,pp.37and33fromSuites30and27).
37Examplesoftheintentionallycopiedletterspria(usinganormalp)canbefoundattheend

oftheDuressedeFrescobaldiinOldham.InBauynitappearsinfourinstancesafterworks
bybothFrobergerandFrescobaldi.Thesetwoscribes,presumablyParisian,wereapparently
eagertostressthemostdirectdescendanceoftheircopyfromthecomposerhimselfandtherefore
itsreliabilitywithouttheleastintentiontofalsify.TheBauyncopyist,whowasgenerally(but
notalways)extremelyaccurate,insomecaseswrotethePriafollowedby./.,thesimplified
formofthescripsisign.Inanotherplace,./.followstheheadingofaFrobergerwork(Toccata
21).ItislikelythatthesecombinationsharkbacktoFroberger'shabit,asacomposeror
transmitter,seenintheheadingsintheLibrodicapricci,ericercati,andnowdocumentedinthe
newmanuscriptaswell.
TheDuressedeFrescobaldiistransmittedamongCouperinsorganworksinOldhamand
suddenlyadds./tothattitleandPriatotheendofthepiecethisseemstolinkItaly,
Froberger,andCouperin,asdothethemes,styles,andimitationsinthenewmanuscript.Seethe
accompanyingbookletstomyLouisCouperinEdition,CDrecordingofthecompleteworksof
LouisCouperin(AEOLUS(Germany),2006).TheDuressedeFrescobaldiisscheduledto
appearinvol.2.
38TherecanbenocertaintyabouttheexactperformanceofthetrillinFrobergersnewmixed

style.HemusthaveadmiredandprobablyheardChambonnires,thefatheroftheFrench
harpsichordschool,wheninParis,andhisDemonstrationdesMarques(PiecesdeClavessin
LivrePremier,1670)showsthatthetrill(cadence)isbegun,surelyunaccentuated,onthenote
abovetheprimarypitch.AnotherinterpretationcomesfromJeanDenisinhisTraitdelaccord
delespinette(Paris,1643and1650facsimileed.AlanCurtis,NewYork:DaCapo,1969)he,
amongothers,describesshorttrillsbeginningonthemainnote(pinceraudessus)for
descendingpassingeighthnotes.Wedontknow,then,howmusicianslikeLouisCouperin
interpretedtheornamentinvariousmusicalcontextsinParisaround1650.Thecontemporary
Italianformmaywellhavebeenpredominantlythemainnotetrill(Merulostremoletto),
althoughevidenceisscarce.TheremayhavebeenmorethanonetraditionforFrobergers
ItalianateandFrenchorientedstyles,orevenacombinationofseveralwaysofrealizingthetrill.
ExactlysuchcontradictoryevidenceisfoundinBrussels,whichhasaninternationalrepertory,
includingpiecesbybothFrobergerandLouisCouperin.(Regardinganunknownworkinthe
manuscriptthatisprobablybyCouperin,seemyWerkvanLouisCouperininDuitsebronnenen
eenanonymecourante,HetClavecimbel,StichtingClavecimbelGenootschapNederland,14:1
[May,2007]:pp.1221.)Bywayofornamenttable,thisGermantabulaturegivesanapplicatio,
explainingthatTremulanten(perhapsstandingfortremoli)arebegunfromthemainnote,
andCadentien(cadences)fromtheuppernote.Thelastwordinthismatterhasnotyetbeen
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spoken,andthechangeofuseandfrequencyofornamentsymbolsinthenewFroberger
autographmightleadtonewconclusionsforFrobergersearlierworksaswell.
39SeeRasch,967.
40ThecomposerdidnothesitatetorearrangetheorderinSuite11whencompilingLibroQuarto

in1656(seemyFrobergeriana).
41AndreasWerckmeister,Hypomnematamusica,oderMusicalischesMemorial(Quedlinburg:

Calvisi,1697),37.
42AsJeanMarcDebarddiscovered:thejournalofDukeGeorgeIIshowsFrobergersaudience

on20September1664.ThisdatemayrepresenthisofficialsettlementinHricourt,forwhich
beingaRomanCatholicheneededpermissionfromtheduke,whoalsoactedasaLutheran
bishop(Debard,GrandMusicien,3489).
43FrobergersnamedoesnotappearonthepayrollinViennaafter30June1657.Thefactthat

LeopoldkepttwoofFrobergersLibriinhisSchlafkammerbibliothek,includingtheonededicated
tohim,seemstocontradictthestorythatFrobergerfellintoimperialdisgrace.Thestorywasfirst
toldbyWaltherin1732,andsubsequentlyrepeatedbyZedlerin1735andMatthesonin1740.
LeopoldshighregardforFrobergersworkmayexplainhowthecomposercouldwriteto
Huygenson1September1666thathewouldsoonreturntotheimperialcourt.Seetheentries
onFrobergerinJohannGottfriedWalther,MusicalischesLexiconodermusicalischeBibliothec
(Leipzig:WolfgangDeer,1732)JohannHeinrichZedler,GrossesvollstndigesUniversal
LexiconallerWissenschafftenundKnste(Halle:Author,17321750),vol.9,1735and
JohannesMattheson,GrundlageeinerEhrenpforte(Hamburg:Author,1740).Theletterfrom
FrobergerisreferredtoinConstantijnHuygensreply(Rasch,Brieven,no.6583Rasch,
Correspondence,no.1,withEnglishtranslationWorpno.6583).
44Wollny,p.VIII.
45ThemarquiswaspremiervaletdechambreofGastonofOrlans,brotheroftheking,andwas

exiledforsympathisingwiththeFronde.
Table
SourcesandEditions
Figures
Figure1:LibroQuarto,fol.113r
Figure2:ComparisonofFrobergersHandwriting
Figure3:LouisCouperin,Prelude9excerpt
Figure4:FormationsoftheLetterpasanAbbreviationforpro
Examples
Example1:ThemesofFrobergerCapriceinA(no.7)andCapriccio2
Example2:ComparisonofRoberdayCapriceandFrobergerCapriccio2
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Example3:ComparisonofRoberdayCapriceinA,FrobergerCanzona1,andFrobergerGigue
fromSuite20
Example4:HarmonicComparisonofRoberdayCaprice8,FrobergerCapriceinA(no.7),and
FrobergerCanzona2
Example5:ComparisonofRoberdayCaprice8,FrobergerCapriceinA(no.7),andFroberger
Toccata12
Example6:ComparisonofNewVersionofAllemandefromSuite15withBulyowsky
Example7:CrossRelationinFrobergerGiguefromSuite15
Example8:ComparisonofFlourishFigures
HowtociteanarticleinJSCM
Copyright2008bytheSocietyforSeventeenthCenturyMusic.Allrightsreserved.
ThisdocumentandallportionsthereofareprotectedbyU.S.andinternationalcopyrightlaws.

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