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Welcome Message

Welcome to CRIJ 1301 Introduction to Criminal Justice with Odessa College. This
course workbook is an integral and required adjunct to your course text. This material has been
compiled through the collaborative efforts of the Criminal Justice Department faculty of Odessa
College. It is compliant with the most current Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board
Academic Course Guide Manual (ACGM) concerning course content and learning outcomes.
We have researched many sources of material and compiled what we believe is the most
comprehensive, accurate and contemporary information available from any source. Our idea is
to unlock ourselves, as instructors and students of Criminal Justice from any single source of
information such that we are free to more fully develop a bank of exceptional material and
coursework that leads the learner unencumbered through the American Criminal Justice system
in a comprehensive manner.
In your time spent in this coursework, we will explore the foundations of modern
criminal justice, look at all of the major players that comprise the modern system of justice, the
workings of each and the interplay between these systems as well as explore contemporary
issues that shape the present and future of American justice.
This course is a foundational program which introduces the student to the inner
workings of the criminal justice system through a comprehensive study of the three major
players: Law Enforcement, the Courts and Corrections. We will also take a look at the subcomponents within the system such as Probation and Parole, non-governmental corrections
services and community resources which intimately interact with the Big 3. This course
provides a historical and philosophical overview of the American criminal justice system,
including the nature, extent, and impact of crime; criminal law; and justice agencies and
processes.1 The general overall learning outcomes for this course include the successful
student being able to: Describe the history and philosophy of the American criminal justice
system; Explain the nature and extent of crime in America; Analyze the impact and
consequences of crime; Evaluate the development, concepts, and functions of law in the
criminal justice system, and; Describe the structure of contemporary federal, state, and local
justice agencies and processes.2

ODESSA COLLEGE CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEPARTMENT


Jennifer S. Myers, MSCJA, Psy.D Candidate, Department Chair
Shawndee K. Kennedy, MSCJA, Associate Professor
Troy N. Thomas, MSCJA, Associate Professor
John W. Newton, MSCJA, Associate Professor
Billy J. Spruill, MSCJA, Associate Professor
1

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Academic Course Guide Manual (ACGM),
http://reports.thecb.state.tx.us/ibi_apps/WFServlet.ibfs?PG_REQTYPE=REDIRECT&PG_MRsaved=false&PG_Func=GETBINARY&
PG_File=ljwaqxpy.pdf, March 30, 2015.
2
Ibid.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank


Revision 07-2015

Module 1

The notes are in our standard


Cornell Notes format. You should apply
all of the concepts of Cornell Note-taking
by not just completing the focal
information gleaned, but also be sure to
write questions that you have and
anticipate potential test questions in the
left margins as well as writing a concise
summary in your own words about the
module at the end of your notes.

American Criminal Justice

The associated notes and Key


Terms apply to Module 1 of your text.
These notes and terminology will help
you to focus on those areas of the
module that your instructor has
identified as relating to the learning
objectives of the material. This is not to
say that any topics not included
specifically are in any way unimportant
and so you should pay equal attention to
the module in its entirety to get the full
context of information.

Cornell Notes

Course:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice

Name:

Module:

Module 1 American
Criminal Justice & The Nature of Crime

Date:

Questions

Notes
1.1

Introduction
1.1.1. Public views about crime are often
_________________, _____________________ and
even ________________.
1.1.2. Arrest Data 2010 (Source Bureau of Justice Statistics
2012)

Arrests for Violent & Non-Violent Crime


2010
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics (2012)

1,800,000

1,638,850

1,600,000
1,400,000

1,271,410

1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000

408,490
289,770

400,000
200,000 11,200
0

20,090

112,300

Violent Crimes

11,300

Non-Violent Crimes

1.1.3. Identify the reason who most Americans are illinformed about the extent of crime according to your
text.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
1.2

Identify and discuss the three essential roles of the Police in


the criminal justice system.

1.2.1. Identify and discuss the roles and responsibilities the


three participants that comprise the Court system
1.

2.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

3.

1.2.2. Relative representations of arrests by crime


classification

Felonies

Misdemeanors

All Arrests

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

The funnel represents the many defendants who enter into


the criminal justice system.
Because of the mechanisms and opportunities in
the system, as many as 98% of those who enter the
system never make it to trial and ultimate
conviction or acquittal.
1.3

There are 7 decision points in the criminal justice process.


Identify and discuss each.
1.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
7.

1.4

The American Criminal Justice System is unique in the world.


Define and discuss the following concepts that make it so.
Decentralization

Federalism

Separate Juvenile System

Adversarial v. Inquisitorial Systems

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Constitutional Rights

1.5

The Size of the American Criminal Justice System

U.S. Criminal Justice Expenditures


(in Billions of Dollars)
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics
$120.000
$100.000
$80.000
$60.000
$40.000
$20.000
$1982

1987
Courts

1.6

1992
Police

1997

2002

2007

Corrections

Models of Criminal Justice. Identify and discuss the


characteristics of the following models.
1.6.1. Individual Rights and Due Process model

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
1.6.2. Procedural Justice

1.6.3. The Crime Control model

1.6.4. The Rehabilitation model

1.6.5. The Just Deserts model

1.6.6. The Restorative Justice model

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
1.7

The Nature of Crime

1.8

Crime Control Policy & Consequences


1.8.1. Discuss the method of creating crime control policy and
identify the problem that this method has created.

1.8.2. Identify and briefly discuss the four substantial


consequences of this policy development methodology
1.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.

3.

4.

1.9

Defining Crime
1.9.1. Discuss the Consensus Perspective of crime control

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
1.9.2. Discuss the Conflict Perspective of crime control

1.10

Measurement of Crime
1.10.1. List and identify the major characteristics of the two
types of crime measures
1.

2.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
1.10.2. Discuss what Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) are:

1.10.3. Identify the strengths and weaknesses (limitations) of


the Uniform Crime Reports

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
1.10.4. Discuss what the National Incident Based Reporting
System (NIBRS) is:

1.10.5. Discuss what the National Crime Victim Survey is and


identify its purpose.

1.10.6. Discuss the characteristics and purpose of Self-Report


Surveys.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Define the following Key Terms

Adversarial System

Inquisitorial System

Bill of Information or Information

Bill of Rights

Broken Windows Theory

Constitutional Rights

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Crime Index

Dark Figure of Crime

Defense Attorney

Prosecutor

Decentralization

Federalism

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Grand Jury

Indictment

Incidence

Initial Appearance

Judge

Jail

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Laws

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)

Official Crime Data

Part 1 Crimes

Part 2 Crimes

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Prison

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)

Unofficial Crime Data

Warrant

Cornell Notes

Course:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice

Name:

Module:

Module 1 American
Criminal Justice & The Nature of Crime

Date:

3 2 - 1 S U MMA R Y
List 3 new things that you learned from the reading assignment

List 2 things that you found particularly interesting from the assignment

List 1 thing that you did not understand or still have a question about

Guided Notes

Module 2

The notes are in our standard


Cornell Notes format. You should apply
all of the concepts of Cornell Note-taking
by not just completing the focal
information gleaned, but also be sure to
write questions that you have and
anticipate potential test questions in the
left margins as well as writing a concise
summary in your own words about the
chapter at the end of your notes.

Criminal Law

The associated notes and Key Terms


apply to Module 2 of your text. These
notes and terminology will help you to
focus on those areas of the chapter that
your instructor has identified as relating
to the learning objectives of the
material. This is not to say that any
topics not included specifically are in any
way unimportant and so you should pay
equal attention to the chapter in its
entirety to get the full context of
information.

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice
Module 2 Criminal Law

Questions

Name:
Date:

Notes
2.1

Foundations of Criminal Law


2.1.1. Define and discuss the Rule of Law and its purpose

2.1.2. Law provides societies with a range of benefits List all


8 benefits
2.1.3. (1)

2.1.4. (2)

2.1.5. (3)

2.1.6. (4)

2.1.7. (5)

2.1.8. (6)

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.1.9. (7)

2.1.10. (8)

2.2

2.3

Define and discuss Social Legitimacy

Sources of Criminal Law Define and discuss the following


2.3.1.
2.3.2. Code of Hammurabi

2.3.3. The Romans

2.3.4. Common Law

2.3.5. The Doctrine of Stare Decisis

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.3.6. Judicial Precedent (Case Law)

2.4

2.5

Identify and discuss the differences between the United


States Constitution and the Bill of Rights

Types of Law; Criminal Law - Define and discuss the


following
2.5.1. Crime -

2.5.2. Substantive Criminal Law

2.5.3. Infraction

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.5.4. Misdemeanors

2.5.5. Felonies

2.5.6. Beyond a reasonable doubt

2.6

Civil Law - Define and discuss the following

2.6.1. Preponderance of the evidence

2.6.2. Case Law

2.6.3.
Administrative Law

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.7

Criminal Procedure and Due Process Protections - Define


and discuss the following
2.7.1. Procedural Law

2.7.2. Adversarial System

2.7.3. Defense Attorneys

2.8

Constitutional Protections - Define and discuss the following


2.8.1. Ex Post Facto Laws

2.8.2. (Writ of) Habeas Corpus

2.8.3. Self-Incrimination -

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.8.4. Double Jeopardy

2.9

Principles of Crime
2.9.1. Halls Principles of Criminal Law - Define and discuss
the following
2.9.2. Legality

2.9.3. Actus Reas

2.9.4. Mens Rea

2.9.5. Concurrence

2.9.6. Harm

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.9.7. Inchoate Offenses

2.9.8. Causation

2.9.9. Punishment

2.9.10. Elements of Crime Define and discuss what elements


of a crime are

2.10

Criminal Excuses and Justifications


2.10.1. Criminal Excuses - Define and discuss the following
2.10.2. Insanity Defense

2.10.3. Diminished Capacity

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.10.4. Guilty but Mentally Ill

2.10.5. Duress

2.10.6. Age

2.10.7. Provocation

2.10.8. Mistake

2.11

Justification - Define and discuss the following


2.11.1. Self Defense

2.11.2. Consent

2.11.3. Necessity

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Module 2 - Key Terms
Define and discuss the following
Actus reus

Assault

Battery

Beyond a reasonable doubt

Bill of Rights

Burglary -

Code of Hammurabi -

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Common law -

Concurrence -

Consent -

Constitutional rights -

Crime -

Defense attorney -

Diminished capacity

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Double jeopardy -

Duress

Ex post facto clause

Felony

Felony murder rule

Homicide

Infraction

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Insanity defense

Judicial precedent -

Jurisdiction

Jurisprudence

Justification

Law

Mens rea

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Misdemeanor

Mistake

Necessity

Premeditation

Preponderance of evidence

Procedural law

Provocation

Punishment

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Self-defense

Self-incrimination

Stare decisis

Substantive criminal law

Writ of habeas (corpus)-

Module 2 Assignment: Elements of a Crime

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

ELEMENTS OF A CRIME ASSIGNMENT


1.

Every codified (written) crime certain features, or elements,


which are specific to it and set it apart from any other
crime.

Taken together, these features compose the legal


essence of the specific crime, or the legal definition
of it.

They are referred to in legal terms as the elements


of the crime and describe the most essential and
required aspects of criminal conduct.

In other words, they define the specific


behaviors, conditions and intent which must
be present for an act to be considered
criminal.

To convict a defendant of a particular crime,


prosecutors must prove to a judge or jury
that each and every one of the statutory
elements are present.

There is no close enough, mostly


there or almost in terms of proper
charging and conviction for a crime.


It is an all or nothing situation.

If even one element of an offense cannot be


established beyond a reasonable doubt, that
particular crime has not been committed,
criminal liability has not been demonstrated,
and the defendant will be found not guilty.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.

Words, connected phrases and punctuation is everything in


terms of separating the various elements of a statutory
crime.
For Example:

Statutes (criminal laws, codified crimes, etc.)


typically begin by defining as the first element the
answer to who must be involved to commit the
offense.

Statutes typically begin with words such as


A person, Whomever, Whoever, Any
person, or similar terms which would be the
first element of the crime.

This terminology indicates that it


must be a human being personally
involved and it cannot be an animal,
accident of causes or result of events
not started in motion by a person.
(Well talk about causes or legal
causation another time)

Following the who begins the what.

The target or intended victim of the crime


will be identified.

If the crime is against a person, this


element will usually include words
such as another, person of
another, body of another, etc. as a
person cannot commit a crime
against themselves.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms


An example, if a person shoots


and kills themselves
intentionally (suicide) it is not
a crime, whereas if they
intentionally shot and killed
the person of another they
are likely criminally
responsible for Murder.

For property crimes such as burglaries,


property thefts, embezzlement, etc. the
victim element will commonly use words
such as property, property of another or
it may specifically define the property by
type (i.e. money, motor vehicle, firearm,
etc.

Now there is all of the other wording which makes


up the remaining components or elements of the
crime that must exist.

The words and or or are critical to watch


for.

When and is used, it connects one


element with another that follows it
so that both must exist to satisfy the
definition of the crime.

When or is used, it separates one


element from the next one(s) so that
one or the other element(s) will
satisfy the definition.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms


Example of use of and as a


connector (from Texas Penal
Code Chapter 31 on Theft):
...promising performance
that is likely to affect
the judgment of another
in the transaction and
that the actor does not
intend to perform or
knows will not be
performed...

Example (from Texas Penal


Code Section 21 on Assaultive
Offenses):
...intentionally,
knowingly, or recklessly
causes bodily injury to
another

3.

Read this as: ...


intentionally or
knowingly or recklessly
causes bodily injury to
another...

In this exercise you will be given several excerpts of crimes


from the Texas Penal Code as well as the General Laws of
Massachusetts. Using what you now know about
recognizing elements of crimes, your job is to take each law
and (1) identify the individual elements of the crime that
must exist as well as (2) identify the connecting word or
punctuation or the separating word or punctuation that
either ties or separates one element from the one(s) that
follow.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

Suggestion: an array of colored pencils is handy to


accomplish this task. Use one color for each
separate and distinct element that you identify.
Where elements that are connected by the and
exist, use the same color for the entire connected
element. Use a single bright and distinct color to
pick out the essential ands and ors such as
bright red so that they will stand out when the
entire law is read.

It may also be helpful to use a bulleted list


for each distinct element so that it can act as
a checklist when it comes time to apply the
law.

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice
Module 2 Criminal Law

Name:
Date:

3 2 - 1 S U MMA R Y
List 3 things that you learned from the reading assignment

List 2 things that you found interesting from the assignment

List 1 thing that you did not understand or still have a question about

This Page Intentionally Left Blank


Revision 07-2015

The notes are in our standard


Cornell Notes format. You should apply
all of the concepts of Cornell Note-taking
by not just completing the focal
information gleaned, but also be sure to
write questions that you have and
anticipate potential test questions in the
left margins as well as writing a concise
summary in your own words about the
chapter at the end of your notes.

Module 3

The associated notes and Key Terms


apply to Module 3 of your text. These
notes and terminology will help you to
focus on those areas of the chapter that
your instructor has identified as relating
to the learning objectives of the
material. This is not to say that any
topics not included specifically are in any
way unimportant and so you should pay
equal attention to the chapter in its
entirety to get the full context of
information.

Police in the United States: History & Function

Guided Notes

Cornell Notes

Course:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice

Name:

Module:

Module 3 Police in the United States:


History and Function

Date:

Questions

Notes
3.0

The Evolution of Policing


3.0.1. Define and discuss which feature of American
policing is directly responsible for the large
number of police agencies in the United States

3.1

Roots of American Policing


3.1.1. Identify where the roots and foundations of
American policing originate from.

3.1.2. During the period after the fall of the Roman


Empire, identify what form of social control was
relied upon to control deviant behavior.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.1.3. Define and discuss the term tythings (later
spelled tithings)

3.1.4. Define and discuss the Shire-reeve and who their


modern-day equivalent is.

3.1.5. Identify and discuss two of the many problems


with this early system of crime control.

3.1.6. Identify and discuss who the constables were and


what they were responsible for.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.1.7. As time progressed and Englands centralize
government took shape, identify what the people
begin to push for?

3.1.8. The movement to satisfy the people (above) was


impeded by two features of English history.
Identify and discuss each.
1.

2.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.1.9. Identify who Sir Robert Peel was and discuss what
his significant contributions to English policing
were.

3.1.10. Discuss the London Metropolitan Police and


identify its significant characteristics.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.2

History of Policing in the United States


3.2.1. Identify where American policing first began and
discuss how it differed from English policing.

3.2.2. Discuss the development and issues of policing in


the southern and western areas of the country
during this period.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.3

The Political Era


3.3.1. Identify the time period that this era represents
and discuss the development and characteristics
of policing during this time.

3.3.2. Identify and discuss the problems of connecting


local politics to policing.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.4

The Reform Era


3.4.1. Identify what year the Wickersham Commission
was created and also identify and discuss its
findings.

3.4.2. Identify what years the Reform Era takes place


between and also identify and discuss the two (2)
primary changes that occurred in policing during
these years.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.5

Contemporary Policing
3.5.1. Identify the social characteristics of the 1960s and
1970s in American society.

3.5.2. Identify the two distinct strategies suggested by


academics to bring about change in policing. (You
will define them later in the Key Terms section)
1.

2.

3.5.3. Identify and discuss the ways that ProblemOriented Policing and Community Policing
overlap.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.6

Police Roles and Functions


3.6.1. Discuss an overview of the roles and
responsibilities of todays policing.

3.6.2. Identify and discuss the major responsibilities of


police officers in the Law Enforcement role.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.6.3. Identify and discuss the major responsibilities of
police officers in the Order Maintenance role.

3.6.4. Identify and discuss the major responsibilities of


police officers in the Service role.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.7

Police as Paramilitary Organizations


3.7.1. Identify and discuss general characteristics of how
police departments are considered paramilitary
organizations.

3.7.2. Identify and discuss the characteristics of police


organization.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.7.3. Identify and discuss the characteristics of federal
police organization.

3.7.4. Identify and discuss the characteristics of state


police organization.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.7.5. Identify and discuss the characteristics of local
(city and state) police organization.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Key Terms Define the following:
Broken-windows theory

Community policing

Community problem-solving era

Constable

Deterrence

Directed patrol

Discretion

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Division of labor

Evidence-based practices

Formal social control

Gatekeepers

Hierarchy

Hue and cry

Informal social control

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment

Legalistic-style agencies

London Metropolitan Police

Mechanistic organizations

Order Maintenance

Paramilitary organization

Political era

Problem-oriented policing

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Reform era

Service-style agency

Shire reeve

The Bow Street Runners

Thief takers

Watchman-style agency

Zero-tolerance policing

Peelian Principles
These nine conceptual ideas, first developed
by Sir Robert Peel, summarize his concept of proper
policing. They were commonly known as policing by
consent principles. They were first given to all new
police officers of the Metropolitan, London Police
Department in 1829 as an ideal to perform to and a
guide to their service. These tenets live on today in
modern policing in democratic societies all over the
world.

1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.
2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police
actions.
3. Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to
be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.
4. The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the
necessity of the use of physical force.
5. Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to public opinion but by constantly
demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.
6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore
order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient.
7. Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the
historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being
only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are
incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.
8. Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to
usurp the powers of the judiciary.
9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of
police action in dealing with it.

Cornell Notes

Course:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice

Name:

Module:

Module 3 Police in the United


States: History and Function

Date:

3 2 - 1 S U MMA R Y
List 3 things that you learned from the reading assignment

List 2 things that you found interesting from the assignment

List 1 thing that you did not understand or still have a question about

Module 4

The notes are in our standard


Cornell Notes format. You should apply
all of the concepts of Cornell Note-taking
by not just completing the focal
information gleaned, but also be sure to
write questions that you have and
anticipate potential test questions in the
left margins as well as writing a concise
summary in your own words about the
chapter at the end of your notes.

The associated notes and Key Terms


apply to Module 4 of your text. These
notes and terminology will help you to
focus on those areas of the chapter that
your instructor has identified as relating
to the learning objectives of the
material. This is not to say that any
topics not included specifically are in any
way unimportant and so you should pay
equal attention to the chapter in its
entirety to get the full context of
information.

Law Enforcement Operations & Legal Limitations

Guided Notes

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice
Module 4 Law Enforcement
Operations & Legal Limitations

Questions

Name:
Date:

Notes
4.0

Police in the United States


4.0.1. Discuss the concept of social legitimacy and how
public support is a crucial part of it.

4.0.2. Identify the six public perceptions based on a


large-scale study from 2001.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.0.3. Identify the six data findings according to Eith &
Durose from 2011 according to your text.

4.0.4. Demographically, individuals between what ages


were most likely to have an encounter with police?

4.0.5. Concerning these encounters, identify the three


characteristics identified by your text.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

4.0.6. According to your text, in 2008, what percent of all


those questioned reported that the police acted
respectfully (include the breakdown by
race/ethnicity).

4.0.7. According to your text, what do public views of


these encounters seem to depend on? (again,
include the breakdown by race/ethnicity).

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.0.8. Identify and discuss the statistics in your text
concerning the threat or actual use of force by
police.

4.0.9. Summarize the data presented concerning face-toface encounters with police as presented by your
text.

4.1

Police Officers and Police Department Requirements


4.1.1. According to your text, identify and discuss what
most local jurisdictions and virtually every state as
well as the federal government now use to outline
how officers are to be selected.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.1.2. Discuss and compare how processes and policies
that guide the hiring of law enforcement officers
compares across jurisdictions. (Include a
discussion of data according to your text).

4.1.3. Identify and discuss what other minimum


standards are expected of applicants according to
your text.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.1.4. Identify and discuss how at the federal level
applicants are selected according to your text.

4.2

Police Culture
4.2.1. Identify the characteristics that seem to indicate
why people enter policing according to White in
2010.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.2.2. Identify and discuss why selecting who is and is
not qualified to become a police officer is
considered to be no trivial matter according to
Henson in 2010.

4.2.3. Identify and discuss what the training of police


officers includes and how the police subculture
becomes involved as well as what its effects
appears to be on new and experienced officers.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

4.2.4. List the six fundamental beliefs of the police


subculture identified by your text.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.2.5. Identify the two fundamental cognitive realities
according to Jerome Skolnik in 1966 and discuss
each.
1.

2.

4.2.6. Define and discuss what is meant by the blue


wall of silence.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.3

Constitutional Policing
4.3.1. Discuss the general characteristics of the powers
of police to investigate crime, etc.

4.3.2. Identify and discuss the general rights that police


have when they believe that a person has
committed a crime.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.3.3. Identify when police officers must generally obtain
an arrest warrant for a person.

4.3.4. Identify and discuss what police officers must


have in order to arrest (stop, detain and question)
a person.

4.3.5. Identify what all persons arrested are entitled to


as a protective measure.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.3.6. Identify which Constitutional Amendment is
fundamental in affecting the ability of police to
search a person or their property.

4.3.7. What does this Amendment say? (Take directly


from your text).

4.3.8. Identify and discuss the purpose and


characteristics of the search warrant.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.3.9. Identify and discuss where a warrantless search
may be necessary according to your text.

4.3.10. Define and discuss the exclusionary rule (include


the court case and year).

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.3.11. Define and discuss the fruit of the poisonous tree
doctrine (include the court case and year).

4.3.12. Identify the court case and year in which the


exclusionary rule became applicable to the states.

4.3.13. Define and discuss the good faith exception to the


exclusionary rule.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.3.14. Define and discuss the term inevitable discovery.

4.4

Police Interrogations
4.4.1. Identify and discuss the general issues involved in
police interrogations according to your text.

4.4.2. Identify and discuss what the case of Miranda v.


Arizona addressed. (Include what constitutional
protection the case is based upon).

4.5

Contemporary Issues in Policing


4.5.1. Identify and discuss the common forms of police
corruption (types of behaviors or activities).

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

4.5.2. Identify and discuss how police corruption is dealt


with and controlled in most police agencies.

4.5.3. Define the term police discretion and discuss how


it is used.

4.5.4. Identify and discuss the four problems associated


with police discretion according to your text.
1.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
2.

3.

4.

4.5.5. Seriousness of crime and level of allowable


discretion.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.5.6. Identify how most departments gauge the proper
level of force acceptable in situations, include the
five levels characterized by the National Institute
of Justice.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.5.7. Discuss how police officers can also be considered
victims in use-of-force exchanges (include
statistical information according to your text).

4.5.8. In the post-civil rights movement years, identify


and discuss ways in which that movement has
changed policing.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
4.5.9. Discuss the issue of racial profiling according to
your text.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Key Terms Define the following terms
Arrest

Arrest warrant

Blue wall of silence

Discretion

Exclusionary rule

Exigent circumstances

Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine

Good faith doctrine

Inevitable discovery rule

Internal affairs-

Plain view

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Police subculture

Probable cause

Probable cause hearing

Racial profiling

Search warrant

Use-of-force continuum

Warrantless search

Working personality

Summary:

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice
Module 4 Law Enforcement
Operations & Legal Limitations

Name:
Date:

3 2 - 1 S U MMA R Y
List 3 things that you learned from the reading assignment

List 2 things that you found interesting from the assignment

List 1 thing that you did not understand or still have a question about

Guided Notes

Module 5

The notes are in our standard


Cornell Notes format. You should apply
all of the concepts of Cornell Note-taking
by not just completing the focal
information gleaned, but also be sure to
write questions that you have and
anticipate potential test questions in the
left margins as well as writing a concise
summary in your own words about the
chapter at the end of your notes.

The Courts

The associated notes and Key Terms


apply to Module 5 of your text. These
notes and terminology will help you to
focus on those areas of the chapter that
your instructor has identified as relating
to the learning objectives of the
material. This is not to say that any
topics not included specifically are in any
way unimportant and so you should pay
equal attention to the chapter in its
entirety to get the full context of
information.

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

Name:

CRIJ 1301: Introduction to


Criminal Justice

Date:

Module 5: The Courts

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.0

The Structure of the Court System: Define and discuss the


following.
5.0.1 First Level:

5.0.2 Trial courts & responsibilities:

5.0.3 Second Level:

5.0.4 Appellate Courts:

5.0.5 Third Level:

5.0.6 Supreme Courts:

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.1

Define and discuss the term jurisdiction?

5.2

Discuss what is venue and what is meant by change of


venue?

5.3

The Federal System. Define and discuss the following:


5.3.1 US District Courts & Duties

5.3.2 US Courts of Appeals (US Circuit Courts) & Duties

Page 2 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.4

The (United States) Supreme Court


5.4.1 How many justices make up the (United States)
Supreme Court?

5.4.2 Define and discuss who appoints Supreme Court


Justices and how long do they serve?

5.4.3 Define and discuss a writ of certiorari?

5.4.4 Explain what the Rule of Four is?

Page 3 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.5

State System of Courts:


5.5.1 Explain the difference between limited jurisdiction
and general jurisdiction. Provide an example of each
of these courts in a state system.

5.6

The Courtroom Work Group


5.6.1 Identify and discuss the role and responsibilities of
the Judge

Page 4 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.6.2 Identify and discuss the process of how judges
selected

5.6.3 What role does the Missouri Plan play in the


selection of judges?

5.6.4 Identify and discuss the roles and responsibilities of


the Prosecutor

Page 5 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.6.5 Identify and discuss the roles and responsibilities of
the Defense Attorney

5.7

Identify and discuss the different types of defense counsel


and how defense counsel is obtained by a defendant.

5.8

The Phases of a Trial:


5.8.1

Define and discuss the Booking process

Page 6 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.8.2 Define Preliminary Hearings and discuss their
purpose in the trial process:

5.8.3 Discuss the role of the grand jury in the trial


process.

5.8.4 Define and discuss what is meant by an indictment

Page 7 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.8.5

5.8.6

5.8.7

Define and discuss what is meant by an information

Define and discuss what is meant by a no bill.

Define and discuss the Arraignment

5.8.8 Define and discuss the role and purpose of Plea


Bargaining

Page 8 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
5.9

The Criminal Trial


5.9.1

Define and discuss the Adversarial Process

5.9.2 Define Direct Evidence

5.9.3 Define Circumstantial Evidence

5.9.4 Explain in detail from start to finish the progression


of the criminal trial

Page 9 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Key Terms Define the following:
Acquittal

Appellate/appeals courts

Assigned counsel

Bail

Bench trial

Change of venue

Charge bargaining

Circuit/district/superior courts

Circumstantial evidence

Closing arguments-

Page 10 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Courtroom work group

Direct evidence

Exculpatory evidence

General jurisdiction

Guilty plea

Hung jury

Indictment/true bill

Inferior courts/lower courts/municipal courts-

Information

Initial appearance

Page 11 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Jurisdiction

Limited jurisdiction

Missouri Plan

Mistrial

No bill

Nolo contendere (no contest plea)

Not guilty plea

Plea bargaining

Pretrial release/diversion

Prosecutorial discretion

Public defender

Page 12 of 139

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Release on own recognizance (ROR)

Sentence bargaining

Sequestered

Subpoena

Summons

Trial courts

Venue

Voir dire

Writ of certiorari

Summary

Page 13 of 139

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301: Introduction to


Criminal Justice
Module 5: The Courts

Name:
Date:

3 2 - 1 S U MMA R Y
List 3 things that you learned from the reading assignment

List 2 things that you found interesting from the assignment

List 1 thing that you did not understand or still have a question about

This Page Intentionally Left Blank


Revision 07-2015

Guided Notes

Module 6

The notes are in our standard


Cornell Notes format. You should apply
all of the concepts of Cornell Note-taking
by not just completing the focal
information gleaned, but also be sure to
write questions that you have and
anticipate potential test questions in the
left margins as well as writing a concise
summary in your own words about the
chapter at the end of your notes.

CRIMINAL PUNISHMENT

The associated notes and Key Terms


apply to Module 6 of your text. These
notes and terminology will help you to
focus on those areas of the chapter that
your instructor has identified as relating
to the learning objectives of the
material. This is not to say that any
topics not included specifically are in any
way unimportant and so you should pay
equal attention to the chapter in its
entirety to get the full context of
information.

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice
Module 6 Criminal Punishment

Questions

Name:
Date:

Notes
6.1

The Enforcement of Social Rules


6.1.1. According to your text, Laws place limits on
individuals and companies. Identify and discuss
how laws operate when they are broken.

6.1.2. Identify and discuss what is necessary for groups


of people to live and work together in our society
and why this is so.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.1.3. Discuss the characteristics of the Dark Ages period
in Europe and identify the greatest weakness in
why crime was considered a private matter

6.1.4. Identify and discuss the three countries that


effectively changed how crimes were dealt with
and how this was accomplished.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.1.5. List the five important characteristics of how
crimes were treated before and during the Dark
Ages period.

6.1.6. Identify and discuss how the expansion of England


affected punishment of criminals. Be sure to
identify what years are involved.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.1.7. Identify and discuss how the American colonies
dealt with criminal punishments.

6.1.8. Identify and discuss the three significant


characteristics of the abridged history of
punishment according to your text.
1.

2.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
3.

6.2

The Philosophy and Goals of Criminal Sanctions


6.2.1. Discuss the concepts and characteristics of what
the goals of criminal sentences represent
according to your text.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.2.2. Identify and discuss the goals and characteristics
of the Just Desserts philosophy of criminal
punishment.

6.2.3. Identify and discuss the goals and characteristics


of the Deterrence philosophy of criminal
punishment.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.2.4. Identify and discuss the goals and characteristics
of the Incapacitation philosophy of criminal
punishment.

6.2.5. Identify and discuss the goals and characteristics


of the Rehabilitation philosophy of criminal
punishment.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.3

Sentencing Models
6.3.1. Discuss how judicial discretion works in the United
States.

6.3.2. Identify and discuss the differences between


Concurrent Sentences and Consecutive Sentences.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.3.3. Identify and discuss the purpose and significance
of plea agreements as well as the way that they
work. (Include percentages of usage).

6.3.4. Define and discuss what indeterminate


sentencing is and how it works.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

6.3.5. Define and discuss what structured sentencing is


and how it works.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.3.6. Define and discuss what determinate sentencing
is and how it works.

6.3.7. Define and discuss what aggravating factors are.

6.1.1. Define and discuss what mitigating factors are.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.1.2. Identify and discuss the characteristics of the
federal presumptive sentencing strategy according
to your text.

6.1.3. Identify and discuss the purpose of truth in


sentencing laws. (Include the dates that they
came about).

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.1.4. Define and discuss what mandatory sentencing is
and how it works.

6.1.5. Identify and discuss the purpose of three strikes


laws.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.1.6. Define and discuss what mandatory minimum
sentencing (as opposed to mandatory sentencing)
is and how it works.

6.1.7. Define and discuss what indeterminate


sentencing is and how it works.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.2

Capital Punishment
6.2.1. Discuss how common capital punishment is (or is
not) in the United States. (Include statistics from
your text as examples)

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.2.2. Identify the purposes, reasons and beliefs that
pro-death penalty arguments include.

6.2.3. Using Table 6.3 Methods of Execution by State


(2009) in your text, discuss what things stand out
to you in terms significance or which strike you as
odd or unusual.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.2.4. Concerning anti-death penalty arguments, identify
the issues in the unfair administration
argument.

6.2.5. Concerning anti-death penalty arguments, identify


the issues in the it does not deter crime
argument.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
6.2.6. Concerning anti-death penalty arguments, identify
the issues in the financially costly argument.

6.2.7. Concerning anti-death penalty arguments, identify


the issues in the innocence of mistakes of fact
argument.

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Terms Define the following:
Aggravating factors

Alternative sanctions

Concurrent sentences

Consecutive sentences

Dark Ages

Determinate sentencing

Deterrence

General deterrence

Good time

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Incapacitation

Judicial discretion

Just deserts

Mandatory minimum sentencing

Mandatory sentences

Medical model

Mitigating factors

Parole board

Plea agreement

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Presumptive sentencing guidelines

Retribution

Specific deterrence

Structured sentencing

Truth-in-sentencing

Summary:

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice
Module 6 Criminal Punishment

Name:
Date:

3 2 - 1 SUMMARY
List 3 things that you learned from the reading assignment

List 2 things that you found interesting from the assignment

List 1 thing that you did not understand or still have a question about

This Page Intentionally Left Blank


Revision 07-2015

Guided Notes

Module 7

The notes are in our standard


Cornell Notes format. You should apply
all of the concepts of Cornell Note-taking
by not just completing the focal
information gleaned, but also be sure to
write questions that you have and
anticipate potential test questions in the
left margins as well as writing a concise
summary in your own words about the
chapter at the end of your notes.

Institutional Corrections

The associated notes and Key Terms


apply to Module 7 of your text. These
notes and terminology will help you to
focus on those areas of the chapter that
your instructor has identified as relating
to the learning objectives of the
material. This is not to say that any
topics not included specifically are in any
way unimportant and so you should pay
equal attention to the chapter in its
entirety to get the full context of
information.

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice
Module 7 Institutional
Corrections

Questions

Name:
Date:

Notes
7.1

The Evolution and Development of Corrections


7.1.1. Discuss the Evolution and Development of
Corrections:

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
7.1.2. Discuss the characteristics of law, punishment and
corrections in Colonial America:

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
7.1.3. Discuss the Rise of the Penitentiary:

7.1.4. Discuss Prison Reformatories:

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
7.1.5. Discuss 20th Century Prisons:

7.2

Custody, Prisons and Jails


7.2.1. Discuss the general characteristics of custody in
prisons and jails:

7.2.2. Discuss the size, scope and structure of custody:

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
7.2.3. Discuss the Federal Bureau of Prisons:

7.2.4. Discuss the characteristics of State Prisons and Local


Jails

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
7.3

Managing Prisons and Jails


7.3.1. Discuss the general characteristics of prisons and
jails:

7.3.2. Discuss the characteristics of Prison life:

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
7.3.3. Discuss the rights and legal protections of inmates:

7.4

Incarceration and the Reduction of Crime


7.4.1. Discuss whether incarceration reduces crime

Summary:

Questions

Notes/Key Terms
Key Terms
Define the following:

Auburn system

Direct supervision

Indirect supervision

Indeterminate sentencing

Inmate code

Prisonization

Recidivism rate

Questions

Notes/Key Terms

Selective incapacitation

Total institutions

Walnut Street Jail

Cornell Notes

Course:
Module:

CRIJ 1301 Introduction


To Criminal Justice
Module 7 Institutional
Corrections

Name:
Date:

3 2 - 1 SUMMARY
List 3 things that you learned from the reading assignment

List 2 things that you found interesting from the assignment

List 1 thing that you did not understand or still have a question about