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Boilers Basic Components



Major Boiler Components .
Miscellaneous Boiler Components ... 16


This section provides an introduction to the steam generating equipment used by Saudi
Aramco, including an overview of typical plant steam systems. The types of boilers and
boiler components used by Saudi Aramco are described.
Terminology for the Design and Operations of Boilers
A typical steam system, shown in Figure 1, provides thermal energy in the form of steam
to a number of consumers. The key elements in this system are the steam generators, the
distribution system, and the users. Supply of boiler feedwater (BFW) to the steam
generator and recovery of condensate for recycling are also included in the steam system.

1 Boiler
2 Deaerator 3 BFW Pump 4 Continuous Blowdown Facilities
5 Intermittent Blowdown Facilities 6 Pressure Reducing Station 7 Desuperheater
8 Distribution Piping and Valves
9 Condensate Return System
SV System Safety Valves


The steam generator can be either a part of a process unit using waste or surplus heat, or a
separate offsite facility burning fuel in a boiler. The fuel can be gas, oil, or coal. Steam
can also be generated by recovery of waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine.
Waste or surplus process heat can come from furnace flue gases, process coolers (heat
exchangers), or hot product rundown. The steam distribution network consists of piping
and valves that interconnect between the producers and consumers of steam. Steam can
be produced and consumed at various pressure levels. These different pressure levels are
usually connected via pressure reducing and steam desuperheating stations, so that
surpluses of steam at higher pressure levels can be utilized at lower pressure levels.
Although not standardized, commonly used steam pressure levels in Saudi Aramco plants
range from 60 to 625 psig. Most plants have a high-pressure (HP) level of 600 to 625
psig, plus one or much lower pressure levels. For example, steam pressure levels at
Abqaiq are 625 and 60 psig, and at Ras Tanura the steam pressure levels are 600, 225,
150, and 60 psig. These 60- to 225-psig levels are referred to as medium-pressure (MP)
levels. Usually there is also a low-pressure (LP) level at 15 psig.
The steam system begins with the supply of treated water to a deaerator, where dissolved
gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide are removed prior to introduction of the water
into the boiler. These gases are undesirable because of their corrosive attack on metal
surfaces. The water is deaerated by heating it to its saturation temperature and then
scrubbing it with steam to carry away the dissolved gases. The deaerator operating
pressure is normally the same as the LP steam system (15 psig). Boiler feedwater pumps
are used to deliver BFW from the deaerator to the boiler steam drum. Two or more pumps
are provided to ensure a reliable supply of water to the boiler. Wherever possible,
condensed steam from the steam users is collected in a condensate system and returned to
the deaerator for recycling.

The three main types of boilers used by Saudi Aramco are water-tube, firetube, and
electric. Water-tube boilers are illustrated in Figures 2 through 5. These are the largest
and most common boiler types. A firetube boiler is illustrated in Figure 6, and an electric
boiler is illustrated in Figure 7.
Water-tube boilers have no real pressure or size limitations. The basic configuration is a
firebox surrounded by tubes filled with water. Located at the top of the water-tube boiler
is a drum in which steam is separated from the water. Water circulates from the steam
drum down through the water tubes and back to the steam drum. This usually occurs
because of natural circulation, although some boilers have forced circulation systems.
The smaller-sized water-tube boilers are usually shop assembled and delivered to the field
in a complete unit. These units are referred to as package boilers. The maximum size of
package boilers depends largely on transportation limits. Larger units can be shipped in a
few modules which are assembled in the field. Many Saudi Aramco boilers are package
units, with the largest having a capacity of about 600,000 lb/hr of steam at a design

pressure of about 880 psig. Typical package boilers are shown in Figures 2 and 3. Larger
sized water-tube boilers are field erected. A typical field-erected boiler is shown in Figure






A gas turbine waste heat boiler is illustrated in Figure 5. These boilers are usually a
special design. They can be designed as unfired units operating on waste heat only, or as
supplementary fired units, with gas or liquid fuel, to increase steam production. Because
of the type of supplementary firing used, the boiler shown in Figure 5 can also be referred
to as a duct-fired waste heat boiler. Boiler size is dependent on the size of the gas turbine.
They typically produce 100,000 to 400,000 lb/hr of steam at 150 to 600 psig.



Firetube boilers are generally of small size (under 100,000 lb/hr and more commonly
under 50,000 lb/hr) and low pressure (under 250 psig and more commonly 150 psig or
lower). The steam is usually not superheated. The name "firetube" comes from the
arrangement where hot combustion products flow inside tubes that are located in a waterfilled cylindrical shell. Firetube boilers are less expensive than water-tube boilers of the
same size and pressure rating. Firetube boilers are usually packaged and skid mounted.



Electric boilers are often used for small steam loads at locations outside of main plants,
for example, mechanical shops, dining halls, and hospitals. Electric boilers are usually
very small in size (generally less than 25,000 lb/hr) and low pressure (less than 100 psig).
In a resistance boiler, electric resistance heating elements are immersed in a water bath
that is enclosed in an outer pressure vessel. Heat input and steam output are regulated by
controls which select the number of heating elements to be energized.



Figure 8 lists the major boilers in Saudi Aramco plants.



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Major Boiler Components

The major components of a typical Saudi Aramco boiler are shown in Figure 9, which is
an illustration of Ras Tanura HP Boiler No. 10. The upper drum (steam drum) provides
space for separating steam from water. It also provides liquid holdup capacity (typically
from 10 to 60 seconds) to allow for a dynamic response to load changes without losing
liquid in the water tubes.
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Steam drum internals for this type boiler are shown in Figure 10. Included are baffles and
screens to assist in separating the steam and water mixture entering from the tubes. Other
devices, such as cyclone separators, are also used in some boilers to separate the steam.
Other drum internals include feedwater piping, blowdown piping, and chemical injection


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Most water-tube boilers have a lower drum (mud drum) for collecting sediment and
impurities. This drum also acts as a lower header for connection of the water tubes.
The water circuit between the drums consists of downcomers and risers. A downcomer is
a tube in an unheated or less heated area of the boiler. A riser is a tube in the heated or
hotter section of the boiler. Water tends to flow by natural circulation from the steam
drum to the mud drum via the downcomers and then back to the steam drum via the

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risers. Evaporation takes place in the risers, and the steam/water mixture weighs less than
the water in the downcomers. In some boilers, circulation is forced by pumping.
Most water-tube boilers have wall, floor, and roof tubes surrounding the firebox. Water
flows in these tubes from the mud drum to the steam drum. In addition to absorbing heat,
these tubes cool the boiler enclosure and reduce the amount of refractory required. In
Figure 9, the floor, front wall, and roof tubes are shown forming a continuous flowpath
from the mud drum to the steam drum. A refractory layer is often placed on the floor
tubes to reduce the heat transfer to these tubes. The sidewall tubes are connected to
bottom and top headers, which in turn are connected to the drums by supply and relief
tubes. Adjacent tubes in these walls are often welded to connecting steel strips to form a
continuous membrane wall, which is illustrated in Figure 11. This construction permits a
pressure-tight enclosure.


Most water-tube boilers also have steam superheaters. When steam is separated from
water in the steam drum, it is saturated at the drum pressure. This steam is routed through
the superheater tubes to raise the steam temperature above saturation temperature. The
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superheater is usually located at the exit of the firebox, where the flue gas temperature is
high enough for efficient heat transfer. However, screen tubes are often used just ahead of
the superheater, to shield the superheater from direct radiation from the hot combustion
gases. Headers are used to distribute the steam to the parallel flowpaths used in the
superheater, and to collect it. As shown in Figure 9, these headers are located at the
bottom of the superheater so that the entire superheater coil is drainable (a Saudi Aramco
Safety valves are usually installed both on the steam drum and at the boiler outlet to
protect both the boiler and the superheater from overpressure.
Boilers can be designed to fire nearly any fuel, either solid, liquid, or gas, or
combinations of each. Saudi Aramco's boilers fire gas and oil fuels.
Combustion air is supplied to the boiler by a forced draft fan. This air enters the boiler
through a windbox, where it is distributed to the burners. The air mixes with the fuel in
the burners, and combustion takes place in the combustion zone of the boiler. There are
many types and configurations of burners, depending upon the fuels fired and the size
and design of the boiler.
Heat is transferred from the burning fuel and hot gases to the water wall tubes
surrounding the combustion zone. These flue gases then flow past the superheater tubes
and through the boiler bank tubes. Baffles are often used in the boiler bank to define the
flue gas flow- path. The flue gases then exit the boiler through a flue gas duct and stack.
To improve efficiency, many boilers have economizers. These are heat exchangers that
transfer heat from the flue gas leaving the boiler to the boiler feedwater. This reduces the
stack temperature.
Some boilers may also use a combustion air preheater to improve efficiency. This is also
a heat exchanger and is used to transfer heat from the flue gas leaving the boiler to the air
that is used for combustion.
Figure 12 is a simplified flow plan of a boiler and its auxiliaries. It shows how these
components, and those described in the following pages, fit into the overall steam
generation system.

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Miscellaneous Boiler Components
Some boilers require attemperators downstream of the steam superheater to control the
boiler steam outlet temperature at various loads. The superheater is designed to provide a
specific steam temperature at design conditions. At other conditions, this temperature
may be exceeded and is controlled by spraying high-quality water into the outlet steam to
cool, or attemperate, it.
Oil-fired boilers usually require sootblowers to periodically clean the boiler tubes. Sootblowers direct a blast of steam at tubes in the dirtiest part of the boiler to blast
combustion products off the tube surfaces. This cleans the tubes and increases heat
Boilers have blowdown connections in both the steam and mud drums to remove
concentrated sediment and impurities that result from evaporation of the boiler water.
Blowdown from the steam drum is usually continuous, and the amount is set to control
impurity levels below specified maximums. The blowdown rate may be increased or
decreased occasionally, depending upon boiler water analysis. Blowdown from the mud
drum is usually intermittent, based on experience. Mud drum blowdown primarily
removes sediment.

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This section provides information on the major steps involved in the fabrication and
assembly of boiler components, including inspection and testing.
The fabrication and testing of water-tube boilers are covered by Saudi Aramco Materials
System Specification 32-SAMSS-021. This specification requires that the boiler be built
in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code -Section I, Power Boilers.
The welding of pressure parts is covered extensively in the Code. Most welds must be
inspected by radiography to find any flaws that need to be repaired in the weld. The
completed boiler must be hydrostatically tested to demonstrate that its construction is
sound. The testing should also find marginal defects which would be apparent when
subjected to the maximum allowable working pressure.
This section is intended to assist the SAIR in understanding the requirements for
fabrication and testing of pressure parts for Saudi Aramco boilers in accordance with the
Code. The Code contains many specific detailed requirements
Fabrication includes all activities used by the manufacturer to convert materials into
complete boilers. A wide range of manufacturing processes is used, including welding,
bending, forming, rolling, cutting, drilling, and machining. The Code provides only a
limited number of general rules covering most aspects of boiler fabrication. This permits
the manufacturer broad latitude in selecting the most appropriate manufacturing
processes. Two areas are covered in this section, specifically, welding and tube
Boiler components are generally assembled by welding. Most of this welding is done in
the manufacturer's shop. The boiler is usually delivered to the field in complete units or in
large modules for final assembly. Welding is covered extensively in Part PW of the Code,
including materials, design, heat treatment, and examination of welded joints.
All welding of pressure parts must be done by qualified welders following established
detailed procedures. The requirements for establishing satisfactory procedures and for
determining that each welder can make satisfactory welds according to these procedures
are contained in Section IX of the Code.
The general design requirements for longitudinal, circumferential, and other types of
welded joints are covered in Par. PW-9. Double-welded butt-type joints are preferred.
Single-welded butt-type joints may also be used, if the design of these joints permits
complete joint penetration. A single welded joint may require considerably more welding
than a double-welded joint, so it is not normally used where it is possible to make a
double-welded joint. Par. PW-9.4 requires that bending stresses not be applied directly to
welded joints. Typical welded joints are shown in Figure 13.

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FIGURE 13 Typical Welded Joints

Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Most welds on boiler pressure parts require post-weld heat treatment. This reduces
stresses in the weld and the adjoining base materials that develop during the welding
process. Post-weld heat treatment is also often referred to as stress relieving. The
mandatory requirements for post-weld heat treatment are listed in Par. PW-39.
Temperatures required for stress relieving are in the range of 1100-1400F and must be
held up to several hours, depending on the thickness of the weld and the type of materials
used. An entire component, such as a drum or header, can be stress relieved as a complete
unit in the manufacturer's stress relieving furnace. Alternatively, individual welds, or
groups of welds, can be stress relieved using portable heating elements that are placed
around the welds.
Tube Connections
The major field work on boiler pressure parts consists of connecting tubes and pipes to
drums, headers, or other tubes and pipes. These connections are necessary in erecting
new boilers and for replacing tubes or sections of tubes, after the boiler has been in
service. Most tubes are connected to the steam and mud drums by expanding them into
holes in the drum wall. Other connections are made by welding.
Expanded Tube Connections
Tubes are usually attached to the drum by expanding (or "rolling") the end of each tube
into a hole in the drum wall. A groove is usually cut in the side of this hole. A special tool
(called an "expander") is used to pressure expand the tube in this hole, leaving the tube
bearing tightly against the drum wall. A typical expanded tube connection is illustrated in
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Figure 14, which is based on Shedgum Boiler F-101. Par. PWT 11.1 requires that the
tube extend 1/4 to 3/4 in. through the drum wall. Also, the tube end must be flared to an
outside diameter of at least 1/8 in. greater than the tube hole. Expanded tube connections
are generally suitable for pressures up to about 1200 psi, which covers all Saudi Aramco
boilers. In some cases, where the tubes are subject to unusual loading or temperature
conditions, leaks may develop in expanded tube connections. In these cases, a seal weld
can be used to ensure tight connections. The maximum size seal weld is 3/8 in., and stress
relieving is not required. Tubes shall be re-expanded after seal welding as required per
Par. PWT 11-1.
In cases where expanded tube connections are not possible, tubes are welded to stubs or
nozzles already welded to the drum or header. This permits the welds on the drum to be
stress relieved before the tubes are connected.

FIGURE 14 Typical expanded boiler tube

Typical tube connections are shown in Figure 15. These connections are taken from Fig.
PW-16.1, which illustrates 29 types of acceptable fusion welded connections. Other types

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of connections which meet all the Code requirements would also be acceptable. [Par. PW15 contains procedures for calculating the required strength of these welds.]
Refer to the appropriate connections from Figure PW-16-1.

t = Thickness of vessel shell or head, in.

tn = Thickness of nozzle wall, in.
tw = Dimension of attachment weld, measured as shown, in.
tc = Not less than the smaller of 1/4 in. or 0.7 tmin.

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FIGURE 15 Typical Tube Connections to Drums and Headers

Welded Connections
The most common welded connections made in the field consist of circumferential buttwelded joints in tubes, pipes, and headers. Because of their small size, stress relieving
and radiography are not required for many circumferential tube welds. For example,
radiography is not required on circumferential welds that do not exceed the following
dimensions (Par. PW-41.1):

All components: 4.5-in. outside diameter or 0.5-in. wall thickness. This should
cover all boiler and superheater tubes.
Components not exposed to flue gas temperatures exceeding 850F:
- Steam service: 16-in. nominal pipe size, 1.625-in. wall thickness.
- Water service: 10-in. nominal pipe size, 1.125-in. wall thickness.
Post-weld heat treatment is generally not required for circumferential welds in tubes with
a maximum specified chromium content of 3.0%. This should cover most conventional
boiler and superheater tube materials.
Nondestructive examination (NDE) is used to discover flaws in material or welds. NDE
thus assures sound construction of boiler pressure parts. NDE requirements are described
in Section V of the Code. The following methods are used to examine the boiler:
Radiographic examination.
Ultrasonic examination.
Magnetic particle examination.
Liquid penetrant examination.
Visual examination.
Except for certain cases, the Code requires that all longitudinal and circumferential welds
be radiographically examined. Radiographic inspection is not required for many of the
following types of welds:
Small-size circumferential butt welds in tubes and pipe, as described above.
Attachment welds similar to the types shown in Figure 15 (Par. PW-16.1), except
for insert-type nozzles. This type of weld is essentially a butt weld, and a clear
radiographic picture of the weld can be obtained.
When it is not possible to radiograph a weld due to the shape of the part or weld, the
Code requires that the weld be ultrasonically examined (Par. PW-11.2). Magnetic particle
inspection and liquid dye penetrant inspections are also used to locate small surface
cracks. Welds are also visually inspected.
The following weld defects must be repaired:
Any type of crack.
Zones of incomplete fusion or penetration.

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Excessive slag inclusions in the weld.

Defects in welded joints are repaired by rewelding. Small defects in the base materials
are also repaired by welding. In addition to the inspection processes listed above, defects
also may be found by leakage tests. Defects must first be removed, usually by mechanical
means such as grinding. The joint can then be rewelded and re-examined.
After the boiler has been erected, it is subjected to hydrostatic pressure tests to confirm
that it has been properly constructed. This test also ensures that there are no marginal
defects that would become apparent at the maximum allowable working pressure.
Requirements are listed in Par. PG-99.
Two test conditions are required:
A strength test at a pressure equal to 1.5 times the maximum allowable working
pressure of the boiler. Pressure is gradually increased until this test pressure is
reached. The pressure must be controlled so that the test pressure is never
exceeded by more than 6%.
A careful visual examination for leaks at the maximum allowable working
pressure. Any leaks that are found during this test must be repaired, and the boiler
must be re-tested. The maximum metal temperatures should not exceed 120F
during this examination.
During these tests, the boiler is completely filled with water. To the extent possible, all air
in the boiler is displaced. This makes it easier to reach test pressures and reduces the
potential forces that would be released in the event of a rupture. For complete package
units, the hydrostatic test is conducted in the manufacturer's shop. A second test may be
required in the field after the boiler is installed. For boilers that are shipped in modules
for field assembly or erection, each completed section is hydrostatically tested in the
shop. A test of the entire boiler is conducted in the field after erection is completed.
Consideration must be given to the temperature of the water used during these tests.
Water temperature should not be less than ambient temperature and never less than 70F.
This minimizes the possibility of catastrophic brittle fracture of heavy walled parts during
the test. It also prevents any confusion between leaks and condensation on cold outer
surfaces of the boiler. The maximum allowable temperature during a test is 120F.
Safety valves are required on boilers to prevent overpressuring, which would result in
overstressing of the pressure parts. The safety valve is a safety device of last resort. It
only acts when other control systems fail to control pressure in the boiler. Safety valves
are direct spring-loaded, popup-type valves. They are entirely self-contained and require
no outside forces or signals to make them work. A typical safety valve is illustrated in
Figure 16.

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FIGURE 16 Typical Safety Valve

Safety valves are required for the boiler and the superheater. Separate safety relief valves
are also required on the economizer if it can be isolated from the boiler. Safety relief
valves are similar to safety valves, except that they are used in liquid service.
Boiler Safety Valves
At least two safety valves are required on almost every boiler. These valves are located
on the steam drum.

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Boiler safety valves must be capable of relieving all the steam the boiler can generate
without the pressure in the boiler rising more than 6% above the maximum allowable
working pressure (MAWP). If the valves are set at pressures below the MAWP, the
maximum allowable pressure increase is 6% above the highest pressure at which any
valve is set. The following rules establish the pressures at which these safety valves are to
The pressure setting of the first valve is at or below the MAWP.
The maximum set point for other safety valves is 3% above the MAWP.
The maximum range of set points is 10% of the highest set point.
Superheater Safety Valves
At least one safety valve is required to protect the superheater. It is located between the
superheater outlet and the first stop valve downstream of the boiler. Superheater safety
valves should be set to open first. This ensures a continuous flow of steam through the
superheater, even when the safety valves are blowing. The pressure drop through the
superheater must be considered in determining the safety valve set points.
Safety Valve Capacity
The total required capacity for all the safety valves is the greater of the boiler's maximum
rated capacity or a capacity factor, which is equal to the boiler's heat transfer surface area
times the following factors:
Watertube boilers: 16 lb steam/hr-ft2 of heat transfer surface.
Firetube boilers: 14 lb steam/hr-ft2 of heat transfer surface.
For electric boilers, use a capacity factor of 3.5 lb steam/hr-kW input.
The capacity of the superheater safety valves may contribute to the boiler's total safety
valve capacity. The capacity of the boiler safety valves located on the steam drum must
be at least 75% of the total required boiler safety valve capacity.
Safety Valve Operation
Safety valves are required to attain full lift (and full capacity) at a maximum pressure of
3% above their set pressure. After opening, the valves are required to close at a pressure
no less than 96% of their lowest set pressures. For safety valves operating between 300
and 1000 psig, the popping tolerance is plus or minus 10 psi.
The Code also requires that no valves be installed between the safety valve and the boiler,
or between the safety valve and its discharge to atmosphere. Discharge piping should be
as short and straight as possible to avoid a back pressure on the valve. The piping should
also be arranged to avoid undue stress on the valve. The discharge should be located
away from any platforms or walkways.
32-SAMSS-021 Manufacture of Industrial Boilers

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Several standards and codes are used to cover the minimum requirements of new
equipment purchased by Saudi Aramco.
This Specification, together with the purchase order, referenced SAMSSs and
specification sheets, and the engineering documents required, prescribe the minimum
covers the minimum mandatory requirements for the manufacture of new industrial type
watertube and firetube boilers that are fueled by either oil, gas, or both.
This specification includes requirements for the thermal sizing, mechanical design, shop
fabrication, field fabrication, installation, and testing of industrial watertube and firetube
boiler types.
The requirements in this specification are in addition to and supplement the requirements
of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ASME SEC I.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - Section I, Power Boilers
This code covers the design, fabrication, and testing of boiler pressure parts.
A boiler accessory for reducing and controlling the steam outlet temperature from the
Adjusting the operation of the steam system to minimize the amount of pressure
reduction between the various steam pressure levels.
Water removed from the boiler to control the level of dissolved impurities in the boiler
Boiler Efficiency
The ratio of the heat absorbed by the water and steam within the boiler to the heat in the
fuel fired. The fuel fired may be expressed in terms of its higher heating value (HHV) or
lower heating value (LHV).
Positively charged ions in the water, for example, calcium, magnesium, and sodium.
Boiler Feedwater (BFW)
Treated water that has been heated, deaerated, and dosed with chemicals to remove
residual oxygen.
A mechanical device used to introduce air and fuel into the boiler at the proper conditions
to establish and maintain ignition and combustion.

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A device for transferring heat from the flue gas to the BFW before the BFW enters the
boiler drum.
Flue Gas
Gaseous products from the combustion of fuel.
Fuel/Air Ratio
The ratio of the pounds of air per pound of fuel required by the boiler.
Higher Heating Value (HHV)
The amount of heat released during complete combustion of fuel with the stoichiometric
amount of dry air including the heat of condensation of water formed by burning
Line Tracing
Small steam lines, electrical heaters, or other heating media attached to a pipeline to
maintain temperature.
Lower Heating Value (LHV)
The amount of heat released during complete combustion of fuel with the stoichiometric
amount of dry are excluding the heat of condensation of water formed by burning
Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR)
The design output capacity of the boiler, in tons per hour.
Mud Drum Or Lower Drum
A cylindrical vessel near the bottom of the boiler which acts as a collection and
distribution header. Solids and sediment tend to accumulate in this drum and are removed
by intermittent blowdown.
All equipment and facilities that are not classified as onsite facilities. Offsite facilities
include tankage and interconnecting lines, product loading, blending and utility systems,
and safety systems.
Equipment or facilities that are part of the plant processes.
Packaged or Shop-Assembled Boilers
A boiler which is assembled in the vendor's shop into one or more large pieces and then
shipped to the site for final assembly.
Soot Blower

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A mechanical device that utilizes steam to clean boiler tubes by removing particles of
unburned carbon or ash.
Steam Drum
A cylindrical vessel near the top of the boiler that acts as a distribution and collection
header and a release point for steam. The drum also houses separation equipment to dry
the steam.
Steam Turbine
Steam turbines are used to drive mechanical equipment, such as pumps or compressors
and electrical generators. Turbines may be full condensing, noncondensing, or extractioncondensing types. In a full condensing turbine, all the steam entering the turbine is
condensed after it expands through the turbine. A noncondensing turbine usually exhausts
the steam to distribution piping at a lower pressure than the inlet pressure. An extractioncondensing unit exhausts part of the inlet steam at an intermediate pressure level and
condenses the remaining steam.
A heat transfer surface downstream of the steam drum, designed to raise the steam
temperature above the saturation temperature. The superheater is arranged within the
boiler to absorb heat by radiation, convection, or both.
An abbreviation for high pressure used in reference to steam system pressure levels
above about 250 psig.
An abbreviation for low pressure used in reference to steam system pressure levels less
than about 60 psig.
An abbreviation for medium pressure used in reference to steam system pressure levels of
about 60 to 250 psig.
Vessel Purging
Removing vapors from a vessel by displacing with steam or inert gas.

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