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Escuela Politcnica Nacional

Carrera de Ingeniera Qumica

Diseo de plantas
Manual para el diseo de recipientes a presin y sistemas de agitacin


Recipientes a Presin

Sistemas de Agitacin



a) Propeller, Marine

b) Hydrofoil

c) 6-blade disk

d) 4-blade 45pitched
blade (4BP) turbine

e) 4-blade flat blade

(4BF) impeller

f) 6-blade disk-style
concave blade
impellers (CBI)

g) Sawtooth (Cowles

h) Helical ribbon

i) Anchor impeller

j) Ekato Intermig

k) Hollow-shaft

l) Paravisc

The three-bladed Marine Propeller (MP) was the first axial-flow impeller used in agitated vessels. It is
often supplied with fixed and variable speed portable agitators up to 5 hp with impeller diameters (D)
up to 6. Above d = 6, marine propellers are too heavy and too expensive to compete with hydrofoil
impellers. They are usually applied at high speeds (up to 1750 rpm) in vessels up to 500 gal, with a
viscosity limit of about 5000 cP.
Lower Relimit: ~ 200.
The impeller shown is the Chemineer HE-3 hydrofoil, high efficiency impeller, but all vendors have
competitive impellers (e.g., Lightnin offers the A310 hydrofoil impeller). Hydrofoils are used extensively
for high flow, low shear applications such as heat transfer, blending, and solids suspension at all
speeds in all vessels. The economical optimum d/Di (0,4 > d/Di optimum> 0,6) is greater for hydrofoils
than for higher shear impellers.
Lower Relimit: ~ 200.
The 6-blade disk (the 6BD and, historically, the Rushton turbine) impeller is ancient; nevertheless, it still
has no peer for some applications. It invests the highest proportion of its power as shear of all the
turbine impellers, except those (e.g., the Cowles impeller) specifically designed to create stable
emulsions. It is still the preferred impeller for gas-liquid dispersion for small vessels at low gas rates, it
is still used extensively for liquid-liquid dispersions, and it is the only logical choice for use with fast
competitive chemical reactions.
Lower Relimit: ~ 5.
The 4-blade 45pitched blade (4BP) impeller is the preferred choice where axial flow is desired and
where there is a need for a proper balance between flow and shear. It is the preferred impeller for
liquid-liquid dispersions and for gas dispersion from the vessel headspace (located about d/3 to d/2
below the free liquid surface), in conjunction with a lower 6BD or a concave blade disk impeller.
Lower Relimit: ~ 20.
The 4-blade flat blade (4BF) impeller is universally used to provide agitation as a vessel is emptied. It is
installed, normally fitted with stabilizers, as low in the vessel as is practical. An upper HE-3 or a 4BP is
often installed at about Hi/Di= 0,5 to provide effective agitation at high batch levels.
Lower Relimit: ~ 5.
The 6-blade disk-style concave blade impellers (CBI) [the Chemineer CD-6, which uses half pipes as
blades, is shown] are used extensively and economically for gas dispersion in large vessels (in
fermenters up to 100,000 gal) at high gas flow rates. The CBIs will handle up to 200% more gas
without flooding than will the 6BD, and the gassed power draw at flooding drops only about 30%,
whereas with a 6BD, the drop in power draw exceeds 50%.
The sawtooth impeller is the ultimate at investing its power as shear rather than flow. It is used
extensively for producing stable liquid-liquid (emulsions) and dense gas-liquid (foams) dispersions. It is
often used in conjunction with a larger diameter axial-flow impeller higher on the shaft.
Lower Relimit: ~ 10.
The helical ribbon impeller and the Paravisc are the impellers of choice when turbines and anchors
cannot provide the necessary fluid movement to prevent stratification in the vessel. The turbine lower
viscosity limit, for a Newtonian fluid, is determined primarily by the agitation Reynolds number. 6BD
and 4BF turbines at Re > 1, are just as effective for blending as a helical ribbon above. The helical
ribbon is the impeller of choice for >100000 cP. Lower Relimit: = 0.
Anchor impellers are used for an intermediate range of 0,5 > Re > 10 because they are much less
expensive than helical ribbons and they sweep the entire vessel volume; whereas a turbine leaves
stagnant areas near the vessel walls for Re < 10.
Lower Relimit: ~ 2.
The Ekato intermig impeller has reverse pitch on the inner and outer blades and they are almost
always used with multiple impellers. They are used at high d/Di and promote a more uniform axial flow
pattern than other turbine impellers. They are advertised to be very effective for solids suspension,
blending, and heat transfer in the medium viscosity range.
Lower Relimit: ~ 5.
The hollow-shaft self-gassing impeller can, if properly designed, eliminate the need for a compressor
by taking the headspace gas and pumping it through the hollow shaft and dispersing it into the batch
as it leaves the hollow blades. As indicated in the Ekato Handbook, Handbook of Mixing Technology
(2000, p. 164), the self-gassing hollow-shaft impeller is often used in hydrogenation vessels where
the sparged hydrogen rate drops to very low levels near the end of batch hydrogenation reactions.
According to Ekato (2000, p.85), The paravisc is particularly suitable for highly viscous and
rheologically difficult media. With products that are structurally viscous or have a pronounced flow
limit or with suspensions having a low liquid content, the paravisc is used as the outer impeller of a
coaxial agitator system. The Ekato viscoprop is a good choice for the counter-rotating inner impeller.
There is not a lower Relimit. The coaxial, corotating agitator is an excellent choice for yield stress fluids
and shear thinning fluids.










Transferencia de Calor