You are on page 1of 18

SOURCES OF POWER PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

ELECTRICITY
The gross electricity consumption in Turkey in 2012 was 242,4 billion kWh, while this figure
rose by 1,3% in 2013, reaching 245,5 billion kWh. At the same time our electricity output fell by
0,1% when compared to the previous year (239,5 billion kWh) to 239,3 billion kWh.
According to the highly probable scenario of an increase of 6,9% to 392 TWh in the base scenario,
electricity consumption in the year 2020 is expected to rise by 5,5% to 357,4 TWh. In 2013, power
plants containing a total of 6.985 MW additional capacity were added to the system, and our capacity
has risen to around 64.044 MW.
43,8% of our electricity output in 2013 cane from natural gas, 24,5% from coal, 24,8% from
hydraulic energy, %2 from liquid fuels, and 4% from renewable sources.
As of the end of 2013, EAS (electricity generating company) had a share of 37,1%, the generation
companies 42,8%, the build and operate companies 9,5%, the auto-producers 5,4%, the buildoperate-transfer plants 3,6%, and the plants whose operation rights have been transferred 1,5% of the
installed capacity within Turkey. In line with the aim of liberalising the electricity market, it has been set
forth that new generation investments be carried out by the private sector, in accordance with the
Legislation numbered 4628 and the new Electricity Market Legislation numbered 6446. Almost 29.474
MW of the 32.198 MW which has become operational in the last two years comes from the plants built
by the private sector. In 2013, power plants containing a total of 6.985 MW additional capacity were
added to the system, and of this 6.821 MW comes from the plants built by the private sector. The
breakdown of the generation plants which have been taken into operation as part of this total of 6.985
MW installed capacity, is as follows:
- 4 ( 148,6 MW) geothermal,
-11 (499,1 MW) wind,
-86 (2679,6 MW) hydraulic,
-10 (78,4 MW) landfill gas and biogas
-29 (3578,9 MW) thermal plants.
It is aimed that a transparent and competitive market be formed in the electricity sector, and that the
environment for investment be developed in this way. Within this scope, the efforts to establish EPIAS
(Electricity Markets Operating Corporation) are continuing.

PETROL
Petrol is a very complex component, comprised primarily of hydrogen and carbon, as well as
small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Under normal conditions it can be found in
gaseous, liquid and solid form. In order to be able to differentiate petrol which is in the form of
gas from gases which have been manufactured, it is generally known as natural gas. As the
principal components of crude oil and natural gas are hydrogen and carbon, these are also
known as hydrocarbons.

The documented petrol reserves throughout the world rose by 7,7% in 2012, from 1.520 billion barrels
to 1.637 billion barrels.
While the amount of petrol reserves in the world in 2011 rose by 7,7%, together with the impact of
petrol production, which did not increase by as much, the lifespan of world petrol reserves rose from
44,8 years in 2011, to 48,8 years in 2012. Crude oil, which has a strategic position among primary
sources of energy, has met 33,1% of the world energy demand as of the beginning of 2012.
102 billion tonnes (57%) of the petrol reserves are in Middle Eastern countries, 16,7 billion tonnes
(9%) are in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and 16,9 billion tonnes (10%)
are in Africa. The world trade in petrol fell between 2008-2010, but is showing a rising trend since
2010. While the production of petrol throughout the world reached 90,9 million barrels/day in 2012, it is
expected that in the year 2030 the biggest petrol importers in the world will be China and Europe.
America, which is currently the largest petrol importer in the world, is expected to be replaced in this
position by China in 2017, and the petrol imports of China, which are supported by the economic
growth of the country, are expected to make it less dependent on petrol than Europe.
Approximately 72% of the worlds producible petrol and natural gas reserves are situated in
geographical regions which are close to or country. With its geo-politic position, Turkey neighbours
countries possessing three quarters of the worlds petrol and natural gas reserves, is participating in
numerous very important projects as a natural Energy Corridor between the energy rich Caspian,
Central Asian and Middle Eastern countries and the consumer markets in Europe, and providing
support to the said projects. It is expected that a significant portion of the demand for primary energy,
which is expected to rise by 40% by the year 2030, will be met from the sources located in the region
we are located in.
The oldest pipeline in Turkey is the Iraq Turkey Crude Oil Pipeline which carries the petrol from
Kirkuk in Northern Iraq to the West. The quantity of crude oil transported by the pipeline reached 305
million barrels in 1999, but fell to 10.9 billion barrels in 2006, due to the sabotages which took place,
and the difficulties experienced in Kirkuk. In 2009 23,3 million tonnes (165 million barrels) of crude oil
was transported through this pipeline. Another pipeline which transports petrol is the Baku Tbilisi
Ceyhan (BTC) Crude Oil Pipeline, which went into operation on 28 May 2006. On 22 June 2008, the
daily transport capacity of the pipeline reached 1 million barrels, and, as a result of the endeavours to
ensure that more petrol is transported through the pipeline, in 2009 this quantity rose to 1,2 million
barrels a day.
In 2012 a total of 2,3 million tonnes of petrol was produced, and until today a total of 140,2
million tonnes of petrol has been produced.
The domestic producible petrol reserves in 2012 were 294,8 million barrels (43,2 million tonnes), and
unless there are any new discoveries, the lifespan of the total domestic crude oil reserves is 18,5
years, based on todays production levels. In 2012, 9% of the demand for crude oil was met through
domestic production, while in natural gas this figure was 1,6%.
From the year petrol exploration began in our country to the end of 2009, 1.424 exploration wells and
1.808 production, injection and development wells had been opened, and 23 natural gas fields and
102 oil fields, of various sizes, had been discovered.
In 2012, 55,50 person/months geological of field work, and 44,46 team/months of geophysical field
work was undertaken in our country, a total of 158 wells 82 exploration wells, 24 detection wells, 51
production wells and 1 reconnaissance well were opened, and 298.442 meters of drilling was carried
out.
The fall in production costs in parallel to the rise in petrol and natural gas prices and the advancing
technology, has turned the Black Sea Basin into the focal point of petrol companies. Within this
framework, the total number of seismic programmes carried out by the Trkiye Petrolleri Anonim

Sirketi (TPAO) on the seas in the last 8 years, is higher than the total number seismic programmes
carried out on sea in its 58 year history.
Within the scope of activities directed at meeting the ever increasing demand for petrol and natural
gas from domestic sources, the studies being carried out in the basins of our country, which have not
been sufficiently explored, and in particular on the sea in the Black Sea and Mediterranean areas,
have gained great momentum. Due to the possibilities of drilling in areas where water is very deep
(1.000 2.000 m) as a result of the advances in drilling technology in recent years, and the
appearance of production possibilities, the structure of hydrocarbons exploration in our seas has been
established at pace. In particular, between 2004 and 2011, close to 64.000 km 2B and 14.000 km2 3B
seismic studies were carried out by TPAO, and important findings were made concerning the
hydrocarbons potential of the region. In the Mediterranean (off the coast of Iskenderun, Cyprus,
Mersin and Antalya), close to 20.000 km 2B and 2.500 km2 3B seismic and geological studies were
carried out between 2005 and 2011, and important steps were taken in the direction of determining the
hydrocarbons potential of the region.
On the other hand, it is planned that the efforts directed at searching for and producing shale gas,
which has re-shaped the dynamics in the natural gas markets throughout the whole world, be
undertaken in the South-Eastern Anatolian region. Apart from the South-Eastern Anatolian region, it is
also believed that there are significant amounts of available shale gas in the Hamitabat and Mezdere
areas of the Thracian region, which have yet to be taken into the scope of the operating agreement,
but which may be put on the agenda in the coming period.

NATURAL GAS
Natural gas is a gas which is lighter than air, colourless and odourless. It is found beneath the
ground, near petrol. It is brought up to the surface in the same way as petrol, and then
transported with large pipelines.
76 trillion cubic-meters of the natural gas reserves (41%) are located in Middle Eastern countries, with
59 trillion cubic-meters (33%) in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 31 trillion
cubic-meters (17%) in the Africa / Asia Pacific countries.
As of the end of 2012, our remaining producible natural gas reserves were 6,8 billion m3. Our
installed capacity using natural gas for the generation of electricity as of the end of 2013 was
20.268 MW, and this value meets 31,6 percent of our total installed capacity.
According to the studies on the natural gas supply-demand balances, there are no issues concerning
the meeting of the annual natural gas demand. However, during the winter months, when demand is
high, the fall of temperatures to levels below seasonal norms, and as a result the rise of consumption
to maximum levels, and any faults in the source countries or countries en-route during the same
period, can lead to periodic imbalances between supply and demand. Within this framework, the
putting into operation of the Silivri natural gas storage facility, which has a total capacity of 2,6 billion
m3, has been considerably beneficial in terms of ensuring the seasonal supply demand balance and
safety of supply. Further, within the scope of the Tuz Gl (Salt Lake) Natural Gas Underground
Storage Project, the construction of which is currently continuing, the plan is to reach a capacity of 500
million m3 working gas capacity when the first phase is completed in 2016, and 1 billion m3 working
gas capacity when the second phase is completed in 2019. When the project is completed a maximum
of 40 million m3 of natural gas will be able to be distributed to the Turkish natural gas network per day.
The Baku Tbilisi Erzurum (BTE) Natural Gas Pipeline (the Shah Deniz Project), the objective of
which is the transportation of the gas resources of the Caspian region to our country and to Europe,

has gone into operation, and began to ship natural gas from July 2007. With the Turkey Greece
Natural Gas, which was taken into operation in November 2007, the interconnection of the natural gas
transmission network of our country with the infrastructure of neighbouring countries was realised, and
our country became a supply bridge for natural gas. On the other hand, a partnership agreement has
been signed in connection with participation in the TANAP project, which will carry Caspian natural
gas to Europe, and work has begun on the project.
The potential of Iraq, which possesses significant reserves of natural gas, continues its importance,
both in terms of the needs of our country being met from a different source, and in terms of our
international projects. The developments in Iraq are being monitored within this framework.
Other than this in our country: Domestic petrol and natural gas search and production activities will
continue to be prioritised, and protect their importance.
Strategic importance will be placed on the passage of project directed at the transportation of natural
gas to Europe, in order for the increasing natural gas demand of Europe to be met from the resources
in our region.
Our policies directed at our country becoming a natural gas hub in the medium and long term will be
continued with persistence.

COAL
297 trillion tonnes (32%) of the coal reserves throughout the world are in the Asia Pacific
countries, while 254 trillion tonnes (28%) are in North America, and 222 trillion tonnes (24%) are
in Russia and the CIS countries.
Due to its low grade and the high amount of ash and humidity it possesses, lignite is a type of coal
which is generally used as a fuel in thermal power plants. Despite this, as it is quite abundant in the
earths crust, it is an energy raw material which is frequently used. Anthracite, on the other hand, is
among the group of high calorie coals.
The World Energy Council has reported that the world coal reserves are present in around 75
countries, with the largest of these being in the USA, with 237,3 billion tonnes. The USA is followed by
the Russia Federation with 157 billion tonnes, and China with 114,5 billion tonnes. Among the other
coal rich countries are: Australia (76,4 billion tonnes), India (60,6 billion tonnes), Germany (40,7 billion
tonnes), Ukraine (33,9 billion tonnes), Kazakhstan (33,6 billion tonnes) and the Republic of South
Africa (30,2 billion tonnes). Thus, more than 90% of the world coal reserves are situated within the
borders of 9 countries.
According to the research carried out by the World Energy Council, the proven and exploitable coal
reserves within the world amount to 861 billion tonnes in total. 405 billion tonnes of these are in the
anthracite and bituminous coal category, 261 billion tonnes are sub-bituminous coal, and 195 billion
tonnes are lignite.
When the total coal production in the world in 2012 is taken into consideration, it is calculated that the
global coal reserves have a lifespan of around 142 years.
As a result of the serious coal exploration activities carried out in recent years, the lignite reserves in
our country have increased significantly. Together with this, the efforts directed at classifying the said

reserves in accordance with international standards, and determining our economically exploitable
reserves, are continuing.
Our country is evaluated as being at medium levels in terms of the reserves and production amounts
of lignite, and at low levels in terms of anthracite.
Approximately 1,6% of the total world reserves of lignite are in our country. Together with this, as the
grade of a large portion of our lignite is low, its use in thermal plants has stood out. Approximately
46% of the lignite reserves in our country are located in the Afsin Elbistan basin. The most important
anthracite reserves of our country are in Zonguldak and the surrounding regions. The total anthracite
reserves in the Zonguldak basin are 1.322 billion tonnes, and the visible reserves are around 519
million tonnes.
Lignite fields are spread out among all regions of our country, and the grade of the lignite coal in these
fields varies between 1000-5000 kcal/kg. Around 68% of the total lignite reserves in our country are
low calorie, with 23,5% between 2000-3000 kcal/kg, 5,1% between 3000-4000 kcal/kg, and 3,4% is
above 4000 kcal/kg grading.
In 2012, our country possessed 121 Million Tonnes of Equivalent Petrol (MTEP), with the share of coal
in the total primary energy consumption being 31%.
As of the end of 2013, the power plant installed capacity dependent on coal in our country, was
12.563 MW, and this is equal to 20% of the total installed capacity. The installed capacity using
domestic coal is 8.515 MW (13,3%) and using imported coal is 4.048 MW (6,3%).
With the aim of meeting the demand for energy which is rising in parallel with industrialisation and the
increase in the population, the efforts to find new coal fields and developing the existing fields, within
the framework of the objectives of placing more importance on domestic resources, and decreasing
the dependence on imports in the production of energy since 2005, have been speeded up. The
boring activities in the exploration for coal have risen five fold in the last five years, and, in addition to
the 8,3 billion tonnes of existing reserves, 4,1 billion tonnes of new lignite reserves were determined
as of May 2008, as a result of these explorations.
In 2013, a total of 61,5 TWh gross electricity was generated from coal, and this is around 25,7% of the
total gross electricity generation amount.
An increase of a total of around 5,8 billion tonnes of reserves was realised between 2005-2012. The
level of lignite reserves in 2005 were 8,3 billion tonnes, while at the end of 2012 this level had risen
to14 billion tonnes.
The reserves discovered between 2005-2012
TURKEY LIGNITE RESERVE ZONES

RESERVE AMOUNT

Konya-Karapinar

1.832

Afsin Elbistan

1.300

Eskisehir-Alpu

777

Afyon-Dinar

545

TURKEY LIGNITE RESERVE ZONES

RESERVE AMOUNT

Elbistan

515

Tekirdag-erkezky

495

Manisa-Soma

205

Pinarhisar-Vize

140

Malatya

17

Total

5.826

The efforts directed at putting our lignite fields, whose reserves have been determined, an which
possess the features required to establish thermal plants, into operation quickly, rather than using
natural gas, which is an imported resource, in the generation of electricity, and of adding new units to
existing plants, are continuing.

HYDRAULCS
Among the various sources of energy, hydroelectricity power stations are preferred due to
their being environmentally friendly and carrying low potential risk.
Hydroelectricity plants work in harmony with the environment, are clean, renewable, and highly
productive plants with no fuel expenses. They take on the role of an insurance in energy prices, have
a long lifespan, low operating costs, and are not dependent on imports.
The theoretical hydroelectricity potential of our country is 1% of theoretical potential of the
world, while its economic potential is 16% of the economic potential of Europe.
Our hydraulic resources, which hold the most important position in the renewable energy potential of
our country, possess a hydroelectricity potential of 433 billion kWh, while the technically usable
potential is 216 kWh, and the economic hydroelectricity potential is 140 billion kWh/year. As of the end
of 2013, 41% of the potential which is said to be economic, was in operation, and 27% was in the
process of being built (including private sector projects). Turkey continues to take steps towards
developing the investment environment based on competition within the energy sector, and
establishing a transparent market structure, and, in particular with the influence of the legal
arrangements directed at renewable energy, in the electricity generation sector, which has been
opened up to the private sector, 560 licenses had been obtained as of January 2013 (a total capacity
of 12.515 MW) in order to build hydroelectricity plants (HES).

As of the end of 2013, there were 467 HES plants, with a total installed capacity of 22.289 MW. This is
the equivalent of 34,8% of the total potential. In 2013, 24,8% of our electricity output came from
hydraulics.
The dry weather experienced in recent years has caused hydroelectricity plants to not make the
contribution that is expected of them. However, in 2013, hydroelectricity production rose by 2,4%
when compared to 2012, with a total output of 59.245 MW
It is aimed that all of the hydroelectricity potential which can be evaluated both technically and
economically be used in the generation of electricity until 2023, with the target of using all of our
36.000 MW hydroelectricity potential by that year.

WIND
Wind comes about from the varied temperatures created by solar radiation on the surface of
the earth. These different temperatures cause humidity and pressure levels to vary as well, and
the difference in the pressure levels causes the air to move. Approximately 2% of the solar
energy which reaches the earth is converted into wind energy.
In meteorological terms, wind can develop in the following locations:
-Locations where changes in pressure are high;
-High, even hills and valleys;
-Regions which are under the impact of strong geostrophic winds;
-Coastal areas;
-Mountain ranges, valleys and hills where canal effects are present.
The characteristics of the wind differs (in respect of time and region), based on local geographic
differences and the non-homogenous temperatures of the surface of the earth. Wind is stated as two
separate parameters speed and direction. The speed of the wind rises with height, and its theoretical
strength changes proportionately to its cubic speed. The initial investment costs of wind energy
applications are high, and their capacity factors are low. Together with this, they have the
disadvantage of inconsistent energy production. Their advantages, on the other hand, can be listed as
follows:
-In plentiful and free supply within the atmosphere;
-It is a renewable and clean source of energy, and is environmentally friendly;
-Its source is reliable, and there are no risks of running out or prices increasing over time;
-Its cost has reached the level where it is able to compete with the power plants of today;
-Maintenance and repair costs are low;
-It creates employment;
-Its raw materials are completely domestic, and it does not create a dependence on imports;
-The installation and operation of its technology is relatively simple;
-It can be taken into operation within a short time.
The classification of the electricity energy generated from wind, as a function of the average wind
speed at the hub height, is given below. Accordingly, the average wind speed at the relevant location
is:
6.5 m/s medium level in terms of wind speed energy,
7.5 m/s good,
8.5 m/s and above speeds are evaluated as being very good.

Wind energy has been used from the first ages, by taking advantage of the shaft power of the turbine,
for pumping water, cutting various products, shearing, grinding, pressing, obtaining oil, and other
similar activities where mechanic energy is needed. The most effective manners of use of wind energy
can be summarised as below:
-Mechanical applications (water pumping system);
-Electrical applications (systems with network connections, and stand-alone systems without network
connections);
-Thermal energy applications.
Wind turbines are the principal structural elements of wind energy plants, and are machines
which convert the kinetic energy of the moving air, first of all to mechanic energy, and then to
electricity energy.
Wind turbines can be manufactured either with a horizontal or a vertical axis, based on the direction of
their rotational axis. Wind turbines with a horizontal axis are more widely used. These types of wind
turbines can be built with one, two, three or multiple propellers. Wind turbines with a horizontal axis
are also known either as up-wind or down-wind turbines.
The axes of wind turbines with a vertical axis are straight and vertical towards the direction of the
wind, and their propellers are also vertical. Modern wind turbines, which are used for generating
electricity, and are connected to the network, mostly have 3 propellers, horizontal axes, and are wind
turbines of the up-wind type.
In parallel with the technological developments of our day, wind turbines with horizontal axes with a
power of 1,0-7,5 MW are used in the large, powerful wind energy plants. The propeller dimensions of
wind turbines with three propellers has reached 100 m, and, indeed, more. The hubs of modern wind
turbines are 60-120 m above ground level, on a tower. The amounts of energy which can be obtained
from one wind turbine is dependent, in the first degree, on the wind speed at the turbine hub height.
Raising the hub higher will ensure maximum benefit from the existing wind power.
Wind turbines are only able to start generating electricity energy at a specific wind speed. A wind
turbine will generate energy in between the cut-in and cut-out speeds. The cut-in speeds of modern
wind turbines are between 2-4 m/s, their nominal speeds are between 10-15 m/s, and their cut out
speeds are between 25-35 m/s. Each wind turbine reaches the maximum power value which can be
obtained from the system at a specific wind speed. This maximum power is known as nominal power
and the wind speed at this level is known as the nominal speed. Wind turbines automatically stop after
a certain wind speed has been exceeded, in order to ensure that the system is not damaged. This
maximum speed is known as the system cut-out speed.
The body possesses sound insulation in order to prevent noise pollution. The towers are built in the
form of cages or pipes. As the towers can be very high, the constructions outside the cage towers can
consist of two or three parts.
It has been accepted that wind plants with a capacity of 5 MW can be established in Turkey at heights
of 50 meters above ground level, and in areas with a wind speed exceeding 7.5 m/s. In the light of this
acceptance, a Potential Wind Energy Map (PWEM) has been prepared, where the source wind details
obtained using a mid-scale weather forecast model and micro-scale wind flow model are given. The
wind energy potential of Turkey has been determined as 48.000 MW. The total area which is
equivalent to this potential is just 1.30% of the total surface area of Turkey.
As of the end of 2013, the amount of wind energy generated per annum was 7.518 GWh, while
the installed capacity of the wind energy plants in operation on the same date was 2.760 MW.

According to a study published by World Energy, based on the assumption that regions with a wind
speed exceeding 5.1 m/s will only be able to use 4% due to application related and social limitations,
the technical wind energy potential throughout the world has been calculated as 53.000 TWh / year.
The total realised generation of wind energy throughout the world, as of 2012, was 557 TWh / year,
and the ratio of this in the total generation of energy was 2.6%. The installed capacity of wind plants
which were operational as of the end of December 2013, was approximately 300 GW.

SOLAR
Our country is very lucky to possess a high solar energy potential, in terms of its geographical
location.
According to the Solar Energy Map (SEM) of Turkey prepared by the Renewable Energy General
Directorate, it has been determined that the total annual insolation time is 2.737 hours (a total of 7i5
hours per day), and the total solar energy derived per year is 1.527 kWh/m2 per year (total 4,2
kWh/m2 per day).
While solar energy technologies are extremely varied in terms of their methods, materials and
technological levels, they can be split into two principal groups:
Photo-emissive Solar Technologies and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP): In this system heat is
obtained from solar energy, and can be used either directly or in the generation of electricity.
Solar Cells: Semi-conducting materials, which are also known as photovoltaic solar energy systems,
convert
the
sunlight
directly
into
electricity.
The total established solar collector area within our country as of 2012 was calculated as being close
to 18.640.000 m2. The annual production of planary solar collectors was calculated as 1.164.000 m2,
while that of vacuum-tube collectors was 57.600 m2. 50% of the planary collectors, and all of the
vacuum-tube collectors which are produced are known to be used within the country. In 2012, close to
768.000 TEP Tonnes Equivalent to Petrol) heat energy was produced using solar collectors. The use
of the heat energy produced in 2012 was calculated as 500.000 TEP in homes, and 268.000 TEP for
industrial purposes.
The Renewable Energy Resources Legislation numbered 5346, which is necessary in order for the
use of photovoltaic systems to become more widespread, was revised on 29.12.2010, and the studies
concerning the Legislation were completed in 2013. It is expected that there will be more widespread
use as a result of the costs of photovoltaic systems falling, and productivity rising in recent years.
The technical evaluations of the applications made to EMRA for the licensed generation of electricity
in 2013 are currently being carried out, and photovoltaic plant licenses will be given to 600 MW of
installed capacity at this first stage. This capacity will be increased in stages in the coming years, with
the target of our Ministry being a minimum of 3000 MW installed capacity of license PV plants in 2023.
There are also small-scale photovoltaic solar energy systems, which have already been
established in our country, for the purpose of meeting small quantities of power, and for
research purposes. Most of these have been established by public sector organisations, and
these have reached an installed capacity of 3,5 MW.

GEOTHERMAL
Geothermal energy is the heat energy obtained from the hot water, steam, dry steam and hot
dry rocks, which have gathered within rocks in the depths underneath the soil, and have
moved and were stored by the fluid heat, by artificial methods.
Geothermal sources are mostly formed around active fault systems and volcanic and magmatic units.
Modern geothermal plants which use geothermal energy emit very low amounts of CO 2, NOx,
and SOx gases, and therefore, it is evaluated as a very clean source of energy.
Geothermal energy includes all types of direct or indirect benefit derived from geothermal sources.
Low temperature (20-70 C) fields are used for heating in particular, as well as in industry, for the
production of chemicals. Medium temperature (70-150 C) and high temperature (above 150 C) fields
can be used for the generation of electricity as well as in heating applications, in an integrated
manner, subject to the re-injection conditions.
The installed capacity of geothermal energy as of August 2013 was 11,766 MW. The annual electricity
output from this source is approximately 68,6 billion kWh, and the top five countries in this area are the
USA, the Philippines, Indonesia, Mexico and Italy. Its use other than for the generation of electricity is
50.000 MW.
The top 5 countries in geothermal heat and hot springs applications are China, the USA, Sweden,
Turkey and Japan.
As Turkey is situated on the Alps Himalayas belt, it is a country with quite a high geothermal
potential. In theory, the geothermal capacity of our country is 31.500 MW. 79% o the areas with a
potential within our country are situated in Western Anatolia, 8,5% in Central Anatolia, 7,5% in the
Marmara Region, 4,5% in Eastern Anatolia and 0,5% in the other regions. 94% of our geothermal
resources are low and medium heat, and suitable for direct applications (heating, thermal tourism, the
output of minerals, etc.), while 6% are suitable for indirect applications (the generation of electricity
energy).
The search efforts for geothermal energy have become more dynamic in recent years, and as
of the end of 2013, the Mine Detection and Search (MDS) General Directorate, which is an
affiliated organisation of our Ministry, has carried out a total of 576 explorations across 328.711
m.. From this 227 fields have been discovered and, other than natural exits, 4.900 MW of heat
energy has been obtained from the wells which have been established.
With the increase in recent years, the number of tourism and health oriented thermal facilities in our
country has reached 350. Additionally, the heating of greenhouses, which was 500 decares in 2002,
has reached 2924 in 2013, while the heating of homes, which provided heating energy to 30.000
homes in 2002, has risen to 89.433 homes as of the end of 2013.
In theory, the electricity which can be potentially generated through geothermal energy in Turkey has
been estimated as 2.000 MW. As of the end of 2013, the geothermal electricity generation potential of
those who had obtained licenses from EMRA, reached 706,4 MW. This figure is expected to reach
1.000 MW by the end of 2023. There are a total of 15 geothermal energy plants in our country as of
today, and our installed capacity has reached 404,9 MW.

BIO-FUELS
In our country, biodiesel is a fuel which can be used in every area where diesel is used, except
for our very cold regions. While biodiesel is used in place of diesel in the transport sector, it is
also a fuel which can be used as fuel oil in the housing and industrial sectors.
Biodiesel is obtained from agricultural plants, and converts CO2 by photosynthesis, ensuring the
carbon cycle. Therefore, it does not have any impact of increasing the greenhouse effect.
Bio-ethanol is an alternative fuel, whose raw materials are obtained by the fermentation of agricultural
products which contain cellulose, such as sugar beet, corn, wheat and woody plants, or starch, and is
used following being mixed with petrol at a specific ratio. It is mixed with petrol in the transport sector,
and also used in small household equipment and the chemical products sector. Bio-ethanol increases
the oxygen levels within the fuel and ensures that it burns more efficiently. It reduces the harmful
gases in the emissions from the exhaust, and is an environmentally friendly alternative to carcinogens.
It reduces exhaust emissions.
The total consumption of fuels in our country is 22 million tonnes. 3 million tonnes of this is petrol. In
contrast to this the installed capacity for biodiesel in our country is 160 thousand tonnes.
The most criticised feature of bio-fuel farming is that it creates a risk in terms of food safety by setting
aside land which is suitable for food farming to the production of biodiesel and bio-ethanol.
Bio-gas is the methane an carbon-dioxide gas which is predominantly formed as a result of the
biological break up of organic materials (anaerobic fermentation) in conditions where no oxygen is
present (animal waste, plant waste, urban and industrial waste). Bio-gas technology facilitates both
the acquisition of energy from organic rooted waste and the redounding of the waste into the soil.
It is estimated that the bio-gas quantities which can be produced, based on its animal waste
potential, is 1,5-2 million tonnes of equivalent petrol (MTEP).
Our biomass sources are comprised of agricultural, forestry, animal, organic, urban, etc. waste. Our
waste potential is close to 8,6 MTEP, and 6 MTEP of this is used for heating purposes.

NUCLEAR
A huge amount of energy is released when atom particles are split. This energy, which is
obtained from fission and fusion reactions is known as particle energy or nuclear energy.
Nuclear reactors are the systems which convert nuclear energy into electricity energy. Fundamentally,
the nuclear energy which is released as a result of fission, is converted into heat energy within the
nuclear fuels and other materials, this heat energy is converted into kinetic energy, and later, within
the generator system, into electricity energy.
A nuclear reactor with a capacity of 1.000 MWe will produce approximately 27 tonnes (7m3) of used
fuel a year.
Nuclear plants are an alternative which should be preferred in terms of their environmental impact.
The maximum amount of radioactivity which can be released by nuclear reactors, which operate under
normal operating conditions, is limited to 0,1-1% of the normal natural radiation levels, while in
practice the situation is even lower than these limits.

In respect of the continuity of electricity generation, nuclear plants are safer and more disposable than
thermal and hydraulic plants.
As well as the developments oriented towards the more widespread use of renewable energy sources
throughout the world, projects directed at nuclear energy investments have begun to gain momentum
on the global scale.
As of May 2013, there are 436 nuclear plants operating in 31 countries, with 68 more nuclear plants,
with a total installed capacity of 65.5 GW, are currently being built in 15 countries. It is calculated that
the generation of electricity from nuclear energy, which was 2,756 TWh in 2010, will rise to 3,908 TWh
in 2035, but that the share of nuclear energy in the total generation of electricity will fall from 12.9% to
9.7% over the same period. While the installed capacity of nuclear plants throughout the world is
expected to reach 524 GW in 2035 (from 394 GW in 2010), a 32% decrease is expected in the
capacity within the European Union. It is expected that the installed capacity of nuclear plants in the
European Union will fall to 94 GW in 2035 (from 138 GW in 2010). By 2035, an increase of 127 GW is
expected in non-OECD Asian countries, with the brunt of this being borne by China (105 GW). It is
also expected that Russia will increase its nuclear capacity by 50% (12 GW) by 2035, through
additional units. And the USA is expected to reach 111 GW in 2035, with an increase of 5 GW.
When taking into account the nuclear plants to be established in Akkuyu and Sinop, approximately 80
billion kWh of electricity output is expected per year. In order to be able to generate this amount of
electricity from natural gas, close to 16 billion cubic meters of natural gas would need to be imported,
in return for a payment of 7,2 billion US Dollars (close to 13 billion TL). Thus, the money used to pay
for this amount of natural gas imports in just 3 years will be enough to build a 4 unit nuclear plant in
Mersin Akkuyu.
Nuclear power plants should not just be evaluated as electricity generation plants. A nuclear
plant project is comprised of approximately 550 thousand parts, and with the dynamism and
employment it will bring to other sectors as well, it will provide significant added value to
industry in our country.
The ideal of our country for half a century has been to establish a nuclear power plant. This has begun
to be realised with the signing of the Agreement Concerning the Cooperation for the establishment
and Operation of a Nuclear power Plant in the Akkuyu Field, between the Government of the Republic
of Turkey and the Russian Federation, on 12 May 2010. The said agreement was accepted by the
general assembly of the TBMM on 15 July 2010, and published in the Official Gazette dated 6 October
2010, and numbered 27721. Within the framework of the realisation of the said agreement, the Project
Company, entitled Akkuyu NGS Elektrik retim A.S., was established in Ankara, on 13 December
2010.
A total of 300 Turkish students (50 this year) have been sent to Russia to work as interns in the plants
situated there, and following a training lasting around 9,5 years, they will be employed in various
different areas of the Akkuyu Nuclear Plant Project, from engineers to managers.
In order to meet the fast rising demand for electricity, and reduce the risks associated with being
dependent on imports, it is planned to take 2 nuclear power plants into operation by 2023, and to
begin the construction of a further 3 during the same period. With this purpose in mind, the company,
Akkuyu Nkleer G Santrali Elektrik retim A.S., which was established within the framework of the
agreement between the Republic of Turkey and the Russian Federation, which took effect on 27
December 2010, for the establishment of a nuclear power plant in the Mersin Akkuyu field, and the
capital of which Russian in full, prepared an Updated Location Report and submitted this for
assessment by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK), on 22 May 2012. TAEK informed the
project company on 08 June 2012 that the report was being examined in detail. Together with this
agreement, it is envisaged that a nuclear plant comprising four VVER-1200 type units, and with a total
installed capacity of 4.800 MW. On the other hand, an agreement was also signed in 2013, for the
establishment of a nuclear plant in Sinop, and the work related to this is currently ongoing.

Based on the supply and demand projections for electricity energy in our country, it is aimed that the
share of the electricity generated by nuclear energy plants within the total, reach 5% by 2020. With
this purpose in mind, the Legislation on the Establishment and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants,
and their Sales of Energy, numbered 5710, was passed in 2007.

HYDROGEN
The fuel from the heat emanated by the sun and the other stars in response to thermo-nuclear
reactions is hydrogen, which is the basic energy source of the universe.
Of all known fuels, hydrogen is the one with the highest content of energy per unit mass. 1 kg of
hydrogen possesses 2,1 kg of natural gas or 2,8 kg of petrol. However, its volume per unit mass is
high.
The use of hydrogen in every area which requires heat and combustion energy is clean and simple.
Where it is used as a fuel within energy systems the product released into the atmosphere is only
water and / or steam. Hydrogen, is, on average 33% more productive than petrol based fuels. When
obtaining energy from hydrogen, there are no gases or harmful chemicals produced, which will pollute
the environment and increase the greenhouse effect, other than steam.
Researchs have shown that under current conditions hydrogen is approximately three times
more expensive than other fuels and that its widespread use will be dependent on the
development of technologies which will lower the cost of hydrogen production.
Together with this, the storage of any excess supply of electricity energy, which may become available
from time to time (on a daily or seasonal basis) as hydrogen, can be evaluated as a valid alternative
for today. The widespread use of the energy stored in this way (for example for mass transport
vehicles) is dependent on the development of automotive technologies using fuel cells.

REACHING FOR TURKEY'S HYDROPOWER SUMMIT


With its high dependence on imported fuels and electricity demand growth topping 7% a year, Turkey
is increasingly turning to development of its domestic resources to meet demand. Coupled with its
favourable geography, these factors have seen a swathe of hydropower development.
Indeed, benefitting from its mountainous landscape and position between three seas, Turkey has a
significant hydropower capacity, estimated at some 433 TWh a year in total, of which some 140 TWh a
year is thought economically viable. To put this in context, according to Turkish Electricity
Transmission Corporation figures electricity demand is expected to reach around 420 TWh annually
by 2020.
At an average elevation of 1,100 meters above sea level, with the Euphrates and Tigris River basins
sitting at around 1,300 meters, there is ample head available for development in a number of regions,
including the area around the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, and Eastern Anatolia. The country has a
volume of some 186 km3/year of water flowing through its 177,000 km of rivers in five separate
watersheds.
The geography provides considerable opportunity for hydropower development. But it is only following
measures to privatize the national electricity system began in 2003 that the exploitation of this huge
resource began to accelerate. Today, though some 60% of the country's hydropower potential remains
undeveloped, Turkey has more than 500 hydropower plants operating, generating a combined
capacity of more than 15 GW and with more than 15 GW of hydropower capacity currently under
construction.
TURKISH ENERGY POLICY LANDSCAPE
Despite the considerable development of Turkey's abundant hydropower and other renewable
resources, the country's energy mix is still dominated by fossil fuels. Currently gas supplies around a
third of the country's total primary energy demand, while coal and oil products provide 27% and 29%,
respectively. Much of the country's oil and gas comes by way of imports from Iran and Russia.
Hydropower, wind and other renewables produce around 17% of Turkey's electricity supply.
However, the government has introduced policies aimed at diversifying the energy supply sector by
supporting domestic sources in particular, in a bid to curb the share of natural gas to lower than 30%
of total demand. As part of this policy, renewables, including hydropower, have been the beneficiaries
of feed-in tariffs to encourage their development. In the case of hydropower projects beginning
operations before the end of 2015, the feed-in tariff is US$ cent 7.3/kWh ( cent 5.6/kWh) with an
additional local-content' bonus of US$ cent 1-2.3/kWh ( cent 0.7-1.8/kWh) which is payable for 10
years, with the local content bonus available for five years.
Other reforms centred on the liberalised electricity market accelerated private investment in Turkey's
energy sector and by 2012, independent power producers were supplying some 26 TWh of energy
annually. In addition, the government established a target to deliver 30% of its primary energy demand
from renewables by 2023.

In other examples, the Energy Market Regulatory Agency (EMRA) has license fee exemption for
renewable energy investors and the Turkish Electricity Trading Company, TETAS, can provide buying
guarantees to renewable energy, further supporting inward investment.
Didier Mallieu, Vice President of Hydropower and Renewable Energy at engineering consultancy firm
Poyry, explains that, post-liberalisation, this development drive was spearheaded by Turkish
companies - there is a significant engineering capability in Turkey - that teamed up with mainly
Western European companies to jointly develop and finance hydropower projects. "Many players in
the European market, many European utilities, were interested in acquiring projects or assets in turkey
two, three, four years ago," he says.
However, he adds that given the scale of this development - estimating that around 70 GW of new
power generating capacity is under construction in Turkey "we see a little bit of slowdown for the
moment in new projects and some are being put on hold".
This is partly as a result of a more challenging finance market, he explains, adding that the classic
buyers or developers of those assets, the European utilities, are in difficulties themselves, but Mallieu
also notes that the easiest projects have been developed already. "What remains is a bit more difficult
to develop and probably requires a higher market price to be economical, this could be why we see a
slowdown of the Turkish market for new hydropower plant."
Mallieu continues: "That slowdown is also typical of the transition to deregulated electricity market,
where investors' most important risk is the building of overcapacity. Therefore, investors might have
the tendency to postpone investments until they are certain that the capacity additions are in line with
demand growth. Such a phenomenon is partly mitigated in Turkey by the cancellation of power plant
licenses which are now not going forward. The high volatility between various electricity generation
scenarios might represent risks, but for sure also potential opportunities, maybe huge opportunities."
Furthermore, Mallieu highlights other factors which are influencing new Turkish hydropower
development. For example, along with setting ambitious renewable energy targets the government is
also looking to develop other low carbon resources, such as nuclear, with plans for nuclear power to
supply some 5% of the country's electricity supply, some 5 GW.
Within the renewables sector, hydropower is also competing for investment with technologies such as
wind and solar, which inevitably require far less up-front capital investment and typically have a far
shorter development and ROI period.
Says Mallieu: "There is a trend of the Turkish government to go towards new or other sources of
energy, like wind or PV, which could be funded by Feed-in Tariffs, they're still low, but also the costs of
developing projects in Turkey are low because of the good contractors. It's cheap to develop a project
compared to Western Europe, so it's [a choice] between those nice projects with secured income from
Feed-in Tariffs and those more demanding [hydropower] projects."
Nonetheless, Mallieu is keen to stress that the slowdown is not a reflection of market fundamentals:
"The basics of the country are good. A deficit in energy and a high growth, well balanced between

domestic and industrial demand, [it's] very well positioned [with] many neighbours which also need
electricity. Recent interconnection with the European grid, which is under fast progress and almost
fully achieved, is also a strong asset for Turkey."
Indeed, he highlights the potential for additional hydropower investment even while the market for
new-build projects is decelerating: "What might come out of this situation is a shift to the rehabilitation
market. The base for hydro is already very big and they will be sold by the government and acquired
probably quite a lot in the coming years. So that might give burst to a rehabilitation market. He notes
that many Turkish hydro projects are run-of-river including cascades of plants along rivers. Such a
design necessarily limits storage capacity and as a result Mallieu sees other opportunities too: "To
store energy on the other side you have the variability of hydropower and you have wind and solar on
top of that which are also very highly variable. So it might be that in coming years the pumping storage
power plant market will also grow or start in Turkey."
Certainly, the government continues to pursue its market liberalization programme and with it the
privatization of the bulk of the nation's existing hydropower assets. It plans to move to a fully
deregulated electricity market by 2015.
The most recent figures available note that of 613 offers to privatize hydroelectric plants the treasury
has achieved an overall revenue of more than $427 million.
For example, the privatization process for 52 hydroelectric power plants belonging to the state-owned
Electricity Generation Company (EA) divided the assets into 19 groups for the purpose.
More recently, in May the Privatization Administration of Turkey tendered for the operational rights of a
further five hydropower installations.
According to media reports, in the first round, Metek Hydro made the highest bid for the operating
rights of the power plants Vicera and Esendal for 49 years with a bid of $1.85 million. In the second
round, two power plants, Dere and Ivriz were put out to tender, Ulke Investment placed the highest bid
with $2.3 million, again for 49 years. And in the third round the Kayakoy plant was tendered and Veysi
Mining won with a US$8.3 million bid.

TURKEY'S HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT


Hydroelectric power facilities were first developed in the region in 1935, and their development
increased steadily until 1974, when the rapid growth in natural gas generation shifted the focus away
from hydroelectric power development. Currently, 22.8% of all electricity generated in the country
comes from hydropower, according to data from the International Energy Agency.
Turkey has 478 installed hydropower plants located in 69 provinces throughout the country, with a
total installed capacity of 15.1 GW. Of these, 12.6 GW of capacity come from hydro plants and dams
that impound reservoirs, and 2.5 GW are from run-of-river projects, according to the IEA. There are
534 plants currently being planned, with 160 of those under construction at around 15 GW of capacity.

A primary draw for investors interested in developing Turkish hydro is the high energy cost in the
country. The consumer price of electricity in domestic markets alternates between 16 and 17 US
cents/kWh (varies based on time of day), which reduces the repayment period on the investment. The
regional advantages, supportive political environment, and opportunities for exporting energy are all
positives.
Beyond the high power prices the region offers experienced and reputable engineering and consulting
companies, with the capacity to investigate potential sites, perform feasibility studies, design
infrastructure tailored to the area, prepare bidding documents and offer site supervision services.
The low-cost labor force and large portfolio of civil and mechanical engineers working in the field of
hydropower in Turkey have been attractive to investors and developers alike, as have the ease of
communication, money transfers, and international banking systems which are in place. Furthermore,
all the civil works construction materials and goods can be provided from within the province where
the project is being developed or from nearby provinces, thus decreasing shipping costs during the
construction phase.
Building Turkish hydropower
For example, Norwegian utility Statkraft is due to complete construction on the 102 MW Kargi
hydropower plant in Corum province in northern Turkey in early 2015. With an estimated annual
average production of 467 GWh, the power plant will feature a 13 m-high earth dam.
Statkraft has also started the construction of its third and largest hydropower plant in Turkey. With a
total installed capacity of 517 MW, Cetin will deliver some 1.4 TWh annually.
Located on the Botan River, a tributary of the Tigris River in the Southeast Antolia Region, etin will
comprise of two power plants. The 401 MW Main etin features an Asphalt-Concrete Rock-Fill dam
(ACRD) delivering a head of 140 metres and an inundated area of 10 km 2. Construction began in 2012
and is due to be completed in 2015.
It is the largest of three projects purchased by Statkraft in 2009. Statkraft's first power plant in Turkey,
the 20 MW akit began commercial operations in June 2010.
When etin is completed, Statkraft will have a total installed capacity of about 640 MW.
Meanwhile on the equipment side, Alstom has 2 GW of projects under execution, having provided key
components for more than 9.5 GW of Turkey's installed hydro capacity, among them Turkey's largest
hydropower plant, the 2,400 MW Ataturk plant in Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey, commissioned in
1992.
The largest hydropower project currently underway in Turkey is the 1200 MW Ilsu Dam, part of the
Southeastern Anatolian Project (GAP) on the Tigris. It will create a reservoir with a volume of 10.4 m 3
and a surface area of 313 km2 and is expected to produce 3,800 GWh a year.

Similarly, the 540 MW Yusufeli Dam is planned to be built on the Chorakhi (oruh) River located in the
eastern Black Sea region. It is expected to produce 1,705 GWh a year.
And, in January this year Russian hydro turbine manufacturer Power Machines OJSC signed a
contract with Turkish company DSI to provide equipment for the 140 MW Kigi project, including three
46.6 MW turbines with pre-turbine gate valves, three generators of the same capacity, switchgear, and
all other equipment for the turbine hall.
Commissioning of the plant, located in Turkey's Elazig province, is expected in 2016.
Around a year ago Andritz Hydro won a contract to supply, install and commission three generators for
the 636 MW Upper Kelekoy hydropower project in a deal worth about US$40.5 million.
Being developed by the Kalehan Enerji consortium on Turkey's Murat River, Voith Hydro is to supply
three 202 MW Francis turbines for the project.

site : www.enerji.gov.tr
: www.hydroworld.com