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You are on page 1of 13

Trigonometric

Functions

13.6

Introduction

Integrals involving trigonometric functions are commonplace in engineering mathematics. This

is especially true when modelling waves, and alternating current circuits. When the root-meansquare (rms) value of a waveform, or signal is to be calculated, you will often nd this results

in an integral of the form

sin2 t dt

In this Section you will learn how such integrals can be evaluated.

'

and indenite integrals

Prerequisites

Before starting this Section you should . . .

&

Learning Outcomes

After completing this Section you should be

able to . . .

be familiar with standard trigonometric

identities

use trigonometric identities to write integrands in alternative forms to enable

them to be integrated

Simple integrals involving trigonometric functions have already been dealt with in Section 13.1.

See what you can remember:

Write

integrals:

down the following

a) sin x dx,

b) cos x dx,

c) sin 2x dx,

d)

cos 2x dx

Your solution

d)

1

2

sin 2x + c.

The basic rules from which these results can be derived are summarised here:

Key Point

cos kx

+c

sin kx dx =

k

cos kx dx =

sin kx

+c

k

trigonometric functions such as

2

or

cos2 t dt

sin x dx

Note that these integrals cannot be obtained directly from the formulas in the Key Point above.

However by making use of trigonometric identities the integrands can be re-written in an alternative form. It is often not clear which identities are useful and each case needs to be considered

individually. Experience and practice are essential. Work through the following Guided Exercise.

sin2 = 12 (1 cos 2)

sin2 x dx in an alternative form.

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

Your solution

1

(1

2

cos 2x)dx.

Note from the last exercise that the trigonometric identity was used to convert a power of sin x

into a function involving cos 2x which can be integrated directly using the Key Point above.

sin2 x dx.

Your solution

x 21 sin 2x + c = 21 x 41 sin 2x + K where K = c/2.

1

2

sin x cos x dx

Your solution

1

2

Using the result of the previous example write down the value of

2

sin x cos x dx

0

Your solution

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

2

2

1

sin x cos x dx = cos 2x + c

4

0

0

1

1

= cos 4 + cos 0

4

4

1 1

= + =0

4 4

This result is one example of what are called orthogonality relations.

2. Orthogonality Relations

In general two functions f (x), g(x) are said to be orthogonal to each other over an interval

a x b if

b

f (x)g(x) dx = 0

a

It follows from the previous example that sin x and cos x are orthogonal to each other over the

interval 0 x 2 or indeed any other interval x + 2 (e.g. /2 x 5 or

x ).

More generally there is a whole set of orthogonality relations involving these trigonometric

functions on intervals of length 2 (i.e. over one period of both sin x and cos x). These relations

are useful in connection with a widely used technique in engineering, known as Fourier analysis

where we represent periodic functions in terms of an innite series of sines and cosines called a

Fourier series.

We shall demonstrate the orthogonality property

2

Imn =

sin mx sin nx dx = 0

0

The secret is to use a trigonometric identity to convert the integrand into a form that can be

readily integrated.

You may recall the identity

1

sin A sin B = (cos(A B) cos(A + B))

2

It follows, putting A = mx and B = nx that

1 2

Imn =

[cos(m n)x cos(m + n)x] dx

2 0

2

1 sin(m n)x sin(m + n)x

=

2

(m n)

(m + n)

0

= 0

because (m n) and (m + n) will be integers and sin(integer)2) = 0. Also of course sin 0 = 0.

HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

The corresponding orthogonality relation for cosines

2

cos mx cos nx dx = 0

Jmn =

0

follows by use of a similar identity to that just used. Here again m and n are integers such that

m = n.

1

sin A cos B = (sin(A + B) + sin(A B))

2

to show that

2

sin mx cos nx dx = 0

m and n integers, m = n.

Kmn =

0

Your solution

= 0

We have, by the given identity,

1 2

[sin(m + n)x + sin(m n)x] dx

Kmn =

2 0

2

1

cos(m + n)x cos(m n)x

=

2

(m + n)

(m n)

0

1 cos(m + n)2 1 cos(m n)2 1

+

2

(m + n)

(m n)

=

Finally show that the orthogonality relation Kmn also holds if m = n. Hint:

You will need to use a dierent trigonometric identity.

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

Your solution

Note that the particular case m = n = 1 was considered earlier in this Section.

Putting m = n, and then using the identity sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A we get

2

sin mx cos mx dx

Kmm =

0

1 2

sin 2mx dx

=

2 0

2

1

cos 2mx

=

2

2m

0

1

=

(cos 4m cos 0)

4m

1

(1 1) = 0

4m

=

Kmn =

sin mx cos mx dx

3. Reduction Formulae

You have seen earlier in this Workbook how to integrate sin x and sin2 x (which is sin x multiplied

by itself). Applications sometimes arise which involve integrating higher powers of sin x or cos x.

It is possible, as we now show, to obtain a reduction formula to aid in this task.

So consider

In = sinn (x) dx

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

Your solution

I2 =

sin2 x dx

I3 =

sin3 x dx

I10 =

sin10 x dx

sinn x = sinn1 (x) sin x

and use integration by parts.

in this Workbook put f = sinn1 x and g = sin x

df

and evaluate

and g dx.

dx

Your solution

g dx =

sin x dx = cos x

We have

df

= (n 1) sinn2 x cos x (using the chain rule of dierentiation)

dx

Now use the integration by parts formula on

the parts formula if necessary). Do not attempt to evaluate the second integral that you obtain.

Your solution

g dx

df

dx

sinn2 x cos2 x dx

g dx

7

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

Putting cos2 x = 1 sin2 x in the integral on the right-hand side, this integral becomes:

n2

sin (x) dx sinn (x) dx

so nally

In =

sin

n1

n1

sin

n2

(x) dx(n1)

sinn (x) dx

or

In = sinn1 (x) cos x + (n 1)In2 (n 1)In

from which

1

n1

()

In2

In = sinn1 (x) cos x +

n

n

This is our reduction formula for In . It enables us, for example, to evaluate I6 in terms of I4 ,

then I4 in terms of I2 and indeed I2 in terms of I0 where

0

I0 = sin x dx = 1 dx = x.

Your solution

as obtained earlier by a dierent technique.

i.e.

1

1

I2 = [sin x cos x] + I0

2

2

1 1

x

= [ sin 2x] +

2 2

2

1

x

sin2 x dx = sin 2x +

4

2

Use the reduction formula () to obtain I6 =

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

Your solution

1

3

I4 = sin3 x cos x + I2

4

4

1

5

I6 = sin5 x cos x + I4

6

6

Then, by () with n = 4

Using () with n = 6

Now substitute for I2 from the previous exercise to obtain I4 and hence I6 .

Your solution

5

1

5

5

I6 = sin5 x cos x

sin3 x cos x

sin 2x + x

6

24

32

16

I4 = 41 sin3 x cos x

3

16

sin 2x + 83 x

Denite integrals can also be readily evaluated using the reduction formula (). For example,

/2

sin nx dx

In =

0

/2

sinn2 x dx

so In2 =

0

We obtain, immediately

/2 n 1

1

sinn1 (x) cos x 0 +

In2

In =

n

n

or, since cos 2 = sin 0 = 0,

(n 1)

In2

n

This simple easy-to-use formula is well known and is called Wallis formula.

In =

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

/2

If In =

0

Your solution

/2

8

4

4 2

sin5 x dx = I3 = =

5

5 3

15

/2

2

2

2

sin3 x dx = I1 = 1 =

3

3

3

I5 =

I3 =

I1 =

/2

0

/2

=1

The total power P of an antenna is given by

L2 I 2

sin3 d

P =

2

4

0

formula for

sinn x , obtain P .

Your solution

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

10

If I1 =

I3 =

L2 I 2

42

2

4

1

2

sin2 x cos x 0 + I1 = 2 =

I3 =

3

3

3

3

L2 I 2

32

Hence P =

sin3 d =

sin d = [ cos ]0 = 2

0

sin3 d.

A similar reduction formula to () can be obtained for

if

/2

cosn x dx then Jn =

Jn =

0

(n1)

Jn2

n

The following seemingly innocent integrals are examples, important in engineering, of trigonometric integrals that cannot be evaluated as indenite integrals:

(a)

2

sin(x ) dx

and

cos(x2 ) dx

sin x

dx

(b)

x

This is called the Sine integral.

Denite integrals of this type, which are what normally arise in applications, have to be evaluated by approximate numerical methods.

Fresnel integrals with limits arise in wave and antenna theory and the Sine integral with limits

in lter theory.

It is useful sometimes to be able to visualize the denite integral. For example consider

t

sin x

dx

t>0

F (t) =

x

0

11

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

Clearly, F (0) =

0

sin x

sin x

dx = 0. Recall the graph of

against x, x > 0:

x

x

sin x

x

For any positive value of t, F (t) is the shaded area shown (the area interpretation of a denite

integral was covered earlier in this Workbook). As t increases from 0 to , it follows that F (t)

increases from 0 to a maximum value

sin x

F () =

dx

x

0

whose value could be determined numerically (it is actually about 1.85). As t further increases

sin x

curve

from to 2 the value of F (t) will decrease to a local minimum at 2 because the

x

is below the x-axis between and 2.

Continuing to argue in this way we can obtain the shape of the F (t) graph as follows: (can you

see why the oscillations decrease in amplitude?)

F (t)

1.85

The result

sin x

dx =

x

2

0

is clear from the graph (you are not expected to know how this result is obtained). Such problems

are dealt with in Workbook 31.

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

12

Exercises

You will need to refer to a Table of Trigonometric Identities to answer these questions.

/2

1. Find a) cos2 xdx b) 0 cos2 tdt c) (cos2 + sin2 )d

2. Use the

identity

sin(A

+

B)

+

sin(A

B)

=

2

sin

A

cos

B

to

nd

sin 3x cos 2xdx

3. Find (1 + tan2 x)dx.

4. The mean square value of a function f (t) over the interval t = a to t = b is dened to be

1

ba

(f (t))2 dt

a

interval t = 0 to t = 2.

5(a) Show that the reduction formula for Jn = cosn x dx is

1

(n 1)

cosn1 (x) sin x +

Jn2

n

n

(b) Using the above reduction formula show that

1

4

8

cos2 x sin x +

sin x

cos5 x dx = cos4 x sin x +

5

15

15

Jn =

/2

n1

n

Jn =

cos x dx then Jn =

Jn2 (Wallis formula).

n

0

(d) Using Wallis formula show that

/2

5

cos6 x dx = .

32

0

Answers

4. 21 .

1

1. a) 21 x + 41 sin 2x + c. b). /4. c). + c. 2. 10

cos 5x 21 cos x + c. 3. tan x + c.

13

13.6: Integration of Trigonometric Functions

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