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Amara Forum

From 2013 onwards Shanthi and the team at Viluthu


organised widows and women heads of households in
the North and East and Puttalam districts into advocacy
networks. The networks christened themselves as the
Amara Forum of Women Heads of Households. To date
there are more than 12,000 active members and the
networks are growing throughout the country. As a
widow herself, Shanthis dream was to remove the stigma
associated with widowhood in Sri Lankan society and
enable widows and women heads of households to access
their rights and services and participate in the countrys
political processes. For this purpose she facilitated
the production of The Memorandum of Concerns and
Demands by Women Heads of Households, an advocacy
document produced and used by the women themselves
to express their fears, aspirations and demands. This
enabled ownership of rights holders and made the
women an active part of the change they wished to see.
As women heads of households consisted of widows,
women whose husbands had been forcefully abducted,
disappeared or maimed during the three decade long
V@Q SGDCNBTLDMSQDDBSDCSGDHQCHUDQRDHMSDQDRSR 
In 2015 Shanthi wished to have a National Widows
Conference to propose for a Widows Charter in Sri
Lanka which will elevate the status of widows in the
country and provide the framework within which all

policies and priorities are framed by the government.


The Widows Charter proposed by the Amara Forum
will provide a blueprint document for the Parliament
to adopt. It consists of the concerns and demands
expressed in the original Memorandum and propose
the adoption of articles which address those issues.
The adoption of such a document will have an immense
DDBSHMOQNUHCHMFNVMDQRGHO@MC@BBNTMS@AHKHSXNESGD
national process underway to address the problems
faced by widows and women heads of households
throughout the country.
Unfortunately, due to ill health from her cancer, Shanthi
passed away in August 2015. We are proud to host the
national conference titled Empowering Women Headed
Households: A Building Block in the Reconciliation
Process in her memory on 10 December 2015 and
release the National Widows Charter proposed by the
Amara Forum. We celebrate Shanthi Sachithanandams
VNQJ @MC SGD DNQSR NE L@MX RTBG VNLDM @BSHUHRSR
who worked along with her and pay homage to their
commitment and dedication in realising this dream.

WIDOWS CHARTER SRI LANKA


Proposed by

AMARA Forum
(For Women Heads of Households)
Facilitated by

VILUTHU
(Centre for Human Resource Development)

Recognising that Sri Lanka has endorsed


international standards and has accepted by
ratification, international obligations under the
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination against Women,
Recalling Security Council Resolution 1325
that reaffirms the important role of women in
the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace
negotiations, peace-building, peacekeeping,
humanitarian response and in post-conflict
reconstruction and stresses the importance of
their equal participation and full involvement
in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion
of peace and security,
Noting that the fundamental rights chapter
of the Constitution of Sri Lanka recognizes
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gender equality, prohibits discrimination on


the basis of sex and provides for affirmative
action to remedy gender and inequality,
Recognising that the Womens Charter of Sri
Lanka calls upon the state to take all appropriate
measures to ensure the full development and
advancement of women, for the purpose of
guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment
of human rights and fundamental freedoms on
a basis of equality with men,
Noting that widows especially are discriminated
against and marginalized socially and culturally,
vulnerable to abuse and violence, and are
stereotyped as evil or bad luck which obstructs
them from fully participating in civil society
and political structures,
Recognising the impact of derogatory and
discriminatory treatment of widows which
affects the society as a whole because of the
resultant poverty of widows depriving them
and their children of their human rights to
shelter, food and education,
Reaffirming that widows are key social and
economic actors and play an important role in
the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace
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negotiations, peace-building, peacekeeping,


post-conflict reconstruction, and promoters of
peace and security,
Recognising the vast number of women who
are widows and women heads of households in
Sri Lanka and the urgent need to mainstream
widows perspective in all policy developments
and decisions and ensure that present and
successive governments use all measures
to assess their numbers and circumstances,
eliminate discrimination and poverty, and
acknowledge their valuable social capital,
We widows of Sri Lanka call for a National
Widows Charter based on our concerns and
demand put forth,

1. Safety and Security


We fear for our physical security and safety
due to militarization and the presence of the
military.
Physical insecurity restricts our freedom of
movement and limits our ability to access
educational and employment opportunities and
services, such as health.
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The lack of secure and permanent housing


exacerbates our physical insecurity.
Militarisation and the military presence expose
us to possible sexual violence, including sexual
harassment, particularly in public spaces and
public transport.
Those who have a duty to provide protection,
such as the police, also play a role in the
violence perpetrated against us.

We call for:
Demilitarisation - the scaling down of military
presence in our areas of the North and East and
military involvement in civilian affairs.
Those mandated to provide protection, such
as the police, to fulfill their duties instead of
contributing to the insecurity of women.

We propose:
ARTICLE 1: Safety and Security
a. Property-grabbing and chasing-off or
any other unlawful deprivation of widows
from their land or property, obtained
by way of transfer, gift or inheritance or
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leased to widows, are criminal offences


punishable as a serious category of crime.
b. Anyone who attempts or manages to
deprive a widow of any of her property, take
custody of her children without an order of
a judge or magistrate shall be guilty of the
most serious category of crime.
c. Anyone who physically, mentally or
sexually abuses a widow is guilty of the
most serious category of crime.
d. Anyone who is involved in, or aides
and abets in sexual exploitation, forced
prostitution and trafficking of women and
girls is guilty of an offence punishable as
the most serious category of crime.
e. It is no defence to this law that widows
consented to be victims of the alleged crime.
f. All appropriate measures be taken by the
State in the protection of widows and
their dependants from physical and sexual
abuse, forced prostitution and trafficking.
g. Legal aid centres be established specially
for widows and their dependants on
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personal status, property and security


related matters.
h. Widows shelter be established providing
free counseling, and immediate medical
attention to widows and their dependants
who are victims of physical abuse, sexual
abuse, forced prostitution and trafficking.
i. All appropriate and special measures be
taken by the State in the protection of
widows and their dependants who are
internally displaced.
j. Appointment of women police officers in
all Police stations in order to facilitate and
assist complaint and queries brought by
widows and their dependents.
k. All security inspections on person or
residences of widows shall be accompanied
by female officers and any inspection
carried contrary to this is unlawful.
l. The relevant authorities of the State to
provide special protection of widow
witnesses.
m. The term violence against women
includes any act of gender-based violence
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against widows that results or is likely to


result in physical, sexual or psychological
harm or suffering to her including threats
of such act, coercion or deprivation of
liberty.
n. The State to ensure that all civilian
administration to be carried out by civilian
officers and not military officers.

2. Livelihood and Social Security


Our livelihood opportunities are extremely
limited and seasonal, and even in those limited
spheres we are discriminated against (we are
paid only Rs.300 per a day, whereas men are
paid Rs.500 - Rs.1000 per day).
The lack of opportunities is exacerbated by
the limited skills we possess and our inability
to access training to enhance our ability to
increase our earning capacity.
As women headed households living in poverty
without a fixed income we are not considered
credit worthy and hence are not able to borrow
from normal financial institutions.
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Some government livelihood/self-employment


programmes impose age restrictions on
beneficiaries, i.e. recipients have to be below
50 years, which discriminate against women
over 50 who are self-employed.
Fertilizer subsidy schemes and other agriculture
subsidies and assistance are provided only to
paddy farmers and not to those who engage
in highland cultivation activities, such as
women.
The lack of roads and transport facilities also
hamper our economic activities.
The acquisition of large fertile lands by the
Military in many areas have also hampered our
access to livelihoods.
Due to limited livelihood opportunities we are
compelled to undertake unsafe and even illegal
income generation activities, such as producing
illicit alcohol or migrate to the Middle East as
domestic workers, which have had an adverse
impact on our families.
8

We call for:
Assistance projects delivered by the government
and non- governmental organizations to be
formulated taking into account the local
context and the needs and skills of women
headed households.
Government livelihood support programmes
to have no age limit and be applicable to all
women headed households regardless of age.
Fertilizer and other subsidy schemes to be open
to women who engage highland cultivation.
Economic investments in our own villages
that utilize local resources and skills which
strengthen the local economy, and thereby the
local community.
Training for women in marketable skills with
commensurate provision of resources for
implementation.
Infrastructure development, such as roads,
street lighting and public transport, not only in
the main towns and along main highways but
also in remote, interior areas.
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We propose:
ARTICLE 2: Livelihood and Social security.
a. Widows have the right to the same
employment opportunities, skills training
and remuneration as other women and men.
b. Any dismissal of a woman from her
employment because she has become
a widow, must take leave from work
to complete funeral rites or is wearing
mourning clothes is unlawful and those
responsible for the dismissal will be guilty
of an offence, and any woman exposed to
such dismissal has the right to not only be
reinstated but claim damages for the said
discrimination.
c. Any discrimination of widows in livelihood
support programmes of the State on the
basis of widowhood, age or number of
dependants is unlawful.
d. Assistance projects delivered by the
government and non - governmental
organizations must be formulated taking
into account the local context and the needs
and skills of widows.
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e. Fertiliser and subsidy schemes be made


available for widows and those women are
engaged in highland cultivation.
f. Mandatory for State to take all measures
in any economical or infrastructural
investment or development in villages and
remote areas to prioritise the utilization
and development of local resources and
skills strengthening local economy and
community.
g. State ensure and prioritises infrastructure
development in remote interior areas.
h. State to take all measures to remove
military and military presence from fertile
cultivation lands of civilians.

3. Access to entitlements and benefits


Due to the loss of personal documentation, such
as property deeds, we are unable to access urgent
assistance to rebuild houses and construct safe
and adequate sanitation facilities. Further, land
ownership is integral to increasing womens
economic security, livelihood opportunities
and income generation capacity.
11

The criteria used to determine eligibility for


many assistance programmes often favour large
families resulting in women who live alone or
with one or two dependents being overlooked.
Numerous assistance programmes, such as
housing projects, place undue demands, such as
contribution of labour by the beneficiary, which
forces women beneficiaries to hire labour and
thereby increases their indebtedness.
Due to our inability to pay for infrastructure,
which should by right be provided by the
state, such as columns and wires to transmit
electricity, women are unable to obtain
electricity connections, which in an additional
factor that increases their insecurity.
The lack of transparency in government decision
making processes to determine eligibility to
access benefits discriminates against groups,
such as women headed households, that are
already marginalized.
The paltry social allowances provided by the
state are severely inadequate due to inflation
and the rising cost of living.
12

We call for:
Targeted state support to women to enable
them to replace lost personal documentation,
such as land deeds.
The provision of adequate support by assistance
programmes to enable widows to rebuild their
lives and earn a living wage.
Transparent and non-discriminatory decision
making in the provision of assistance with
adequate information being provided to
beneficiaries on their entitlements and how to
access them.
Implementation of a pension scheme for
widows that provides for a living allowance.

We propose:
ARTICLE 3: Access to entitlements and
benefits.
a. Widows have the right to pension and
family benefits and State to ensure any
bureaucratic barriers to access these
benefits are eliminated
b. State to take special measures necessary
in order to raise awareness of all financial
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and other assistance for which widows are


eligible beneficiaries and to assist them in
accessing the benefits.
c. State to ensure special procedures are in
force in relevant government authorities to
assist and expedite recovery of lost personal
documents of widows such as property
deeds and identification documents.
d. State to enforce mandatory transparent
and accountable decision making process
in the all government agencies dealing
with assistance programmes provided to
widows.
e. State to take all appropriate measures to
ensure that dependants of widows such aschildren, orphans, elderly, sick, wounded
and frail persons are identified and the
gaps in assistance are filled.

4. Education
Due to the inability to provide catch-up
education and extra-educational support,
children who have been unable to attend school,
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or those who attended school sporadically


due to the armed conflict perform poorly in
school.
A large number of children drop out of school
also due to poverty.
Schools charge students regular and numerous
donations, such as building fees, which many
children of women headed households living
in poverty are unable to pay, thereby leading to
school drop-out or feelings of inadequacy and
loss of interest in school.

We call for:
A special education allowance for children
who live below the poverty line.
Special programmes that provide catch-up
education to children whose schooling was
disrupted by the armed conflict.
Psychological counseling to enable children to
deal with the trauma of war.
15

We propose:
ARTICLE 4: Education
a. The State to ensure special education
allowance schemes for the benefit of
children or minor dependants of widows
living below poverty line.
b. Children or dependants of widows to have
special education scholarships.
c. State to provide support for child-care and
elderly-care for dependants of widows who
work outside their homes.
d. Compulsory special educational catch-up
programmes conducted in all government
schools for children whose schooling was
disrupted by the armed conflict.
e. State to prioritise and ensure provision
of special psychological counseling to all
children affected by the war.
f. In required circumstances, State to provide
financial support to widows to balance
opportunity costs in sending their children
or minor dependants to school.
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5. Nutrition and Health


The poor health status of many women heads
of households due to war related trauma, lack
of access to appropriate health services because
of poverty, and illnesses and injuries resulting
from the war prevent us from working at our
full capacity.
Many children of women headed households
are underweight and malnourished.
Even when we are ill we do not seek medical
care as we have to spend long hours at the
hospital to access health care which will result
in being unable to work and therefore loss of a
days wage.
Those of us who are displaced are not registered
in the places where we reside for which reason
our health benefits and services are restricted.
Many of us are unable to eat three meals a day.
For instance, the PMA allowance of Rs.250.00
is spent mainly to buy meat or fish for the
children.
17

We call for:
Better access to health care, particularly
reproductive health services. In the case
of the latter, we also request that our right
to be provided adequate information about
reproductive/contraceptive options and the
right to make an informed choice be recognized
and protected.
The displaced people also should be provided
with adequate health services in the places
where they reside.

We propose:
ARTICLE 5: Nutrition and Health
a. Any restriction on widows to access health
services because of the widows marital
status or poverty is unlawful.
b. Priority in hospitals given to treating
of patients who are widows and their
dependents living below poverty line.
c. Widows have the right to adequate
information
about
reproductive/
contraceptive options and the right to make
informed choices.
18

d. Any restriction on widows accessing


reproductive health services, family
planning services is unlawful.
e. Any forced sterilization treatment or
procedures conducted on widows is
unlawful and anyone who commits such
an act is guilty of an offence punishable as
aserious category of crime.

6. Socio-cultural issues
Women who have lost their husbands or whose
marriages have broken down face social
stigma and at times experience marginalization
at social and religious events. Sometimes our
clothing and mannerisms are also subject to
social criticism.
Women who wish to remarry are prevented
from doing so due to fear of social censure and
stigma. Women who do remarry are forced to
leave their children with their elderly parents,
who are often unable to provide adequate
care.
19

We call for:
Programmes implemented to raise awareness
amongst the public that we too deserve to
be treated equally and to be able to live with
dignity. Specific awareness raising to be carried
out for men on gender relations to facilitate
attitude changes.
Alimony/maintenance cases should be
expedited and an effective system should be
established to enable monitoring and followup where the man does not make the payment
determined by the court so that the woman does
not have to spend scarce resources to travel to
court, sometimes every month, to either receive
the often paltry payment or complain of nonpayment.

We propose:
ARTICLE 6: Socio-cultural rights
a. Widows have the right to enjoy equality
with all men and women, irrespective of
their age and marital status.
b. Widows shall not be discriminated against
in word or deed, either in family or private
life, or in community and public life.
20

c. Any restriction on widows mobility, even


where based on custom, is unlawful and
anyone responsible for restraining a widow
if guilty of a criminal offence.
d. A widow has the right to choose her
domicile, diet, clothing and lifestyle.
e. A widow has the right to remarry and is
free to marry someone of her own choice.
f. Any coercion of a widow to remarry
someone not of her choice is unlawful and
the person responsible for such coercion is
guilty of a criminal offence.
g. Polygamy and bigamy are unlawful and
the State to ensure active prosecution of
those who commit them in order for the
protection of a widow who has remarried.
h. All appropriate measures to be taken,
through, public education and training
of opinion leaders to change any kind of
negative stereotyping of widows.
i. No widow-abuse or discrimination may
be justified by citing custom, tradition or
religion.
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j. All appropriate measures be taken to


support widows to organize themselves
into self-help and empowerment groups.
k. Alimony/maintenance cases in courts
shall be expedited and the State to ensure
an effective system in place to enable
monitoring and follow-up of payment of
such alimony or maintenance ordered by
any court which does not inconvenience
the women.

7. Missing Persons and family members


in detention
The missing, the disappeared and those in
detention are an issue of serious concern.
We do not have the capacity to search for our
missing and disappeared husbands, sons and
brothers.
Where those in detention are concerned, we
often do not have access to legal representation
and do not have any information on the legal
status or progress of their case.
22

The compensation provided in cases of the


death of a husband is paltry.

We call for:
Information from the government about the
plight and whereabouts of our missing and
disappeared loved ones.
The release of and the expedition of the cases
of those in detention.
Legal aid for those in detention and provision
of adequate information to their families
regarding the progress of their cases.
Issuance by the government of a certificate for
the "disappeared' which is accepted in lieu of a
death certificate by state and judicial processes
for all official transactions, such as the issuance
and renewal of land permit holdings, transfer
of property, enrolling children in school,
obtaining compensations.
The enlistment of women police officers
to inquire into cases of the missing and the
disappeared since constant visits by male police
23

officers to women headed households creates


space for possible violence/sexual harassment
in addition to community gossip, all of which
adversely impact women.
Provision by the government of information
on available compensation schemes and the
processes through which they can be accessed.
Although the value of a life cannot be
measured, compensation should not be paltry
but one that reflects both the value of the life
lost and the loss suffered by the family being
compensated.
Compensation should be provided to the
families of the disappeared too.

We propose:
ARTICLE 7: Missing persons and Family
members in detention.
a. Compulsory disclosure by the State
of the actual numbers, names, status
and whereabouts of the missing and
disappeared
24

b. Cases dealing with political detainees and


those in detention under the PTA in courts
to be expedited and ensure the release of
those acquitted.
c. Legal aid to be provided for those in
detention and the provision of adequate
information to their families regarding the
progress of their cases.
d. Issuance by the government of a certificate
for the "disappeared' which is accepted
in lieu of a death certificate by all state
and judicial processes for all official
transactions, such as the issuance and
renewal of land permit holdings, transfer
of property, enrolling children in schools
and obtaining compensations.
e. Women police officers to be enlisted as part
of any investigation and search of person
and place dealing with the missing and the
disappeared in the event such families of
the disappeared and missing have female
and minor relatives.
25

f. State to make provision for compensation


schemes for the families of the disappeared
and missing.
g. Provision by the State of information
on available compensation schemes for
families of the disappeared and missing
and the processes through which they can
be accessed.
h. Any compensation for families of the
disappeared and missing should reflect
both the value of the life lost and the loss
suffered by the family.

Amara

Forum of Women Heads of Households

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vkJ gpuNjrq;fs; ,uhZtkag;gLj;jg;gl;l
jdhYk;> mq;F ,uhZtg; gilfspd; mjpfhpj;j
elkhl;lj;jpdhYk;> ehk; vkJ ghJfhg;G Fwpj;J
mQ;RfpNwhk;.
ngsjpf hPjpahd ghJfhg;gpd;ikahy; vkJ
Rje;jpu elkhl;lk; jilg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jdhy;
fy;tp njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fisg; ngw;Wf;
nfhs;tjpYk; Rfhjhu Nritfs; Nghd;w
Nritfis ehLtjpYk; ehk; jilfis
vjph;Nehf;Ffpd;Nwhk;.
30

vkf;F ghJfhg;ghd epue;ju tPl;L trjpfs;


mspf;fg;glhik vkJ ghJfhg;gpd;ikia
,d;Dk; mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.
,uhZtj;jpdhpd; gpurd;dkhdJ tpNrlkhf
nghJtplq;fspy; ghypay; td;KiwfSf;Fk;
ghypay; njhe;juTfSf;Fk; re;jh;g;gq;fis
cUthf;Ffpd;wJ.
vk;ikg; ghJfhf;f Ntz;ba flikfs; nfhz;l
fhty; JiwapdUk; vkf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw
mjpfhpg;gjw;fhd fhuzpfshf ,Uf;fpd;wdh;.

ehk; NfhUtjhtJ:
vkJ gpuNjrq; f spy; ,uhZtj; j pdhpd;
gpurd;dk; Fiwf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;>
vk;ikg;
ghJfhf;ff;
flikg;gl;lth;fs;>
cjhuzkhf fhty; Jiwapdh;> jkJ
flikfisr; rhptu Nkw;nfhs;sNtz;Lk;.

ehk; Kd;nkhoptjhtJ:
gpupT 1: ghJfhg;G
m. tpjitfspd; nrhj;Jf;fis mgfupj;J
mtu;fis tpul;Ljy; my;yJ cupj;J khw;wk;>
31

my;yJ ed;nfhil my;yJ guk;giur;


nrhj;Jupj;J %ykhf my;yJ tpjitfSf;F
Fj;jiff;F toq;fg;gl;;l my;yJ NtW
rl;lG+u;tkw;w Kiwfs; vtw;wpD}lhfTk;
tpjitfspd;
nrhj;Jf;fis
my;yJ
fhzpfisg; gwpj;jy;
jz;lidf;Fupa
Fw;wr; nray;fshtJld; Nkhrkhd Fw;wr;
nray;fspd;
tupirapy;
jz;lidf;
FupaitfshFk;.
M. ePjpgjp my;yJ Nky;ePjpkd;w ePjpauruhy;
gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;l Mizapd;wp tpjit
nahUtupd; nrhj;J vjidAk; mgfupj;jy;
my;yJ mtuJ gps;isfis jdJ
guhkupg;gpw;F
cl;gLj;Jjw;F
Kw;gLk;
my;yJ Kaw;rpf;Fk; vtUk; Nkhrkhd
Fw;wr;nray;fspd; tupirapw; Fw;wthsp
ahthu;.
,. tpjitnahUtiu cly;uPjpahf my;yJ
csuPjpahf my;yJ ghypay; uPjpahf
J\;gpuNahfk; nra;Ak; vtUk; Nkhrkhd
Fw;wr;nray;fspd; tupirapw; Fw;wthsp
ahthu;.
<. ghypaw; Ruz;lypy; <LgLjy;> mjw;F
cjTjy; my;J JizNghjy;> gyte;jkhf
32

tpgr;rhuj;jpy;
<LgLj;Jjy;
mj;Jld;
ngz;fisAk; rpWkpfisAk; Ml;flj;Jjy;
Mfpatw;wpy; <LgLk; vtUk; kpfNkhrkhd
Fw;wr;nray;fspd; tupirapw; Fw;wthsp
ahthu;.
c. ciuf;fg;gl;l Fw;wr; nray;fSf;Fg; gypah
tjw;F tpjitfs; kdnkhj;J cld;gl;ldu;
vd;gJ ,r;rl;lj;jpw;F vjpu;thjkhfhJ.
C. cly; uPjpahd kw;Wk; ghypay; uPjpahd
J\;gpuNahfk;> gyte;jkhd tpgr;rhuk;
kw;Wk; Ml;flj;jy; Nghd;wtw;wpypUe;J
tpjitfisAk;
kw;Wk;
mtu;fspw;
jq;fpapUg;NghiuAk; ghJfhg;gjw;F cfe;j
midj;J
toptiffSk;
murpdhy;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
v. tpjitfs; kw;Wk; mtu;fspw; jq;fpapUg;
NghuJ jdpg;gl;l jFjpfs;> nrhj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk;
ghJfhg;G njhlu;ghd tplaq;fSf;nfd
tpNrlkhf rl;lTjtp ikaq;fs; epWtg;
glNtz;Lk;.
V. cly; uPjpahd kw;Wk; ghypay; uPjpahd
J\;gpuNahfk;> gyte;jkhd tpgr;rhuk;
kw;Wk;
Ml;flj;jy;
Nghd;wtw;wpw;Fg;
33

gypahd tpjitfs; kw;Wk; mtu;fspw;


jq;fpapUg;NghUf;fhd cldb itj;jpa
ftdpg;Gf;fSk; cstsj;Jiz MNyhrid
NritfSk; ,ytrkhf toq;fg;gLjw;fhd
tpjitfs; ghJfhg;gplk; cUthf;fg;gly;
Ntz;Lk;.
I. cs;sf ,lk;ngau;Tf;Fs;shd tpjitfs;
kw;Wk; mtu;fspw; jq;fpapUg;Nghiug;
ghJfhg;gjw;F cfe;j mj;Jld; tpNrlkhd
midj;J
toptiffSk;
murpdhy;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
x. tpjitfs; kw;Wk; mtu;fspw; jq;fpapUg;
Nghuhy; Kd;itf;fg;gLk; tpdhf;fs; kw;Wk;
Gfhu;fis tprhupj;J newpg;gLj;jp cjTjw;F
midj;J fhty; epiyaq;fspYk; ngz;
fhty;Jiw cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs; epakpf;fg;gly;
Ntz;Lk;.
X. tpjitfsplk; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; my;yJ
mtu;fspd; trpg;gplq;fspy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;
gLk; midj;J ghJfhg;Grhu; tprhuizfs;
kw;Wk; Nrhjidfspd;NghJ ngz; rptpy;
cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs; Jiz ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;.
,jw;F khwhfr; nra;ag;gLk; Nrhjidfs;
rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhditahFk;.
34

Xs. murpdJ nghUj;jkhd mjpfhupfs;> tpjit


fSf;Fr; rhl;rpahf ,Ug;gtu;fSf;F tpNrl
ghJfhg;G toq;fNtz;Lk;.
f. tpjitfSf;F vjpuhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;
mr;RWj;jy;fs;> tw;GWj;jy;fs; kw;Wk;
mtu;fisr; RahjPdkhf ,aq;ftplhJ
jLj;jy; Mfpad cs;slq;fyhf> cly;> cs
kw;Wk; ghypay; uPjpapyhd ghjpg;Gf;fis
my;yJ Jd;gq;fis cz;lhf;Ffpd;w
my;yJ cz;lhf;f tpisfpd;w ghypay;
mbg;gilapyhd td;Kiwiaf;nfhz;l
vt;tpj eltbf;ifiaAk; ngz;fSf;F
vjpuhd td;Kiw vDk; gjkhdJ
Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.
fh. rptpy; epUthfkhdJ ,uhZt cj;jp
Nahfj;ju;fshy; my;yhJ nghJepUthf
cj;jpNahfj;ju;fshy; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l
Ntz;baij murhdJ cWjpnra;J nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.

2. tho;thjhuKk;> r%fg; ghJfhg;Gk;.


jw;NghJ vkJ tho;thjhuKaw;rpfs; kpff;
FWfpa tl;lj;jpw;Fs; cs;sitahfTk;> gUt
fhyj;jpw;Nfw;g ,Ug;gitahfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wd.
35

mjpYk; ghFghLfis vjph;Nehf;Ffpd;Nwhk;.


$ypNtiyfSf;F ehk; Nghdhy; vq;fSf;F
rpyrkaq;fspy; ehnshd;Wf;F &gh 300 jhd;
toq;fg;gLk;. mNj Neuj;jpy; Mz;fSf;F
ehnshd;Wf;F &gh 500-1000 tiu toq;fg;
gLfpd;wJ.
vkf;F ,Uf;Fk; tpidj;jpwd;fs; kl;Lg;
gLj;jg;gl;litahf ,Ug;gJk; vkJ gpur;rpidia
,d;Dk; mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ. Gjpa njhopy;El;gk;
cgNahfpf;fg;gLk; gapw;rpfs; vkf;Ff; fpl;lhj
fhuzj;jpdhy;> vq;fs; ciof;Fk; Mw;wy;
kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.
FLk;gq;fSf;Fj; jiyik jhq;Fk; ngz;fshf
,Ue;J> epue;ju tUkhdkpd;wp> tWikapy;
thOk; vq;fSf;F rhjhuz epjp epWtdq;fsp
ypUe;J fld; trjpfisg; ngWtJk; fbdkhf
,Uf;fpd;wJ.
ghij trjpfs;> Nghf;Ftuj;J trjpfs;
,y;yhikAk; vq;fs; njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fisg;
ghjpf;fpd;wd.
gytplq;fspy; ,uhZtj;jpduhy; ghhpa mstpyhd
fhzpfs; RtPfhpf;fg;gl;l fhuzj;jpdhy; vkJ
tho;thjhuq;fis
Nkw;n fhs;Stjw;Fj;
Njitahd tsq;fs; gwpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
36

gy murhq;f tho;thjhu Kaw;rpfSf;fhd


my;yJ Ranjhopy;; tha;g;Gf;fSf;fhd cjtpfs;
50 tUl tanjy;iy Fwpj;J jug;gLfpd;wd. 50
taJf;F Nkyhd ngz;fs; mtw;wpy; gad; ngw
Kbahky; cs;sdh;.
tho;thjhu Kaw;rpfSf;fhd tha;g;Gf;fs;
Fiwe;j epiyapy;> rl;l tpNuhj kJghd cw;gj;jp
eltbf;iffspYk;> kj;jpafpof;F ehLfSf;Fg;
gzpg;ngz;fshfr; nry;tJ Nghd;w ghJfhg;gw;w>
vkJ FLk;gq;fisg; ghjpf;fpd;w> njhopy;fspYk;
ehk; <Lgl eph;g;ge;jpf;fg; gLfpd;Nwhk;.

ehk; NfhUtjhtJ:
mur epWtdq;fspd; %yKk;> muR rhuhj
epWtdq;fspd; %yKk; jug;gLfpd;w cjtpj;
jpl;lq;fs; cs;@h; epiyikfisAk; gpd;dzp
fisAk; fUj;jpw; nfhs;tjhfTk;> ngz;fspd;
jpwd;fs; Njitfs; Nghd;wtw;iwf; ftdj;jpy;
nfhs;tjhfTk; ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;.
vkJ r%fj;jpid tYg;gLj;Jtjhf cs;@h;
tsq;fisAk;> tpidj;jpwd;fisAk; gad;
gLj;Jk; tifapy; vkJ fpuhkq;fspy; KjyPLfs;
eilngwNtz;Lk;.
37

re;ijg;gLj;jf;$ba jpwd;fis ehk; ngWk;


tifapy; gapw;rpfSk; mtw;iwr; nrk;ikahf
nraw;gLj;jf;$ba tsq;fs; xJf;fg;gLjYk;
nraw;gLj;jg;glNtz;Lk;.
gpujhd topfspy; kl;Lky;yhJ cs;splq;fspYk;
ghij mgptpUj;jp> tPjp tpsf;Ffs; kw;Wk;
Nghf;Ftuj;J trjpfs; mgptpUj;jp Nghd;w
cl;fl;Lkhd mgptpUj;jpapid Nkw;nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.
50 taJf;F mjpfkhd ngz;fSk; ,t;Tyfpy;
tho Ntz;bath;fnsd;gjdhy; murhq;f
cjtpj;jpl;lq;fSf;F tanjy;iy Nghlf;$lhJ.

ehk; Kd;nkhoptjhtJ:
gpupT 2: tho;thjhuKk;> r%fg;ghJfhg;Gk;.
m. Vida Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fk;
cupaitNghd;w njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fs;>
ty;yikapidf; fl;bnaOg;Gk; Mw;wy;>
Nkk;ghl;Lg; gapw;rpfs;> kw;Wk; Ntjdq;fisg;
ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F tpjitfSf;Fk; cupik
Az;L.
M. tpjitahfptply;> my;yJ ,we;jtuJ
kuzr;rlq;fpw;fhf yPT ngw;wpUj;jy; my;yJ
38

Jf;fj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk; Milfis> Ntiy


Neuj;jpy; rl;l tpNuhjkhf mzpe;jpUj;jy;
Nghd;w fhuzq;fSf;fhf ngz;nzhUtu;
Ntiyapdpd;Wk; ePf;fg;gbd;> mj;jifa
NtiyePf;fj;jpw;Fg; nghWg;ghdtu;fs; Fw;wk;
,ioj;jtu;fshth; vd;gJld;> Ntiy
ePf;fg;gl;l vtUk; kPz;Lk; Ntiyapy;
,izj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;baJ khj;jpu
ky;y ghFghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ljw;fhd el;l
<l;bidf; NfhuTk; cupj;Jilatuhth;.
,. murpdhy; toq;fg;gLk; tho;thjhu cjtpj;
jpl;lq;fspy; tpjitepiy> taJ> kw;Wk;
jq;fpapUg;NghuJ vz;zpf;if Mfpatw;wpd;
mbg;gilapy; tpjitfSf;Fg; ghFghL
fhl;lg;gLtJ rl;ltpNuhjkhFk;.
<. muR kw;Wk; muRrhuh epWtdq;fspdhy;
toq;fg;gLk; cjtpj;jpl;lq;fshtd> cs;@u;
epiyikfs;> mj;Jld; tpjitfsJ
Njitfs; kw;Wk; jpwd;fisf; fUj;jpw;
nfhz;L tbtikf;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
c. fpuhkq;fspYk; njhiytplq;fspYk; Vw;gLj;jg;
glTs;s nghUshjhu kw;Wk; cs;fl;Lkhd
KjyPLfs;
midj;jpw;Fk;>
cs;@u;
39

nghUshjhuk; mj;Jld; r%fj;jpidg;


gyg;gLj;JKfkhf cs;@u; tsq;fisAk;
jpwd;fisAk; mgptpUj;jp nra;tijAk;
gad;gLj;jg;gLtijAk; Kd;Dupikg;gLj;j
Ntz;baJ murpd; flikahFk;.
C. neLe;njhiytpYs;s gFjpfspy; cl;fl;Lkhd
mgptpUj;jpapid Kd;Dupikg; gLj; j Tk;
cWjpnra;aTk; murhdJ flg;ghLilaJ

3. rYiffSk;> cjtpj;jpl;lq;fSk;.
epyThpikahdJ> vkJ tho;thjhuj;jpw;Fk;
nghUshjhug; ghJfhg;gpw;Fk; tUkhdk; <l;L
jYf;Fk; mbg;gilahdJ. fhzp cWjpfs;
njhiye;j fhuzj;jpdhy; tPl;Lj; jpl;lq;fisg;
ngw;Wf; nfhs;sNth kyry$lq;fs; ePh;
trjpfisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;sNth ,ayhjth;fshf
,Uf;fpd;Nwhk;.
tPl;Ltrjp Nghd;w cjtpj; jpl;lq;fs; nghpa
FLk;gq;fis Kd;Dhpikg;gLj;jp toq;fg;
gLtjhy;> jdpj;J thOk; ngz;fSk; jq;fp
thOk; Xhpuz;L FLk;g cWg;gpdUld; thOk;
ngz;fSk; ,q;F xJf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;.
40

tPl;Lj; jpl;lq;fs; Nghd;w r%f cl;fl;Lkhdj;


jpl;lq;fs;> gadhspfspd; ciog;G hPjpahd
gq;fspg;gpid Ntz;Ltjdhy; ngz;fshfpa
ehq;fs; $yp itj;Nj mtw;iwr; nra;J Kbf;f
eph;g;ge;jpf;fg;gLfpd;Nwhk;. ,J vq;fsJ fld;
Rikia mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.
murhq;fk; jw;NghJ toq;Fk; tptrha khdpa
cjtpfnsy;yhk;> cjhuzkhf cu khdpak;>
ney; tptrhapfSf;Nf toq;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
ehq;fs; ngz;fs; mNdfkhf Nkl;Lepyg;
gaph;r;nra;if nra;gth;fshf ,Ug;gjdhy;
,r;rYiffs; vq;fSf;Ff; fpl;Ltjpy;iy.
kpd;rhu ,izg;G Nghd;w trjpfs; murpdhy;
nra;J nfhLf;fg;glNtz;bajhFk;. mjw;F J}z;
NghlTk; tah; ,Of;fTk; gadhspfis
nra;tjw;F eph;g;ge;jpg;gjdhy;> mtw;iwr; nra;a
,ayhjjd;ikapdhy; ehk; njhlh;e;Jk; ghJfhg;
gw;w #oypy; thoNtz;bajhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ.
cjtpj; jpl;lq;fs; ahUf;F toq;fg;glNtz;Lk;
vd mur epWtdq;fspdhy; vLf;fg;gLk;
jPh;khdq;fs; ntspg;gilj; jd;ikaw;witahf
,Ug;gjhy;> vk;ikg; Nghd;w r%fj;jpd; gytPdkhd
FOf;fs; NkYk; Xuq;fl;lg;gLfpd;wd.
41

murpdhy; toq;fg;gLk; khjhe;j cjtpj;


jpl;lq;fs; jw;Nghija tpiythrp cah;Tf;F
nfhQ;rk;$l Vw;wjhf ,y;iy.

ehk; NfhUtjhtJ:
vkJ fhzp cWjpfs; Nghd;w njhiye;JNghd
Mtzq;fisg; ngWtjw;Fhpa Fwpj;j mur
cjtpfs; Kd; D hpikg; g Lj; j p toq; f g; g l
Ntz;Lk;.
FLk;gq;fSf;Fj; jiyik jhq;Fk; ngz;fs;
jkJ tho;it kPz;Lk; fl;bnaOg;gTk;
tho;f;iff;Fj; Njitahd tUkhdk; ngwT
khd cjtpj; jpl;lq;fs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
rKh;j;jp> tWik Kj;jpiu Nghd;w jpl;lq;fs;
toq;fg;gLk;NghJ mj;jPh;khdq;fs; ntspg;
gilj;jd;ikAlDk; gadhspfSf;F mjid
vg;gbg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tJ vd;gJ gw;wpa KO
tpguKk; njhpag;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpYk; nraw;gLj;jg;
glNtz;Lk;.
Nkl;L epyg; gaph;r;nra;ifahsh;fSf;Fk; tptrha
khdpa cjtpfs; toq;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
jdpj;J thOk; ngz;fSf;F tho;f;iff;fhd
nryTfis <L nra;Ak; tifapyhd Xa;T+jpaj;
jpl;lk; toq;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
42

ehk; Kd;nkhoptjhtJ:
gpupT 3: rYiffSk;> cjtpj;jpl;lq;fSk;.
m. tpjitfSf;F
Xa;T+jpak;
kw;Wk;
FLk;gq;fSf;fhd rYiffisg; ngWt
jw;fhd cupikAz;L. ,j;jifa rYiffisg;
ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;Fj; jilahfTs;s mjpfhu
kdg;ghd;ikfs;
fisag; g Ltjid
murhdJ cWjpnra;J nfhs;sNtz;Lk;.
M. epjpAjtp kw;Wk; gpwTjtpfisg; ngWtjw;F
tpjitfs; jFjpAila gadhspfshth;
vDk; tpopg;Gzu;tpid Vw;gLj;Jjw;F
mtrpakhd toptiffis murhdJ
Vw;gLj;JtJld; ,j;jifa cjtpfisg;
ngWtjw;F mtu;fSf;F topfhl;lNtz;Lk;.
,. tpjitfsJ njhiye;JNghd nrhj;Jupikg;
gj;jpuq;fs; kw;Wk; milahs cWjpg;
gj;jpuq;fs; Nghd;w> jdpg;gl;l Mtzq;fis
tpjitfs;
Jupjkhf
kP s g; n gw; W f;
nfhs;tjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd mur mjpfhupfs;
cjtj;jf;fjhd tpNrl topKiwfis
murhdJ cWjpnra;J nfhs;sNtz;Lk;.
<. tpjitfSf;F toq;fg;gLk; cjtpj;
jpl;lq;fSld; njhlu;Gs;s midj;J mur
43

epWtdq;fspYk; mur cj;juTldhd


ntspg;gilahdJk; nghWg;Gf;$wf;$baJkhd
jPu;khdkpaw;Wk; topKiwfis murhdJ
eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
c. rpWgps;isfs;> mehijfs;> KjpNahu;>
NehAw;Nwhu;> fhaKw;Nwhu;> kw;Wk; cly;
eypTw; N whu; Nghd; w tpjitfspw;
jq;fpapUg;Nghu; milasq; f hzg; g l; L
mtu;fSf;fhd cjtpfs; toq;fypYs;s
FiwghLffs; fisag;gLjiy cWjpg;
gLj;Jjw;F cfe;j midj;J toptif
fisAk; muR Nkw;nfhs;sNtz;Lk;.
C. tpjitfSf;Fk; Nkl;Lepy gapu;r;nra;ifapy;
<LgLk; ngz;fSf;Fk; cutiffSk; gpw
khdpaj; jpl;lq;fSk; toq;fg;glNtz;Lk;.

4. fy;tp
Nkyjpfkhd fy;tpr; nraw;ghl;L cjtpfs;
toq;Ftjw;F ,ayhikahYk;> Aj;jj;jpdhy;
fy;tp ghjpf;fg;gl;likahYk; vkJ gps;isfs;
ghlrhiytpl;L ,iltpyFfpd;wik mjpfhpj;
Js;sJ. ghlrhiyf;Fr; nrd;whYk; mth;fsJ
milTfs; Fiwthff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
44

vkJ tWikepiyAk; gps;isfs; ghlrhiy


,iltpyFtjw;fhd fhuzkhfpd;wJ.
ghlrhiyfs; fpukkhf fl;bl epjpf;fhfTk; NtW
gy NjitfSf;fhfTk; gps;isfsplkpUe;J
epjp mwtpLfpd;wd. ,e;j mwtPL ngz;fs;
jiyik
jhq;Fk;
FLk;gq;fspypUe;Jk;
mwtplg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;iwf; fl;l Kbahj
tplj;jpy; vkJ gps;isfs; Nrhh;Tw;W ghlrhiy
nry;tjw;Fj; jaf;fk; fhl;Lfpwhh;fs;.

ehk; NfhUtjhtJ:
ngz; jiyikf; FLk;gq;fspd; gps;isfspd;
fy;tpf;fhd cjtpj;njhif toq;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
Aj;jj;jpdhy; fy;tp ,ilepWj;jg;gl;l gps;is
fSf;fhd tpNrl tFg;Gf;fs; elj;jg;glNtz;Lk;.
vkJ gps;isfSf;fhd cstpaw; Njitfs;
Fwpj;J Mw;Wg;gLj;jy; jpl;lq;fs; mKw;gLj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.

ehk; Kd;nkhoptjhtJ:
gpupT 4: fy;tp
m. tWikf;Nfhl;L epiyapd; fPo; thOk;
tpjitfspw; jq;fptho;Nthuhd gps;isfs;
45

kw;Wk; rpWguhaj;jpdu; gad;ngwj;jf;fjhd


tpNrl
fy;tpAjtpj;njhif
toq;Fk;
jpl;lq;fis murhdJ cWjpnra;J nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.
M. tpjitfspd; gps;isfs; kw;Wk; mtu;fspw;
jq;fpthOk; gps;isfSf;F tpNrl fy;tpg;
Gyikg;guprpw; jpl;lq;fs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
,. tpjitfspw; jq;fptho;Nthu; jkJ trpg;
gplq;fSf;F ntspNa njhopy; GupAk;NghJ
gps;isfs; kw;Wk; KjpNahu; guhkupg;GfSf;F
murhdJ cjtp toq;fNtz;Lk;.
<. Nghu; fhuzkhf ghlrhiy nry;tjpy;
jlq;fy;fs; Vw;gl;Ls;s gps;isfs; kPz;Lk;
fy;tpapy; ,izf;Fk; tpNrl fl;lha
fy;tpj;jpl;lq;fs; rfy mur ghlrhiyfspYk;
elhj;jg;glNtz;Lk;.
c. Nghupdhw; ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shd gps;isfs;
midtUf;Fk; tpNrl cstsj;Jiz
MNyhridfs; toq;fg;gLjiy murhdJ
Kd;Dupik toq;fp cWjpnra;J nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.
C. tpjitfspd; gps;isfs; kw;Wk; mtu;fspw;
jq;fpthOk;
rpWtaJg;
gps;isfis
46

ghlrhiyfSf;F mDg;Gtjw;fhd tha;g;Gf;fs;


rhu;e;j nrytpdq;fisr; rupf;fl;Ltjw;fhd
epjpAjtpfs;
NjitNaw;gLk;
NghJ
tpjitfSf;F murpdhy; toq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.

5. RfhjhuKk;> rj;JzTk;.
Aj;jj;jpdhy; Vw;gl;l csg;ghjpg;Gk;> tWik
apdhy; nghUj;jkhd RfhjhuNritfis
mZfKbahj jd;ikapdhYk;> Aj;jfhyj;jpy;
Njhd;wpa gyNeha;fs; ,d;Wk; njhlUk;
jd;ikapdhYk; vq;fsJ KO Mw;wiyAk;
cgNahfpj;J ciof;f Kbahky; ,Uf;fpd;Nwhk;.
vq;fs; gps;isfs; Fiwtsh;r;rpAld; ,Ug;gjhf
ghlrhiyapy; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.
vq;fSf;F cly; eyf;FiwT Vw;gl;lhYk;> ehk;
itj;jpa trjpfis ehLtjpy;iy. Vnddpy;
itj;jparhiyf;Fr; nry;tjhYk; mq;F gy
kzpNeuk; nrytpLtjhYk; vq;fsJ xUehs;
$ypapid ,of;fpd;Nwhk;.
vk;kpy;
,lg;ngah;Tf;Fs;shdth;fs;
jhk;
,lk; ngah;e;J ,Uf;Fk; gpuNjrq;fspy; gjpT
47

jug;glhikahy; mq;Fs;s itj;jparhiyfspy;


kUj;Jt trjpfs; kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;L vkf;F
toq;fg;gLfpd;wd.
vkf;F tWik Kj;jpiu khjnkhd;Wf;F &gh
250 jug;gLfpd;wJ. ,ij itj;Jf;nfhz;L
%d;W Ntis rhg;gplKbahky; ,Uf;fpd;Nwhk;.

ehk; NfhUtjhtJ:
Rfhjhu Nritfs; vq;fis te;jilaNtz;Lk;.
Fwpg;ghf> kPSw;gj;jpf;fhd RfhjhuNritfspy;
vit vkJ NjitfSf;Fg; nghUj;jkhdnjd
ehk; jPh;khdpf;Fk; tifapy;> Njitahd
jfty;fSld; ntspg;gilahd Kiwapy;
toq;fg;glNtz;Lk;.
,lg;ngah;Tf;Fs;shdth;f Sf;Fk; rkkhd
Kiwapy; kUj; J t trjpfs; toq; f g; g l
Ntz;Lk;.

ehk; Kd;nkhoptjhtJ:
gpupT 5: RfhjhuKk;> rj;JzTk;.
m. tpjitfs;
Rfhjhu
Nritfisg;
ngWtjw;F mtu;fsJ Vo;ik my;yJ
48

kztho;f;if epiy fhuzkhf jilfs;


tpjpf;fg;gLtJ rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhdjhFk;.
M. itj;jparhiyfspy;> tWikf;Nfhl;bd;fPo;
thOk; tpjitfSf;F kUj;Jt Nritfs;
toq; F tjpy; Kd; D upik toq; f g;
gLtJld; mtu;fSf;fhd rYif ml;ilfs;
jpl;lk; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
,. kPSw;gj;jp kw;Wk; fUj;jil tpUg;Gj;
njupTfs; rhu;e;j Nghjpa jfty;fisg;
ngWtjw;fhd cupikAk; jfty;fspd;
mbg;gilapy; njupTfis Nkw;nfhs;Sk;
cupikAk; tpjitfSf;F cz;L.
<. kPSw;gj;jpr; Rfhjhu Nritfs; kw;Wk;
FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghLrhu; Nritfis tpjitfs;
ngWtjw;fhd fl;Lg;ghLfs; rl;lj;Jf;F
KuzhditahFk;.
c. tpjitfs;kPJ tYf;fl;lhakhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;
gLk; ,dg;ngUf;fj;jilr; rpfpr;irfs;
vitAk; rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhditahFk;.
mj;jifa rpfpr;iria Nkw;nfhs;Sk; vtUk;
jz;lidf;Fupa Nkhrkhd Fw;wr; nray;
fspd; tupirapw; Fw;wthspahthu;.
49

6. r%f fyhrhu tplaq;fs;


jkJ fztiu ,oe;j ngz;fSk;> fzthpl
kpUe;J gphpe;J thOk; ngz;fSk; r%fj;jpdhy;
xJf;fg;gLfpd;w re;jh;g;gq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
rpyrkaq;fspy; vkJ MilfSk;> elj;ijfSk;
$l tpkh;rpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
fzthpdhy;
iftplg;gl;l
ngz;fspd;
vz;zpf;if vkJ gpuNjrq;fspy; mjpfhpj;J
tUfpd;wd. ,t;thW iftpl;Lg; NghFk;
fzth;fsplkpUe;J jhghpg;Gg; gzk; kw;Wk;
gps;isfSila
guhkhpg;Gf;fhd
gzk;
Mfpatw;iw ngWtjw;F ntF ePz;l fhyk;
ngUk; rpukg;gl Ntz;bAs;sJ. ,j;jifa
Mz;fis fz;L gpbf;fNth> mth;fs; jq;fs;
kidtpkhh;fSf;Fj; njhlh;e;J cjt Ntz;Lk;
vd eph;g;ge;jpf;fNth> rl;lj;jhYk; fhty;
JiwapduhYk; ,ayhjpUf;fpd;wJ.
kPz;Lk; FLk;g ge;jj;jpy; ,izatpUk;Gk;
ngz;fs; r%fj;jpd; mtr;nrhy; Fwpj;Jg; gag;gLk;
epiy ,Uf;fpd;wJ. kPz;Lk; jpUkzk; Kbf;Fk;
ngz;fSk; jkJ gps;isfisj; jkJ tNahjpg
ngw;Nwhh;fspd; ftdpg;gpy; tpl;Lr; nry;y
NeUtjhy; mg;gps;isfSf;fhd ftdpg;Gk;
Fiwfpd;wJ.
50

ehk; NfhUtjhtJ:
r%fj;jpy; jdpahfthOk; ngz;fspd; chpikfs;
njhlh;ghfTk; mth;fspd; rkj;Jtk;> Ranfsutk;
njhlh;ghfTk;>
tpopg;Gzh;T
Vw;gLj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;ghf Mz;fs; kj;jpapy; ghy;epiy
cwTfisg; gw;wpa kdg;ghq;F khw;wq;fs;
Vw;gLj;jg;glNtz;Lk;.
,jw;fhd
tpNrl
epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; mKy;;gLj;jg;glNtz;Lk;.
jhghpg;G tof;Ffspd; eilKiwfs; khw;wg;gl;L
ngz;fs; tpiuthf ePjp ngWk; tifapy;
toptiffs; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. xt;nthU
jlitAk; ngz;fs; ngUk; nryTfSf;Fk;
rpukq;fSf;Fk; kj;jpapy; ePjpkd;wq;fSf;F nry;y
Ntz;ba eilKiwfis khw;w Ntz;Lk;.

ehk; Kd;nkhoptjhtJ:
gpupT 6: r%f> fyhr;rhu cupikfs;;.
m. tpjitfsJ taJ kw;Wk; kztho;T
epiy vJthf ,Ug;gpDk;> midj;J
Mz;fs; kw;Wk; ngz;fSld; rkj;Jtj;ij
mDgtpg;gjw;F tpjitfs; midtUk;
cupj;Jilatuhth;.
M. tpjitfSf;F mtu;fsJ FLk;gj;jpy;
my;yJ gpuj;jpNaf tho;tpy; my;yJ r%fj;jpy;
51

my;yJ nghJ tho;tpy;> nrhy;ypYk;


nraypYk; ghFghL fhl;lg;gLjy; MfhJ.
,. tpjitnahUtuJ elkhl;lj;jpy; Vw;gLj;jg;
gLk; fl;Lg;ghlhdJ tof;fkhdJ. MapDk;
rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhdjhFk;. mj;jifa
fl;Lg;ghl;bid Vw;gLj;Jtjw;Fg; nghWg;ghd
vtUk; Fw;wr;nray;fspd; tupirapw;
Fw;wthspahthu;.
<. epue;ju ciwtplk;> czTg; gof;fk;> cil
kw;Wk; tho;f;ifg; ghzpapidj; njupTnra;Ak;
cupik tpjitnahUtUf;F cz;L.
c. kWkzk; nra;Ak; cupikAk; mtu; njupT
nra;Ak; vtiuAk; kzKbf;Fk; cupikAk;
tpjitnahUtUf;F cz;L.
C. tpjitnahUtiu mtuhy; njupT nra;ag;
glhj xUtiu kWkzk; GupAk;gb
tw;GWj;Jjy; rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhdjhFk;.
mj;jifa tw;GWj;jYf;Fg; nghWg;ghd
vtUk;
Fw;wr;nray;fspd;
tupirapw;
Fw;wthspahthu;.
v. gyjhu kzq;fSk; ,Ujhu kzq;fSk;
rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhditahFk;. kWkzk;
52

Gupe;Jnfhz;l tpjitnahUtiug; ghJfhf;Fk;


Kfkhf> ,j;jifa rl;lj;Jf;F Kuzhd
nraw;ghl;by; <LgLk; vtUk; rl;lj;jpd;
Kd;dhy; epWj;jg;gLtjid murhdJ
cWjpnra;a Ntz;Lk;.
V. tpjitfis vjpu;kiwahd tof;fj;Jf;Fj;
J}z;Lk; epiyapid khw;Wtjw;F nghJthd
fy;tpGfl;ly; kw;Wk; jiytu;fSf;F khw;Wf;
fUj;Jg;gapw;r paspj;jy; Mfpatw;wpD}lhf
cfe;j toptiffs; midj;Jk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;
glNtz;Lk;.
I. tpjitfs;kPjhd J\;gpuNahfk; vJTk;
tof;fk;> ghuk;gupak;> my;yJ kjk;
Mfpatw;wpidf; fhuzk;$wp epahag;gLj;jg;
glyhfhJ.
x. tpjitfs; midtUk; Racjtpf; FOf;
fshfTk; tYg;ngw;w FOf;fshfTk; jk;ik
cUthf;fpf; nfhs;tjw;Fupa cjtpfs;
toq;Ftjw;fhd midj;J toptiffSk;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
X. [Ptdhk;rk;, jhghpg;G tof;Ffs; ePjpkd;wpy;
tpiuthfj; jPu;f;fg;glNtz;Lk;. ePjpkd;wpdhy;
gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;l Mizg;gb mj;jifa
jhghpg;Grhu; epjpf; nfhLg;gdTfs; xOq;fhf
53

toq;fg;gLtijf; fz;fhzpj;J njhlu;


eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLtjw;fhd
rpwe;j xOq;FKiwffs; ,aw;wg;gl;bUj;jiy
murhdJ cWjpnra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

7. fhzhkw;NghNdhu;> jLg;gpy; itf;fg;


gl;Ls;Nshu;.
fhzhkw;NghNdhh; gw;wpAk;> flj;jg;gl;lth;
gw;wpAk; ePz;lfhyk; jLg;Gf;fhtypy; itf;fg;
gl;Ls;Nshh; gw;wpAk; ftiy nfhs;fpd;Nwhk;.
fhzhkw;Nghd vkJ kfd;khh;> kfs;khh;
rNfhjuh;fs; fztd;khh;fisj; Njbf;fz;L
gpbf;Fk; Mw;wy; vkf;F ,y;iy. mth;fspd;
KbT njhpahjjdhy;> vkf;F chpa el;l <L
toq;fg;glhJ> fhzp cWjpapy; ngah; khw;wk;
nra;jy; Nghd;w mj;jpahtrpa njhopw;ghLfspy;
<LglhJ> ehk; Kbtpd;wpf; fhj;J epw;fpd;Nwhk;.
,jdhy; gy mur cjtpfisAk; ,oe;jJz;L.
jLg;gpy; ,Ug;gth;fSf;Fj; Njitahd rl;l
MNyhrid ngWtjw;Nfh mth;fspd; tof;ifj;
njhluNth vkf;F trjpfs; ,y;iy.
fzthpd; ,wg;Gf;F toq;fg;gLk; el;l<L
xOq;fhf toq;fg;gLjy; ,y;iy vd;gJld;
mJ NghJkhdjhf ,y;iy.
54

ehk; NfhUtjhtJ:
vkJ FLk;gj;ijr; Nrh;e;j fhzhkw; NghNdhiug;
gw;wpa jfty;fis muR vkf;Fj; juNtz;Lk;.
jLg;Gf; fhtypy; ,Ug;Nghh; kPJ Jupj
tprhuizfis elhj;jp mth;fis tpLjiy
nra;a Ntz;Lk;. mjw;fhd rl;l cjtpia toq;Ft
NjhL tof;Ffspd; Kd;Ndw;w tpguq;fs;
FLk;gq;fSf;Fj; njhpag;ggLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
fhzhkw;
NghNdhh;
njhlh;ghf
Gyd;
tprhuiz nra;tjw;F Mz; mYtyh;fs; vkJ
tPL Njb tUtJ ghypay; njhe;juTfSf;F
,l;Lr; nry;Yfpd;wJ. ,J r%fj;jpd; gopr;
nrhy;Yf;Fk; vk;ik Mshf;Ffpd;wJ. jdpNa
thOk; ngz;fSld; njhlh;Gfisg; NgZtjw;F
ngz; fhty; cj;jpNahfj;jh;fs; epakpf;fg;
glNtz;Lk;.
vkf;F toq;fg;glNtz;ba el;l <Lfspd;
jd;ikAk;> mtw;iwg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;
KiwAk; vkf;Fj; njspthf mwptpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,oe;j capiu <L nra;a Kbah
tpbDk;> toq;fg;gLk; el;l<L XusthtJ
caphpog;gpdhy; FLk; g k; ,oe; j tw; w pd;
ngWkjpahf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;.
55

fhzhkw;NghNdhiuf; Fwpj;J mth; fhzhkw;


Nghdjd; rhl;rpakhf rhd;wpjo; toq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,r;rhd;wpjo; fhzp chpikahsiu
khw;Wjy;> cjtpj; jpl;lq;fs; ngWjy;>
gps;isfis ghlrhiyapy; Nrh;j;jy;> el;l
<L ngWjy; Nghd;w rfy cj;jpNahfG+h;t
nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fSf;Fk; cgNahfpf;ff;$ba
rhd;wpjohf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
fhzhkw;NghNdhUf;Fk; el;l<L toq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.

ehk; Kd;nkhoptjhtJ:
gpupT 7: fhzhkw;NghNdhu; kw;Wk; jLg;gpy;
itf;fg;gl;Ls;s FLk;g cWg;gpdu;;fs;
m. fhzhkw;NghNdhu; kw;Wk; jLg;Gf;fhtypy;
cs;NshuJ rupahd vz;zpf;if> ngau;fs;
kw;Wk; mtu;fs; vq;fpUf;fpwhu;fs; vd;gJ
gw;wpa tpguq;fis muR fl;lhakhf ntspapl
Ntz;Lk;
M. murpaw; fhuzq;fSf;fhf jLj;Jitf;fg;
gl;NlhuJ tof;FfSk; ePjpkd;wq;fspdhy;
jLg;Gf;fhtypy;
itf; f g; g l; L s; N shuJ
tof;FfSk; Jupjkhf tprhupf;fg;gl;L Fw;wQ;
rhl;lg;gl;Nlhu; tpLjiy nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.
56

,. jLg;gpy; ,Ug;gth;fSf;Fj; Njitahd rl;l


MNyhridrhu; cjtpfs; toq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. mtu;fsJ tof;Ffspd; Kd;Ndw;wk;
rhu;ghd Nghjpa tpguq;fs; FLk;gq;fSf;Fj;
njhpag;gLj;jg;glNtz;Lk;.
<. kuzr; rhd;wpjOf;Fg; gjpyhf rfy mur
kw;Wk; rl;l rk;ge;jkhd midtuhYk; Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sf;$bajhd> fhzhkw; Nghdjd;
rhl;rpakhf> rhd;wpjo; xd;W murpdhy;
toq;fg;glNtz;Lk;. ,r;rhd;wpjo; fhzp
chpikahsiu khw;Wjy;> cjtpj; jpl;lq;fs;
ngWjy;>
gps;isfis
ghlrhiyapy;
Nrh;j;jy;> el;l <L ngWjy; Nghd;w midj;J
cj;jpNahfG+h;t nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fSf;Fk;
cgNahfpf;fg;glf;$ba rhd;wpjohf ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
c. ngz;fisAk; kw;Wk; ,staJ cwtpdu;
fisAk; nfhz;l fhzhkw; NghNdhuJ
FLk;gq;fspy; mtu;fs; njhlh;ghf Gyd;
tprhuiz nra;tjw;F ngz; fhty;
mYtyh;fs; tprhuizf;FOf;fspy; ,lk;ngw
Ntz;Lk;.
C. fhzhkw;NghNdhuJ FLk;gq;fSf;F el;l
<L toq;Fk; jpl;lq;fis muR epWt
Ntz;Lk;.
57

v. fhzhkw;NghNdhuJ
FLk; g q; f Sf; F
toq;fg;gLtjw;nfd Vw;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s el;l
<L Fwpj;j jpl;lq;fs; rhu;ghd jfty;fis
murhdJ mf;FLk;gq;fSf;F toq;FtJld;
mt;tpj el;l<Lfisg; ngWjtjw;Fupa
topKiwfisAk; njupag;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
V. fhzhkw;NghNdhuJ FLk;gq;fSf;F toq;fg;
gLk; vJtpj el;l<Lk; ,of;fg;gl;l capupdJk;
mj;Jld; ,og;G fhuzkhf FLk;gj;jpdu;
mile;j Jd;gj;jpd; ngWkjpiag; gpujp
gypg;gjhfTk; ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;.

mkuh
FLk;gj; jiyikg; ngz;fs; xd;wpak;.

58

wurd ldka;d .Dy uQ,sl


ldka;djkaf.a tl;=j u`.ska fhdacs;
;=" udkj im;a ixjOk
flakah u.ska myiql
i,ikq ,enQ

jekaoUqjka i`oyd jQ cd;sl


m%{ma;sh" Y%S ,xldj
Y%S ,xldj" ia;%shg tfrysj mj;sk ishu
wdldrfha fjkia fldg ie,lS iyuq,ska
;=rka lr,Sf m%{ma;shg ^iSfvda& tl;djh
m<fldg ms<sf.k we;s ksid;a"
tlai;a cd;Skaf.a 1325 wdrlaIl lgq wd{d
mK;g iy;sl lrk wdldrhg .egq
ksrdlrKfha;a" iduh ms<sn| ixjdofha;a"
iduh f.dv ke.Su yd m%;sIaGdmkh
lsf;a" udkj jd f,i m%;spdr oelaf
yd miq hqo m%foaYhka m%;sixialrKfha;a"
n, lr iskafka ia;%S mqreI fomdYjfhau
iudk iyNd.S;ajh yd mQK wka;.%yKh
iduh yd iqrlaIs;Ndjh kv;a;= lsf yd
m%jOkh lsf ishu W;aidyhkays
w;HjYH nj;a"
59

Y%S ,dxlsl ckrcfha jHjia:djg wkqj


ia;%SmqreI
iudc
Ndh
iudk;ajh
ms<sf.k we;s nj;a" ia;%S mqreI Ndjh wkqj
lsisfjl=g;a fjkia fldg ie,lSu ;yk
nj;a" ia;%SmqreI iudcNdh wiudk;djh
r,Sug ia:djr mshjr .kakd nj;a iy"
Y%S ,xldf mj;sk ldka;d m%{ma;shg wkqj
ldka;djf.a mQK ixjOkhg yd iqn
isoahg wjYH ishu wjYH;d imqrd,Sug
wjYH ksishdldr i yd ;SrK .kakd
njg iy;sl lrk nj;a"
fYaIfhkau jekaoUqjka fjkia fldg
ie,lSj,g Ndckh jk nj;a idudcSh
yd ixialD;sl jYfhka fldka lsug"
wmfhdackhg yd m%pKav;ajhg ,la jk
nj;a Tjqka iss,a iudcfha yd foaYmd,k
jHqyhka ;=< mmQK f,i iyNd.Sug
ndOd muqKqjk whym;a fyda wjdikdjka;
;eke;a;ka f,ig i,lkq ,nk nj;a"
jdiia:dk" wdydr iy wOHdmkh i`oyd
jQ udkj whs;sjdisl jekaoUqjkag yd
Tjqkaf.a orejkag wyslsug u.mdok
jekaoUqjkaf.a o;dj fya;=fjka iuia;hla
f,i iudchgu n,mdk jekaoUqjka
inkaOfhka mj;sk kskaod iy.; yd
60

fjkia fldg ie,lSj, n,mEula mj;sk


njg ms<sf.k we;s ksid;a"
jekaoUqjka m%Odk idudcSh yd wdl
l%shdldlhska jk njg;a .egq ksrdlrKfha
oS" idu idlPdj, oS" iduh f.dvke.Sf oS"
mYapd;a-hqO m%;sixialrKfha oS yd jeo.;a
ldhNdrhla bgq lrk njg;a" iduh yd
wdrlaIdj m%jOkh lrkakka njg;a h<s
iy;sl lrka"
Y%S ,xldj ;=< ldka;djka Yd, msila
jekaoUqjka yd ldka;d .DyuQ,slhska
jk nj;a ishu m%;sm;a;s f.dvke.Sf
lghq;= yd ;SrK .ekSj, oS jekaoUqjkaf.a
oDIafldaKh taldrdYS lsf yosis
wjYH;djla mj;sk njg;a Tjqkaf.a ixLHdj
yd jd;djrK we.hSug" fjkiafldg
ie,lS yd o;dj uq,skqmqgd oeug yd
Tjqkaf.a w, idudcSh m%d.aOkh ms<s.ekSu
msKsi j;udk yd wkd.; rchka iska
yels ishu l%shdud. .kakd njg iy;sl
lrk njg ms<sf.k we;s ksid;a"
Y%S ,xldf jekaoUqjka jk wms" fuhska
bosm;a lrkq ,nk wmf.a .eg yd b,a,S
mok lr .;a cd;sl jekaoUq m%{ma;shla
ilia lrk fuka b,a,d isuq'
61

1' wdrlaIdj iy iqrlaIs;;dj


yuqodlrKh iy yuqodjka wuqj wmg
wmf.a wdrlaIdj iy iqrlaIs;;dj ms<sn|
NS;shla mj;S'
fufia mj;sk NS;sldj ksid wmg wmf.a
/lsrlaId lghq;= iy fi!LH fiajdjka
,nd.ekSug hEf wmyiq;djkag uqyqK
ug isj we;
iqrlaIs;;djfha wvqmdvql iy iar
jdiia:dk fkdue;slu ksid wmf.a ldhsl
wkdrlaIs;Ndjh ;Sj% lrhs'
yuqodlrKh iy yuqod fmkSisu iDcqju
wmj ,sx.sl ysxikhg f.dreh yels
wjodkula u;= lr fmkajhs"
wdrlaIdj iemhSu j.lSula f,i mej
we;s wh" tk fmd,Sish jeks wdh;k
m%pKav;ajfhau N+ld r olajk wdh;k
njg m;a we;'
tksidu wms fufia lshd isuq'
yuqodlrKh kj;ajkq yuqod fiakxal jyd
bj;a lr.kq'
W;=re kef.kysr m<d;aj, is, iudc
lghq;=j, yuqod ksfhdackh wvq l<
hq;=hs'
62

wdrlaIdj iemhSug ne isk fmd,sish


ia;%Skaf.a wkdrlaIs;Ndjhg lghq;= fkdlr
ish rdcldhkays fhh hq;=h
wmf.a fhdackdjka(
1jeks j.ka;sh( wdrlaIdj yd iqrlaIs;Ndjh
w' jekaoUqka mskeula" ;Hd.hla fyda
Wreufhka fyda noaolska hk ud.
hlska w;alr .;a Tjqkaf.a bv fyda
foam< w,a,d .ekSu iy Tjqkaj
fkrmd oeu fyda fjk;a kEu
wdldrhl kS;s frda wyslsula
nrm;, wmrdO ldKavhla f,i o`vqj
l< yels wmrdO jroj,a f'
wd' jekaoUqjlf.a foam< lsisjla wehg
wyslsug fyda ksYaphlrefjlaf.a
fyda ufyaia;%d;ajrfhlaf.a ksfhda.
hla fkdue;sj wef.a orefjlaf.a
Ndrldr;ajh ,nd .ekSug W;aidy lrk
fyda lghq;= lrk kEu ;eke;af;la
oe nrm;, wmrdO ldKavhla i`oyd
jrolre f'
we' jekaoUqjla Ydlj" udkislj fyda
,sx.slj wmfhdackhg ,la lrk kEu
;eke;af;la oe nrm;, wmrdO
ldKavhla i`oyd jrolre f'
63

wE' ldka;djka yd .eyeKq <uhska ,sx.sl


iQrdlEu"
n,y;aldrfhka
.Ksld
jD;a;sfha ksr;lru yd l=gkhg
inkaO" fyda wdOdr lrk fyda wkqn,
fok kEu ;eke;af;la oe nrm;,
wmrdO ldKavhla f,i o`vqj l<
yels jrola i`oyd jrolre f'
b' fpdaokd k`.d we;s wmrdO i`oyd
kaos;hka njg m;aug jekaoUqjka
leue;a; m< lr we; hkak fuu
kS;sfha oS ;a;s jdplhla fkdf'
B' jekaoUqjka yd Tjqkaf.a orejka
Ydl yd ,sx.sl wmfhdackfhka"
n,y;aldrfhka .Ksld jD;a;sfha ksr;
lrfuka yd l=gkfhka wdrlaId
lsu i`oyd rch iska iqiq ishu
l%shdud. .; hq;=h'
W' jekaoUqjka yd Tjqkaf.a hefmkakka
i`oydTjqkaf.a mqoa.,sl ;;a;ajh" foam<
yd wdrlaIdj inkaO lreKq ms<sn`oj
fYaI kS;s wdOdr uOHia:dk msysgqh
hq;=h'
W!' Ydl wmfhdackg" ,sx.sl wmfhdackhg"
n,y;aldrfhka
.Ksld
jD;a;sfha
ksr;lrug yd l=gkhg Ndckh
64

jQ jekaoUqjka yd Tjqkaf.a hefmkakka


i`oyd fkdf,a WmfoaYkh yd laIKsl
ffjoH fiajd imhk jekaoUq /ljrK
uOHia:dk msysgqh hq;=h'
t' wNHka;rj wj;eka jQ jekaoUqjka yd
Tjqkaf.a hefmkakka wdrlaId lsu
i`oyd rdcH iska ish fhda.H yd
fYaI l%shdud. .; hq;=h'
t' jekaoUqjka yd Tjqkaf.a hefmkakka
iska lrkq ,nk meKs,s yd m%Yak
uiSj,g myiql ie,iSu yd
iydhu msKsi ishu fmd,sia
ia:dkj, ldka;d fmd,sia ks,Odkshka
m;a l< hq;=h'
T' jekaoUqjka Yrh fyda Tjqkaf.a
ksjdij, is lrk ishu wdrlaIl
fidaosis lsj, oS ldka;d fmd,sia
ks,Odka legqj hd hq;= jk w;r fuu
kS;shg mgyeksj is lrk kEu
fidaosis lsula kS;sfrda f'
' rcfha wod< wldka iska jekaoUq
idlaIslrejka yg fYaI wdrlaIdjla
ie,ish hq;=h'
l' ldka;djkag tfrys m%pKav;ajh hk
mohg jekaoUqjg tfrysYdl" ,sx.sl
65

fyda udkisl ydksh fyda mSvkh we;s


lrk l%shdjka is lsug lrk ;ckh"
n,y;aldrh fyda ksoyi wyslsu
we;=j Ydl" ,sx.sl fyda udkisl
ydksh fyda mSvkh m%;sM,h jk fyda
m%;sM,h h yels ia;%S-mqreINdjh
mok lr .;a m%pKav;ajfha kEu
l%shdjla we;=,;a f'
.' ishu is,a mmd,kh is,a ks,Odka
iska i yuqod ks,Odka iska is
fkdlrk njg rch j.n,d .; hq;=h'

2' jfkdamdhka yd iudc iqrlaIs;;djh


wmf.a jfkdamdh wjia:d w;sYhskau iS;
jk w;r iD;= wkqj j.d lghq;s flfrk
nekaoa iSudjka mj;S' tn iSudiys;
wjia:dj, mjd wmj fjkiafldg
ie,lSj,g ,lafjhs' ^tk mskag
ojilg re' 1000$- isg 500$- olajd f.joa
ia;%shlg f.jkq ,nkafka re'300$- la jeks
wvq uqo,ls'&
wmf.a l=i,;d jOkhka i|yd mqyqKq
wjia:do mskag jvd fnfyka wvqh
tksidu wmf.a iS; l=i,;d jOkh
lr.;a fkdyel iar wdodhula fkdue;s
mam;lfuka
mSvd
k
ldka;d
66

.Dyuq,slhbka jk wmg uQ,H wdh;k


j,ska Kh myiql o ,nd.; fkdyel'
wdKavqfjka l%shd;aul flfrk iuyr
iajhka /lshd jevigykaj, m%;s,dNSkag
jhia iSudjla mkjd we;' Wod( m%;s,dNSka
wjqre 50 g wvq hhq;=h th wjqre 50g
je iahka /lshd ,dNS ldka;djkag
flfrk fjkiafldg ie,lSuls'
fmdfydr iykdOdr jHdmD;= yd wfkl=;a
lDIslu ukd yd iyk iemfhkafkao
f.dhkag mu Wia j.d lrk
f.,shkag fuu iyk fkd,efnhs'
h;, myiql wvqlu" tk m%jdyk yd
uka udj;a myiql wvqlu wmf.a iS;
j.d lghq;=j,g ndOd muqKqjhs'
fndfyda m%foaYj," Yd, idrj;a j.d
yuqodjka iska w;am;a lrf.k isk
neka wmg wmf.a yqre mqre j.d j,g
hEu j<lajd we;'
fufia jfkdamdhka iSud u ksid wmg
iuyrg kS;sfrda wdodh Wmhk ud.
j,g mjd wj;sK jkakg is ;sf'
tk kS;Sfrda f,i u;ameka fmu iy
67

ueofmr.g .Dyfialdjka fia ixl%uKh


u ienkau wmf.a mjq,aj,g iDcqju
wys;lr fia n,mdk ldrKhkah'
tksidu wms fufia lshd isuq'
ck;d iydhl jHdmD;s l%shd;aul lrk
rdcH wdhgyk j,g fukau rdcH fkdjk
wdh;kj,go wms fuis n,lr lshd isuq'
tk m%foaYfha mj;akd ;;a;ajhkag
wkqrEmSj ldka;d .DyuQ,slhskaf.a wjYH;d
yd l=i,;d ykdf.k ta wkqj tu
jevigyka ie,iq fldg l%shd;aul h
hq;=h'
rch u.ska l%shd;aul flfrk jevigyka
j, ldka;d .DyuQ,slhska i|yd jhia iSud
fkdmekh hq;=h'
Wia j.djkays fhfok ldka;djkag
fmdfydr iykdkdOdr yd wfkl=;a
myiql yd Kh uqo,a ,nd h hq;=h'
m%dfoaYSh wdlh fukau m%dfoaYSh m%cdjf.ao
ixjOkh yd Yla;su;a lsu wrNhd
fN!;sl ixjOkh yd wdl xajOkh
ish hq;=h'
ldka;djkaf.a fj<|fmd< l=i,;d i|yd
mqyqKq ,nd h hq;af;a Tjqkaf.a wfkl=;a j.d
68

jevlghq;= j,oS flfrk ksIamdokhkag


iar fj<| fmd<lao ilid ug ie,iq
ilia lsfuks'
h;, myiql ixjOkh" tk uxudj;a
ilia lsu" myka fhu fukau fmd
m%jdyk lghq;= ixjOkh lsu wf.S
ud. fomi muKla fkdj wNHka;rfha
we;s Ialr . ksh. olajd jHdma; l<
hq;= fjhs
wmf.a fhdackdjka(
2jeks j.ka;sh(jfkdamdhka yd iudc
iqrlaIs;;djh
w' jekaoUqjkag
wfkla
ldka;djkag
yd mqreIhkag fukau iudk /lshd
wjia:djkag" ksmqK;d mqyqKqjg yd
f;k ,eug whs;sh ;sf'
wd' ldka;djla jekaoUqjla u" wjux.H
jd;% bgq lsu i`oyd /lshdfjka
ksjdvq ,nd .; hq;=u fyda fYdalh
okjk we` we`oSu fya;=fjka wehj
/lshdfjka bj;a lsu kS;s frda
jk w;r tfia fiajfhka my lsug
j.lsj hq;= ;eke;a;ka jrolg
jrolrejka jk w;r tjeks fiajfhka
69

mylrkq ,eulg Ndckh jk kEu


ldka;djlg kej; fiajfha msysgqjkq
,eug muKla fkdj tlS fjkia
fldg ie,lSu fjkqfjka jkaoshla
yslmEug whs;sh we;'
we' jekaoUqjlf.a jekaoUqNdjh" jhi fyda
hefmkakka ixLHdj u; wehj rcfha
cSjfkdamdh wkq.%y jevigykaj,ska
bj;a lsu kS;sfrda f'
b' jekaoUqjkag yd Wia j.djkays
fhfok ldka;djkag fmdfydr yd
wfkl=;a iykdkdOdr myiql,nd h
hq;=h'
B' .udkj, yd Ialr m%foaYj, is lrk
wdl fyda h;,myiql wdfhdack
fyda ixjOk lghq;=j, oS m%foaYSh
wdlh yd m%cdj Yla;su;a lsu i`oyd
m%dfoaYSh im;a yd ksmqK;d Wmfhda.S
lr .ekSug yd ixjOkhg m%uqL;djh
oSu fjkqfjka ishu l%shdud. .ekSu
i`oyd rchg wksjdh lsu'
W' Ialr
wNHka;r
m%foaYj,
h;,myiql
ixjOkh
lsu
rch u`.ska ;yjqre lsu yd ta i`oyd
m%uqL;djh ,ndoSu'
70

3' ysl iy iqN idOk i|yd m%fYu


hqoaOh ksid fndfyduhlf.a fm!oa.,sla ,sms
f,aLK kdYu ksid" tk ksjdi iy
foam, j, whs;sh lshefjk Tmamq hkdh
bm; l< fkdyel tksidu Tjqkag ksjdi
jydu kej;a f.dvke.Su i|yd;a" tajdg
wdrlaIs; ikSmdrlaIl myiql m%udKj;a
f,i blr .ekaug fkdyelsh tfukau
ldka;djkaf.a wdl iqrlaIs;;dj hqKq
lr .ekaug fyda wdodh Wmhk ud.j,
Od;djOkh lr .ekauo wr.,hlau
we;'
fndfyda jevigyka j, idudlhska Yd,
m%udKhla isk mjq,aj,g fYaI ie,ls,a,
,efnk kuq fo;=ka fok ldka;djka
muKla isk mjq,aj,g ksis wjOdkhla
fkd,ef'
O iydhl jevigyka" tk ksjdi
jHdmD;s" w;ajev wd bls lghq;=j,
iuyr .Dy uQ,sl ldka;djkag isjkafka
l=,S f.jd jev lr.kakg hEu ksid Kh
.e;sNdjh jeula isvqfjhs' th lnf,ka
,smg jeuls'
;j;a ksoiqkla k" h;,myiql ;uka
iskau imhd .;hq;= nj md,lhka lshoa
71

ldka;djka w;rux fjhs' ,s lKq imhd


.ekSug yd ,s /yeka imhd.ekSug
ldka;dfjda fndfydag wiu;a fj;s'
fjd iemhSu we;af;kau ish hq;af;a
rch u.sks' f Ialr;djka ksid ,sh
imhd .kakg fkdyelsu ldka;djkaf.a
mqoa., wdrlaIdjg Yd, ;ckhls' ,sh
fkdue;sl Tjqkaf.a wkdrlaIs; nj ;Sj%
lrk ldrKhla nj kej; kej;;a lsjhq;=
ke;'
rch iska flfrk ;Ska .ekSj, lsis
ksoNdjhla fkdue;s iajNdjh ksidu
lKavdh w;r fjkiafldg ie,lS
isjk njg wys;lr yeS we;sfjhs'
tk ldka;d .DyuQ,slhska tu.ska fiiq
iudcfhka fldkaula isfjhs'
by< hk jk hou yd mj;sk WoaOukh
ksid rcfhka mskukq ,nk fidp hemS
ukdj j;aug lsisfia;a fkdi,k nj
wjOdrKh l< hq;=hs'
tksidu wms fufia lshd isuq'
ia;%Skau b,lal lr .;a fYaI jevigyka
ldka;djkaf.a kdYjQ fm!oa.,sl ,sms
f,aLK" bv Tmamq hkdh kej; ,nd
.ekSug jevms<sfj,la l%shd;aul h
hq;=hs'
72

ldka;d .DyuQ,slhskag Tjqkaf.a ;a h<s


f.dvk.d .ekSu i|yd Tjqkag i,k
jegqmla ,nd fok jfkdamdhka ilid
fok iydhl jevigyka l%shd;aul l<
hq;=h'
fuu ia;%Ska i|yd rcfhka ,efnk ysl
yd iy.kdOdr ms<sn|j;a" tajd ,nd .kakd
m%fYhka ms<sn|j;a tfiau Tjqka ms<sn|j
rch .kq ,nk ;Ska yd ;SrK ms<sn|j;a
kso Ndjhla ;sh hq;=hs'
jk ukdj iu.u fYaI Y%du jegqma
ukdjla o l%shd;aul lsf jevms<sfj<la
ie,iq fldg l%shd;aul l< hq;=hs'
wmf.a fhdackdjka(
3jeks j.ka;sh( ysl iy iqN idOk
i|yd m%fYu
w' jekaoUqjkag Y%du jegqma yd mjq,a
m%;s,dN ,eug whs;shla ;sfnk w;r
fuu m%;s,dN ,nd .ekSf m%fYhg
ndOd lrk kEu ks,OdjdoS ndOdjka
bj;a lsug rdcH j.n,d .; hq;=h'

wd' jekaoUqjka ysl ,nk m%;s,dNSka
jk ishu uQ,H yd fjk;a iydhka
73

inkaOfhka oekqj;a lsug yd tu


m%;s,dN fj; m%fYug Tjqkag
iydhug i`oyd rch iska wjYH
fYaI mshjr .ekSu'
we' foam< Tmamq yd y`kd .ekSf f,aLK
jeks jekaoUqjkaf.a ke;s jQ mqoa.,sl
,smsf,aLK fidhd .ekSug iydhu
i`oyd yd tu lghq;= blauka lsu
i`oyd wdo< rdcH n,Odka iska
fYaI l%shdud. .kakd njg rch
iska j.n,d .; hq;=h'
wE' rch iska jekaoUqjkag imhk wdOdr
jevigyka inkaOfhka lghq;= lrk
ishu rdcH ksfhdacs;dh;k ;=<
wksjdh" mdroDYH yd j.lSu ork
;SrK .ekSf l%shdj,shla n,d;aul
l< hq;=h'
b' orejka"
wkd:
orejka"
jeys
;eke;a;ka" frda.Ska" ;=jd, ,enQ
;eke;a;ka yd fn,ySk ;eke;a;ka
jeks jekaoUqjkaf.a hefmkakka y`kd
.ekSug yd Tjqkag iydhoSf oS mj;sk
wvqmdvq msuid we;s njg ;yjqre lsu
i`oyd rch iska fhda.H ish mshjr
.; hq;=h'
74

4' wOHdmkh
ikakoaO wr.,h ksid wOHdmk lghq;=
u. yereKq orejkaf.a fukau wOHdmk
lghq;= lvd jegqKq orejkag u. yereKq
wOHdmkh kej; ,nd .ekSf wjYH;dj
u;=j we;'
mam;a lu ksid;a fndfyda orejkaf.a
wVHdmkh lvd je we; tfiau <uqka mdie,a
j,g we;=,a lrjd .ekSf f.dvke.s,s
ixjOk wruqo,a hkd jYfhka uqo,a
,nd .ekSf is;a oeka mgka f.k we;
ldka;d .Dy uQ,slhd uy;a wiSre;djhlg
m;a f' tjka lreKq ksid orejkao" ia;%Skao
wOHdmk i|yd olajk Wkkaj msyShka
mj;S'
tksid wms fufia lshd isuq'
o;d fLdf my<ska isk <uhskag
fYaI wjOdkh fhduqlr wOHdmkh ,nd
ug fYaI ukdjlA ,nd h hq;=h'
hqoaOh ksid wOHdmkh lvd jegqKq orejkag
u.yereKq mdv kej; lshdf fYaI
jevigyka l%shd;aul l< hq;=h'
hqoaOfha wksis n,mEu ksid udkisl
jHdl+,;jkag f.dre jQ orejkag ufkda
WmfoaYk fiajd jevigyka mdie,a
ugfuka l%shd;aul hhq;=h'
75

wmf.a fhdackdjka(
4jeks j.ka;sh( wOHdmkh
w' rch iska o;d fLfjka my< ugf
cSj;ajk jekaoUqjkaf.a orejkaf.a yd
nd,jhialdr hefmkakkaf.a m%;s,dNh
i`oyd fYaI wOHdmk oSukd fhdackdl%u
iy;sl l< hq;=h'
wd' jekaoUqjkaf.a
orejkag
fyda
hefmkakkag fYaI wOHdmk YsIH;aj
,nd osh hq;=h'
we' rch iska ish ksjdij,ska neyer /
lshd lrk jekaoUqjkaf.a hefmkakka
i`oyd <ud-/ljrK yd jeys-/
ljrKhg wdOdr lsu'
wE' hqO .egqu fya;=fjka mdie,a hdug
ndOd jQ <uhska i`oyd ishu rcfha
mdie,aj, wksjdh fYaI wOHdmk
mdvq msueiSf jevigyka meje;au'
b' rch iska
,la jQ ishu
ufkdaoHd;aul
m%uqL;dj oSu yd

hqoaOfhka n,mEug
<uhska i`oyd fYaI
WmfoaYkh iemhSug
th ;yjqre lsu'

B' wjYH wjia:dj, oS" rch


jekaoUqjkag
ish
orejka
76

iska
fyda

nd,jhialdr
hefmkakka
mdie,a
hef wdjial msjeh ;=,kh lsu
i`oyd uQ,H wkq.%yh iemhSu'

5' fmdaIKh yd fi!LHh


fndfyda ldka;d .Dy uQ,slhska ;=<
mj;skdhym;a fi!LH ;;a;ajh" mam;alu
ksidu fi!LH myiql ,nd .ekSud we;s
ndOdjka" hqoaOfhka isjQ ;=jd, yd wndO
fukau udkiql .eg hkdh wmg Tjqka
iu. wmf.a uq Od;dj fhdojd Tjqka
iu. jevlsug ndOd muqKqjhs'
fun .DyuQ,sl ldka;djkaf.a orejka
nr wvq wh fukau ukao fmdaIKfhka
fmf<kafkdao fj;s'
wikSm j,g fnfy;a .ekSug hdu wm
fndfydag fkdlrkafka ta i|yd uq
ojilau .;jk ksid;a tu.ska ojil jegqm
wmg wys jk ksid;ah'
wj;eka isk fndfydafofkl=g fi!LH
m%;s,dN yd fiajdjka fkd,efnkafka Tjqka
,shdmx iskafka fjk;a m%foaY j,
neks'
wm fndfyda g ojilg ;=kaf,la
lkafka ke; wmg ,efnk jk ukdj
77

jk remsh,a 250$- ka wm lrkafka orejkag


uia fyda ud <g .ekSuhs'
tksid wms fufia lshd isuq'
wmg fYaIjQ hym;a fi!LH m%fYhka
wjYHh jejYafhkau m%ckl fi!LH
fiajdjka i|ydh m%ckl fi!LH fiau" Wm;a
md,k l%u yd wdrlaIs; l%u fo ms<smef
whs;sh yd tu f;dr;=re oek.ekSf
whs;sh wdrlaId lr uo wjYHh'
wj;ekajQ whg Tjqka oekg mxj isk
ia:dkfha fi!LH myiql ,nd.ekSug
bvlv ,n h hq;=h'
wmf.a fhdackdjka(
5jeks j.ka;sh(fmdaIKh yd fi!LHh
w' jekaoUqjkaf.a ffjjdysl ;;a;ajh
fyda o;dj fya;=fjka Tjqkag fi!LH
fiajdjkag m%fY ug we;s kEu
ndOdjla kS;sfrda f'
wd' o;d fLdfjka my< ugj, cSj;ajk
jekaoUq frda.Skag m%;sldr lsf oS
Tjqkag frdayf,a m%uqL;dj ,ndoSu'
we' jekaoUqjkag
m%ckk$
Wm;amd,k
l,am ms<sn`oj m%udKj;a f;dr;=re
78

,nd .ekSug;a f;dr;=re,;a f;dard


.ekS is lsug;a whs;shla we;'
wE' jekaoUqjkag m%ckk fi!LH fiajd"
mjq,a ie,iq fiajd fj; m%fYug
we;s kEu ndOdjl kS;sfrda f'
b' jekaoUqjka n,y;aldrfhka is lrk
j`onjg m;a lsf m%;sldr fyda
l%shdj,s kS;sfrda jk w;r tjeks
l%shdjla is lrk kEu ;eke;af;la
nrm;, wmrdO ldKavhla f,i o`vqj
l< yels jrola i`oyd jrolre f'

6' iudc yd ixialD;sl .eg


jdyl mqreIhd h.sh fyda ldidoh levqKq
fndfyda ldka;djka iudc wjudkhg ,la
lsf m%jK;djla wm ikaialD;sfha we;
f fya;=fjka wehj iudc yd w.l
isj, fldka lrkq ,nhs' fjklla
;nd wmf.a we me<o fpkh lrkq
,nkafka ksoh whqks' kej; jdy
ug leu;s whg tfia lsug fhka
miqniskafka kej; jdy jqjfyd;a orejka
hm;a foudmshka < ;nd fojeks mqreIhd
iu. f.oka msg jkakg n, flfrk
ksidh"
79

tksidu wms fufia lshd isuq'


wmgo f.!rjdka;j j;a ug bvlv
;sh hq;=h mskag fukau wfkl=;a
mqrjeishkag
fukafu
jekaoUqjkago
iudcfha tldldr ie,ls,a,la ;sh hq;=hs'
ta nj ;yjqre flfrk" ta whqka iudc
wdl,am fjkia flfrk oekqj;a lsf
jevigyka wm j;ajk m%foaYfha l%shd;aul
l< hq;=hs'
kv;a;= kvq j,g blauka i ,nd h
hq;=hs'
kv;a;= kvqj, pQ;hska jQ mska jka
uqo,a f.ug Widhg fkd tkafka k
ia;%Ska ho lr f.k tys udislj hdhq;=
ke; tk th ,nd fkdfok njg me,s
lsug ho lr f.k hdhq;= ke;'
wmf.a fhdackdjka(
6jeks j.ka;sh( iudc
whs;sjdisl

yd

ixialD;sl

w' jekaoUqjkag ish jhi yd ffjjdyl


;;a;ajh fkdi,ld ishu mqreIhka
yd ldka;djkag iudkj whs;sjdisl
N=la;s oSug whs;sh we;'
wd' jekaoUqjka mjq, ;=< oS fyda mqoa.,sl
cS;fha oS fyda m%cdj ;=< oS yd fmd
80

cS;fha oS jpkfhka fyda l%shdfjka


fjkia fldg ie,lSug Ndckh fkdl<
hq;=h'
we' pd;%hla u; is lrkq ,enQj o
jekaoUqjlf.a
tyd
fuyd
hdu
inkaOfhka jk kEu iSud lsula
kS;sfrda jk w;r jekaoUqjlg
iSud meKu i`oyd j.lsj hq;= kEu
;eke;af;la wmrdO jrolg jrolre
f'
wE' jekaoUqjlg ish mosxh" wdydrf,"
we` me<` yd cSjk rgdj f;dard
.ekSug whs;sh we;'
b' jekaoUqjlg kej; jdyug whs;sh
we;s w;r wef.a f;dard .ekSu u;
lsish ;eke;af;la iu`. jdy ug
ksoyi ;sf'
B' jekaoUqjlf.a f;dard .ekSula fkdjk
;eke;af;la kej; jdy lr .ekSu
i`oyd wehg n,y;aldrh mEu kS;sfrda
jk w;r tjeks n,y;aldrh mEu i`oyd
j.lsj hq;= kEu ;eke;af;la wmrdO
jrolg jrolre f'
W' nyqNdhd fiajkh yd nyqmqreI fiajkh
kS;sfrda jk w;r rch iska kej;
81

jdy isk jekaoUqjla wdrlaId lsu


msKsi tjeks jeros lrk ;eke;a;kag
reoaOj il%Shj kvq meju iy;sl
l< hq;=h'
W!' jekaoUqjka inkaOfhka mj;sk kEu
wdldrhl RKd;aul yxjvq.eiS
fjkia lsu i`oyd uyck wOHdmkh
yd kdhlhskaf.a wdl,am fjkia lsf
mqyqKq yryd fhda.H ish mshjr .;
hq;=h'
t' pd;%jd;%" im%odh fyda wd.u Wmqgd
olajka jekaoUqjka wmfhdackhg ,la
lsu hqla;siy.; fkdl< hq;=h'
ta' jekaoUqjka w;r iajhx-Wmldr yd
in,.ekaf lKavdh ixOdkh
lsug wkq.%yh oelau i`oyd fhda.H
ish mshjr .; hq;=h'
T' wlrKj, we;s oslalido oSukd$kv;a;=
kvq lghq;= blauka i`osh hq;= jk w;r
lssish wlrKhla u`.ska kshu l<
tjeks oslalido oSukdjla fyda kv;a;=
f.u wlaIKh lsug yd miqmr
lghq;= lsug iu;a wlrKfhka
neyerj l%shd;aul jk M,odhS l%uhla
rch iska ;yjqre l< hq;=h'
82

7' w;=reoyka jQ mjqf,a idulhska fyda


mqoa.,hska w;awvx.=f ;nd .ekSu
w;=reoyka jQ fyda w;awvx.=f ;ndf.k
we;s mqoa.,hska f.a .egj,g fnfyka
wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;= fjhs'
wmg wmf.a w;=reoyka jQ mqoa.,hska" mq;=ka
yd ifydaorhska fidhd f.k hEf Yla;shla
ke;'
fuu kvqj, kS;suh ;;a;ajhka ms<sn|j
wmg lsis f;dr;=rla fkd,efnk w;r wms
ta ms<sn|j lsis fohla fkdokafkuq' tfiau
kS;s u.ska lghq;= lsf yelshdjlao wmg
ke;'
jdyl mqreIhdf.a urKh is we;ak
Ndhdjg f.jkafka fidp ukdjls'
tksidu wms fufia lshd isuq'
rch u.ska wmg w;=reoyka jQjka ms<sn|
f;dr;=re fidhd h hq;=hs'
w;a wvx.=f isk wh kvq wid blauka
ksoyia l< hq;=hs'
tu kvq weiSu i|yd kS;suh wdOdr fukau
m%udKj;a f;dr;=re tu mjq,aj,g ,nd
83

u yd tu kvqj, m%.;sh mjq,aj,g okajd


ish hq;=hs'
w;=reoyka jQjka fjkqfjka urK iy;slh
n ms<s.; yels rdcH ,sh,a,flu
mjq,aj,g ,nd h hq;=hs' rdcH yd kS;suh
lghq;=j,;a" Tmamq mejf yd <uqka
mdie,aj, we;=,;a lsf fukau jka
,nd .ekSf j,x.= jk wdldrhg tu
,sh,a, rdcH uqdj fhdod ilia l< hq;=
fjhs'
w;=reoyka jQjka ms<sn|j fiu j,g
fmd,sishg me,s lrkakg hk .DyuQ,sl
ldka;djkag ta i|yd fmd,sia ldka;jla
me,s igyka lr.kakd fjku me,s
fihla ;sh hq;=h tu.ska wehg fmd,sia
ks,Odka yuqjkakg hkjd hhs lshka
iudcfhka t,a,jk fpdaokd j,ska ug;a"
fmd,sia ks,Odka w;ska ,ska.sl yskaikhg
fyda fjkiafldg ie,lSj,g Ndck jk
wjia:do j<lajd,sh yelsh'
jka f.f jevigyka j, f;dr;=re
,nd .ekSug bv lv ,nd h hq;=h flfia
fyda w;=reoykajQ ;eke;a;df.a ;fha
jkdl fid ukdjlska yE,a
l< hq;= ke; tmuKla fkdj j;ajk
mjq,aj,o f.!rjho fid ukdjlska
.erySug ,lajk nj wu;l l< hq;= ke;'
84

w;=reoyka jQ whf.a mjq,aj,go jka uqo,a


,nd h hq;=h'
wmf.a fhdackdjka(
7jeks j.ka;sh( w;=reoyka jQ ;eke;a;ka
iy mjqf,a idudlhska w;awvx.=f ;nd
.ekSu
w' w;=reoyka jQ ;eke;a;kaf.a i;H
ixLHdj" k" ;;a;ajhka yd Tjqka
isk ;eka rch iska wksjdfhkau
fy<sor lsu'
wd' foaYmd,k /`ohka yd ;%ia;jdoh
je<elaf mk; hgf;a r`ojd f.k
isk
;eke;a;ka
inkaOfhka
wlrKj, ;sfnk kvq lghq;= blauka
l< hq;= jk w;r wlrKfhka ksoyia
lrkq ,nk ;eke;a;ka uqodyeu
iy;sl l< hq;=h'

we' r`ojd

f.k iska ;eke;a;ka i`oyd


kS;s wdOdr ,ndosh hq;= jk w;r
Tjqkaf.a kvq lghq;=j, m%.;sh ms<sn`oj
m%udKj;a f;dr;=re Tjqkaf.a mjqf,a
idudcslhska fj; ,nd osh hq;=h'

wE' bv wjir n,m;% ksl=;a lsu yd w;a


lsu" foam< meju" <uhska mdie,aj,g
we;=,;a lr .ekSu yd jkaos ,nd .ekSu
jeks ishu ks, .kqfokq inkaOfhka
85

ishu rdcH yd wlrK l%shdj,sj,ska


urK iy;slh fjkqjg ms<s.kakd
iy;slhla rch iska w;=reoyka jQ
;eke;a;ka fjkqfjka ksl=;a lsu'
b' w;=reoyka jQ ;eke;a;kaf.a mjq,aj,
ldka;d idudcslhska yd nd,jhialdr
{d;Ska isk wjia:dj, oS w;=reoyka jQ
;eke;a;kaginkaOhla we;s mqoa.,hska
fyda ia:dk ms<sn`o uYkfha fyda
fidaosis lsf fldgila f,i ldka;d
fmd,sia ks,Odka n`ojd .ekSu'
B' rch iska w;=reoyka jQ ;eke;a;kaf.a
mjq,a i`oyd jkaos mskef fhdackd
l%u ilia lsu'
W' rch iska w;=reoyka jQ ;eke;a;kaf.a
mjq,a i`oyd ,nd .; yels jkaos yd
Tjqkag tu jkaos ,nd .; yels l%shdj,s
ms<sn`o f;dr;=re iemhSu'
W!' w;=reoyka jQ ;eke;a;kaf.a mjq,a i`oyd
,nd fok jkaosj,ska wys jQ cS;fha
jkdlu iy mjq,g oeug is jQ
mdvqj hk lreKq folu ksrEmKh h
hq;=h'

wurd

ldka;d .Dy uQ,sl ldka;djkaf.a tl;=j


86