Data Flow Diagrams: Use a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) to show the relationships among the business processes

within an organization to: · · · · external systems, external organizations, customers, other business processes.

Method Data flow diagrams are used to describe how the system transforms information. They define how information is processed and stored and identify how the information flows through the processes. When building a data flow diagram, the following items should be considered: · where does the data that passes through the system come from and where does it go, · what happens to the data once it enters the system (i.e., the inputs) and before it leaves the system (i.e., the outputs), · what delays occur between the inputs and outputs (i.e., identifying the need for data stores). Components of a Data Flow Diagram Item External entity Representation A rectangle Meaning

A producer or consumer of information that is outside the process being modelled. Process or A circle A transformer of information that is within activity the scope of the system being modelled. Data (flow) A line with an arrowhead that The input to, or output from, a given indicates the direction of data flow process, which is associated with each arrow in a DFD. Data store Two parallel lines with the name A repository of data for use by one or of the data store between them more processes.

STEPS TO DRAW A DATA FLOW DIAGRAM · Start from the context diagram. Identify the parent process and the external entities with their net inputs and outputs. · Place the external entities on the diagram. Draw the boundary. · Identify the data flows needed to generate the net inputs and outputs to the external entities.

·Identify the business processes to perform the work needed to generate the input and output data flows. · Connect the data flows from the external entities to the processes. ·Identify the data stores. · Connect the processes and data stores with data flows. · Apply the Process Model Paradigm to verify that the diagram addresses the processing needs of all external entities. · Apply the External Control Paradigm to further validate that the flows to the external entities are correct. · Continue to decompose to the nth level DFD. Draw all DFDs at one level before moving to the next level of decomposing detail. You should decompose horizontally first to a sufficient nth level to ensure that the processes are partitioned correctly; then you can begin to decompose vertically.

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