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force and displacement transformations - Structural matrix

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Transformations

2.1

General

both magnitude and direction. Forces as used here include both direct forces

and couples; while displacements include both translational and rotational

movements. In matrix structural analysis these forces and displacements

are written as column matrices containing their vector components.

The linear transformation of forces and displacements can be expressed

in matrix form as in Equations 2.1 and 2.2. Where the P s and U s are

force and displacement vectors and the Hs are the transformation matrices.

Mathematically, a linear transformation can be viewed as redefining a vector

defined with respect to one coordinate system, say A, to another set of

coordinate system, B.

[Pb ] = [Hba ] [Pa ]

(2.1)

[Ub ] = [Hba ][Ua ]

(2.2)

The subscripts identify the coordinates systems used to define the elements of the vectors. The order of the double subscript in the transformation

matrix define the direction of the transformation. In general, the force transformation matrix to B from A, [Hba ], is different from the transformation

matrix to A from B, [Hab ].

Since forces and displacements vectors have specific meaning in structural mechanics, the above transformations also have their corresponding

specific meaning in mechanics rather than simply a mathematical operation. Specifically, the force vector [Pb ] in Equation 2.1 refers to a statically

equivalent set of forces of the force vector [Pa ]. For Equation 2.2, the displacement vector [Ub ] is the kinematically equivalent displacement to the

displacement vector [Ua ] resulting from a rigid body motion.

1

or form that will be used in expressing the equilibrium equations in matrix

form. Displacement transformations, on the other hand, will be the basic

form used to express compatibility equations.

2.2

Coordinate System

and its direction must be defined. Similarly, displacement vectors require

three quantities to be completely defined: its location, its magnitude and

its direction. Mathematically, definition of vectors require the use of a reference coordinate system. In matrix structural analysis, a right-hand Cartesian coordinate system1 , such as that shown in Figure 2.1, is used almost

exclusively.

xy

In representing vectors in the Cartesian system, as in Figure 2.2, a

double-headed arrow notation is used for moments, [M ] and rotations, [] to

distinguish them from direct forces, [P ] and translational displacements [].

By convention, the direction of the couple or rotation is in the direction the

right hand curls when the thumb is pointed in the direction of the arrow.

With the reference system selected, forces and displacements can be

defined as by their vector components in a column matrix which is also

referred to as a vector. Equation 2.3 defines space forces and displacement

1

If the thumb, index and middle finger of right hand are oriented to form three orthogonal axes, the thumb is the xaxis, the index finger is the y-axis, and the middle finger

is the zaxis. Instead of naming the axes with letters, numbers may be assigned starting

with 1 for the xaxis. Using numbers indicate ranking between axes with the x being

the lowest, then y, then z.

3

y

x

z

z

a) P or

b) M or

with respect to the xyzaxes.

Px

[P ] = Py

Pz

x

[] = y

z

Mx

[M ] = My

Mz

x

[] = y

z

(2.3)

of the force can be determined as well as its orientation with respect to the

selected axes. For example, for the planar force2 , [P ]T = [Px Py ], shown

in Figure 2.3a, the resultant or magnitude of the force, |P |, is given by

Equation 2.4 and its orientation, , from the xaxis is given by Equation

2.5.3

y

Py

P

Py

y

z

Px

Px

a) Planar Force

b) Spacial Force

2

Vectors are column matrices. To print it along with the text and to save print space,

its transpose is frequently shown.

3

more commonly calculated as = arctan(Py /Px ) but the arccos function was used to

be consistent with the space force

|P | =

and

Px2 + Py2

Px

= arccos

|P |

(2.4)

(2.5)

For the space force in Figure 2.3b, the magnitude and orientation are

given by Equations 2.6 to 2.7.

|P | =

x = arccos

Px

,

|P |

y = arccos

Py

,

|P |

(2.6)

z = arccos

Pz

|P |

(2.7)

containing both P and Px consider the triangle made by P and Px and

a closing vector connecting the ends of the two previous vectors on the x

plane. Similarly, y and z are the angles in the planes containing P and

Py and Pz respectively. Note that only two of the angles are required to

define the direction of a three-dimensional vector; while only one angle is

required for a two-dimensional vector.

In structural analysis there are usually several applied forces acting at different locations and different directions. From the resulting deformation of

the structure, the displacements of different points are also required.

For applied loads, we can select any convenient coordinate axis to define

each load. The position of the origin of the selected refernce axis defines

the location; while the vector components with respect to the axes define

its magnitude and direction. There are theoretically as many different local

load coordinate axes as there are loads.

When working on a particular member or element of a structure it is

convenient to define a local or member coordinates. Member internal stress

resultants, axial force, shears, and moments, as well as member deformations, deflections and slopes, are referred to this set of coordinates.

For members which can be idealized as straight line elements, the local

or member axes has its origin at one end of the member, normally indicated

as the Aend, and oriented such that the xaxis is along the centroidal axis

of the member section, and the y and zaxes are along the principal axes4

of the section. See Figure 2.4

For the whole structure, a single overall set of coordinates is used to

define the structures geometry before and after deformation, as well as, to

describe the actions to which it is subjected to. The analysis equations for

the structure are written with reference to this single coordinate system.

4

The principal axes are those where the product moment of inertia

R

A

yzdA vanishes.

This set of coordinates is usually referred to as the global or system or

structure coordinates.

ym1

P1

x1

y2

P2

x2

xm1

xm2

y1

x

Global Axis, x-y

ym2

Member Axes, xm-ym

Figure 2.5 shows examples of the coordinate systems that have to be

defined for a given problem. Each load have their corresponding local coordinates. Similarly, each member has its own member coordinate system.

It will be necessary to transform the applied forces, member forces and displacements from the local to the global coordinates to perform the analysis

at the structure level. After completing the analysis at the structure level,

it will also be necessary to transform the results for each member from the

global reference to the member reference axes.

2.3

both translated and rotated in space relative to each other. Disregarding

for the meantime the relative positions of the origins of the axes, this section

will consider the case that involves only planar rotation (rotation about one

axis).

Considering a planar force P in Figure 2.6a, this can be defined by its

components Pxa and Pya in the xa yb coordinate axes. As there are no

restrictions on what set of coordinate axes to use, the force P can also be

defined by its components in the xb yb or xc yc axes as shown in Figure 2.6b

and 2.6c.

xc

ya

P

xb

yb

xc

Pya

xa

P yb

a) [PA]

yc

Pxa

P xb

c) [PC]

b) [PB]

As the vectors [Pa ], [Pb ] and [Pc ] define to the same force their components must be related in some way. Specifically, given [Pa ] we should be able

to determine [Pb ] through a transformation such as [Pb ] = [Lba ][Pa ].5

Referring to Figure 2.7, the components of [Pa ], Pxa and Pya are assumed

to be known. It is required to find the components Pxb and Pyb of [PB ] which

have the same resultant as [Pa ]. The vector [Pb ] is defined with respect to

the xb yb axes which is rotated by an angle from the xa ya axes

a

b

The components Pxb and Pyb can be determined considering the triangles

with angle indicated in Figure 2.7. Alternatively, the components Pxb and

Pyb can be determined as the sum of the components of Pxa and Pya on the

5

The notation [Hba ] shall be used for the general case of translation plus rotation, the

notation [Lba ] is used for the rotational transformation of a pure vector.

Pxa cos + Pya sin

P xb

Pyb

or in matrix form;

"

"

P xb

cos sin

=

sin cos

Pyb

#"

P xa

P ya

(2.8)

or simply

[Pb ] = [Lba ][Pa ]

with

(2.9)

"

cos sin

[Lba ] =

sin cos

(2.10)

that the elements of a particular column are simply the components of a unit

force along the xa and ya axis on the xb and yb axes. Referring to Figure

2.8a, element l11 = cos is the component of a unit vector along the xa

axis on the xb axis, and l21 = sin = cos( 2 ) is the corresponding

component on the yb axis. Similarly from Figure 2.8b, l12 = sin is the

component of a unit vector along the ya axis on the xb axis, and l22 = cos

is the corresponding component on the yb axis.

ya

ya

yb

yb

xb

Pya = 1

xb

xa

Pxa = 1

a) First Column

xa

b) Second Column

The generation of the transformation matrix by columns using unit loads

usually proves to be much simpler and more efficient rather than generating

each equation (row) then rewriting these in matrix form. As such, generation

of the transfomation matrices by columns will be used almost exclusively.

Probably the most important thing to recognize is that the only information required in determining the rotational transformation matrix is the

relative rotation, , of the two axis. Since is also a vector representing a

relative rotation is measured from the lower ranking axis, the xa axis for

this case; and positive for a rotation towards the positive half of the other

axis, the ya axis for this case. Referring to Figure 2.7, a positive rotation is

a counter-clockwise rotation from the xa to the xb axis.

Example Problem 2.1 Given the force vector [PA ] defined with respect to

the xa ya coordinate system, determine the equivalent force vector [PB ] with

respect to the xb yb axes where the xb axis is rotated 30 degrees from the

xaxis.

"

30 kN

[Pa ] =

40 kN

Solution:

[Pb ] = [Lba ] [Pa ]

"

"

#"

Pxb

cos(30 ) sin(30 )

=

P yb

sin(30 ) cos(30 )

"

0.866 0.500

=

0.500 0.866

"

45.981 kN

[Pb ] =

19.641 kN

#"

30 kN

40 kN

30 kN

40 kN

to show the equivalence of the forces, determine the resultants and orientations using Equations 2.4 and 2.5. Based on vector [Pa ]:

|Pa | = 50 kN

and

c = 53.13

and

b = 23.13

|Pb | = 50 kN

As shown in the example, the three force vectors can be resolved into the

same resultant force of 50 kN acting at an angle of 53.13 from the xa axis.

As such, the three force systems should elicit the same response to a structure if applied separately. Such force systems are referred to as statically

equivalent, i.e. although composed of forces of different magnitudes they

will elicit the same response on a body.

As a result, structural problems can be solved using equivalent systems

where the forces are replaced with their statical equivalents. For example,

any of the three systems shown in Figure 2.9 which are subject to equivalent

forces can be used to determine the response of the plane truss.

40 kN

50 kN

45.98 kN

19.64 kN

30 kN

30o

53.13o

30o

30o

Since the Lmatrix can be determined solely from the knowledge of the

relative orientation of the axes, it follows that the above transformation

applies to any vector quantity and is thus applicable to moment, [M ]T =

[Mx My ], translational displacement, []T = [x y ], rotational displacement, []T = [x y ], vectors, and position vectors (coordinates of points).

The rotational transformation for these vectors, or any vector [V ] can be

expressed as [Vb ] = [Lba ][Va ] where [Lba ] is given in Equation 2.10.

For displacements, the linear transformation such as [Ub ] = [Lba ][Ua ] can

be defined to mean the determination of a kinematically equivalent set of

displacements. The two vectors, [Ua ] and [Ub ] define the same displacement,

differing only on the coordinate axes used.

For the above and rotations about an axis other than the zaxis, it

is important to recall the sign convention for the rotation. For rotations

about the xaxis, the rotation is measured from the yaxis, positive in the

direction of the positive zaxis. For rotations about the yaxis, the rotation

is measured from the xaxis, positive in the direction of the positive zaxis.

Inverse Transformation

The inverse transformation, [Pa ] = [Lab ][Pb ] can similarly be determined.

Referring to Figure 2.10 and using the unit load method, the elements of

the first column of [Lab ] are the components of a unit vector along the xb

axis on the xa and ya axes: cos and sin respectively. The elements of

the second column are the components of a unit force along yb axis on the

xa and ya axes: sin and cos respectively. Therefore:

[Pa ] = [Lab ][Pb ]

where

"

cos sin

[Lab ] =

sin

cos

(2.11)

#

(2.12)

any two sets of coordinates using the appropriate angle based on the convention used. For the inverse transformation, the angle is measured counterclockwise from the xb axis to the xa axis and is equal to ( ) or is equal

10

ya

ya

yb

yb

yb

xb

xb

P xb

xa

xa

to a negative (clockwise) rotation, (). Substituting this to Equation 2.10

gives the same result as Equation 2.12.

"

cos(2 ) sin(2 )

[Lab ] =

sin(2 ) cos(2 )

"

cos() sin()

=

sin() cos()

"

cos sin

sin

cos

Still another alternative is available if we recognize that we already determined the transformation matrix [Lba ], such that [Pb ] = [Lba ][Pa ]. Then

from matrix algebra, if we multiply both sides by the inverse of [Lba ], we get

[Pa ] = [Lba ]1 [Pb ]

therefore:

[Lab ] = [Lba ]1

Inverting the matrix [Lba ] again gives the same expression as Equation 2.12.

Obviously this approach only works for cases where the inverse is defined

for which it does for this case.

Lastly, from a comparison [Lab ] in Equation 2.10 and [Lba ] in Equation

2.12, we see that [Lab ] is simply the transpose of [Lba ], i.e. [Lab ] = [Lba ]T

such that

[Lab ] = [Lba ]1 = [Lba ]T

(2.13)

A matrix whose inverse is equal to its transpose is referred to as an

orthogonal matrix. It will be shown in the discussion of the rotational

transformations in three-dimensional space that this is a property of the

rotational transformation matrix.

11

In the above, only a single direct force vector was considered. For a general

planar frame structure, the force resultants that act at any point may include

the x and ycomponent of a direct force and a couple. Thus, redefining

[Pa ] and [Pb ] as the forces acting at any point of a plane frame structure, we

have:

P xa

[Pa ] = Pya

M za

Px

b

[Pb ] = Pyb

Mz b

(2.14)

ya

ya

yb

xb

Pya

P xb

Pxa

Mza

xa

yb

xa

M zb

PB

PA

Note, that [Pa ] and [Pb ] in Equation2.14 are not true force vectors, but

actually include two vectors one force and one moment vector. These are

referred to as generalized force vectors. In structural analysis, we will generally be dealing with generalized force vectors. Using generalized force

vectors allow us to define in a single vector forces that have a natural grouping. For example, we can define a vector that contains the forces acting

at all the joints of the structure, and another vector that contains all the

member forces.

To differentiate the transformations of true vectors and generalized force

vectors, the notation [L] shall be used for the rotational transformation

matrix for true vectors and the notation [R] shall be used for generalized

force vectors. Thus, for the generalized force vectors:

[Pb ] = [Rba ][Pa ]

(2.15)

the unit load method, some lessons from the pure vector case can be used.

First, it should be apparent that the direct forces Pxa and Pya will transform

to Pxb and Pyb as given by Equation 2.10. Therefore the elements of the

first two rows and columns are those of Equation 2.10. For the third row,

the elements l31 and l32 should be interpreted based on the equivalent force

12

concept. That is, l31 and l32 are the moments about the zb axis when unit

loads along Pxa and Pya are applied. Since the lever arms of these forces

are zeros from the zb axis, l31 and l32 are both zero. For the third column,

elements l13 and l23 are the equivalent forces along xb and yb axes when a

unit moment along za is applied. Recalling that a couple can be viewed as

two equal and opposite forces separated by a lever arm, it has no direct force

resultant and cannot have direct force components along any axis. Lastly,

the moment Mza will transform identically since the za and zb axes are

coincident. Therefore:

P xa

cos sin 0

Px

b

Pyb = sin cos 0 Pya

M za

0

0

1

M zb

therefore

(2.16)

cos sin 0

0

0

1

(2.17)

[Pa ] = [Rab ][Pb ]

cos sin 0

cos 0

[Rba ] = sin

0

0

1

(2.18)

It should be recognized that the generalized displacement vector corresponding to the generalized force vector for the plane frame, i.e.

[U ]T = [x

z ]

will have the same rotational transformation matrix as that of the forces.

[Ub ] = [Rba ][Ua ]

Recall that for a typical grid member, the internal forces include a shear

force normal to the plane and moments and torques are produced by loads

applied at right angle to the plane of the grid.

The basic transformation of coordinates for the structure is a rotation

about the yb axis as shown in Figure 2.12b. The rotation is again measured from the xa axis to the xb axis, positive as one moves towards the

positive za axis. Note that this convention is not consistent with the right

hand coordinate system convention for rotations but is used to maintain the

2.4. 3D ROTATION

13

ya

ya

Pya

Pyb

Mxa

za

xa

yb

M zb

xa

zb

za

xb

xb

za

b) [PB]

a) [PA]

a consistent form of the [R] matrix. Verify that the rotational transformation matrices relating the force vectors are as follows:

P ya

Py

1

0

0

b

M

0

cos

sin

M

=

xa

xb

0 sin cos Mxa

Mz b

(2.19)

1

0

0

cos sin

[Rba ] = 0

0 sin cos

(2.20)

[Pa ] = [Rab ][Pb ]

[Rab ] = 0

0

0

0

cos sin

sin

cos

(2.21)

Similar to the plane frame case, the generalized displacement vector corresponding to the generalized force vector for the plane grid, i.e. [U ]T =

[y x z ] will have the same rotational transformation matrix as that of

the forces.

2.4

The transformation for the planar structures is only a special case of the

general transformation equation for rotation about three axes. Again, it is

required to determine the force components on the xb yb zb axes given its

components in the xa yb za axes.

We will again first consider a direct force now defined by its three vector

components, [Pa ]T = [Pxa Pyb Pza ] and determine its statical equivalent set

[Pb ]T = [Pxb Pyb Pzb ].

14

ya

ya

xb

xb

Pya

yb

y

z

P xb

Pxa

xa

za

zb

za

za

xa

a) 3-D Coordinates

b) Pxb as sum of

components of [PA]

For simplicity, consider only the xb axis as shown in Figure 2.13b This

axis may be described relative to the original xyz by their direction angles

x , y , and z . These direction angles are the interior angles between axes

xb xa , xb ya , xb za in the planes containing the respective pair of axes. As

was shown in the planar case, the force Pxb is simply equal to the sum of the

components of Pxa , and Pya on the xb axis. For the spacial case, we simply

need to add the component of Pza . Therefore,

Pxb = Pxa cos x + Pya cos y + Pza cos z

If x , y , and z are the direction angles of the yb axis with respect to

the yb axis; and x , y , and z are the corresponding direction angles of the

zb axis, it can be similarly shown that

Pyb = Pxa cos x + Pya cos y + Pza cos z

Pzb = Pxa cos x + Pya cos y + Pza cos z

or in matrix form

Px

cos x cos y cos z Pxa

b

P zb

cos x cos y cos z

P za

(2.22)

From Equation 2.22 the elements of the rotational transformation matrix, [L], are all cosines of angles and are referred to as direction cosines.

Thus the values of the elements of [L] can only be in the range of -1.0 to 1.0.

Also note that the xy planar case previously derived are the four upper

left elements of the 3dimensional case. The sine term in the second row of

the first column or the matrix in Equation 2.10 is actually cos x , i.e. the

cosine of the angle between the yb axis and the xa axis or cos( 2 ). The

2.4. 3D ROTATION

15

sin in the first row and second column is cos x , the cosine of the angle

between the xb axis and the ya axis or cos( 2 ).

The above is primarily to show that the elements of the [L] matrix are

cosines of angles. Methods of determining the direction cosines to be discussed below does not require the determination of the direction angles so

that rather than using Equation 2.22 we shall return to the usual matrix

designation of the elements of a matrix shown in Equation 2.23.

l31 l32 l33

(2.23)

Consider the first column of [Lba ] and recall the unit load method discussed

in the planar case. Extending this to the space case the elements of the first

column are the components of a unit vector along the xa axis on the xb ,

yb , and zb axes respectively.

Alternatively, it could be said that the elements of the first column of

[Lba ] define a unit vector along the xa axis; i.e. if we take the elements of

the first column as the elements of the force vector, [Ea1 ] the resultant of

this force vector is a vector of unit length in the direction of xa .

ya

xb

resultant is a unit load along xa

l1

l 32

l22

zb

zb

l 31

yb

xa

l21

yb

xb

l 11

resultant is a unit load along ya

The same holds true for the second and third columns of [Lba ], except

that they define unit vectors in the ya and za axes respectively. The

columns of [Lba ] or any rotational transformation matrix [L] are said to

be unit orthogonal vectors, that is, each column of [L] defines a vector of

16

unit length which is normal to the plane containing the other two vectors.

l11

[Lba ] = l21

l31

l12

l22

l32

l13

l23

l33

Ea2

Ea3

m

h

[Lba ] = Ea1

(2.24)

~ =

~ = a1~i + a2~j + a3~k and B

From vector algebra, given two vectors, A

~

~

~

~

~

b1 i + b2 j + b3 k, the vector dot product of the two vectors A B is a scalar

with magnitude equal to

~B

~ = |A||B|cos() = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3

A

where is the smaller angle between the two vectors. The dot product of a

vector with itself is equal to the square of its magnitude;

~A

~ = |A|2 cos(0) = |A|2 = a21 + a22 + a23

A

and the dot product of two orthogonal vectors is equal to zero.

~B

~ = |A||B| cos

A

2

= 0.0

Thus for the unit vectors defined by the columns of [L], the dot product of

any column with itself equals unity, and the dot product of any two different

columns must be zero. Stated mathematically;

3

X

lij lik =

i=1

1 if

0 if

j=k

j 6= k

(2.25)

l11 l11 + l21 l21 + l31 l31 = 1.0

(

T

[Eaj ] [Eak ] =

1

0

if

if

j = k,

j 6= k

(2.26)

2.4. 3D ROTATION

17

[Ea1 ]T [Ea2 ] = 0.0

The nine possible dot products can be generated in matrix form by the

matrix product [L]T [L].

h

[Lba ]T [Lba ] =

Ea3

Ea2

Ea1

iT h

Ea2

Ea1

Ea3

Ea1 T h

T

=

Ea2 Ea1

Ea2

Ea3

Ea3 T

T

Ea1 Ea1

T

=

Ea2 Ea1

EaT1 Ea2

EaT1 Ea3

EaT2 Ea2

EaT2 Ea3

EaT3 Ea1

EaT3 Ea2

EaT3 Ea3

Applying Equation 2.26 to the resulting elements of the product, the diagonal elements have equal subscripts and thus evaluate to 1.0, all other

elements evaluate to 0. The resulting product is therefore an identity matrix.

1

0

0

1

0

[Lba ]T [Lba ] = 0

0

0

1

From the definition of the inverse of a matrix, it follows that the transpose

of [Lba ] is also its inverse, i.e.

[Lba ]T = [Lba ]1

Based on this, the inverse force transformation is therefore

[Pa ] = [Lab ][Pb ] = [Lba ]1 [Pb ] = [Lba ]T [Pb ]

or

[Lab ] = [Lba ]1 = [Lba ]T

Following the same reasoning, the columns of [Lab ] define unit orthogonal

vectors along the xb , yb and zb axes. Since [Lab ] is the transpose of [Lba ], it

follows that the columns of [Lab ] are the rows of [Lba ].

h

[Lab ] = Eb1

Eb2

Eb3

(2.27)

18

[Lba ] = [Lab ]T

EbT1

= EbT2

EbT3

l11

= l21

l31

l12

l22

l32

l13

l23

l33

unit vector along yb

unit vector along zb

The above discussion describes the properties of the rotational transformation matrix without any discussion on how these are generated. For the

planar case, the generation is relatively simple and straight forward. For

the general three-dimensional structures, two basic procedures to be discussed below determine the direction cosines directly without determining

the corresponding direction angles.

As mentioned before, the transformations required in structural analysis

generally involves those relating the global or structure coordinates to the

local force and/or member axes. The most common types of load acting

on a structure are can be classified as gravity loads which act vertically

downward, or transverse or horizontal loads. As the global axes are almost

always defined along the horizontal and vertical axes, generally only the

point of application for these loads need to be defined. Wind loads act

either as a pressure or suction normal to the surface to which it is acting,

and its local axes is thus related to the member local axes. Therefore the

following shall assume that the local axis is that for the member.

For structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of line elements, rotational transformation is normally required to relate forces and displacements

defined in the local or member coordinates and their definition in the global

or system coordinates, and vice-versa.

In the following assume xa , ya and za are the global axes, and xb , yb and

zb are the local axis of a straight line element defined as in Section 2.2 and

Figure 2.5. The coordinates of the ends of the member referred from the

global axes define its local xb axis. To define the other two axes, we require

a third point, which is not collinear with the member, located on the xb yb

plane (a point on the xb zb plane can be used, but the formulation below

has to be modified accordingly).

Let the position vectors [A] and [B] be the coordinates of the ends of the

member with point A corresponding to the origin of the local axis. And

let [C] be the coordinates of a point C on the positive yb half of the xb yb

2.4. 3D ROTATION

19

plane.

xA

[A] = yA

zA

xB

[B] = yB

zB

xC

[C] = yC

zC

ya

yb

xb

zb

za

xa

The objective is to determine the transformation matrix relating the

vector defined with respect to the global axes to that with respect to the

local axes such that: [Pb ] = [Lba ][Pa ] using the coordinates of these three

points.

Rather than determine the matrix elements by columns, the basis of

this procedure is that the rows of [L] define unit vectors along local axes,

xb , yb and zb axes. In Equation 2.27 [Ebi ] are the columns of the inverse

transformation, so that [Ebi ]T are the rows of [Lba ].

For the first row of [Lba ], we need to define a unit vector along xb with

its origin at A. Note that the position vector6 AB is along xb and we can

determine a unit vector by normalizing this. 7 Thus:

(xB xA )

(zB zA )

1

[Eb1 ] =

[VBA ]

|VBA |

(2.28)

where

|VBA | =

=

[VBA ]T [VBA ]

(2.29)

7

Normalizing is used here as the process of determining a unit vector along the given

vector.

6

20

It is easy to verify from Figure 2-15 that the first term,

l11 = (xB xA )/|VBA |

is equal to the cosine of the angle between xb and xa axes in the plane xb

xa . Similarly, the term l12 = (yB yA )/|VBA | is equal to the cosine of the

angle between xb and ya axes in the plane xb ya ; and l13 = (zB zA )/|VBA |

is equal to the cosine of the angle between xb and za axes in the plane xb

za .

To determine the other two rows of [Lba ], we first determine the vector

AC defined by the vector [VCA ] or preferably the normalized unit vector [Ec ]

with its origin at point A and lying in the xb yb plane.

(xC xA )

(zC zA )

1

[Ec ] =

[VCA ]

|VCA |

where

|VCA | =

[VCA ]T [VCA ]

to [Eb1 ] on the plane xb yb since point C was arbitrarily chosen. This vector

may, however, be used to determine a unit vector normal to both [Eb1 ] and

[Ec ] and having its origin at A.

~ and B,

~ A

~B

~ is

Recall that the vector cross product of two vectors A

~

~

~

a vector C normal to the plane containing vectors A and B, and directed

~ to

in the direction of the thumb as the right hand curls from vector A

~ The magnitude of the vector is equal to |A||B|sin() (where is the

B.

smaller angle between the two vectors). The components of the resulting

vector is determined in the same manner as determining the expansion of

the determinant.

~i

~

C = a1

b1

~j ~k

a2 a3

b2 b3

= (a2 b3 a3 b2 )~i

(a1 b3 a3 b1 ) ~j + (a1 b2 a2 b1 ) ~k

Thus the cross-product of [Eb1 ] and [Ec ] is a vector, [Vz ], in the z

2.4. 3D ROTATION

21

~c

direction: V~z = E~b1 E

~i

~z = l11

V

ec1

~j

l12

ec2

~k

l13

e c3

(l11 ec3 l13 ec1 ) ~j + (l11 ec2 l12 ec1 ) ~k

Normalizing [Vz ] gives a unit vector along zaxis.

[Eb3 ] =

1

[Vz ]

|Vz |

Vector [Eb3 ] is thus seen to be a unit vector along the zb axis and its

transpose is thus equal to the third row of [Lba ]. Note that if point C is

in the negative yb quadrants, a unit vector in the negative zb direction is

determined from the indicated order of the vector cross product.

What remains is the determination of the second row of [Lba ]. The

second row of [Lba ] represents a unit vector normal to the xb zb plane. This

is thus equal to the vector cross-product E~2 = E~3 E~1 .

~i

~ b = l31

E

2

l11

~k

~j

l32 l33

l12 l13

(l13 l31 l11 l33 ) ~j + (l12 l31 l11 l32 ) ~k

Note that the order of vector cross-products determines the direction

of the resulting vector based on the right-hand rule and must be carefully

observed.

[Lba ] relating a vector defined with respect to the global axis xa ya za to

that defined for the local axes xb yb zb such that [Vb ] = [Lba ][Va ]. The local

axis is defined by the coordinates of three points, points A and B defines

the xb axis, and a point C which is in the xb yb plane. The coordinates

of the points with respect to the global axis are as follows: A(0, 0, 0), B(4.0,

8.66, 3.0) and C(2.97, 11.10, 4.00).

22

Solution : The position vector [VBA ] and unit vetor [Eb1 ] along axis xb are

4.00

3.00

|VBA | = 10.0

0.400

1

[Eb1 ] =

[VBA ] = 0.866

|VBA |

0.300

The position vector [VCA ] and unit vetor [Ec ] on the plane xb -yb are

2.97

4.00

|VCA | = 12.167

0.244

1

[Ec ] =

[VCA ] = 0.912

|VCA |

0.329

Taking the cross product of [Eb1 ] and [Ec ] gives a vector along the zb -axis.

0.011

~

~

~

Vz = Eb1 Ec = 0.058

0.154

Normalizing, with |Vz | = 0.165

0.067

1

[Eb3 ] =

[Vz ] = 0.354

|Vz |

0.933

Taking the cross product of [Eb3 ] and [Eb1 ] gives a unit vector along the

yb -axis.

0.914

0.200

Assembling, remembering that the above vectors are the rows of the rotational

transformation matrix

0.400

[Lba ] = 0.914

0.067

0.866

0.353

0.354

0.300

0.200

0.933

2.4. 3D ROTATION

23

Alternatively, we may generate the rotational transformation matrix by a

series of three planar rotational transformations. For example, first a rotation, , about the ya axis to the xc yc zc axes, then a rotation about the

zc axis to the xd yd zd axes, and finally a rotation about the xd axis to

the xb yb zb axes. The order of transformations described is probably the

simplest to visualize, but nothing precludes using a different set of transformations.

ya, yc

xa

yd

yb

ya

zc

xc

xb

za

zd

zb

yb

yc

za

xa

yd

xb, xc

xd

xc

zb

zc, zd

[Pc ] = [Lca ] [Pa ] = [L ] [Pa ]

[Pd ] = [Ldc ] [Pc ] = [L ] [Pc ]

[Pb ] = [Lbd ] [Pd ] = [L ] [Pd ]

combining,

[Pb ] = [Lcb ] [Pc ] = [L ] [L ] [Pc ]

[Pb ] = [Lba ] [Pa ] = [L ] [L ] [L ] [Pa ]

therefore,

[Lba ] = [L ] [L ] [L ]

(2.30)

The angles , , and are known as the Euler Angles and the transformation may be expressed as

cos

[L ] = 0

sin

0

1

0

sin

0

cos

[L ] = 0

0

cos sin

[L ] = sin cos

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

cos sin

sin cos

(2.31)

24

Again, the order of the triple product is important and must follow

the order of the planar transformations in this case. What remains to be

ya

x

w

xa

za

yb

Ly

(yB yA)

xb

(z

B

zA

(xB x

A)

zb

discussed is the determination of the Euler angles or more directly the cosines

and sines of these angles. Recalling the premise that the local axes is that

for a straight line element, the coordinates of the A and Bends of the

members can be used. Defining Ly as the projection of member AB on the

plane y = 0, then

cos =

where

Ly =

(xB xA )

,

Ly

p

cos =

and

sin =

(xB xA )2 + (zB zA )2

(Ly )

,

|VBA |

and

sin =

(zB zA )

Ly

(2.32)

and

(yB yA )

|VBA |

(2.33)

For typical structures, the rotation about the local xb axis, , is usually a

multiple of /2 including zero. For example, beams are normally horizontal

members with the local yaxis being vertical and thus parallel to the global

yaxis resulting to = 0. Columns are typically vertical members with the

local yaxis usually oriented parallel to either the global y or zaxis.

Example Problem 2.3 Determine the rotational transformation matrix

[LBA ] for the problem in Example 2.2 using Euler angles. The coordinates

the ends of the member are the same: A(0, 0, 0) and B(4.0, 8.66, 3.0).

However, instead of the coordinates of a point C, the rotation about the

local xaxis is given as /4.

2.4. 3D ROTATION

25

Solution :

The angles and can be determined solely from the coordinates of points

A and B. More importantly, the cosines and sines of these angles can be

determined solely from the coordinates without determining the values of the

angles.

Ly =

(zB zA )

= 0.60

Ly

(yB yA )

sin =

= 0.866

|VBA |

(xB xA )

= 0.80

Ly

Ly

cos =

= 0.50

|VBA |

sin =

cos =

cos

[L ] = 0

sin

0

1

0

cos sin

[L ] = sin cos

0

0

[L ] = 0

0

0.800

sin

0 = 0

0.600

cos

0

1

0

0.600

0

0.800

0.500 0.866

= 0.866 0.500

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

cos sin = 0

sin cos

0

0

0

0.707 0.707

0.707 0.707

0.400

[Lba ] = [L ] [L ] [L ] = 0.914

0.066

0.866 0.300

0.354 0.198

0.354 0.933

The result is identical to that of Problem 2.2 since the coordinates of point

C was intentionally chosen to be on a plane rotated /4 from the vertical

plane about the local xb -axis.

The two procedures discussed both have their drawbacks. For the vector

procedure, selecting and determining the coordinates of point C on the

xb yb plane for each member in a structure is impractical and may be cumbersome if not difficult except when is a multiple of /2.

For the Euler angles procedure, determining the Euler angles for each

member and performing the triple product is not an efficient procedure. Note

also that except for the rotation which replaces the information provided

26

matrices makes use of the same information as in the vector method. The

vector method offers a more systematic method when dealing with several

members.

Particularly for manual calculations, a more practical approach is to use

a combination of the two procedures of generating [L], using the coordinates

of the ends of the member and the rotation from the vertical plane of

the xb yb plane from the vertical plane. As indicated in Figure 2.18 and

ya

xd-yd plane is a

vertical plane

yb

yd

xd, xb

zd

zb

za

xa

from the discussion on Euler angles, the resulting transformation, [L ] =

[L ][L ], by the application of the and Euler rotations is equal to

the transformation [Lda ] from the acoordinate system to the dcoordinate

system. xa ya za axes to the xd yd zd axes. Note that the xb and xd axes

are coincident, and that the xd yd plane is vertical.

In the combined procedure, the transformation from the a-axes to the

b-axes is determined by first transforming from the aaxes to the daxes,

and then transforming from the daxes to the baxes.

[Lba ] = [Lbd ][Lda ]

(2.34)

of [Lba ] using vectors. The first row (unit vector along x-axis) is determined

as in Equation 2.28.

[Eb1 ]T =

1

|VBA |

or

[E1 ]T = [l11

l12

l13 ]

We do not have or need a point C for this procedure since we know that

the xc yc plane is vertical. We can therefore arbitrarily select any vector

on this vertical plane. There are an infinite number of such vectors, but

2.4. 3D ROTATION

27

probably the most obvious and simplest is a vertical unit vector along the

ya axis which we also know to be on the vertical plane. Therefore take

[Ec ]T = [ 0

0]

This is used to determine a vector, Vz , along the zd axis (which is coincident to the zc axis).

~i

~

Vz = l11

0

~k

~j

l12 l13

1

0

= l13 ~i 0 ~j + l11 ~k

Normalizing Vz gives the third row of [LBA ]. Finally the second row, a unit

vector along the yb axis, is determined as E~2 = E~3 E~1 . Equation 2.35

gives the resulting [L ] in terms of the elements of the first row.

l11

l12

q l11 l12

[L ] =

2 + l2

l11

13

l13

2 + l2

l11

13

l13

2 + l2

l11

13

l12 l13

(2.35)

l11

gives:

(2.36)

[L ] = sin cos cos sin sin

sin

0

cos

Substitution of the proper expressions for the elements of Equations 2.35

and 2.36 in terms of the coordinates of the A- and Bend of the member

should give identical results.

With [Lda ] determined and recognizing that [Lbd ] is simply [L ] as defined

in Equation 2.31, the rotational transformation matrix [LBA ] is determined

from Equation 2.34 or.

[Lba ] = [L ][Lda ]

[Lba ] for the problem in Example 2.2 using the combined vector and Euler angles procedure. The coordinates the ends of the member are: A(0, 0,

0) and B(4.0, 8.66, 3.0); and the rotation about the local xaxis is given as

/4.

28

2.

h

i

[Eb1 ]T = 0.400 0.866 0.300

using [Ec ] = [0

0]

~c

V~z = E~b1 E

h

and

V~z = E~b3 E~b1

h

assembling gives

0.600

0.0

0.800

it can be verified that this [Lda ] is equal to the matrix [L ] = [L ][L ]

using the matrices defined in Example Problem 3. Finally,using [L ] defined

in Example Problem 3

[Lba ] = [L ][Lda ]

0.400

[Lba ] = 0.914

0.066

0.866 0.300

0.354 0.198

0.354 0.933

Recognizing that direct forces and moments transform independently under

a rotation of axes, then the transformation of a general space force system

(comprising of three direct forces and three couples) can be expressed as

"

"

Pb

L

= ba

Mb

Lba

or

[Pb ] = [Rba ][Pa ]

#"

Pb

Mb

(2.37)

29

[P ]T = [Px Py Pz Mx My Mz ]

Furthermore, since the corresponding displacements exhibit the same

vector properties as the forces and moments, they are subject to the same

transformation laws. Thus,

[Ub ] = [Rba ][Ua ]

where

[U ]T = [x y z x y z ]

Examination of [Rba ] shows that the following relationships hold

"

1

[Rba ]

Lba

Lba

LTba

LTba

"

#1

=

#

" 1

L

"

ba

L1

ba

Lba

Lba

#T

thus,

[R]1 = [R]T

(2.38)

That is, [R] matrix is also an orthogonal matrix. And the reverse transformation may be expressed as

[Pa ] = [Rab ][Pb ] = [Rba ]T [Pb ]

[Ua ] = [Rab ][Ub ] = [Rba ]T [Ub ]

2.5

While it was recognized that the origin of the local axes generally differs

from that of the global axes, the discussion on rotational transformations

considered only the relative rotations of the axes. In this section we shall

consider the relative position of the axes. To separate the effect of relative rotations, we shall consider systems where the corresponding axes are

parallel.

In the case where the origins of the two coordinate systems involved

is not coincident, force transformations should be taken as the process of

finding the statically equivalent of a force system defined with respect to

a particular coordinate axis in another set of coordinates. As previously

stated, statical equivalence means that the two force systems will have the

same overall effect on the structure or system.

30

2.19a is described as an axial force, Px , and a moment, Mz , about the centroidal axis of the member. Alternatively, the stress resultants is frequently

expressed as an axial force, Px , acting at an eccentricity, e = Mz /Px , from

the centroidal axis as shown in Figure 2.19b.

z

z

yc

ye

b) About Axis at e = M/P

a) About Centroid

These alternate ways of describing the force resultant is equivalent to

defining two separate coordinate axes; one located at the centroid defining

the force resultant as [Pa ]T = [Pxa Mza ], and the other having the coordinate axes located at a distance e from the centroid defining the force

resultant as [Pb ]T = [Pxb 0]. As the two force vectors define the same

stress distribution, the two should be related by a transformation relationship such as that in Equation 2.39. Necessarily, the force vectors in Equation

2.39 refers to generalized forced vectors. Note that the transformation is a

mathematical or conceptual tool used to facilitate computations and that

there is no actual physical transfer of forces.

[Pb ] = [Tba ][Pa ]

(2.39)

Consider first the planar force system acting at point A of a system, given

as [Pa ]T = [Pxa Pya Mza ], it is required to determine the statically equivalent

force vector [Pb ]T = [Pxb Pyb Mzb ] at a parallel set of coordinate axes located

at point B.

Since superposition is assumed to apply, we can consider each load at

A separately. Considering the direct force PAx alone as in Figure 2.21a.

It should be apparent that the overall effect of the force system remains

unchanged if we add two equal and opposite forces equal to Pxa at point

B along the xb axis as in Figure 2.21b. For the forces shown in Figure

2.21b the negative force along xb axis and the force along xa forms a couple

and can be replaced by an equivalent moment equal to (yPxa ) as shown in

31

yb

ya

yb

ya

Pyb

Pxb

xb

y

Pya

Pxa

Mza

Mzb

xb

xa

xa

A

a)

[PA]

b) [PB]

Figure 2.21c. Therefore the equivalent set of forces at B consist of a force

Pxb = Pxa and a couple Mzb = yPxa .

ya

yb

Pxa

xb

B

Pxa

y Pxa

xb

xa

x

a) Pxa at A

Pxa

Pxa xb

Pxa

A

yb

ya

yb

ya

xa

xa

b) Equivalent System 1

c) Equivalent System 2

Proceeding in the same fashion, the Pya force is statically equivalent to

a set of forces at B equal to Pyb = Pya and a couple Mzb = xPya as shown

in Figure 2.22.

For the bending moment, Mza , there is no direct force resultant being a

couple. Therefore, with respect to point B, the bending moment transforms

identically as shown in Figure 2.23. However, to this must be added the

couples generated by the transformation of the direct forces. In summary,

the equivalent force system [Pb ] at B of the force system [Pa ] at A is given

by:

P xb

= P xa

P yb

= P ya

= yPxa xPya + Mza

M zb

or in matrix form,

Px

1

b

Pyb = 0

M zb

y

0

1

x

0

P xa

0 P ya

1

Mz a

(2.40)

32

ya

yb

ya

yb

ya

yb

Pya

Pya

xb

y

Pya

A

xb

Pya

Pya

xa

a) Pya at A

x Pya

xa

xa

A

xb

B

b) Equivalent System 1

c) Equivalent System 2

yb

ya

yb

ya

Mza

xb

y

Mza

A

xa

ya

Mza

Mza

yb

Mza

xb

xb

B

xa

xa

a) Mza at A

b) Equivalent System 1

c) Equivalent System 2

or

[Tba ] = 0

y

0

1

x

0

1

unit loads, rather than rewriting the expressions in matrix form.

For the forces related to a typical grid structure, the relative translation of

the axis is in the plane x-z shown in Figure 2.24.

Using the unit load method, statical equivalent forces at B due to a unit

load, Pya = 1 is shown in Figure 2.25. As indicated the equivalent at B is a

force and a couple equal to Pya multiplied by the lever arm equal to the distance from A to B. Since this moment vector is directed perpendicular to

AB, it must be resolved to its components along the xb and zaxes. Rather

than performing the rotational transformation, it should be recognized that

the moment equivalents along the xb and zaxes are simply the force at ya

multiplied by the perpendicular distances to the corresponding axes.

For the statical equivalence of moments such as Mzb in Figure 2.26, it

33

a

b

ya

xa

za

b

ya

ya

yb

yb

Pya

Pya

xa

xa

z

Pya

xb

xb

x

za

za

zb

zb

Pya

b) Equivalent System 1

a) Pya at A

ya

xa

ya

yb

x Pya

xa

Pya

xb

za

xb

zb

c) Equivalent System 2

z Pya

za

zb

should be remembered that moments have no resultant force components

and will transform identically about any axis.

The force transformation relationship between [Pb ] and [Pa ] can therefore

be shown to be :

Py

1

b

M

z

=

xb

Mz b

x

0

1

0

0

P ya

0 Mxa

1

Mz a

(2.41)

Proceeding now to the three-dimensional case, shown in Figure 2.27, we

again wish to find the transformation relationship between the forces at A

34

ya

ya

yb

Mxa

yb

xa

xa

z

Mxa

xb

xb

x

za

za

zb

zb

b) Equivalent System at B

a) Mxa at A

and the statically equivalent forces at B, i.e. [PB ] = [TBA ][PA ] where the

force vectors correspond to the space case.

ya

yb

Mya

xb

Pya

Pxa

Pza

Mxa

xa

zb

Mza

za

Rather than working with individual forces, consider that the generalized

force vectors can partitioned into the direct forces and moments. In the

partitioned form, the transformation relationship can be expressed as in

Equation 2.42.

"

# "

#" #

Pa

I

Pb

=

(2.42)

Ma

XBA I

Mb

As was shown in the planar cases, forces and moments transform identically because the corresponding axes are parallel. Therefore the diagonal

elements of Equation 2.42 must be identity matrices. The null matrix in the

upper right results from moments not having any direct force resultants and

therefore cannot have any statical equivalent direct force components.

Therefore, the only submatrix to be determined is the [Xba ] matrix in

the lower left. Since the axes are translated, unit forces along the xa , ya ,

and za axes have equivalent moments about the xb , yb , and zb axes. From

the discussion made for planar grids, the moments about any axis are equal

to the force multiplied by the corresponding perpendicular distances. For

example, for the first column of Xba a unit force along the xa axis results in

an equivalent couple equal to (z) 1 about yb , and a couple equal to y 1

35

about the zb axis. Being parallel to the xb axis, no lever arm and therefore

no couple about this axis could be generated. The elements of the other

columns of [Xba ] can be similarly determined. The matrix Xba is therefore

x

0

z

0

x

[Xba ] = z

y

only portion of the transformation matrix where the relative distances of

point B from point A are found. With respect to its form, this matrix

is also a skewsymmetric matrix, i.e. one which have elements xij = xji .

This matrix has a special property that its transpose is equal to the negative

of the matrix, [X]T = [X].

The complete transformation matrix is given in Equation xx.

P xb

1

0

0

Py 0

1

0

b

P 0

1

1

zb

=

Mxb 0

z y

Myb z

0

x

y x 0

M zb

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

Pxa

0

Py

0

a

0

Pza

0 Mxa

0 Mya

Mz a

1

(2.43)

and can be shown to be in the form

"

"

Pa

I

=

Ma

Xab I

#"

Pb

Mb

(2.44)

from point B. From Figure 2.27 obviously the relative distances of point A

from point B are simply the negative of those of point B from point A.

Therefore:

[Xab ] = [Xba ] = [Xba ]T

z

0

x

[Xab ] = z

y

x

0

In summary

"

[Tba ] =

"

[Tab ] =

(2.45)

Xba I

I

T

Xba

I

(2.46)

in presenting Equation 2.46 since it is less likely to be missed. Alternatively,

we could have been determined [Tab ] by taking the inverse of [Tba ] noting

that [Pa ] = [Tba ]1 [Pb ] = [Tab ][Pb ].

36

2.6

of Coordinates

in Equation 2.47 can be described more generally as the problem of determining the kinematically equivalent or compatible set of displacements of

one defined at a given set of coordinates in another set of coordinates.

[Ub ] = [Tba ][Ua ]

(2.47)

both coordinate systems being connected by a rigid body with the displacements [Ua ] at a point A being known. Being parts of a rigid body, the

displacements [Ub ] at point B is related or can be determined from that of

point A since the relative position of the two points remain constant. The

transformation expressed in Equation 2.47 can be viewed as the determination of the displacement of a point B of a rigid body due to a rigid body

motion described by the displacement of a point A.

Figure 2.28 illustrates the problem in two dimensions. The rigid body AB is

subjected to a rigid body motion with the displacement at point A being

given by the vector [Ua ]T = [x y z ].

ya

yb

xb

yb

xa

xb

B

xb

ya

xa

A

xa

As shown in Figure 2.29, the displacement at point B can be taken as

the sum of the effects of the translational and rotational displacements taken

separately. If point A is subject to a translation displacement, xa , with no

vertical translation or rotation, all points of the rigid body, including point

B, must move by the same amount and in the same direction. Similarly,

if point A is subject to a vertical displacement, ya , all points in the rigid

body will undergo only translational displacements equal to ya .

When point A undergoes a rotational displacement, za , all points in

the rigid member will undergo the same rotational displacement. In addition, points other than point A will undergo translational displacements.

yb

ya

ya

37

yb

yb

ya

y

xa

xb

ya

xa

A

xa

a)

za

xb

xa

A

xa

za

xa

ya

za

xb

za

b)

at A

ya

at A

c)

xa

at A

Recall that displacements are assumed to be small such that the translational displacements due to rotations can be linearized, i.e. the translational

displacement due to the rotation can be taken equal to the product of the

rotation and the perpendicular distance from the direction of translation to

the center of rotation. Thus the displacement of B along xb axis is equal to

yza (the negative sign indicating that the displacement is in the negative

direction of the xb -axis) and the displacement along yb is equal to xza .

The total displacement of B is the sum of the effects of each displacement

components of A. Thus, in matrix form:

1

x

b

yb = 0

0

zb

0

1

0

ya

y

x ya

za

1

(2.48)

Note that the above matrix is generated more conveniently column wise

using the unit displacement method similar to the generation of force transformation matrices.

For a planar grid it is probably better to visualize a rigid plate body containing points A and B at opposite corners as shown in Figure 2.30. A rigid

body motion can be desctibed by the displacement at point A as given by

the vector [Ua ]T = [y x z ].

The displacement at point B can again be taken as the sum of the

effects of the translational and rotational displacements taken separately

as shown in Figure 2.30. If point A is subject to a vertical translational

displacement, ya , with no rotation, all points of the rigid body, including

point B, must move by the same amount and in the same direction.

When point A undergoes a rotational displacement xa as shown in

Figure 2.30b, all points in the rigid member will undergo the same rotational

displacement. In addition, point B will undergo a vertical displacement

38

ya

ya

ya

yb

xa

ya

A

x

a)

zb

ya

xa

xa

xa

ya

za

yb

yb

xb

z

zb

at A

xb

za

b)

xa

za

za

xa

zb

za

za

xb

xa

c)

at A

za

at A

equal to the rotation at A multiplied by the perpendicular distance to the

rotation vector, z.

Similarly when point A undergoes a rotational displacement za as

shown in Figure 2.30c, all points in the rigid member will undergo the same

rotational displacement, and point B will also undergo a vertical displacement equal to the rotation at A multiplied by the perpendicular distance,

x. The total displacement of B is the sum of the effects of each displacement

components of A. Thus, in matrix form:

x

1

b

=

yb 0

zb

0

z

1

0

x

ya

0 ya

1

za

(2.49)

using the unit displacement method.

The observations made for the planar cases may be used in generating the

transformation relations for the general case where the xb yb zb axes are

translated along all three axes as shown in Figure 2.31.

Similar to what was done for the three dimesional translation transformation, we can work with partitioned form of the transformation in the form

of Equation 2.50.

#" #

" # "

a

I Yba

b

=

(2.50)

b

a

I

When any point of a rigid body undergoes a translational displacement,

then all points of the rigid body will necessarily have to undergo the same

displacement. Thus the upper left submatrix in Equation 2.50 must be

an identity matrix. The same holds true for rotational displacements, and

therefore the lower right submatrix must also be an identity matrix. The

lower left submatrix is a null matrix since if we impose a pure translational

displacement, necessarily no rotations must occur.

ya

39

yb

ya

xb

Uya

Uxa

xa

Uza

zb

za

za

The only submatrix remaining is the upper right. Physically, the elements of this matrix represents the translations of point B resulting from

unit rotations about the xa , ya , andza axes. Figure 2.32 shows planar representations of these rotations. For a unit rotation about xa in Figure 2.32a,

point B will translate along yb by an amount 1z and along zb by an amount

1x. The plane containing point B will translate only on the xplane and

therefore there is no displacement along the xb axis. Similar observations

can be made for the rotations about the ya and za axes. Therefore the

YBA can be generated as shown in Equation xx.

yb

y

zb

z

ya

xa

ya

xb

xa

xa

za

yb

a) Due to xa

zb

za

za

yb

xa

xa

ya

ya

x ya

xb

y

zb

za

xb

xa

za

za

ya

b) Due to ya

c) Due to za

[Yba ] = z

y

z

0

x

x

0

matrix Xba determined for forces. The complete tranformation is shown in

Equation 2.51.

40

1

xb

y 0

b

0

zb

=

xb 0

yb 0

0

zb

0

1

1

0

0

0

xa

0 0

z y

y

0 z

0

x

a

1 y x 0

za

0 1

0

0 xa

0 0

1

0 ya

za

0 0

0

1

(2.51)

The inverse transformation matrix, [Tab ], such that [Ua ] = [Tab ][Ub ] can

be determined following the same reasoning used for the force transformation. Thus in summary:

"

[Tba ] =

I Xba

T

I Xba

(2.52)

"

[Tab ] =

(2.53)

Comparison of Equations 2.45 and Equations 2.53 shows that the displacement transformation from a point A to a point B is equal to the transpose of the force transformation from B to A. Similarly, the displacement

transformation from a point B to a point A is equal to the transpose of

the force transformation from A to B. This property of the transformation

matrices will be shown in Section 2.7 to be an example of the more general

contragradient law for displacement and force transformations.

2.7

We may now consider the general the transformation of forces and displacements to an axis which has been both translated and rotated with respect

to the original set as shown in Figure 2.33. In particular we would like to

determine the transformation relationship in the following form:

[Pb ] = [Hba ][Pa ]

(2.54)

(2.55)

Rather than generate the Hmatrices directly, the transformation is generally easier to determine by visualizing the transformation as the result of

the pure translation stage and a pure rotation stage.

ya

41

yc

b

xc

xa

zb

zc

za

Force Transformation

While the discussion is equally applicable for the threedimensional case,

consider the coordinates for the plane frame case in Figure 2.34a. The

force system at point A may be transformed to an equivalent set of forces

referred to a parallel axis xc yc zc with its origin at point C which is

conincident with point B; then a rotational transformation of the latter

forces to determine its components in the xb yb zb axes.

yc

ya

ya

xb

yb

xb

yb

yd

xc

xd

y

xa

A

y A

xa

x

Noting that [Tca ] = [Tba ] since points B and C are coincident, and

[Rbc ] = [Rba ] since the xc yc zc axes and xa ya za sxes are parallel.

[Pc ] = [Tca ][Pa ] = [Tba ][Pa ]

[Pb ] = [Rbc ][Pc ] = [Rba ][Pc ]

combining

[Pb ] = [Rba ][Tba ][Pa ]

= [Hba ][Pa ]

42

therefore,

[Hba ] = [Rba ][Tba ]

(2.56)

three-dimensional case.

"

[Hba ] = ba

Lba

#"

Xba I

"

Lba

=

Lba Xba Lba

(2.57)

A first to the D-axes, then make a translational transformation from D to

point B.

[Pd ] = [Rda ][Pa ] = [Rba ][Pa ]

[Pb ] = [Tbd ][Pd ]

combining

[Pb ] = [Tbd ][Rba ][Pa ]

therefore,

[Hba ] = [Tbd ][Rba ]

(2.58)

While this procedure results in the same [Hba ] matrix, it requires the

determination of the relative position of point B with respect to the D-axes,

indicated as x0 and y 0 in Figure 2.34b. These can be determined by the a

rotational transformation of the position vector. To avoid this additional

computation, it is preferred to determine the transformation using the first

option.

If the inverse transformation [Hab ] is required, it is more convenient to

rotate from the xb yb axis to the xc yc axis, then to translate to the xa

ya axis. This avoids the additional computation discussed in the previous

paragraph. Alternatively, we can simply invert the [Hba ]. Performing the

latter, we have

[Hab ] = [Hba ]1 = [Rba Tba ]1

= [Tba ]1 [Rba ]1

(2.59)

"

[Hab ] =

LTba

LTba

#"

T

Xba

I

"

LTba

Lba

(2.60)

T LT

T

Xba

ba Lba

"

#T

43

Note that the for the planar case, it is frequently easier to generate the

[Hba ] and [Hab ] matrices using the unit load method rather than performing

the indicated matrix product.

Displacement Transformation

For the displacement transformation, the same procedure discussed for the

force transformation shall be followed using the applicable matrices. Performing a translation then a rotational transformation.

[Uc ] = [Tba ][Ua ]

[Ub ] = [Rba ][Uc ]

Recall that the rotational transformation is identical for any vector. Combining

[Ub ] = [Rba ][Tba ][Ua ]

= [Hba ][Ua ]

therefore,

[Hba ] = [Rba ][Tba ]

(2.61)

three-dimensional case.

"

[Hba ] = ba

Lba

#"

I Xba

I

"

L

Lba Xba

= ba

Lba

(2.62)

[Hab ] = [Hba ]1 = [Rba Tba ]1

= [Tba ]1 [Rba ]1

The inverse transformations are given in Equations 2.53 and 2.38

T

I Xba

"

[Hab ] =

LTba

LTba

#"

T LT

LTba Xba

ba

"

"

Lba

LTba

#T

44

2.8

Contragradient Relationship

the same submatrices but positioned differently. A closer inspection will

however a special relationship between the force transformations and the

inverse displacement transformations. More specifically:

[Hba ] = [Hab ]T

(2.63)

[Hab ] = [Hba ]T

(2.64)

and

Since the matrix transpose operation is reversible, the above equations

may also be written in as a relationship of the force transformation matrices

to the transpose of the corresponding inverse displacement transformations.

The relationship shown is referred to as Contragradience or the contragradient relationship between force and displacement transformations.

Equations 2.63 and 2.64 actually represents a special case of contragradience where the transformation relationships are reversible (the inverse of

the transformation matrices exists). In general, the contragradient principle

may be stated as follow:

Given two statically equivalent force vectors and their corresponding displacement vectors such that the elements of the

displacement vectors are the displacements in the direction of

the corresponding element of the force vector. If the two force

vectors are related by a linear transformation, then the inverse

displacement transformation matrix is the transpose of the force

transformation matrix.

For example, if the force vectors are related such as [P ] = [Hpq ][Q],

then inverse displacement relationship is such that [Uq ] = [Hpq ]T [Up ]. Or

[Hqp ] = [Hpq ]T .

In structural mechanics, the linear transformation relationship of the

force vectors generally results from the application of the static equilibrium

requirements. Further, the vectors are normally generalized force vectors

not limited to the vectors defined in this chapter. As previously stated, one

vector may represent the forces acting at the joints of the structure, and the

other representing the internal member forces. As such, the size of the two

force vectors are generally different.

For example, consider the free body diagram of a joint of a planar truss

as shown in Figure 2.35. The joint loads, Px and Py , can be defined as the

elements of a vector [P ], and the member forces, Q1 , Q2 , and Q3 , can be

defined as the elements of matrix [Q]. A linear transformation relationship

between the two vectors, [P ] = [E][Q], can be written based on equilibrium,

i.e. summation of forces along the x and yaxes. Note that [E] has two

45

rows and three columns and is therefore not square. As such, its inverse

is not defined, and the inverse relationship is cannot be determined. The

physical interpretation of this is that: if we know the values for the Qforces,

we can determine the joint loads P . We cannot, however, find determine

the Qforces when the P forces are given. This is because we only have two

independent equations of equilibrium available, and therefore we cannot

determine the three unknown Qforces.

With the [E] matrix defined, from contragradience, the relation between

the corresponding displacement vectors is given as [Up ] = [E]T [Uq ]. The

physical interpretation of this is that: if we know the displacent of the joint,

[Up ], we can determine the kinematically equivalent displacements along

each member direction. Recall that the kinematically equivalent displacement along a given axis, say Uq1 is equal to the sum of the components Upx

and Upy on Uq1 .

P2

Q1

Q2

P1

Q3

Alternatively, a corollary to the above definition of contragradience allows us to determine the force transformation matrix from the inverse displacement transformation.

Given two kinematically equivalent displacement vectors and

their corresponding force vectors such that the elements of the

force vectors are the forces in the direction of the corresponding

elements of the displacement vector. If the two displacement

vectors are related by a linear transformation, then the inverse

force transformation matrix is the transpose of the displacement

transformation matrix.

The linear transformation relationship of displacement vectors is generally determined in structural mechanics from the requirements of compatibility. For the example truss joint in Figure 2.35 the displacement relationship

can be expressed as [Up ] = [C][Uq ]. Physically, compatibility requires that

the member ends connected to a joint must remain connected (have the

same displacement) to the joint. Thus we can write [E] = [C]T or [C] =

[E]T .

46

Proof of Contragradience

The proof of contragradience is based on the equivalence of the virtual work8

done by the two force systems.

If a force system [P ] acting on a body is subject to a displacement [Up ]

where the elements of [Up ] contain displacements in the direction of the

corresponding elements of [P ], it is said to do virtual work equal to [P ]T [Up ].

Consider now a statically equivalent force system [Q] which is related to

[P ] by a linear transformation in the form

[Q] = [Hqp ][P ]

If an equivalent system is used where the [P ] forces are replaced by the [Q]

forces, and is subject to the displacement [Up ], the virtual work done by the

Q-forces is equal to [Q]T [Uq ]. The vector [Uq ] represents the kinematically

equivalent dislacements along the Q-forces due to the P -displacements.

Since we are dealing with an equivalent systems, the response (the virtual

work done) must be the same. Thus,

V W = [P ]T [Up ] = [Q]T [Uq ]

but

[Q] = [Hqp ][P ]

substituting

[P ]T [Up ] = [Hqp P ]T [Uq ]

[P ]T [Up ] = [P ]T [Hqp ]T [Uq ]

Since P and Q are arbitrary:

[Up ] = [Hqp ]T [Uq ]

The relationship is specially useful and will be used continuously throughout the course. Specifically, contragradience will be used to determine the

compatibility (displacement transformation) matrices by transposing the

corresponding equilibrium (force transformation) matrices.

This can be taken as the basic definition of work which is force times the displacement.

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