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Romanian Biotechnological Letters

Copyright 2011 University of Bucharest

Vol. 16, No.1, 2011, Supplement


Printed in Romania. All rights reserved
ORIGINAL PAPER

Research regarding the influence of laser radiation upon the growth and
development of some vegetable species (eggplant and sweet pepper)
Received for publication, October 27, 2010
Accepted, January 21, 2011

FLOAREA BURNICHI1, MARIA-GABRIELA PRVU1, SILVANA DANAILAGUIDEA2 , NICULIA PETRU2, ESOFINA RISTICI2, RISTICI MARIAN3
1
Research and Development Station for Vegetables Growing Buzau, Mesteacanului Street, no.
23, Buzau, 120024, Romania
2
University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Biotechnology, 59
Marasti Ave., 011464, Bucharest, Romania
3
4R OPTICS S.R.L., Telita Street, no. 3, sector 5, 051883, Bucharest, Romania

Abstract
Within the framework of the experiments made throughout the year 2010 a model of ecologic and
stressless experimental treatment of vegetable transplants was made. This experiment based on a laser radiation
field was applied to two vegetable species: eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) and sweet pepper (Capsicum
annuum L.), using as irradiation source a 200 mW nominal power semiconductor laser device with continuous
laser radiations. The necessary treatment dosage for the plants was calculated taking into account the distance
from the irradiation source to the irradiated surface for transplants. There have been made observations and
measurements regarding the evolution of morphological and biological parameters of vegetable plants during the
vegetation period and also regarding the influence of laser irradiation treatment upon their growth, development
and dynamic crop production. Statistical processing of the results indicated significant differences regarding the
plants' size, growth rhythm, development and crop production.

Key words: vegetables, laser radiation, unstressful ecologic model, plant growth

Introduction
Living organisms are open systems that interact with the environment (receive and
dispense information, energy and substance), being constantly under the influence of lowintensity electromagnetic fields. Adverse environmental conditions, increased cloudiness,
pollution, results in a lower recovery of solar radiation by plants. . This is reflected in lower
productivity and lower resistance of plants. As a result, plants need a larger amount of energy
produced per unit of fresh substance. Laser radiation interaction with biological environment
has specific features due to laser radiation characteristics, this study involving physical and
biological aspects. (Anghel S. i col., 1999 [1], Calugareanu M. i col. 1999 [2], Chia Anca
Monica, 2004 [3]). Many authors emphasize the importance of red light in plant
photosynthetic activity. (G. Vasilevski, D. Bosev, 1997 [4]). In experiments conducted with
continuous laser light and laser light modulated at audio frequencies (P. Niculia i col. 2006
[5]), was found that when laser radiation is further conventional radiation, sufficient doses of
up to 2 J/cm2 for plant irradiation with effects on plants.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of laser beam irradiation on
biological material (seedlings) and the influence of this treatment on growth and subsequent
development in culture, of two species of vegetable, sweet peppers and eggplants. This may
open new avenues in vegetable research, allowing synchronous modulated laser light use as
organic and non-stressful stimulus of growth.

Material and method


In 2010, the Station of Vegetable Research and Development in Buzau, within research
contract no. 52-136/2008 the irradiation experiments were conducted in the early stages of
26

FLOAREA BURNICHI, MARIA-GABRIELA PRVU, SILVANA DANAILA-GUIDEA ,


NICULIA PETRU, ESOFINA RISTICI, RISTICI MARIAN

plant development (seedlings) with modulated fields of laser radiation and monitoring of the
effects of these treatments during the growing season. In the second experiment there were
chosen species of vegetable plants, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) variety "Buzau 10"
and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), variety "Dragaica", creations of the research team
from SCDL Buzau. Irradiation was done with a diode laser irradiation device comprising:
laser head, clamping support - mobile arm system, power feeders (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Diode laser irradiation device

Laser head consists of 19 laser diodes in a cylinder aligned so that light from them to
overlap so as to generate a uniform illumination on the surface of exposure.
Clamping system type "mobile arm" allows you to adjust the distance between laser
diode system and exposure area. The device is independent and can sit on a surface where it
can be exposed plants to be treated. Exposed surface is chosen according to the size of plants
to be irradiated and can be adjusted with the mobile arm. Power Supply is at plug of 220V
and 50 Hz c.a.
Five different experiments were established with various doses of radiation, compared
with untreated control. Time source of radiation exposure and height varied in correlation
with plant height (Table 1).
Table 1. Treatment dose and exposure time depending on the area irradiated
Species
Var.
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6

Irradiation
dose
j/cm2
Witness
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.16
0.30

Capsicum annuum L.
The average
Number of
The average of
height of the
leaves /
min exposure
package plant
plant
time
cm
21.33
9.13
17.90
8.03
1.00
20.75
9.53
2.00
19.92
9.17
4.07
20.22
9.27
8.13
18.95
8.80
15.30

Solanum melongena L.
The average
Number of
The average of
height of the
leaves /
min exposure
package plant
plant
time
cm
19.05
5.57
19.60
5.60
1.00
19.57
5.53
2.00
18.88
5.53
3.97
19.33
5.33
7.33
19.33
5.73
15.33

Calculation example: For a dose of 1.2 J/cm2, initially chosen, the lighting time for an
area of 50 cm2 was of 10 minutes, while an area of 100 cm2 was of 20 minutes, and for 200
cm2 exposure time reached even to 40 minutes. Seedlings were irradiated with doses up to 0.3
J/cm2 achieving some results statistically.
A assumed that laser biostimulation could have positive effects on plant development
with measurable results: the percentage of holding, the rythm of development, plant height,
number of tillers issued, harvest obtained and fruit quality.
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 16, No. 1, Supplement (2011)

27

Research regarding the influence of laser radiation upon the growth and development of some
vegetable species (eggplant and sweet pepper)

Irradiated seedling was planted in the experimental field of SCDL Buzau, in


randomized blocks, in six variants of four repetitions, each variant totaling an area of 24 m2.
Maintenance works were carried out according to conventional technology. Experimental
plots were established on 15.06.2010 and observations and measurements were made on
biometric variations and repetitions by the end of the growing season.

Results and discussions


The data collected were processed and statistical interpretation of results was obtained.
The results are presented both as values and as the percentage of deviation, between the
variants irradiated by laser and variant untreated.
Table 2 summarizes the numerical values obtained experimentally on the growth
dynamics of strains and changes in the number of shoots formed in the studied vegetables
species: sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) variety Buzau 10 and eggplants (Solanum
melongena L.), variety Dragaica, on the variations of radiation, compared with witness
version (V1).
Table 2 - Influence of irradiation dose on the dynamics of stem growth and number of shoots formed
(15.06.2010-28.09.2010)
Variant
(j/cm2)
V1 - Witness
V2 - 0.02
V3 - 0.04
V4 - 0.08
V5 - 0.16
V6 - 0.30

Species
Date

28.09.
2010

Capsicum annuum L.
Dynamics of
Number of
stem growth cm
shoots
34.03
6.2
37.47
4.8
34.62
5.7
35.45
5.7
35.15
4.9
36.42
5.0

Solanum melongena L.
Dynamics of
Number of
stem growth cm
shoots
91.68
2.9
91.13
3.1
91.17
2.9
91.85
3.5
91.40
3.3
91.40
2.9

The sweet pepper species (Capsicum annuum L.) variety Buzau 10 as a result of
treatment with laser radiation it was registered a significantly decreasing of the average
number of shoots formed from 6.2 shoots / plant in witness variant (V1) at 4.8 shoots / plant
at V2 (0.02 j/cm2), at 4.9 shoots / plant at V5 (0.16 j/cm2) and respective 5 shoots / plant at
V6 (0.30 j/cm2) (Table no. 3)
Table 3. Average number of shoots / plant - sweet pepper Buzau 10
NR.
CRT.

Variant

Irradiation
dose
j/cm2

1
2
3
4
5
6

V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6

Witness
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.16
0.3

AVERAGE
NUMBER
OF
SHOOTS
6.20
4.80
5.73
5.73
4.93
5.00

AVERAGE
NUMBER OF
SHOOTS
RELATIVE %
100.00
77.42
92.47
92.47
79.57
80.65

Average number of shoots / plant DL5%: 2,23*0.472

DIFFE
RENC
E
0.00
-1.40
-0.47
-0.47
-1.27
-1.20

t
-2.96
-0.99
-0.99
-2.68
-2.54

P%

1.33
34.10
34.10
2.30
3.10

SEMNIFICATION

0
0

1.05 shoots/plant 19.2%

This reduction in the number of shoots was significantly positively correlated with
number of fruits formed and the total fruit production obtained (Table no. 4, graph no. 1), at
V6 (0.3 j/cm2) registering increasing of 35.2% and of 13.21% at V2 ((0.02 j/cm2) against the
witness (V1). At V5 was a negative correlation between the number of shoots formed, the
average number of fruit harvested, respectively the total output produced (-12% fruit formed
and -10.9% the total production compared with V1).
28

Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 16, No. 1, Supplement (2011)

FLOAREA BURNICHI, MARIA-GABRIELA PRVU, SILVANA DANAILA-GUIDEA ,


NICULIA PETRU, ESOFINA RISTICI, RISTICI MARIAN
Table 4 - Average number of fruits / plant - sweet pepper Buzau 10
Nr.
crt.

Variant

Irradiation
dose
j/cm2

AVERAGE
NUMBER OF
SHOOTS

1
2
3
4
5
6

V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6

Witness
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.16
0.3

10.60
12.00
11.80
10.67
9.33
14.33

AVERAGE
NUMBER OF
SHOOTS
RELATIVE %
100.00
113.21
111.32
100.63
88.05
135.22

Average number of fruits per plant DL5% 2,23*1.274

DIFFEREN
CE

P%

SEMNIFICATION

0.00
1.40
1.20
0.07
-1.27
3.73

1.10
0.94
0.05
-0.99
2.93

29.70
39.00
92.00
34.10
1.60

2.84 fruit

23.9%

Total production sweet pepper "Buzau 10" variety (t/ha)


60.00

50.00

40.00

30.00

Total production

t / ha

20.00

10.00

0.00
V1

V2

Graph no. 1. Total production

V3

V4

V5

DL5% 2,23*6.321

V6

14.10

t/ha

30.4%

Graph no. 2 shows the dynamics of harvesting during the growing season, with a relative
production of 25.74% higher comparing to untreated witness.
Dynamics of harvesting during the growing season sweet pepper fruit production
kg / plant
0.450
0.400
0.350
V1

0.300
kg

V2

0.250

V3

0.200

V4
V5

0.150

V6

0.100
0.050
0.000
13. 08. 2010

1. 09. 2010

20.09.2010

Graph no. 2. Dynamics of production of fruit at sweet pepper during the vegetation (kg / plant)

At the species eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), variety "Dragaica" the laser treatment
resulted in changes in plant habitus, height, average number of shoots, average number of
fruit harvested per plant and total output produced. Thus at V5 (0.16 j/cm2) the plant height
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 16, No. 1, Supplement (2011)

29

Research regarding the influence of laser radiation upon the growth and development of some
vegetable species (eggplant and sweet pepper)

increased significantly, exceeding the 12% the witness V1, while the V6 (0.30 J/cm2)
exceeded the witness with 10.2% (Table no. 5).
Table 5. The average height of eggplants Dragaica (cm)
NR.
CRT.

1
2
3
4
5
6

Variant

Irradiation dose
j/cm2

PLANT
HEIGHT
cm

Witness
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.16
0.3

110.73
112.60
107.87
116.87
124.00
122.07

V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6

Plant height DL5% 2,23*5.108 11.39 cm

PLANT HEIGHT

DIFFERENCE

RELATIVE%

cm

100.00
101.69
97.41
105.54
111.98
110.23

0.00
1.87
-2.87
6.13
13.27
11.33

P%

0.37
-0.56
1.20
2.60
2.22

69.80
56.20
25.80
2.70
5.30

SEMNIFI
CATION

10.0%

The number of shoots increased significantly at V4 by 18.2% and at V5 with 11.4%


compared with witness V1. In terms of average number of fruit harvested per plant and total
production obtained the data are correlated, with a greater number of fruits per plant and total
production increased significantly compared to untreated witness V1, at variants V3 (0.04
j/cm2), V5 (0.16 j/cm2) and V6 (0.30 j/cm2). At V3 and V5 the average number of fruits
produced per plant increased by 20.9% and at V6 with 18.6%. Production growth rate
recorded was of 31% at V3, 34.6% at V5 and 30.6% at V6 (Table no. 6 and Graph no. 3).
There are also presented the differences
as percentage limit (%) for all parameters
determined in the two vegetables species taken in study.
Table 6 - The average number of fruits /plant at eggplants Dragaica
NR.
CRT.

Varian
t

Irradiation
dose
j/cm2

1
2
3
4
5
6

V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6

Witness
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.16
0.3

AVERAGE
NUMBER
OF
SHOOTS
2.87
3.27
3.47
3.27
3.47
3.40

AVERAGE
NUMBER
OF SHOOTS
RELATIVE%
100.00
113.95
120.93
113.95
120.93
118.60

Average number of fruits/ plant DL5% 2,23*0.210

P%

1.90
2.86
1.90
2.86
2.54

8.70
1.60
8.70
1.60
3.10

DIFFERENCE
0.00
0.40
0.60
0.40
0.60
0.53

0.47

SEMNIFI
CATION

x
x
x

14.4%

Total production (t / ha) "Dragaica" eggplants variety


40.00
35.00
30.00
25.00
t/ha 20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00
V1

V2

V3

V4

V5

V6

Total production t/ha

Graph no. 3. Total production


30

DL5% 2,23*3.654

8.15 t/ha

24.4%

Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 16, No. 1, Supplement (2011)

FLOAREA BURNICHI, MARIA-GABRIELA PRVU, SILVANA DANAILA-GUIDEA ,


NICULIA PETRU, ESOFINA RISTICI, RISTICI MARIAN

In graph no. 4 the dynamics of production of fruit harvested per plant, which
graphically shows that variants V5 and V4 have registered a peak of accumulation of fresh
substance of 0.5 kg / plant in the third harvest, while the V5 and V6 variants presented a
relatively steady accumulation of dry fresh fruit throughout the harvesting period.
Dynamics of harvesting during the growing season eggplants fruit production
kg / plant
0.600
0.500
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6

0.400
kg/pl
0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
11.08.2010

13. 08.2010

25.08.2010

01.09.2010

10.09.2010

28.09.2010

Sweet pepper varieties "Buzau 10" and eggplant "Dragaica" used as biological material
in the experiments, were designed and patented at SCDL Buzau and they are registered in the
"Official catalog of varieties of crop plants in Romania in 2010" (Fig. 2 and 3).

Figure 2. Sweet peppers Buzau 10

Figure 3. Eggplants Dragaica

Conclusions
Irradiation of the plants causes at the species studied, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum
L.) variety "Buzau 10" and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), variety "Dragaica", changes in
plant size, number of shoots formed, significantly influencing both number of fruits formed
per plant and total production obtained from organic and unstressful treatment applied.;
1. As a first result, at the sweet pepper variety "Buzau 10", all doses of irradiation used
determined decreasing of plant height and reducing of the number of shoots formed, the
percentage decrease ranging from 7.5% in V3 and V4 and 22.6% at V2, compared to witness
variant V1.
2. For sweet pepper, variety "Buzau 10", the most effective dose of radiation proved to
be V6 (0.30 j/cm2), followed by V2 (0.04 j/cm2), laser radiation therapy positively influences
the total production and respective the number of fruit produced per plant formed (+35.2%),
Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 16, No. 1, Supplement (2011)

31

Research regarding the influence of laser radiation upon the growth and development of some
vegetable species (eggplant and sweet pepper)

production growth recorded being with 25.7% at V6, namely 12.5% at V2 regarding V1
witness untreated.
3. For sweet peppers, variety "Buzau 10" version of treatment with laser radiation V5
(0.16 j/cm2) resulted in a significant reduction in the number of shoots formed with 20.4%, of
the number of fruits formed with 12% , aggregate production was lower by 10.9% compared to
the witness untreated V1.
4. At the variety of eggplants Dragaica treatment option with the best results was V5
(0.16 j/cm2), which led to a significant production increase of 34.6% compared to the witness
variant V1, increasing of number of fruit / plant with 20.9%, of plant size with 12% and of
number of shoots formed with 11.4%.
5. At the eggplants "Dragaica" the effect of irradiation on V3 (0.04 J/cm2) has resulted
in a slight reduction in plant size and number of shoots formed, but without statistical
significance compared to witness V1..
6. Plant irradiation at eggplants "Dragaica" determined, for V3 (0.04 J/cm2) a
significant increase of 31% to total production achieved, by 20.9% in the number of fruits per
plant, as for V5 (0.15 j / cm2) results being given statistically.
7. For the eggplants variety "Dragaica" irradiation dose of 0.30 J/cm2 (V6) had a
positive influence, leading to statistically significant production increases of 30.6%, a
significant increase in the number of fruits per plant, with 18.6 % and of the plant height by
10.2% compared to the witness variant V1.
8. Radiation dose of 0.08 J/cm2 (V4) determined in the variety of eggplants "Dragaica"
a significant increase in the number of shoots per plant by 18.2% compared to the untreated
witness V1.
9. For sweet peppers and eggplants species treatment with laser radiation of plants in
the V6 version (0.30 J/cm2), lead to significant positive differences in the total production
and number of formed fruits / plant.
Research will continue to strengthen results and identify new treatment options with
laser radiation and ecological unstressful stimulating effect of growth, plant development and
that allows obtaining higher production quantitatively and qualitatively.

Acknowledgements
This work belongs to a national research project, PN II 52-136/2008PLANTCAMP,
funded by the National Ministry of Research by CNMP.

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Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 16, No. 1, Supplement (2011)