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HWA CHONG INSTITUTION

Integrated Humanities 2009


Geography Elective
Geography of Food
QUESTIONS
1. Natural disasters are the primary causes of food scarcity in LEDCs.
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

[8]

2. The exponential growth in population is the primary cause of food scarcity in


LEDCs.
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
[8]

3. Read the exerpt below and answer the following question.


Every year, more than 20 million children die of malnutrition, especially in the
LEDCs. An international humanitarian organisation, Mdecins Sans
Frontires, is urging policymakers to pay greater attention to recent
developments in food production such as application of biotechnology so as
to overcome the problems of malnutrition.
To what extent do you agree that the recent developments in food production will
overcome the problems of malnutrition?
[8]

4. Genetically Modified technologies and products are beneficial to mankind.


How far do you agree with this statement?

8m

5. Green revolution on rice production does more damage than good. Do you
agree with the statement? Give reasons for your answer.
[8]

6. There are many people in the Economically Less Developed Countries who do
not have enough to eat. Do you agree with this statement?
[8]

7. Discuss how technological advancements in agriculture affect LEDCs such as


Mexico and the Philippines.
[8m]

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8. Fig. 2 shows the vicious cycle of poverty experienced by subsistence farmers in


less developed countries.

Fig. 2
(Source: Aspects of Human Geography)
With reference to Fig. 2, do you think that the Green Revolution can help farmers in
less developed countries to break out of the poverty cycle? Explain.

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[8]

ANSWERS
1.

HWA CHONG INSTITUTION


Integrated Humanities 2009
Geography Elective
Geography of Food

Natural disasters are the primary causes of food scarcity in LEDCs.

How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
Agree
Natural disasters such as flood, drought or typhoon when striking
LEDCs, may cause food shortage because
If the crop is totally destroyed, they would have to rely on imports or
food aid
Majority are subsistence farmers
They would not be able to afford to buy food
Disagree: Other factors that may contribute to food scarcity in LEDCs
The unequal distribution of land,
In which the government takes control of most of the land
Or wealthy farmers (as the case in Latin American coutries)
Where most farmers do not own land for cultivation
They are pushed to areas which have poor soil & drainage,
Thus affecting the quality and quantity of crops
Corruption of government:
No transparency when food aid arrives to relief the ones who are
starving
No efficient transport or network to deliver the food aid
When natural disasters occur in LEDCs, governments are less likely to
help the farmers
No insurance bought so they can claim if the crops are damaged
L1 (0-3m)
Unlimited population growth does contribute to food scarcity OR other factor
1m: elaboration of the statement only
2m: agrees OR disagrees that unlimited population growth contributes to
food scarcity, no examples
3m: agrees OR disagrees that unlimited population growth contributes to
food scarcity, with examples
L2 (4-6m)
Shows both sides: unlimited population growth contributes to food scarcity
AND other factors
4m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 3 factors) no support
5m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 3 factors) with some support
6m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 3 factors) with detailed support
.
L3 (7-8m)
7m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 2 factors for each side, (at least 4
factors) with detailed support
8m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 4 factors) with case studies

In LEDCs, when natural disaster strikes and crops are destroyed, a


percentage of population would suffer from food scarcity as they might not be
able to afford imported food. As many farmers are still engaged in
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[8]

subsistence farming or small-scale commercial farming, when natural


disasters strike their crops, most of them are unable to get assistance from
the government to recover their losses. They are also unable to compete with
the large farm owners, who would use technology to boost their production,
thus providing better quality food. The subsistence and small-scale farmers
would plunge into the poverty cycle.
However, food scarcity is also caused by the massive loss of manpower in
farms yearly; thus affecting the amount of food supply. Farmers in
Bangladesh, for example, leave the rural areas to the cities, in search of better
job prospects.
Unequal distribution of finances or land and corrupt governments also
contribute to the food scarcity in LEDCs. The president of Zimbabwe did not
manage inflation and food aid well, leaving a great portion of its population
hungry. In Niger, investment was only focused on the cities, leaving the rural
area neglected; thus without government subsidies and assistance, the
farmers were not able to cope with competition, civil unrest and destruction of
crops by natural disasters.

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2.
The exponential growth in population is the primary cause of food scarcity in
LEDCs.
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
Agree
Population had been growing rapidly in LEDCs
Therefore, food supply has not been enough
Farmers in LEDCs tend to be engaged in subsistence farming or smallscale commercial farmers
Thus they cannot compete with big corporations that plant cash crops
Farmers tend to have a big family, thus when
Food prices rise or a disaster kills their crops, they would experience
food scarcity
Disagree: Other factors that may contribute to food scarcity in LEDCs
The unequal distribution of land,
In which the government takes control of most of the land
Or wealthy farmers (as the case in Latin American coutries)
Where most farmers do not own land for cultivation
They are pushed to areas which have poor soil & drainage,
Thus affecting the quality and quantity of crops
Corruption of government:
No transparency when food aid arrives to relief the ones who are
starving
No efficient transport or network to deliver the food aid
When natural disasters occur in LEDCs, governments are less likely to
help the farmers
No insurance bought so they can claim if the crops are damaged
L1 (0-3m)
Unlimited population growth does contribute to food scarcity OR other factor
1m: elaboration of the statement only
2m: agrees OR disagrees that unlimited population growth contributes to
food scarcity, no examples
3m: agrees OR disagrees that unlimited population growth contributes to
food scarcity, with examples
L2 (4-6m)
Shows both sides: unlimited population growth contributes to food scarcity
AND other factors
4m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 3 factors) no support
5m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 3 factors) with some support
6m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 3 factors) with detailed support
.
L3 (7-8m)
7m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 2 factors for each side, (at least 4
factors) with detailed support
8m: agrees AND disagrees (at least 4 factors) with case studies

In LEDCs, population has been growing rapidly in the past years, especially in
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[8]

rural areas. As many farmers are still engaged in subsistence farming or


small-scale commercial farming, when natural disasters strike their crops,
most of them are unable to get assistance from the government to recover
their losses. They are also unable to compete with the large farm owners,
who would use technology to boost their production, thus providing better
quality food. The subsistence and small-scale farmers would plunge into the
poverty cycle.
However, food scarcity is also caused by the massive loss of manpower in
farms yearly; thus affecting the amount of food supply. Farmers in
Bangladesh, for example, leave the rural areas to the cities, in search of better
job prospects.
Unequal distribution of finances or land and corrupt governments also
contribute to the food scarcity in LEDCs. The president of Zimbabwe did not
manage inflation and food aid well, leaving a great portion of its population
hungry. In Niger, investment was only focused on the cities, leaving the rural
area neglected; thus without government subsidies and assistance, the
farmers were not able to cope with competition, civil unrest and destruction of
crops by natural disasters.

for Hwa Chong Institution (High School) Geography IHE students only

3. Read the exert below and answer the following question.


Every year, more than 20 million children die of malnutrition,
especially in the LEDCs. An international humanitarian
organisation, Mdecins Sans Frontires, is urging policymakers
to pay greater attention to recent developments in food
production such as application of biotechnology so as to
overcome the problems of malnutrition.
To what extent do you agree that the recent developments in food production will
overcome the problems of malnutrition?
[8]
Level 1: 0 to 3 marks
1. Award 1 mark if answer consists yes or no:
Yes, I agree that developments in food production will overcome the
problems of malnutrition.
2. Award 2 marks if answer consists agree or disagree to a large extent and
identify 1 development in food production:
The statement is true to a large extent. The increasing use of
farmland is an example of development in food production in the
recent years.
3. Award 3 marks if answer consists agree or disagree to a large extent and
identifies 2 developments in food production:
The statement is true to a large extent. Two areas of developments in
food production that have helped to overcome the problems of
malnutrition are the increasing use of farmland and the application of
biotechnology to farming technologies.
Level 2: 4 to 6 marks
1. Award 4 marks if answer only identify and explain 1 development in food
production without example:
The problems of malnutrition are invariably linked to the rapidly
growing world population. To feed the growing population, large tracts
of forest have to be cleared to increase the acreage under arable
lands. However, land is increasingly becoming scarce. Governments
try to counter this issue by focusing on making greater use of arable
land through the consolidation of fragmented farms. By increasing
farm sizes, higher yields can be produced because of economies of
scale. The other important development in food production is the
application of technological advances to farming so as to significantly
increase yields, especially in LEDCs.
2. Award 5 marks if answer only identify and explain 2 developments in food
production without examples:
The problems of malnutrition are invariably linked to the rapidly
growing world population. To feed the growing population, large tracts
of forest have to be cleared to increase the acreage under arable
lands. However, land is increasingly becoming scarce. Governments
try to counter this issue by focusing on making greater use of arable
land through the consolidation of fragmented farms. By increasing
farm sizes, higher yields can be produced because of economies of
scale. The other important development in food production is the
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application of technological advances to farming so as to significantly


increase yields, especially in LEDCs.
The other important development in food production is the application
of technological advances to farming so as to significantly increase
yields, especially in LEDCs. By the 1990s, food production, especially
in the LEDCs was so rapid that there was sufficient food to feed every
person in the world based on the FAO criterion of 1kg of food per day
per person.
3. Award 6 marks if answer consists 2 developments in food production and 1
problem associated with developments in food production, but without
relevant examples:
The problems of malnutrition are invariably linked to the rapidly
growing world population. To feed the growing population, large tracts
of forest have to be cleared to increase the acreage under arable
lands. However, land is increasingly becoming scarce. Governments
try to counter this issue by focusing on making greater use of arable
land through the consolidation of fragmented farms. By increasing
farm sizes, higher yields can be produced because of economies of
scale. The other important development in food production is the
application of technological advances to farming so as to significantly
increase yields, especially in LEDCs.
The other important development in food production is the application
of technological advances to farming so as to significantly increase
yields, especially in LEDCs. By the 1990s, food production, especially
in the LEDCs was so rapid that there was sufficient food to feed every
person in the world based on the FAO criterion of 1kg of food per day
per person.
On the other hand, in MEDCs, the development in farming technology
and the strong buying power has resulted in another form of
malnutrition obesity.
Level 3: 7 to 8 marks
1. Award 7 marks if answer consists 2 developments in food production (and 2
relevant examples), and 1 problem associated with developments in food
production:
The problems of malnutrition are invariably linked to the rapidly
growing world population. To feed the growing population, large tracts
of forest have to be cleared to increase the acreage under arable
lands. However, land is increasingly becoming scarce. Governments
try to counter this issue by focusing on making greater use of arable
land through the consolidation of fragmented farms. By increasing
farm sizes, higher yields can be produced because of economies of
scale. The other important development in food production is the
application of technological advances to farming so as to significantly
increase yields, especially in LEDCs. One example where land
consolidation is applied is India. In China, communes which were
once owned by farmers are being returned to them. Holding
ownership of the farms would serve as an incentive to farmers to
increase the yields of their land.
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The other important development in food production is the application


of technological advances to farming so as to significantly increase
yields, especially in LEDCs. By the 1990s, food production, especially
in the LEDCs was so rapid that there was sufficient food to feed every
person in the world based on the FAO criterion of 1kg of food per day
per person. High yield varieties seeds, like the IR8 variety of rice, the
greater use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and the use of
modern irrigation systems resulted in a rapid increase in world food
production.
On the other hand, in MEDCs, the development in farming technology
and the strong buying power has resulted in another form of
malnutrition obesity.
1. Award 8 marks if answer consists 2 developments in food production (and 2
relevant examples), and 1 problem (and 1 relevant example) associated
with developments in food production:
The problems of malnutrition are invariably linked to the rapidly
growing world population. To feed the growing population, large tracts
of forest have to be cleared to increase the acreage under arable
lands. However, land is increasingly becoming scarce. Governments
try to counter this issue by focusing on making greater use of arable
land through the consolidation of fragmented farms. By increasing
farm sizes, higher yields can be produced because of economies of
scale. The other important development in food production is the
application of technological advances to farming so as to significantly
increase yields, especially in LEDCs. One example where land
consolidation is applied is India. In China, communes which were
once owned by farmers are being returned to them. Holding
ownership of the farms would serve as an incentive to farmers to
increase the yields of their land.
The other important development in food production is the application
of technological advances to farming so as to significantly increase
yields, especially in LEDCs. By the 1990s, food production, especially
in the LEDCs was so rapid that there was sufficient food to feed every
person in the world based on the FAO criterion of 1kg of food per day
per person. High yield varieties seeds, like the IR8 variety of rice, the
greater use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and the use of
modern irrigation systems resulted in a rapid increase in world food
production.
On the other hand, in MEDCs, the development in farming technology
and the strong buying power has resulted in another form of
malnutrition obesity. For example, in MEDCs, it is estimated that
about 300 million people suffer from obesity due to easy access to
abundant non-staple food which consist a high amount of oil and fat.
Therefore, although developments in agriculture have enabled food
production increase, it has not eradicated the problems of
malnutrition.

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4. Genetically Modified technologies and products are beneficial to mankind.


How far do you agree with this statement?

8m

GM technologies are effective as can be seen from various sectors such as


food security, economies and environmental.
As an example, the technology introduced in rice planting could enhance
taste and quality in which plant varieties were developed through selective
breeding.
in addition, GM crops introduced have reduced maturation time and are
stress tolerant.
eg. The Miracle rice (IR8-enable 3 cropping a year instead of only 2)
this could help increase yields and is useful especially for famine stricken
nation like India and Africa.
E.g. Rice production doubled from 1967 to 1992 in India.
New seeds have resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides. IR8 was not
resistant to pest and diseases, thus IRRI produced IR36, which is more
resistant to pests and diseases and;
the latest being developed is IR58 also known as wonder rice which could
withstand unfavourable climate like drought.
the technology also enhance in other ways where animals or poultry have
increased resistance, productivity, hardiness, and feed efficiency.
In which also gives better yields of meat, eggs, and milk and continuous
supply of food.
the technology is useful as it improves animal health through various
diagnostic methods.
through research, GM technology are seen as environmentally friendly
where bioherbicides and bioinsecticides introduced are less harmful to the
environment.
this could help in the conservation of soil, water, and energy in general
Bioprocessing for forestry products where production can be doubled is seen
as a better way in reducing waste.
through high yield, worldwide concern on food security can be reduced. This
was evident in cereal production (rice, wheat and other grains) nearly
doubled from 1965 to 1995;
This has helped countries to be self-sufficient in providing for their own food
instead of having import from other countries.
India for example, became an exporter of food grains.
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As HYV were able to produce up to 4 times the yield of traditional varieties.


farmers could produce enough to feed their families and still have extra to
sell; which means higher income to the farmers.
will close the gap between poor and rich nations.
In addition fewer lands have to be cleared as there will be enough food
supplies to cater to the need.
Land consolidation also sees the optimum use on marginal lands
Which could have been idle due to mismanagement
However, there are many concerns related to genetically modified
technologies such food safety, ethics, environmental issues, poverty and
many others.
With the gene alteration, there are unknown risks to mankind
Chemical fertilisers and pesticides used in great amount could bring more
harm to the environment and population in general.
Although GM is beneficial, it is entirely good as poor farmers will be caught
in poverty cycle as the seeds are expensive
In addition, usage of GM varieties causes monopoly by big companies
Where these are benefit-driven companies and would neglect the social well
being of the farmers or country in general.
Eg: Monsanto being the monopoly has shown irresponsible actions to the
farmers, consumers, general public and environment
Level 1 (0-3 marks)
Answer shows only advantages or disadvantages (one-sided view)
1m- Describes on GM technologies with no specific explanation.
2m- Agrees or disagrees with at least two points
3m- Agrees or disagrees with at least three points
Example:
GM technologies are effective as can be seen from various sectors such as
food security, economies and environmental. As an example, the technology
introduced in rice planting could enhance taste and quality in which plant
varieties were developed through selective breeding.
Level 2 (4-6marks)
Answer shows both sides of explanation with other points involved
4m- Agrees and disagrees and covers at least three points with relevant
explanation and examples
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5m- Agrees and disagrees and covers at least four points with relevant
explanation and examples
Example:
This could help increase yields and is useful especially for famine stricken
nation like India and Africa. E.g. Rice production doubled from 1967 to 1992 in
India. New seeds have resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides. However,
chemical fertilisers and pesticides used in great amount could bring more harm
to the environment and population in general.
Level 3 (7-8marks)
Answer shows both sides of explanation
Points are clear with detailed descriptions on the evidences suggested are
explained.
7m- Agrees and disagrees and covers at least five points with relevant
explanation and specific examples cited on GM
8m- Agrees and disagrees and covers at least six points with relevant
explanation and case studies. Addresses the extent of agreement with
supporting details.
Example:
Through high yield, worldwide concern on food security can be reduced. This
was evident in cereal production (rice, wheat and other grains) nearly doubled
from 1965 to 1995; this has helped countries to be self-sufficient in providing for
their own food instead of having import from other countries. India for example,
became an exporter of food grain as HYV were able to produce up to 4 times
the yield of traditional varieties.

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5. Green revolution on rice production does more damage than good. Do you
agree with the statement? Give reasons for your answer.[8]
Good
HYV seeds are more tolerant of a less favorable climatic
condition
More areas that have less favorable climate can be used to
grow rice
Which leads to an increase in food production
For example, adoption of HYV rice seeds increased world
production of rice from 250mil tonnes in1963 to over
500mil tonnes in 1993.
Improves employment level
The need for fertilizers and research and development
creates new industries
Leads to creation of new jobs.
HYV seeds require a shorter growing season
Therefore, leading to the possibility of an extra rice crop
per year.
Improves farmers standard of living
Due to increase in rice yield, more surpluses can be sold
leading to increase in income
For example farmers in Punjab Indias standard of living
increased due to green revolution.
In order to benefit from irrigation and drainage works,
consolidation of fragmented farms must be present
When farms are larger, farmers are able to reap the
benefits of large scale production.
Farmers with more than one hectare of land become
wealthier, improving standard of living.
Damage
Insufficient storage space of rice
Due to inadequate facilities to store the grains.
Results in wastage and spoilage of rice
Lack of variety
Planting of one or two types of seeds means an outbreak
of disease may destroy all the crops of farmers using the
same variety.
For example, when a disease attacked an area planted
with HYV seeds in central Luzon, the Philippines in 1971,
about 35% of the rice crop was destroyed
Abundant growth of weeds
Due to increased use of fertilizers, which results in more
help for weeding needed.
Increased cost of production
HYV seeds require heavy application of fertilizers and
pesticides
Irrigation is also expensive which adds on to the cost
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Pollution of water supplies


Many areas in India depend on groundwater
Inadequate treatment of fertilizers and pesticides seeps
into the soil or are washed by heavy rain, polluting the
water.
For example, India and the Philippines
Dependence on imported seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and
machinery
Imported inputs increase cost.
Rural Unemployment
Mechanization of farm may lead to the unemployment of
farmers
Leads to social problems related to unemployment.
Level 1 (0-3marks)
Yes it does more damage OR No it does more good
Answers are too general, lack specific examples
Answers are one sided, only shows damage OR good
0m- no evidence provided
1m- at least one evidence provided
2m- at least two evidences with explanation.
3m- at least two evidences with explanation and specific examples.
Example:
No, it does more good than damage because HYV seeds are more
tolerant of a less favorable climatic condition More areas that have
less favorable climate can be used to grow rice, thus this can
increase rice yields
Yes, it does more damage, as there may be a lack of variety and the
planting of one or two types of seeds means an outbreak of disease
which may destroy all the crops of farmers using the same variety.
Level 2 (4-6marks)
Evaluates good and damage with specific examples
4m- at least three evidences with explanation and specific examples
5m- at least four evidences with explanations and specific examples.
6m- at least four evidences with explanations and specific examples
Example:
It does more good than damages to a certain extent. . HYV seeds
are more tolerant of a less favorable climatic condition and more
areas that have less favorable climate can be used to grow rice. It
also improves employment level. The need for fertilizers and
research and development creates new industries thus leading to
the creation of new jobs. However is may not be advisable as it
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lacks variety. The planting of one or two types of seeds means an


outbreak of disease may destroy all the crops of farmers using the
same variety. It may also lead to abundant growth of weeds. This
could be the result of an increase use of fertilizers, which results in
more help for weeding needed.
Level 3 (7-8marks)
Reaches a conclusion
Clear explanation with evidence of theory and what it lacks.
7m- at least five evidences with explanation and specific examples
8m- answer covers all aspects of evidences, supported by relevant
explanation.
Example:
It does more damages to a certain extent. . HYV seeds are more
tolerant of a less favorable climatic condition and more areas that
have less favorable climate can be used to grow rice. It also
improves employment level. The need for fertilizers and research
and development creates new industries thus leading to the creation
of new jobs. However it may not be advisable as it lacks variety. The
planting of one or two types of seeds means an outbreak of disease
may destroy all the crops of farmers using the same variety. For
example, when a disease attacked an area planted with HYV seeds
in central Luzon, the Philippines in 1971, about 35% of the rice crop
was destroyed. It may also lead to abundant growth of weeds. This
could be the result of an increase use of fertilizers, which results in
more help for weeding needed. Therefore, by evaluating the points
above, green revolution does more good than damage.

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6. There are many people in the Economically Less Developed Countries who do
not have enough to eat. Do you agree with this statement?
[8]
- Rate of population growth is exponential
- Mostly engaged in primary industries such as agriculture, fishery
- farming for subsistence level
- rate of population growth in geometric progression,
- for example, 1 then 2 then 3-4-5-6-7-8
- rate of food production in arithmetric progression
- for example, 2-4-8-16-32-64
- rate of food production cannot keep pace with the rate of population growth
- results in shortage of food.

Agree:

Social: cultural and religious beliefs


Example : Evident in Brazil/the Philippines and India respectively
Factor 2:
- Environmental :
Examples :
-Nigeria, a sub Saharan terrain, relatively low rainfall, poor soil conditions
- Nepal, the Himalayan Mountains, mainly nomadic herding, poor soil
condition, harsh climate, rugged terrain, poor accessibility
Factor 3 :
- Economic : low income, low GDP
- too many people, lack of educational opportunities, land scarcity for
agriculture, agriculture for subsistence purposes
Example :
- India : land fragmentation due to cultural practices of inheritance of land
when one passes away, the size of the land becomes too small eventually for
agriculture to be practiced.
Factor 4 :
- Political : Policies made by Government
- Example : Ivory Coast
- took loans from the West to establish two sugar complexes.
- to meet the national need which was subverted by European countries
- decision to produce sugar from sugar beets rather than from sugar cane,
which is more economical
- The European sugar, cheaper (though not better) was then dumped in the
Ivorian market.
- Within a few years, the two complexes had to shut down.
- Crisis took place :
- first : the debt remained and at high interest rates,
- second : farmers lost revenues;
- third : the internal market became depressed;
- fourth, people began to develop a taste for imported or dumped sugar as
against the products of local factories; and
- Fifth :poverty was intensified due to general loss of revenue to local cane
producers and the government.

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Disagree

Factor 1 : Diversification
- Example : West Malaysia: commercial agriculture with tourism
Factor 2 : Intensification
- Example : The Philippines, Luzon Region for wet rice cultivation
Factor 3 : Commercialization
- Example : The Ganges Valley: intensive subsistence agriculture, Through
Green Revolution
Factor 4 : Extensification
- Example : The Nigerian Wheat Trap
- Import of foreign wheat was costly
- replaced imported wheat with home grown wheat
- technology is involved and cost money
- investment in irrigation
- high cost of foreign exchange
- building of floor mills and bakeries
- affordability to invest in 1970s due to oil boom
- 1980s : oil prices fall and devaluation of Nigerian currency
- imports of wheat banned to save foreign currency
Factor 5 : By means of Technology
- increasing arable land through terracing, draining swamps and coastal areas
- Vietnam / Xian, Sichua, China : hills are terraced to increase surface area for
cultivation and to retain water and educe surface runoff

Case Studies:

Case Study A : Green Revolution, India


- In the 1960s, there was concern from the Indian government that the country
would not be able to grow enough food to support the ever increasing
population,
- so they put into place what was called the 'Green Revolution'.
-The idea of the 'Green Revolution' was to use technology to increase food
output
- as a result, over the last 50 years a series of changes have taken place in
farming in India with the introduction of more 'Western-type' farming
techniques.
- Brought changes in farming in India:
1. LAND REFORM
The problem: Efficient farming was difficult in India due to the many
small farms (75% less than 3ha),
which had become a product of the 'Laws of Divided Inheritance' (with
farms being split between the sons of the farmer on his death)
aimed to increase farm size, setting a limit on the amount of land the
more wealthy could own and redistributing surplus land to those
without.
2. HIGH YIELDING VARIETIES

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existing rice varieties, grew rapidly but very tall so fell over easily and
had to be grown quite far apart.
money provided by MEDCs such as the UK, USA etc. enabled new high
yielding varieties of rice to be developed, IR8.
This was shorter and stronger; could be planted much closer together,
enabling more crop per area;
had a shorter growing season and produced almost 3-4 times as much
yield per hectare.
3. MECHANISATION
rice growing is labour intensive, with many jobs to be done requiring
great human input
technology such as tractors and mechanised ploughs were introduced
from MEDCs, replacing water buffalo and increasing efficiency, reducing
the required human input.
4. Other changes bought about by the Green Revolution:
Irrigation schemes, including the introduction of electric / diesel pumps
to help ensure a more steady and reliable source of water for the new
IR8 HYVs and large scale projects such as the Narmada River Project (a
series of dams built to help provide water for irrigation of the land)
As the introduction of tractors and other 'Western' style technology was
not as successful as first hoped, Alternative, 'Appropriate Technology'
has been introduced which is suited to the local people's wealth, skills
and knowledge, for example low cost irrigation schemes etc.
- As a result, with the new Hybrid seeds, technology etc. saw an increase of
300% in crop yields;
- The overall increase in food production helped to feed the ever increasing
population with India becoming largely self-sufficient
- Increased output overall meant that some subsistence farmers had a surplus
which they were also able to sell, helping to raise living standards further.
Money raised in this was was also reinvested into the farm, helping with the
costs of machinery etc. or to buy more land
Case Study 2 : White Revolution : Operation Flood, India
- was the name of a rural development programme started by India's National
Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970.
- one of the largest programme, to create a nationwide milk grid.
- resulted into making India, a largest producer of milk and milk products,
- also helped to resolve malpractices by the milk traders and merchants.
- This revolution followed the green revolution and helped in alleviating
poverty and famine levels from dangerous proportions in India during the era.
- Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited) has helped dairy farmers direct their own
development, placing control of the resources they create in their own hands.
- A National Milk Grid links milk producers throughout India with consumers in
over 700 towns and cities, reducing seasonal and regional price variations while
ensuring that the producer gets a major share of the consumers' rupee.
- The bedrock of Operation Flood has been village milk producers' cooperatives,
which procure milk and provide inputs and services,
- making modern management and technology available to members.
- dairying was seen as an instrument of development, generating employment
and regular incomes for millions of rural people.

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3. Nigeria Wheat Trap


- Example : The Nigerian Wheat Trap
- Import of foreign wheat was costly
- replaced imported wheat with home grown wheat
- technology is involved and cost money
- investment in irrigation
- high cost of foreign exchange
- building of floor mills and bakeries
- affordability to invest in 1970s due to oil boom
- 1980s : oil prices fall and devaluation of Nigerian currency
- imports of wheat banned to save foreign currency
- Governments response was to encouraged an expansion of home production
by increasing ninefold the price paid to the farmers between 1985-1990.
- This incentive caused wheat production to increase from 15 000 tonnes in
1983 to 140 000 tonnes in 1988-1989
L1 (1-3m)
- Growth of population means insufficient food for the population or other
factor.
1m : Elaboration of the statement only
2m : Agrees or disagrees that population growth puts a constraint on food
resources with no examples
3m : Agree or disagrees that population growth puts a constraint on food
resources with examples
Example :
The rate of population growth is exponential in LEDC. Most of the people are
engaged in primary industries such as agriculture, fishery and farming for own
consumption. As these are labour intensive, most of them need help in their
farms and yet struggle with income to hire workers. Thus, they tend to have
bigger families for labour. The rate of population growth in is in geometric
progression while the rate of food production in arithmetric progression. As
such, the rate of food production cannot keep pace with the rate of population
growth, this results in shortage of food.

L2 (4-6m)
Shows both views : Growth in population means a constrain on food resources but
other factors such as
- technology through :
- diversification,
- intensification
- commercialization
- extensification
- food aid
4m : agrees and disagrees ( at least 2 factors) with no support
5m : agrees and disagrees (at least 2 factors) with some support
6m : agrees and disagrees (at least 2 factors) with detailed support
Example :

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In most ELDC, due to their cultural and religious beliefs, they tend to have
bigger families as their religion do not encourage birth control and abortion.
This is evident in the Philippines and Brazil.
Besides, their physical environment does not allow good harvests such as
rugged terrain, poor soil drainage, lack of water etc. Nigeria, a sub Saharan
terrain, relatively low rainfall, poor soil conditions while Nepal, the Himalayan
Mountains, mainly nomadic herding, poor soil condition, harsh climate, rugged
terrain, poor accessibility

These factors cause the people in ELDC not to have enough to eat.
On the other hand, this is not totally true.
Over the past 50 years, the farmers in the ELDC embarked on diversification,
intensification, commercialization and extensification that their produce is able to
support their growing population.
In the Luzon region, the Philippines, terracing is practised for the intensive wet
rice cultivation where this increases arable land.
In the past, India was unable to feed its own population. With the aid from the
developed countries, they embarked on the Green Revolution which equipped
them with enough produce for themselves and also for export. This is found in
the Ganges Valley.
Another reason for the LEDC being able to feed its population is the cultivation
of wheat in Nigeria. Due to colonialism, the foreign wheat cultivation is
replaced with that of the local grain. The locals also developed a taste for
bread. Import of foreign wheat was costly in addition with the involvement in
technology. Another expensive investment is irrigation. There is a high cost of
foreign exchange for building of floor mills and bakeries. There was
affordability to invest in 1970s due to oil boom. However, in the 1980s, oil
prices fall and devaluation of Nigerian currency and imports of wheat banned to
save foreign currency. Rewards were given to farmers who cultivate local
grains of wheat. Governments response was to encouraged an expansion of
home production by increasing ninefold the price paid to the farmers between
1985-1990. This incentive caused wheat production to increase from 15 000
tonnes in 1983 to 140 000 tonnes in 1988-1989
L3 (7-8m)
7m : agrees and disagrees (at least 3 factors for each side) with case studies
8m : agrees and disagrees (at least 4 factors for each side) with case studies

Level 3: 7-8m
7m: Agree and disagree with >2 factors to show ELDC has sufficiency and >2
reasons to
show lack with excellent examples from readings and information given.
8m: Agree and disagree with >3 reasons to show ELDC has sufficiency and >3
reasons to show lack with excellent examples from readings and information given.
Weighted and give an example with elaboration.
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Example :
In addition to LORMS answers for Level 2, to include other factors.
As most of them are engaged in the primary industry, their income is
meagre , contributing to low GDP. Too many people, lack of educational
opportunities, land scarcity for agriculture, agriculture for subsistence
purposes. In India, they have a big growing population coupled with social
practices such as land inheritance. Thus, land fragmentation becomes evident,
resulting in the reduction of the size of the land which becomes too small
eventually for agriculture to be practiced. This affects the amount of food
production.
Also, the policies made by the Government in ELCD play a critical role. An
example would be that in Ivory Coast. The country took loans from the West
to establish two sugar complexes to meet the national need which was
subverted by European countries. The Governments decision was to produce
sugar from sugar beets rather than from sugar cane, which was then more
economical
The European sugar, cheaper (though not better) was then dumped in the
Ivorian market. Within a few years, the two complexes had to shut down.
Crisis took place. Firstly, the debt remained and at high interest rates.
Secondly, farmers lost revenues while thirdly, the internal market became
depressed and finally, the people began to develop a taste for imported or
dumped sugar as against the products of local factories; and poverty was
intensified due to general loss of revenue to local cane producers and the
government. However, Governments response was to encouraged an
expansion of using local products by introducing tax reduction and incentives to
the farmers between 1985-1990. This incentive caused the local sugar
production to increase.
however, The ELDC embraced technology to enhance their crop production.
They embarked on the Green revolution.
In the 1960s, there was concern from the Indian government that the country
would not be able to grow enough food to support the ever increasing
population, they put into place what was called the 'Green Revolution'.
The idea of the 'Green Revolution' was to use technology to increase food
output. As a result, over the last 50 years a series of changes have taken
place in farming in India with the introduction of more 'Western-type' farming
techniques. These brought changes in farming in India, particularly in the land
reformation, high yielding varieties and mechanisation...

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7. Discuss how technological advancements in agriculture affect LEDCs such as Mexico and
the Philippines.
[8m]
Likely Content
Technological advancement includes inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and
irrigation
It has increased yields.
Take for instance the example of the Philippines
o In 1962, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was established in
Manila
o Helped farmers in developing countries to increase rice yields through the
adoption of HYVs of seeds
o Scientists bred rice seeds to produce varieties with improved characteristics
o Breakthrough came in 1965 with the development of miracle rice called IR8
o These rice grains ripen about 100 days with shorter growing period
o Not only that, the rice yields were ten tonnes per hectare
o The stems of the rice plants are thick and could withstand strong winds and
support large quantity of grains
o However, HYVs require certain conditions for growth
A lot of fertilizers need to be applied
Pesticides must be used because some of these HYVs are not resistant
to pests
To cultivate successfully, HYVs rely on an adequate supply of water
regularly. There is a need for perennial irrigation
Machines may be used and that would speed up the process and further
increase productivity
o With more yields, there will be more export and this means more foreign
exchange for Philippines. This will boost the economy.
o With higher income there is better standard of living
o But there are problems too
Higher cost of production because the fertilizers, pesticides, HYV seeds
are expensive
Therefore widens income gap. Because only the rich farmers can
afford the seeds, have the money to buy fertilizers, pesticides etc
Use of fertilizers also pollute the environment
With mechanization of farm activities there is a loss of work for some
farmhands and this can further widen income gap
Level 1: 1-3m
1m: General discussion on the benefits of technological advancement on LEDCs
without specific case studies or supporting details
2m: Discusses only 2 benefits with supporting details. NO specific case study
3m: Discusses only 3 benefits with supporting details with NO specific case study
Example: Technological advancement in agriculture has improved yields for LEDCs
such as the Philippines. This includes inputs such as High Yielding Variety (HYVs)
seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and the use of machines. There are many benefits with
regard to technological advancement. One benefit is to see the increase of yields for
crops such as rice. In some countries, rice yields is about ten tons per hectare.
Another benefit is that HYVs are also able to withstand strong winds and so improved
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yields as a result. With more yields, the LEDCs can obtain foreign exchange which
will benefit the countrys economy in terms of trade.

Level 2: 4-6m
4m: Discusses 1 benefit and 1 problem with supporting details related to 1 case study
5m: Discusses 2 benefits and 2 problems with supporting details related to 1 case
study
6m: Discusses 3 benefits and 3 problems associated with 1 case study
Example: Technological advancement in agriculture has improved yields for LEDCs
such as the Philippines. This includes inputs such as High Yielding Variety (HYVs)
seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and the use of machines. There are many benefits with
regard to technological advancement. One benefit is to see the increase of yields for
crops such as rice. In the Philippines, for example, rice yields about ten tons per
hectare with the use of HYV IR8 grain. This was also possible because the IR8 rice
grain also takes a shorter growing period. This will increase the number of cropping
per year. Another benefit is that HYVs are also able to withstand strong winds and so
improved yields as a result. With more yields, the Philippines can obtain foreign
exchange which will benefit the countrys economy in terms of trade.
Technological advancement also brings about problems. The seeds of HYVs are
expensive and to upkeep the farm there is high capital costs. Money is needed to buy
fertilizers and pesticides. To poorer farmers in the Philippines, this will only add to
their burden. As a result widens the income gap between the rich farmers and the
poor farmers. A widen income gap is not good for the Philippines because over time,
this income disparity can become a political issue.

Level 3: 7-8m
7m: Discusses 3 benefits and 3 problems associated with 1 case study. Also the extent
to which these benefits can be enhanced or problems minimized
8m: Discusses 3 benefits and 3 problems associated with 1 case study. Also discusses
the extent to which these benefits can be enhanced or problems minimized. Pin points
ONE factor that is vital to reducing impact and enhances the benefit of technological
advancement in LEDcs agriculture development.
Example: Technological advancement in agriculture has improved yields for LEDCs
such as the Philippines. This includes inputs such as High Yielding Variety (HYVs)
seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and the use of machines. There are many benefits with
regard to technological advancement. One benefit is to see the increase of yields for
crops such as rice. In the Philippines, for example, rice yields about ten tons per
hectare with the use of HYV IR8 grain. This was also possible because the IR8 rice
grain also takes a shorter growing period. This will increase the number of cropping
per year. Another benefit is that HYVs are also able to withstand strong winds and
so improved yields as a result. With more yields, the Philippines can obtain foreign
exchange which will benefit the countrys economy in terms of trade.
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Technological advancement also brings about problems. The seeds of HYVs are
expensive and to upkeep the farm there is high capital costs. Money is needed to buy
fertilizers and pesticides. To poorer farmers in the Philippines, this will only add to
their burden. As a result widens the income gap between the rich farmers and the
poor farmers. A widen income gap is not good for the Philippines because over time,
this income disparity can become a political issue.
Having weighed the pros and cons of technological advancement in agriculture in
LEDCs, it is clear that the benefits outweigh the problems. Thus it is up to the
government to manage the tool to improving agriculture growth in a country. With
better monitoring systems and encouraging cooperatives to form within the farming
community, the problems may be solved as a community. As such minimize the impact
of the problems technological advances have on the farming community.

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8.Fig. 2 shows the vicious cycle of poverty experienced by subsistence farmers in less
developed countries.

Fig. 2
(Source: Aspects of Human Geography)
With reference to Fig. 2, do you think that the Green Revolution can help farmers in
less developed countries to break out of the poverty cycle? Explain.
[8]
Level 1 (0 3m)
One sided answer argues the use of technology can help farmers break out of the
poverty cycle
o One reason 1m
o Two to three reasons 2 to 3m
The use of high yielding varieties, together with chemical fertilizers and irrigation
help to increase farm yields. In India, wheat production increased from 10 million tonnes
in 1968 to 73 million tonnes in 2006. There is now less reliance on the unpredictable
environmental factors for the success of their crops, enable farmers to feed
themselves and their families. As a result of Green Revolution, the percentage of the
malnourished people in India fell from 39% in 1970 to 20% in 2001. The steady income
allows them to pay rent to their landowners and extra crops can be sold for cash. This
extra income can help them further improve their farming practices such as buying
machinery, fertilizers, and pesticides or to install irrigation facilities.

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Level 2 (4 6m)
Two sided answers argues GR can help farmers and also otherwise
o 4m at least 3 reasons (not well-elaborated)
o 5m at least 3 reasons (well-elaborated)
o 6m at least 4 reasons (well-elaborated)
The use of high yielding varieties, together with chemical fertilizers and irrigation
help to increase farm yields. In India, wheat production increased from 10 million tonnes
in 1968 to 73 million tonnes in 2006. There is now less reliance on the unpredictable
environmental factors for the success of their crops, enable farmers to feed
themselves and their families. As a result of Green Revolution, the percentage of the
malnourished people in India fell from 39% in 1970 to 20% in 2001. The steady income
allows them to pay rent to their landowners and extra crops can be sold for cash. This
extra income can help them further improve their farming practices such as buying
machinery, fertilizers, and pesticides or to install irrigation facilities.
However, not all farmers can benefit from these technological advances as they
may not have the capital to invest in the high yielding seeds and other inputs such as
chemical fertilizers and irrigation. Therefore, only the richer farmers benefit from using
technology in farming. As the farmers do not have much education, they may not know
how to operate the machinery effectively or use the appropriate chemicals correctly. This
can lead to over-application of fertilizers and over-irrigation, causing environmental
degradation like fresh and groundwater pollution. This in turn will destroy the soil nutrients
in the farm and leading to low yields. In India, 4 million hectares of soils have become
infertile as a result of a build-up of salt due to irrigation.

Level 3 (7 8m)
Two sided answers argues GR can help farmers and also otherwise
o L2/6m + specific examples/references from case studies
o One to two examples/references 7m
o Three to four examples/references 8m
To a large extent, technological advances in food production can help farmers
break out of the poverty cycle.
The use of high yielding varieties, together with chemical fertilizers and irrigation
help to increase farm yields. In India, wheat production increased from 10 million tonnes
in 1968 to 73 million tonnes in 2006. There is now less reliance on the unpredictable
environmental factors for the success of their crops, enable farmers to feed
themselves and their families. As a result of Green Revolution, the percentage of the
malnourished people in India fell from 39% in 1970 to 20% in 2001. The steady income
allows them to pay rent to their landowners and extra crops can be sold for cash. This
extra income can help them further improve their farming practices such as buying
machinery, fertilizers, and pesticides or to install irrigation facilities.
Land consolidation can also take place with small fragmented farms combined
together to form a larger farms so as to reap economies of scale in the farming processes.
This implies that the issue of land ownership is resolved and the farmers no longer have to
be at the mercies of their landlords.

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However, not all farmers can benefit from these technological advances as they
may not have the capital to invest in the high yielding seeds and other inputs such as
chemical fertilizers and irrigation. Therefore, only the richer farmers benefit from using
technology in farming. As the farmers do not have much education, they may not know
how to operate the machinery effectively or use the appropriate chemicals correctly. This
can lead to over-application of fertilizers and over-irrigation, causing environmental
degradation like fresh and groundwater pollution. This in turn will destroy the soil nutrients
in the farm and leading to low yields. In India, 4 million hectares of soils have become
infertile as a result of a build-up of salt due to irrigation.

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