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CHAPTER 4

DC Motor
A DC Motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current electricity. DC drive is a
mechanically changed electrical drive actuated from Direct Current (DC). The stator is immobile
in space &consequently its current. The prevailing in rotor is modified by commutates that will
in addition be stationary in space. That is how family member viewpoint amid stator & rotor
magnetic flux is upheld at 90 (degree) which generates the largest torque. A direct current motor
drive have a movable armature winding, a winding in which a voltage is generate but non
movable armature magnetic paddock and the direct current motors a static paddock winding, the
winding that in which, it creates the principle magnetic flux in motor. Several bindings of
paddock and armature, winding generate assorted congenital tempo or, torque modification
characteristics. The tempo of direct current drive can, reacclimatize by deviating the voltage
utilized to the armature or by modifying the paddock current. The introduction (magnetism) of
variable defiance in armature circuit that sanction assisting the speed (rotation). Advance DC
drives are regularly controlled by PES (power electronics systems) which is called DC drives.
Basically a DC Motor is that motor which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Most of the motors used today are the brushless motor which is also called permanent magnet
DC motor. We also used permanent magnet DC motor because it has high efficiency, no
maintenance cost. Just the drawback is that it has high initial cost and more complicated motor
speed controls. The name permanent magnet DC Motor is because it contains permanent magnet
inside it which helps to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy

4.1 DC Motor Specification


The family member between torque versus tempo & prevailing is linear as submitted on the
graph as consignment on a drive advanced the Speed of the drive will decrease. The graphic
Diagram presentations the characteristics of a regular motor. As long as the drive is toiling in
environs of high competence, it is exemplified by sheltered area of Direct current motor. Long
life and good recital of drive can be assumed. However if the drive is toiling exterior this range.
It will effect in getting higher of High coldness and decomposition of drive parts. If the voltage is
endlessly utilized to a drive in a locked rotor State then the drive will heat up and bungle in a

close to short time. So Therefore it is much needed that there is some sort of protection in
resistance to the getting higher of high temperature. Motors have elementary grading which is a
little worse than its largest efficiency.
Working Principle
The working of DC Motor is very simple. It contains two permanent magnets. It has two
terminals for electrical connection. One is Positive terminal and other is negative terminal. By
applying voltage on these terminals, motor start to work by means of rotating. Direction of
rotation is controlled by reversing the polarity of voltages.
Very clearly, speed is directly proportional to the applied voltage. As voltage increases, speed
also increases. A gearbox should be attached with the DC motor to prevent any damage to the
shaft.
4.1.1 Load Torque
Load torque (DC geared motor) can be checked by evaluating the prevailing move ahead when
drive is bound to a devise.
4.1.2 Speed characteristics
The Speed characteristics of (DC geared motor) drive presentations that the bestowed in all
likelihood voltage are comparable to those at other voltages. Thus a DC drive can be work at
small voltage then appraised voltage.
But it is under 1000 revolutions per minute (RPM) and tempo of drive will becomes shaky & the
drive will not run fluently.
4.2 Characteristics of DC Motor
When power is bestowed to Dc motors. It turns on the drive in one Direction but the
tempo of drive is set fastened not change.
DC Motors are effectual to run at a fastened tempo and broadly chatting High
Revolutions per minute.
The torque of DC drives is small at small drives too fast and high at appraised speed.
Mostly all DC drives can be progress in reverse or undone manner.
These drives are low-cost and commonly available.

These are obtainable in large assortment of drives too fast and power.
These are advantageous for twisting and spinning etc.
Inappropriate for positioning except some sort of location opinion is added.
If the utilized consignment of the DC drive is greater than scope for of drive than the

drive will not progress and may be consume with blast out.

DC Motor prior to our project

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Related to our project, we have used permanent magnet DC Motor. Which is 24 V operated.
Purpose to use the DC Motor is to move the belt of conveyor system to transport bottle.
4.3 Gear Motor
In gear motor energy output is used to move series of gears in an IGT (integrated gear train).
There are various types of gear motors, but the most common are alternating current (AC) &
direct current (DC).

4.3.1 Function of Gear Motor:


In gear motor, the magnetic current which is produced by electromagnets turns the gears that are
in an integrated gear box. A second shaft is attached to these gears. In result the gears largely
increase the amount of torque the capability of a motor to produce while the output speed of
motor will be slow.
4.3.2 Gear Motors and Increased Torque
If you have seen a crane you have seen that how it works, it is used to uplift and shift very bulky
objects. Electric motor that is used in cranes is a gear motor uses the rules of reducing the speed
and increasing the torque.
Gear motors used in cranes are generally special type of motors that use a very low rotational
output speed to make unbelievable amount of force. Whereas the principles of gear motor used in
a crane are quite same as those used in electric time clock. The output speed of the rotor is
decreased with the help of series of large gears till the speed (in RPM), of last gear is very low.
This low (revolutions per minute) speed assists to produce a great amount of force which is used
to uplift and move the heavy objects.
4.3.3 Speed reduction of Gear motors:
The use of a gear motor is to decrease the speed of the moving shaft that is attached to a series of
gears. A good example of this can be an old electric clock. These types of clocks use a small
simultaneous gear motor in their working.
4.3.4 Difference between AC and DC Geared Motors:
The differences between AC gear motors and DC gear motors, AC motors are typically small,
low in cost, light in weight and rougher as compared to DC motors. On the other side Dc motors
are commonly preferable better for changing speed operations. Their efficient speed control
makes the DC motors more costly to buy and manage usually.
4.3.5 Characteristics and Rated Performance of Geared Motors:
Overall efficiency of motor is equal to 80%, three stage reductions will be 72.9% and a four
stage reduction will be 66%.
4.3.6 Working of DC Geared Motor
A geared DC Motor has a gear collection connected to motor..
4.3.7 External Structure

DC gear motor straight distension over simple DC motor.


4.4 PLC Based Our Project DC Gear Motor
The 12v DC gear Motor can be used in various applications of robotics and is accessible with
wide-ranging of RPM and Torque.
4.4.1 Specification
Length is 80mm
Torque is 1.5 kg.cm
Shaft Diameter is about 6mm
Weight is 130.00g
4.5 Applications of Gear Motors:
4.5.1 Positioning Actuators
Actuator usually have low load with many number of gear to move it slowly to desire position.
4.5.2 Medical Equipment
It is used in various equipments, DC gear motors are essential part of medical equipments.
4.5.3 Automation
All automation industry is based on geared motor.
Industrial and Consumer Actuators
Slow movement of gear motor provides high range of applications in industry.
Power and Drive Application
For digital control frequency control machines are being used.
4.6 MOTOR DERIVE CIRCUIT
In motor derive circuit, Two relays are used which has two inputs 1, 2 and three outputs 3, 4, 4.
When 12 V is applied on its inputs it energies the coil. When no input is applied coil is not
energized. A Relay has two states OFF state and ON state.
In Off state when IN1 and IN2 both are off this means that no input is applied then output
3which is connected to motor and output 4 which is ground are in contact so 0 volt is going to
motors from both the relays.
In ON state when 12V is applied on inputs it energizes the coil and output 3 and 5 are in contact
means now 12 V is being applied to motors.

For rotating the motor in clockwise direction when input 1 is on and input 2 is off, one terminal
of motor getting 12 V as energized IN1 and second ground so the motor rotate clockwise. For
rotating the motor in anticlockwise direction, one terminal of motor getting ground as off IN1
and second get 12V as IN2 on so rotate anti clockwise. When both terminal of motor gets 12v so
it will not rotate. In the above circuit capacitors are used to filter as Dc has fluctuations or noise
and for safety purpose. Diodes are used to provide safety from back current produced by motors
by blocking back current.