Unix Kernel UNIX Kernel is heart of the operating system.

UNIX kernal is loaded first when UNIX system is booted. It handles allocation of devices, cpu, memory from that ponint on. Kernal is the heart of UNIX operating system, it works as interface between the Shell & the hardware converts user given code into machine understandable language. What is the difference between Daemon & Server process A daemon is a software process that runs in the background (continuously) and provides the service to client upon request. For example named is a daemon. When requested it will provide DNS service. Other examples are: xinetd (it is a super-daemon, it is responsible for invoking other Internet servers when they are needed) inetd (same as xinetd, but with limited configuration options) sendmail/postfix (to send/route email) Apache/httpd (web server) Following simple example illustrate relationship between client and daemon. CLIENT -> Daemon Browser Running one daemon for each of the services could significantly increase the load. However if you are running big site (with many user) it is advisable to use dedicated daemon. For example web server or MySQL database server. A server process run runs one time, when called by a daemon. Once done it will stop. For example telnetd (in.telnetd) or ftpd called from xinetd/inetd daemon. By calling server process from daemon you can save the load and memory. Use a server process for small services such as ftpd, telnetd CLIENT -> Daemon -> Calls server process ftp -> xinetd -> Calls ftpd ftp xinetd stops ftpd quit How do you connect to or query Oracle database from a UNIX platform.? We can connect to Oracle from Unix just by giving the command sqlplus at the prompt and log into Oracle using the appropriate username and password. By writing the shell script we can directly connected to oracle #!/user/bin/bash sqlplus "/as sysdba" connect SELECT distinct contactname,address FROM customers; shutdown immediate OR sqlplus -s userid/password@database In case you want to connect to SQL database sqsh -S Servername -U username -P password In case od SYBASE isql -S Servername -U username -P password

what is difference between fork() and vfork()? you should refer to a man page. both create a child process. fork - parent and child are in 'running' status. they share all page tables until one of them does a write, then on-demand paging will create private page copy of the dirty page for the modifying process. vfork - parent is suspended until child exits or exec's. mainly memory and stack are shared to the child. underneath, they both are implemented using the same system call clone, except the flags to clone differ. which in-turn cause the process status and semantics to change as noted above. Or vfork() differs from fork() only in that the child process can share code and data with the calling process (parent process). This speeds cloning activity significantly at a risk to the integrity of the parent process if vfork() is misused. vfork() is a higher performance version of fork() that is provided on some systems where a performance advantage can be attained. What is the difference between function call and system call? function call is generally within the same protection space (ie. user mode to user mode or kernel mode to kernel mode). system call is when your process moves across boundaries (ie. user mode to kernel mode) you can think of the functions you generally write/use from libc/libc++ as function calls. you can think of clone, read etc as system calls. your library call will setup appropriate values and call a special CPU instr to jump to the kernel mode, where a table lookup for the requested system call is performed and code jumps there. Why is the . not included in the path? Because . denotes the hidden files in the Unix environment. it is treated as the property of the file name and is not a part of the path. Wrong...the dot is not supposed to be in your path because when you enter a command, your environment i.e. your path will try and execute from your pwd which is never a good thing. Yes, . means current working directory and having current directory into your path could create problem like.. I can have 'ls' command written in current directory to delete all the files Where is kernel located in unix? When Unix is running, the kernel has been loaded into the memory. The kernel file is located in /boot, name vmlinux, usually followed by the version. How to find some particular lines in unix Vi editor which starts with a particular word and end with another particular word?? For ex - There are 10 lines in the editor and only 4 lines start with the word APPLE and end with the word MANGO.Now how to find out these particular lines in Unix? You can try this cmd syntax esc + ?word (Press 'escape' key, type word-to-find) esc+?APPLE [*] MANGO 'esc` then :/word-to-find then `enter` how to delete cron tab entries of a perticular ID? first you can do crontab -l to list down the entries and then compare it with currently executing Process - check the name or path from where it's getting executed. Crontab -r (username) removes all the entries of that user.

Explain Memory Partitioning, Paging, Segmentation. PAGING: Paging memory allocation algorithms divide computer memory into small partitions, and allocates memory using a page as the smallest building block. SEGMENTAION: Segmentation means that a part or parts of the memory will be sealed off from the currently running process, through the use of hardware registers. If the data that is about to be read or written to is outside the permitted address space of that process, a segmentation fault will result. What is kernel? What is the difference between kernel and microkernel? What is the difference between unix and Linux? What is relational database,hierarchal database. and network database? their difference? 1) kernel: The kernel is the part of the Operating System(OS) that interacts directly with the hardware of computer ,through device drivers that are built into the kernel. It provides set of services that can be used by programs,insulating these programs from the underlying hardware. Major functions of kernel are: 1. to manage computer memory 2.to control acces to the computer 3.to maintain file system 4.to handle interrupts 5.to handel errors 6.to perform input and output services(which allows computers to interact with terminals,storage devices and printers) and 7.to allocate the resources of the computer(such as CPU and input/output devices) among users. 2) micro_kernel: A micro-kernel is a minimal operating system that performs only the essential functions of an operating system. All other operating system functions are performed by system processes. Difference between UNIX and Linux: That's a very broad question and could be answered any number of ways. Probably the simplest answer is that from a technical point of view there are no major differences. Most people aren't satisfied with believing that Linux and UNIX are very similar, though. Here's a list of the most obvious remaining differences. Origin: UNIX originated in the laboratories of universities and large corporations, as an initiative within the context of those organisations. Linux was begun by a university student (Linus Torvalds) without any initial support from any large organisation. Linux also began as in mimickry of other well-known UNIX-like implementations, whereas the initial UNIX implementations were original research. Most commercial UNIX versions are also derived from that early research. Service Model: Most UNIX versions operate on the basis that you can buy help (support and service contracts). Although such things are increasingly available to Linux technologists, traditional arrangements consist of providing your own help, with the assistance of a community of like-minded people. Linux is big, and access to communities is more important than, say, it is for IBM mainframes. Equipment: Although Linux runs on many kinds of equipment, it is best known for its support of commodity IBM-Intel PC-based hardware. Most of the more popular UNIX flavours focus on highperformance hardware, usually of a proprietory nature, or using high-end standard computing architectures, like SPARC. With ever-increasing gains in PC hardware, like Serial-ATA, this distinction is not as large as it used to be, especially for low performance uses, like desktops. Licensing: Linux follows the Free Software Foundation's radical licensing model, which provides a great deal of liberty to those that interact with Linux technology. UNIX versions provided by other vendors have profit strategies embedded in them. People who offer Linux services might have a profit strategy, but Linux itself doesn't. This means that vendor lock-in is less of an issue with Linux than it is with other UNIX offerings. It also means that organisations big enough to have a center of computing competancy always have the choice of "doing it themselves." Honesty: Linux and related software is extremely visible. You can find out about flaws before you commit to the technology rather than afterwards. Because of this, a version number in Linux is a more relable indicator of the quality of the software than in UNIX. For example, most Linux

software spends a long time being version 0 (zero) before it ever qualifies for the label "version 1." In terms of quality, performance and feature set, there's little to separate Linux from the other UNIXes. Linux has yet to provide genuine real-time scheduling, which some other UNIX versions do well. Unix was developed using ‘C’ Language. Unix was the foundation on which Linux was built. Unix has Character based environment while Linux has Graphical as well as Character based environment. Unix has less numbers of utilities & Features as compare to Linux.Ex: Number of shells and editors available in Linux is more than Unix. Explain Stickybit? The ‘Sticky Bit’ is a permission bit that can be set on either a file or a directory. If it is set on a file, then that file will remain in memory after execution, thus ’sticking’ in memory. This is useful when running a multi-user program (such as a bulletin board system that I ran once) to make the program execute faster for the next user. This was a common programming tactic earlier in the history of computer programming when speed and disk space were at a premium. If the sticky bit is set on a directory, only the owner of files in that directory will be able to modify or delete files in that directory - even if the permissions set on those files would otherwise allow it. It executes from user and behaves as it executing from the root. What is Semaphore? A data object that represents the right to use a limited resource, used for synchronization and communication between asynchronous processes. A semaphore is a type of Interprocess communication resource used for synchronization and mutual exclusion between any two asynchronous processes. Explain the unix file system? Basically there are 4 diiferent types of file systems in unix, they are as follows 1.Device file 2.Directory file. 3.FIFO 4.Regular file Solaris:-Three types file system a)Disk base file system ufs(unix file system),HSFS(High sierra file system),PCFS,UFS(Universal file system) b)NFS(Network file system) c)Pseduo or vartual file system Saapfs,tmpfs,procfs,etc There are three file system in UNIX as below:1. Ordinary File System: contains only data 2. Directory File System: contains other files and directories 3. Device File System: represents all hardware devices. What is the command to find all of the files which have been accessed within the last one month? find / -mtime -30 –print find / -atime -30 What is the use of stat()? #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/stat.h> int stat(const char *path, struct stat *buf);

The stat() function obtains information about the named file and writes it to the area pointed to by the buf argument. The path argument points to a pathname naming a file. Read, write or execute permission of the named file is not required, but all directories listed in the pathname leading to the file must be searchable. An implementation that provides additional or alternate file access control mechanisms may, under implementation-dependent conditions,cause stat() to fail. What is inter-process communication facility? IPCs are meant for communicating between processes. They are 1. PIPE 2. NAMED PIPE(FIFO) 3. Message Queue 4. Shared memory 5. Semaphore 6. Sockets Explain difference between IPC mechanisms ipc mechanisms are mianly 5 types 1. pipes: it is related data only send from one pipe output is giving to another pipe input to share resources pipe are used drawback: it is only related process only communicated 2.message queues: message queues are un related process are also communicate with message queues drawback:user dont know which process curently works 3.shared memory: memory shared in distributed systems some memory wants to share some files that time it is use full 4.semaphores: semaphore is integer type and in semaphore resources give coding like negetive value means process are wants to use perticular resource waiting only and 0 means no process is waiting and 1 means one resource is free 5.sockets: sockets also ipc it is comunicate clients and server with socket system calls connection oriented and connection less also What are the differences between Shared and Dynamic libraries. Shared libraries are loaded into memory before compilation, during parsing whereas dynamic libraries are loaded during compilation time itself. There are two ways in which a library is shared. Static and dynamic In statically linked library the code of library is referenced at compile time and the result executable will be bigger. I dynamically linked libraries the code of library is referenced at run time and resulting executable will be smaller. But drwaback is that at run time this will need the library to reference the library related symbols. system allow us to create and use two kinds of libraries - static libraries and shared (or dynamic) libraries.shared and dynamic libraries are one and the same. the object files from the dynamic(shared ) library are not inserted into the executable file unlike static lib... What is INODE? The UNIX disk object that represents the existence of a file. The inode records owner and group IDs, Fstype, Date & time last access, last modification, n/o links, size of file, addresses of blocks where the file is physically present and permissions The inode is the focus of all file activity in the file system. There is a unique inode allocated for each active file, each current directory, each mounted-on file, text file, and the root. An inode is "named" by its device/i-number pair. You can check the inode number of a file by typing ls -li To add to the definition, when you create a hard link, it is actually another file gets created with the same inode number. so in a way there is only one inode number which is associated with two

file names having diffrent locations on the disk but acutually refering to the same file. In this case when you call a delete (rm) on one of hte files you are actually not deleting the file, indeed you are deleting a reference to the file. A unique number associated with each filename. This number is used to look up an entry in the inode table which gives information on the type, size, and location of the file and the userid of the owner of the file. How would you print just the 25th line in a file (smallest possible script please)? sed -n '25p' filename.txt tail +25 file| head -1 cat -n filename | grep '25' How do you search the string for vowel's occurrence and number of occurrences of each vowel cat filename|tr -d 'eioubcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1234567890()~`!@#$%^&*"() _+{}|:"<>?,./;][=-/n ' |grep a|tr -d '|wc –m How to compare floating point number in shell script. a1=10.50 b1=10.01 if [ $a1 -gt $b1 ]| bc then echo "greater" else echo "lesser" fi Write a shell script to identify the given string is palindrome or not? this is for strings #!/bin/sh echo "enter a string" read str var1=`echo $str|rev` if [ $var1 != $str ] ; then echo "no pali" else echo "pali" if //this is for numbers #!/bin/sh echo "Enter a number to find for palindrome" read num1 num=$num1 i=0 while [ $num -gt 0 ] do i=`expr $i * 10 + $num % 10` num=`expr $num / 10` done if [ $i -eq $num1 ] ; then echo "$num1 is a palindrome" else echo "$num1 is not a palindrome" fi

Using Bourne shell : if you enter A B C D E F G.......................n after the command, how will you write a programme to reverse these positional parameters? $ echo "$@" | rev Please make me clear if i am wrong. =$# while(($i>=0)) do echo $i ((i=$i-1)) done how to delete a word from a file using shell script. sed -e 's/word//g' filename If you have a string "one two three", Which shell command would you use to extract the strings? echo $string | cut -d" " -f1 echo $string | cut -d" " -f2 echo $string | cut -d" " -f3 echo "one two three" | cut -d" " -f 1,2,3 or echo "one two three" | awk '{print $1 $2 $3}' cut , awk, sed and others are not "SHELL" commands. One way could be with bash: string="one two three"tab=($string)$ echo ${tab[0]}one$ echo ${tab[1]}two$ echo ${tab[2]}threehttp://www.bigup.org How do you read arguments in a shell program - $1, $2 ? #!/bin/sh for i in $* do echo $i done On executig the above script with any number of command-line arguments it will display all the parametsrs. Shell script accepts parameters in following format... $1 : first $2 : second....so on upto $9 : 9th param whereas $0 : gives script/function name If your script has more than 9 params then accept in following way... ${12} : 12th param ${18} : 18th param How do you schedule a command to run at 4:00 every morning? by using cron job Schedule the Job using crontab..From the command prompt perform a "man" on crontab and then type in crontab -e to create a new "job" Step 1. Set environemen variable EDITOR=vi if not set Step 2. Give command crontab -e Step 3. Add following entry at the end 0 4 * * * <Your command to run at 4:00 am morning> 1. There are two ways to schedule a script to run exactly at 4:00 AM every morning a: CRONTAB b. AT (at command executes only once)

Crontab format * * * * * <command> <minute> <hour> <date> <month> <day_of_the_week> command <0-59> <0-23> <1-31> <1-12> <0-7> command What is use of "cut" command ?Give some examples. Can we use "awk" or "sed" instead of "cut" ? If yes then give some examples? This utility is use to cut out columns from a table or fields from each line of a file. cut can be used as a filter. Either the -b, -c, or -f option must be specified. -b list The list following -b specifies byte positions (for instance, -b1-72 would pass the first 72 bytes of each line). When -b and -n are used together, list is adjusted so that no multi-byte character is split. -c list The list following -c specifies character positions (for instance, -c1-72 would pass the first 72 characters of each line). -d delim The character following -d is the field delimiter (-f option only). Default is tab. Space or other characters with special meaning to the shell must be quoted. delim can be a multi-byte character. Cut - Utility used to cut/Strip out the required data/text from the source. Cut can be used in three modes, Stripping by Character cut -c 1-3 STriping by Byte length cut -b -1-72 Stripping by delimiter and fields. cut -d "|" -f1 where -d "|" -> Deleimter used in input text to seperate columns -f1 -> Field/Column number while processing Huge input files, Cut's perfomance is far better than awk Cut is a powerful command in Unix, Cutting fields we can use the command , for example we would like to extraxct first 3 col cut -c1-3 sample (Sample is a file name) To extract first and 3rd col cut -d;-f1,-f3 sample CUT is used to get the specific portion(column) of information from a files separated by a specific charecter(ex: CSV file) ex: more /etc/passwd|cut -d":" -f1 The above command is used to list the user accounts on the server. 2. AWK ex: ls -al|awk '{print $9}' The above command is used to get the list of filenames in the current directory. Here the fields are need not be seperated by a specific charecter. 3. SED is similar to GREP command. The cut command cuts bytes, characters, or fields from each line of a file and writes these bytes, characters, or fields to standard output. If you do not specify the File parameter, the cut command reads standard input. To display fields using a blank separated list, enter: cut -f "1 2 3" -d : /etc/passwd The cut command produces: su:*:0 daemon:*:1 bin:*:2

sys:*:3 adm:*:4 pierre:*:200 joan:*:202 How to find see the file which is created today,s date with time after 10 a.m to 5 p.m? find . -atime 0 -type f -exec ls -ltr {} ; | grep "`date +%b %d`" This command will show the files which are created today. But for ur second part of the quesiton i needto analyse more, Explanation: find . -atime 0 -type f -exec ls -ltr {} This will list the files where are accessed and created today. grep "`date +%b %d`" This part of the command will filter out unwanted files which were not created today. set -u -a rm -f out2 find $PWD -atime 0 -type f -exec ls -ltr {} ; | grep "`date '+%b %d'`" | tr -s " " | tr -d ":" > out2 echo "-------Files Modified Today--------" cat out2 | while read line do timechk=`echo $line | cut -d " " -f8` filename=`echo $line | cut -d " " -f9` if [ $timechk -gt 1000 -a $timechk -lt 1700 ] then echo $filename fi done echo "-----------------------------------" What is the difference between a 'thread' and a 'process'? • Process is a program in execution whereas thread is a separate path of execution in a program. • Process & Thread share almost all data structure except (thread has it's own register & stack area ) • Process is a program under execution, but thread is a light weight process which has seperate way of execution. Threads are part of process. Single process can contain number of threads at a time. • Thread is the part of the process when we execute a programm and the process is created when execute a program. • A process is a collection of virtual memory space, code, data, and system resources. A thread is code that is to be serially executed within a process. A processor executes threads, not processes, so each application has at least one process, and a process always has at least one thread of execution, known as the primary thread. A process can have multiple threads in addition to the primary thread • Thread – is stream of executable code within process. They are light weight process. • All thread with in a process share process instruction,code & data segment,open file descriptor,signal handler,userID and GroupID. • Thread has its own set of register including program counter,stack pointer How will you list only the empty lines in a file (using grep)? grep "^$" filename.txt grep -c "^$" filename.txt grep "^[ ]*$" filename.txt In character set (between [ and ] one space and tab is given)

this command will gives all the blank line including those having space and tabs (if pressed)only How would you get the character positions 10-20 from a text file? cat filename.txt | cut -c 10-20 cut -c10-20 <filename.txt> When you login to a c shell, which script would be run first? (before the terminal is ready for the user) .profile file will execute first when a user logs in. or C shell , first /etc/.login script is run & after that ~/.login is run & then ~/.cshrc is run. What does command "kill -9" does ? it will kill the PID(process id) What are the commands to make a file hidden and to delete all hidden files in the folder? Rename the file so that it starts with (.) For example if you have a file called file.txt just rename it to .file.txt mv file.txt .file.txt How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? With the help of kill command we can terminate the process. Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 - kills all processes in your system except the login shell. KILL <PID> : Kills the process with specific ProcessID KILL -9 <PID> : Kills a stubburn process which can't killed using KILL command KILL 0 : Kills all the processes and some times this may result in system crash also causing heavy core dump Kill -9 <proc. id>is used to killl a process and all its child processes Child processes will not be killed with kill -9 command. what is the command to list files from directory in decreasing order of their file size. l -rt|sort -knr5 Here ll -rt list the files along with permission, owner, group, etc... sort will sort the output of ll -rt according to 5th field which is the file size. Hence the output of list will be sorted according to the file size and it will be listed. How many prompts are available in a UNIX system? Two prompts, PS1 (Primary Prompt), PS2 (Secondary Prompt). Unix/ Linux Supports four Prompts PS1, PS2, PS3, PS4 PS1 Prompt used as the normal system promptPS2 Prompt used when the shell expects more inputPS3 Prompt used when you have root authority Bash supports 4 prompts: PS1 - the default prompt PS2 - for multi-line input PS3 - printed for the select command PS4 - printed before output if set -x is set The first two are common to the Bourne shell (and ksh). The last two are only for Bash. csh, however, uses a completely different system. Set the "prompt" variable. Which of the following commands is not a filter?(a)man , (b) cat , (c) pg , (d) head? Ans: man pg cat A filter is a program which can receive a flow of data from std input, process (or filter) it and send the result to the std output.

What is difference between Hard and Soft mount? Hardmount in Unix is the same as the normal filesystem mount used mainly for mounting local filesysytems.Once a filesystem is hard mounted you should use umount command to unmount it.It remains mounted till you umount it. Soft mount on the other hand allows automatic unmounting if the filesystem is idle for a specified timeout period. It is mainly used for network filesystems like NFS It can be configured using Autofs and the network filesystem can be soft mounted. Example I have a file with the following info as comma separated. It shows username, id number and what subjects they are enrolled in. The subjects are separated by colons. UserName,ID,Subject jsmith,235456939,MATH29879:PHYS45979 jdoe,750378929,ENGL36899:JAPN92576 I want it to have one username with one course per line. So that it would look like: jsmith,235456939,MATH29879 jsmith,235456939,PHYS45979 jdoe,750378929,ENGL36899 jdoe,750378929,JAPN92576 Does anyone have any ideas? Answer 1) Say your file name is "r1" having following data STUDENT1,ID1,SUB11 STUDENT2,ID2,SUB21:SUB22 STUDENT3,ID3,SUB31:SUB32:SUB33 STUDENT4,ID4,SUB41:SUB42:SUB44 2)Now write following in a new file "prg.awk" {FS=","} {NAME=$1;ID=$2;SUBJECT=$3} {split(SUBJECT,SUB,":") {printf "%s,%s,%sn",NAME,ID,SUB[1]} {if(SUB[2]!=NULL){printf "%s,%s,%sn",NAME,ID,SUB[2]} {if(SUB[3]!=NULL){printf "%s,%s,%sn",NAME,ID,SUB[3]} {if(SUB[4]!=NULL){printf "%s,%s,%sn",NAME,ID,SUB[4]} {if(SUB[5]!=NULL){printf "%s,%s,%sn",NAME,ID,SUB[5]} 3)Make this file as executable, say chmod +x prg.awk 4)Now write the following command awk -f prg.awk r1 You can add more line with SUB[#] depending of number of subjects Sorry i forgot to add a closing curly brace } at the end of prg.awk Without which the program will not work OR Script Starts here ### Usage : sh format.sh inputFile.txt

if [ $# -ne 1 ] ; then echo "Usage : sh format.sh inputFile.txt"; exit 1; fi FNAME=$1 CONTENT=`cat $FNAME`; for LINE in $CONTENT do NAME=`echo $LINE | awk -F, '{print $1}'`; ID=`echo $LINE | awk -F, '{print $2}'`; SUBJECTS=`echo $LINE | awk -F, '{print $3}' | sed 's/:/ /g'`; for SUBS in $SUBJECTS do echo "$NAME,$ID,$SUBS"; done done Script Ends with that done Create it as script with name like format.sh and pass your file as argument. it will output the data in your desired format $ cat input.file jsmith,235456939,MATH29879:PHYS45979 jdoe,750378929,ENGL36899:JAPN92576 $ sed -e 's/:[A-Z]*[1-9]*//g' input.file>output.file $ cat output.file jsmith,235456939,MATH29879 jdoe,750378929,ENGL36899 use below command: $ cat t.txt jsmith,235456939,MATH29879:PHYS45979 jdoe,750378929,ENGL36899:JAPN92576 $ cat t.txt|sed "s/:/,/g"|awk -F"," '{OFS=","; print $1,$2,$3;print $1,$2,$4}' jsmith,235456939,MATH29879 jsmith,235456939,PHYS45979 jdoe,750378929,ENGL36899 jdoe,750378929,JAPN92576 What is the difference between grep and find commands?a)provides information on help b)grep searches in a file whereas find searches for files and directories. c)both a) and b) d) none of the above Grep is used to find strings in a file. Find is used to find a file in a directory or to find directory in the list of directories. Write command to delete all the files from a directory which have been created after a specified time.

Say you want to delete some files ends with data which are 2 days old. for file in `find . -follow -type f -name "*data" -mtime +2` do rm $file done How to switch to a super user status to gain privileges? Use ‘su’ command. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges. "su" is the command to switch to a super user status (commonly known as root user) from a user shell. After that it will ask for password of root.then you are super user. This command does not load the shell settings for a typical super user that login from a login screen. Therefore, environment variables/settings remained the same as that of the previous user shell. To load root user environment settings with a super user status from a user shell, use "su -" How do you restore deleted files in unix After deleting the file forcibly, there is noway you can get this on your own(no roolback as such). But as its been a tradition of taking backup of certain file systems daily and fortunately if your file is part of one of those file systems which have been backed up, you can ask unix people to restore the file (file system). Write a shell script to list only the hidden files in the current directories? ls -A | grep ^[.] Works on Linux ls -a | grep ^[.] ls -la | grep -v ^d | awk {'print $9'} | grep ^[.] What is the o/p of following command $a =*, echo $a, echo "$a"? command $a =*, variable 'a' will have all the files and directories in the current location.. simply the result of "ls". echo $a - this will give the list of files and directories echo "$a" - this wil show value assinged to a.. ie., * Which of the following is allowed in an arithmetic involving expr instruction. [],{},()? If values "hi", "Hello","Bye","Good Bye" are supplied to the following statement what will be the o/p read n1,n2 , echo $n1 $n2? How do you know that how many commands can be stored in the buffer in one session? type "env" command on the prompt and check HISTORY or BUFFER or HISTSIZE value What are shell variables? Shell variables are special variables, a name-value pair created and maintained by the shell. Example: PATH, HOME, MAIL and TERM shell variables are system environment variables.they include TERM,SHELL, MAIL the output of the shell variable we can see by typing the command $>echo $TERM ansi at the prompt. There are variable shell variable which would fix the environment once the user logs into OS. One can find shell variables by issuing "env" Example shell variables are PATH, TERM, HOME, SHELL etc... One can define his own shell variables and enter them in "/etc/bashrc" file so that they will take into effect whenever they log into OS.

Is it possible to create new a file system in UNIX? Yes, ‘mkfs’ is used to create a new file system. mkfs -t filesystem device name. for e.g mkfs -f ext3 /dev/hda2 How will u list the contents of parent directory from the current directory? ls -l <directory path> What are the default system wide permissions for a file and directory? Directory - 777 - rwxrwxrwx File - 055 - ---r_x r_x What is the default umask value? 022 A user is not able to change the permission , What can it happen? If he is not the member or owner it will happen What's the difference between ls -F , ls -p? ls - F - It will shows whether it is a file or directory, to identify the file type ls - P - Displays the links directly rather than the object that the link references. If a file permission are 000, can the superuser still read and write to that file.? No, he will not be able to read or write, Inorder to do that, he needs to change the permissions. What's the command to remove the files without write permission? rm -fr <filename> How will u make sure that no one can see the files which u had created? Create the file starting with .(DOT) It will be hidden. or example cat > .sharvan How will u change the permissions of a directory recursively? Use the chmod with -R What will the following command do? $ echo * - It is similar to 'ls' command and displays all the files in the current directory. Write a command to kill the last background job? Kill $! The system variable $! stores the PID of the last background job. The other method is first find the PID using the ps command, then use kill command to do the job. Unix command to concatenate (attach) two strings? For concatenating two string we use cat command. Ex:- cat str1 str2 Variable1="Open" Variable2="Systems" Variable3=$Variable1$Variable2 echo $Variable3 Output OpenSystems

Name the system calls used for process management System Calls for process control * fork() * wait() * execl(), execlp(), execv(), execvp() * exit() * signal(sig, handler) * kill(sig, pid) Extensively used one are: ps –eaf, kill, fork What is the difference between soft link and hard link. Hard Links : 1. All Links have same inode number. 2.ls -l command shows all the links with the link column(Second) shows No. of links. 3. Links have actual file contents 4.Removing any link ,just reduces the link count , but doesn't affect other links. Soft Links(Symbolic Links) : 1.Links have different inode numbers. 2. ls -l command shows all links with second column value 1 and the link points to original file. 3. Link has the path for original file and not the contents. 4.Removing soft link doesn't affect anything but removing original file ,the link becomes "dangling" link which points to nonexistant file. Soft link:-This is a Symbolic link between files.The actual file or directory , must be residing at any available partitions of the harddisk, Soft Link is just a "shortcut" (in windows terms) or "link" created with a new file name at the working directory or at current working partition of hard disk. Even when you don't require it, you can confidently delete this "soft link" as it doesn't remove the actual file or directory. The reason is, the actual file or diretcory's inode is different from the "softlink" created file's inode, in any unix system.Hard link:-It is the replica of the actual file or directory , which must be residing at any available partitions. This is a duplicate file copy of it's orginal , which can be created at current , working partition.When we remove or delete , this hardlink, it removes the original file or directory too.The reson is , they share the same inode , in any unix file system.With regards,Siddhun.M.Karthik softlink is useful when you want to refer files from other computer /filesystem through NFS .hard link doesn't allow this. Basic difference btw soft link and hard link. Soft link can span across file system Hard link cannot span across file system Soft link have different inod numbers ( ls -li) Hard link have same inod number for all files Soft link can link directories and files Hard link can only link files not directories You can create non existing files with the soft link Hardware link fails if the source files dont exists. If you remove the source files, soft link will not work . Remove the source files in hard link , still data will be available if its a hard link. Usage : ln -s source file target file ( soft link) Usage :ln source file target file ( hard link) In hard link .... the original file will not be deleted when you delete the hard link it ll be deleted only when the link count becomes zero Construct pipes to execute the following jobs? 1. Output of who should be displayed on the screen with value of total number of users who have logged in displayed at the bottom of the list. 2. Output of ls should be displayed on the screen and from this output the lines containing the word ‘poem’ should be counted and the count should be stored in a file. 3. Contents of file1 and file2 should be displayed on the screen and this output should be appended in a file . From output of ls the lines containing ‘poem’ should be displayed on the screen along with the count. 4. Name of cities should be accepted from the keyboard . This list should be combined with the list present in a file. This combined list should be sorted and the sorted list should be stored in a file ‘newcity’.

5. All files present in a directory dir1 should be deleted any error while deleting should be stored in a file ‘errorlog’.

1.who | tee /dev/pts/4 | cut -d " " -f 1 | uniq | echo "no of users logged in are `wc -l`" who - displays all the logged in users tee - pass the who output to terminal output /dev/pts/4 and also to cut command. where /dev/pts/4 is the current terminal. use tty to get your current terminal cut -d " " -f1 will cut the first field of who o/p which is login name uniq command is used to merge duplicate logins to single entry. This might be in some cases a single user might have logged in from different terminals and in such case they should not be counted as separate users. wc -l give total number of line which is here is the total users logged in. eg o/p: root pts/3 Nov 14 14:30 root pts/4 Nov 21 12:25 no of users logged in are 1 2. ls | tee /dev/pts/4 | grep -c "poem" > count | cat count 3. sort -m fil1 file2 | tee /dev/pts/4 | sort -o outputfile 4. sort - file1 -o newcity enter extra string from keyboard and press Ctrl+d key combination to finish the input 5. rm -rf /dir 2>errorlog where 2 denotes "standard error" which is here redirected to errorlog file instead of user terminal What is the difference between cat and more command? Cat displays file contents. If the file is large the contents scroll off the screen before we view it. So command 'more' is like a pager which displays the contents page by page. In Unix, cat command is used to display the contents on to the screen - $cat filename more command is used to diaplay a file with pausing. - $more filename The cut command cuts bytes, characters, or fields from each line of a file and writes these bytes, characters, or fields to standard output. If you do not specify the File parameter, the cut command reads standard input.The more command reads files and displays the text one screen at a time. The command pauses after each screen and prints the word More at the bottom of the screen. If you then press a carriage return, the more command displays an additional line. If you press the space bar, the more command displays another full screen of text. Note: On some terminal models, the more command clears the screen, instead of scrolling. Name the data structure used to maintain file identification? The data structure that is used to maintain the In-Core Inode Information is "Inode Table". This table (logical representation) has the following information abt the file:- type of the file - permissions on the link - Owner Id - Group Id - File Size - Array of 13 pointers to a file or another entry in the inode table. Besides these, the UNIX system maintains 2 other data structures namely User File Descriptor Table - A per Process table maintains information of open files by single process PK - PID , FileDescriptor 2. File Table - A Global Table that maintains the information of all the open files. PK – FileDescriptor Explain kill() and its possible return values? kill is a system call that allows a user process to send signals to another process.generally its the kernel that sends signals to processes. There are four possible results from this call:

1.‘kill()’ returns 0. This implies that a process exists with the given PID, and the system would allow you to send signals to it. It is system-dependent whether the process could be a zombie. 2.‘kill()’ returns -1, ‘errno == ESRCH’ either no process exists with the given PID, or security enhancements are causing the system to deny its existence. (On some systems, the process could be a zombie.) 3.‘kill()’ returns -1, ‘errno == EPERM’ the system would not allow you to kill the specified process. This means that either the process exists (again, it could be a zombie) or draconian security enhancements are present (e.g. your process is not allowed to send signals to *anybody*). 4.‘kill()’ returns -1, with some other value of ‘errno’ you are in trouble! The most-used technique is to assume that success or failure with ‘EPERM’ implies that the process exists, and any other error implies that it doesn't. An alternative exists, if you are writing specifically for a system (or all those systems) that provide a ‘/proc’ filesystem: checking for the existence of ‘/proc/PID’ may work. What is difference between lilo and stub? STUB is A temporary implementaion of part of a program for debugging purposes. LILO (LInux LOader) is a boot loader for Linux. Is it possible to count number char, line in a file; if so, How? Yes,It is possible to count the words,lines,characters in a file.. wc-stands for word count. $wc -c filename -> for characters $wc -l filename ->for lines $wc -w filename ->for words What difference between cmp and diff commands? cmp - Compares two files byte by byte and displays the first mismatch diff - tells the changes to be made to make the files identical cmp <filename1> <filename2> gives the 1st byteno and lineno of file1 which is to be changed to make filename1 identical to filename2. diff gives the text of filename2 which is different from filename1.we can use directory name in diff, but not in cmp How does the kernel differentiate device files and ordinary files? Kernel checks 'type' field in the file's inode structure. device filles are of 2 types --- character device file and block device file type field in the file's inode structure b--- block device file c--- character device file What are the difference between Daemons in Unix and service processes in Windows? both are same. daemons are the background processes in unix. similarly background processes in windows are called as service agents or service processes. Define Demand Paging, Page fault interrupt, and Trashing? Demand Paging: Demand paging is the paging policy that a page is not read into memory until it is requested, that is, until there is a page fault on the page. Page fault interrupt: A page fault interrupt occurs when a memory reference is made to a page that is not in memory. The present bit in the page table entry will be found to be off by the virtual memory hardware and it will signal an interrupt. Trashing: The problem of many page faults occurring in a short time, called “page thrashing,”

Unix Vs. Windows OS An operating system (OS) is a program that allows you to interact with the computer -- all of the software and hardware on your computer. How? Basically, there are two ways.  With a command-line operating system (e.g., DOS), you type a text command and the computer responds according to that command.  With a graphical user interface (GUI) operating system (e.g., Windows), you interact with the computer through a graphical interface with pictures and buttons by using the mouse and keyboard. With Unix you have in general the option of using either command-lines (more control and flexibility) or GUIs (easier). Unix and Windows: Two Major Classes of Operating Systems And they have a competitive history and future. Unix has been in use for more than three decades. Originally it rose from the ashes of a failed attempt in the early 1960s to develop a reliable timesharing operating system. A few survivors from Bell Labs did not give up and developed a system that provided a work environment described as "of unusual simplicity, power, and elegance". Since the 1980's Unix's main competitor Windows has gained popularity due to the increasing power of micro-computers with Intel-compatible processors. Windows, at the time, was the only major OS designed for this type of processors. In recent years, however, a new version of Unix called Linux, also specifically developed for micro-computers, has emerged. It can be obtained for free and is therefore a lucrative choice for individuals and businesses. On the server front, Unix has been closing in on Microsoft’s market share. In 1999, Linux scooted past Novell's Netware to become the No. 2 server operating system behind Windows NT. In 2001 the market share for the Linux operating system was 25 percent; other Unix flavors 12 percent. On the client front, Microsoft is currently dominating the operating system market with over 90% market share. Because of Microsoft’s aggressive marketing practices, millions of users who have no idea what an operating system is have been using Windows operating systems given to them when they purchased their PCs. Many others are not aware that there are operating systems other than Windows. But you are here reading an article about operating systems, which probably means that you are trying to make conscious OS decisions for home use or for your organizations. In that case, you should at least give Linux/Unix your consideration, especially if the following is relevant in your environment. Advantages of Unix - Unix is more flexible and can be installed on many different types of machines, including main-frame computers, supercomputers and micro-computers. - Unix is more stable and does not go down as often as Windows does, therefore requires less administration and maintenance. - Unix has greater built-in security and permissions features than Windows. - Unix possesses much greater processing power than Windows. - Unix is the leader in serving the Web. About 90% of the Internet relies on Unix operating systems running Apache, the world's most widely used Web server. - Software upgrades from Microsoft often require the user to purchase new or more hardware or prerequisite software. That is not the case with Unix. - The mostly free or inexpensive open-source operating systems, such as Linux and BSD, with their flexibility and control, are very attractive to (aspiring) computer wizards. Many of the smartest programmers are developing state-of-the-art software free of charge for the fast growing "open-source movement”.

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Unix also inspires novel approaches to software design, such as solving problems by interconnecting simpler tools instead of creating large monolithic application programs.

UNIX versus Windows - As far as operating systems go, to some it would seem as if UNIX has a clear advantage over Windows. - UNIX offers greater flexibility than Windows operating systems;furthermore, it is more stable and it does not crash as much as much as Windows. - To some, UNIX is just as easy to use as Windows, offering a GUI interface as well as command line. But there are users out there that believe UNIX is for only for computer gurus only, claiming that the fragmentation of the UNIX GUI is its greatest competitive weakness. - UNIX is quite a bit more reliable than Windows, and less administration and maintenance is needed in maintaining a UNIX system. This is a huge cost saver for any organization. - Rather than employing many individuals to maintain a Windows based system, one parttime employee would be needed for the upkeep of a typical size UNIX system. - One key difference between UNIX and Windows is the implementation of multiple users on one computer. When a user logs onto a UNIX system, a shell process is started to service their commands. Keeping track of users and their processes, a UNIX operating system is able to keep track of processes and prevent them from interfering with each other. This is extremely beneficial when all the processes run on the server, which demands a greater use of resources - especially with numerous users and sizeable applications. - Another main difference between UNIX and Windows is the process hierarchy which UNIX possesses. When a new process is created by a UNIX application, it becomes a child of the process that created it. This hierarchy is very important, so there are system calls for influencing child processes. - Windows processes on the other hand do not share a hierarchical relationship. Receiving the process handle and ID of the process it created, the creating process of a Windows system can maintain or simulate a hierarchical relationship if it is needed. The Windows operating system ordinarily treats all processes as belonging to the same generation. - UNIX uses daemons, Windows has service processes. Daemons are processes that are started when UNIX boots up that provide services to other applications. Daemons typically do not interact with users. A Windows service is the equivalent to a UNIX daemon. When a Windows system is booted, a service may be started. This is a long running application that does not interact with users, so they do not have a user interface. Services continue running during a logon session and they are controlled by the Windows Service Control Manager. - UNIX has a novel approach to designing software. Since UNIX is open-sourced, it attracts some very intelligent programmers who develop many applications free of charge. With this in mind, many designers choose to resolve software problems by creating simpler tools that interconnect rather than creating large application programs. In contrast, Windows applications are all proprietary and costly. - With UNIX, each generation extends, rather than replaces the previous like Windows it is rarely necessary to upgrade - old and new Unix are all compatible. The main reason for this is the way UNIX is built, which is on a solid theoretical foundation. There are many advantages to this, for instance, a book written 20 years ago that discusses programming UNIX can still be used today. Imagine trying to figure out how to run Windows XP with a Window 3.1 manual - it can't be done. - One argument to be made about UNIX is its lack of standardization. Some feel there are too many choices to be made regarding which GUI to use, or which combination of UNIX hardware and software to support. UNIX operating systems make great highperformance servers, but for end-users, every application on each arrangement of UNIX platform requires a different set, and each application has a different user interface.

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Microsoft has "the" Windows operating system; there simply isn't one standardized UNIX operating system, or for that matter, a single standardized UNIX GUI. One could argue and say this is a downfall for UNIX, but on the other hand, these variations add flavor and versatility to a solid, reliable operating system. In summary, the best way to choose between UNIX and Windows is to determine organizational needs. If an organization uses mostly Microsoft products, such as Access, Front Page, or VBScripts, it's probably better to stick with Windows. But, if reliability, universal compatibility, and stability are a concern, UNIX would probably be the way to go.

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