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# Cambridge International AS Level Physics

Chapter 11
1 a i When p.d. = 2.0V, current I = 0.25A
2.0 = 8
so resistance R = 0.25
ii resistance = 5.0
0.5 = 10
b A filament lamp

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2 a
Graph showing a current greater than zero at
0C, with a positive gradient; it may or may
not be linear.
[1]
b Use the graph as a calibration graph. Keeping
the voltage across the thermistor constant,
place the thermistor at the point where the
temperature is to be measured.
[1]
Read the current and convert to a
temperature using the calibration graph. [1]
3 a
The number density of free electrons is very
high in copper.
[1]
In silicon the number density of free
electrons is very much less (a million times).
[1]
b In a metallic conductor such as copper, the
vibration of the ions increases their effective
cross-section to the migrating electrons. [1]
The higher the temperature, the more
vibration, hence the greater the effective
cross-section and the more collisions there
are between the electrons and the ions. This
reduces the mean drift velocity.
[1]
In semiconductors, thermal energy gives
electrons sufficient energy to escape from
their parent atoms.
[1]
The greater the temperature, the greater the
number of electrons that can escape, so the
more charge carriers there are and the lower
the resistance.
[1]
l

4 a
Resistance = A = 1.310 1.5
6 
0.00810
= 2.4
9
A
b l = R = 308.010

8
1.310
= 18.5 18m

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5 a
V = IR = 0.485
= 2.4V

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## b i Current = 0.720.48 = 0.24A

ii 0.24A
c Resistance of the thermistor decreases
so circuit resistance decreases
6 a
The atoms vibrate more
so their effective cross-sectional area
increases and there are more collisions.
b Cross-sectional area
Material of which the wire is made
1.5 
c i R = VI = 0.24
= 6.25
l

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1.6910 5

ii R = A so A =
[1]
6.25
8
2
A = 1.3510 m [1]
4
d = 4A
= 1.310 m[1]
d Less area open to air
[1]
Less cooling, therefore temperature rises. [1]
Current decreases.
[1]
l

7 a
R = A and A = thickness width, so t = Rw  [1]
3
3
t = 2.310636103 
[1]
1.110 3210

= 0.0023m (2.3mm)
b I = RV = 12 6 

[1]
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= 1.1105A
c Resistance would decrease.
Current would increase.
Silicon wafer would get even hotter, with
avalanche effect creating more and more
charge carriers.

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1.110

8 a

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ii

## b Diode has very low resistance (in forward

direction), so large current.
[1]
Heating would lead to damage to diode /
supply.[1]
c R = VI = 1.4 3 
[1]
2010
= 70
[1]

## Cambridge International AS Level Physics

9 a
The current through the resistor is
proportional to the p.d. across it
[1]
at constant temperature.
[1]
b i Straight horizontal line (assuming V is on
x-axis)[1]
ii As above, but at a higher resistance.
[1]
iii Both at a (slightly) higher level.
[1]
c R length:
2length 2resistance
[1]
1
R cross-sectional area:
[1]
2diameter 4area 14 resistance
1
1
new resistance = 24 = 2 old resistance [1]