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You are on page 1of 6

Spring 2012

1.1

We may compute the Lorentz factor directly from the energy. Remember that

E = T + mc2 = mc2

T

250 keV

=1+

=1+

= 1.5

mc2

500 keV

1/2

5

1

=

0.75

= 1 2

3

px = mc = 1.12 mc.

Because px is negligible, the time spent between the plates is given by

t=

l

= 1.8 1010 s.

c

~ = e V z.

F~ = eE

h

Thus

l eV 1

l eV

=

mc = 0.08 mc

h c

h mc2

pz

pz

= 0.05,

z =

mc

mc

pz = Fz t =

where is the Lorentz factor that includes the vertical motion, which is small in comparison to the horizontal

motion; hence, . The net deviation at the exit of the plates is

z =

1 2

1

at = z ct = 0.135 cm.

2

2

In order to analyze this system in the electrons rest frame, consider the inertial frame moving in the

x

direction. The plates will appear Lorentz contracted with l = l/, w = w, and h = h.

The force on the electron is perpendicular to the direction of motion of this frame; hence, F~ = F~ (see

equation (14) in Ch 5, noting that we are transforming from the lab frame to the electrons rest frame).

However, due to the Lorentz contraction of the plates, the electrons spends less time between them:

t =

l

1 l

t

=

= .

c

c

pz = Fz t = Fz t = pz .

This is due to the fact that the spatial vector p~ is part of a 4-vector that transforms under Lorentz boosts

in an identical fashion to that of the position 4-vector (t, ~x). The transverse velocity is given in terms of the

momentum change as

1

p = z

mc z

z = z t = z t = z.

z =

Strictly speaking, we did not really consider the system from the electrons rest frame. In addition to the

transformation into the moving frame, we should have transformed into an accelerated frame. However, since

the vertical motion is non-relativistic, we can accomplish this by a Galilean transformation, after which all

the results are trivially the same.

1.2

Because of the highly relativistic nature of the motion, we may disregard the effects of interference upon

the field lines of the individual particles. Because both of the particles stop at the origin, they must feel

a repulsive force that decelerates them. The exact nature of this force need not be understood to gain

qualitative insight into the radiative processes at work. Because infinite forces are unphysical, there must

be a finite deceleration time . Furthermore, Gausss Law

Z

Z

~ = 4

~ dA

E

dV

V

states that field lines can only end upon charges, and thus the field lines of the

R two particles must connect

with each other if the combination of the two particles is to be neutral (i.e. V dV = 0). This connection

will occur in a spherical shell about the neutral composite particle of thickness c and inner radius R = tc.

This is pictured below for times before and after the collision. As discussed in appendix B of Purcell, the

perturbation of the field lines (i.e., the reconnection within the shell) carries electrostatic energy

Z

E2 dV a2 ,

Urad

shell

where a is the acceleration. By appropriately choosing the acceleration, all of the kinetic energy of the

individual particles can be released. The radiation emitted due to this sudden deceleration is called

bremsstrahlung, German for breaking radiation.

In reality this process is a quantum one called pair annihilation, resulting in the emission of two photons

(two are necessary to conserve momentum), which carry off not only the kinetic energy, but the energy

associated with the rest mass as well.

2

1.3

In the rest frame of the protons, the force on the upper proton is

2

2

~ = e z = e z,

F~ = eE

r2

r2

where we have used the fact that in the transverse direction, r = r. The force on the lower proton is equal

and opposite, as required by Newtons third law (note that this has the symmetries required to allow us to

ignore the field contributions to Newtons third law). Because the force is perpendicular to the direction

of motion, it transforms as F~ = F~ / (see appendix A). However, the contribution from the transformed

electric field gives

2

~ = e E

~ = e z.

F~elec = eE

r2

Therefore, there is a missing piece of the force in the amount of

2

1

e2

e

F~ F~elec =

z = 2 2 z.

2

r

r

This is precisely the magnetic field that would be generated by transforming the electric field relativistically,

as we will see in the next chapter. From the Lorentz force law

2

2

2

~ + ~ B)

~ = e z 2 e z = 1 e z,

F~ = e(E

r2

r2

r2

we can explain the discrepancy by accounting for a magnetic field that is times as strong as the electric

field.

1.4

1.4.a

(2.5 points)

Referring to fig. (a) above, the field at the center of the cube due to AB cancels with EF . Similarly, the

field at the center of the cube due to CD cancels with GH. By symmetry, a finite current element gives a

magnetic field in its direction (note that this is different for different elements, because the definition of

the direction depends on the azimuthal axis), and the field due to current elements BC and F G combine

to give a net field in the x

direction. Similarly, the contributions from DE and AH combine to give a net

field in the x

direction also (all that has changed form the BC/F G case is a rotation). Therefore, the total

magnetic field at the center of the cube is in the x

direction.

Note that fig. (a) drawn here does not define the coordinate system in the same way as the figure in

Purcell. Using Purcells drawing, the field at the center of the cube points in the y direction.

1.4.b

(2.5 points)

The principle of superposition can be used with currents as well as magnetic and electric fields. Therefore,

a current I~ superimposed on a current I~ gives a zero net current and hence no magnetic field (there may

still be an electric field). Finally, noting by symmetry that the arrangement of the coils in fig. (c) gives no

net field at the center, we may superimpose these coils on the arrangement in fig. (a) to give fig. (e) without

altering the magnetic field at the center. Hence, the current loop in fie. (e) produces precisely the same field

at the center of the cube.

1.5

First, consider a full cylinder of radius R (i.e., one in which no section has been removed). The rotational

symmetry together with the fact that the current is flowing solely in the plane defined by the symmetry axis

z and the radial coordinate direction r gives that the field is in the direction and has constant magnitude

on circles of constant radius. Then, we use Amperes law to determine the field strength for a given radius

(assuming a uniform current density):

I

~ =

~ dl

B

B r d = 2rB =

0

4

4 r2

Ienc =

I

c

c R2

~ = 2Ir .

B

cR2

~ = 0 at P where r = 0. Using superposition, we can construct a full cylinder of

Specifically, note that B

radius b by adding a second smaller cylinder of the same current density and radius a to the larger, hollowed

cylinder of radius b. Thus, the field of the hollowed cylinder at any point must be the negative of that of

the smaller cylinder plus that of the full cylinder. At the point P , we would be at the surface of the smaller

cylinder; hence,

~ hollow (P ) = B

~ small (P ) = 2Ienc x

B

.

ca

In order to determine Ienc in terms of the current of the hollowed cylinder, note that

Ienc + I = Itot =

Ienc =

b2

Ienc

a2

I

.

(b2 /a2 ) 1

~ hollow (P ) = (30 G)

B

x.

1.6

~ A

~ = B.

~ Let us work in

We have a magnetic field B

cylindrical coordinates so that

~ A

~ = 1 Az A + A Az + 1 A A z

z

z

~ is independent of z. Then,

Because the field is symmetric along the z axis, let us guess that Az = 0 and A

the first two terms vanish as desired. Now, we note that if A / were constant, then there would be a

discontinuity at = 2, so we demand A / = 0. We are left with

1 A

A

A

~

~

A=

z = B0 z.

z =

+

Hence,

1

B0 .

2

The assumptions we made in deriving this result are related to the freedom to make gauge transformations.

That is, if

~ = A

~ + f,

~

A

A =

then

~ =

~ A

~ =

~ A

~+

~ f

~ =

~ A

~ = B.

~

B

~

Thus, the choice of A

~ in terms of Cartesian coordinates as

We may rewrite the result for A

1

1~

1

y y

x) = B0 (x

y y

x) = B

~r.

A = A (x

2

2

This last result is general for homogeneous magnetic fields, as you can readily verify. Starting in Cartesian

~ are

coordinates is likely the most straightforward. A couple obvious choices for A

~ = B0 (y

A

x + x

y)

2

~ = B0 x

A

y.

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