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TERM PAPER ON

REPORT WRITING
Based on empirical study

UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA
Department of Accounting & Information Systems
Course Name: Research Methodology (4105)

MAY 6, 2015
TAREK MAHMUD
ID: 18147, Section: B

To my
Parents

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Table of Contents:
Serial
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4
5

Topics
Preface
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Introduction
Discussion
1.Research
2.Overall approach
3.Data source
4.Data analysis
5.Report writing
Structure
Step1: Analyze the task
Step2: Develop a rough plan
Step3: Do the research
Step4: Daft the body of report
Step5: Daft the supplementary material
Step6: Daft the preliminary material
Step7: Polish your report
Common errors in research writing
Research methodology
Direct Quotes
Tips for avoiding common research mistake
Advantage of report writing
Recommendations

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References

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Preface
This term paper is mainly based on Analysis of Research report writing and overall
process from strategic point of view. The objective of this term paper is to find out
the how to write a good Research Report.

What strategy actually should follow to make a research report more effectively
and efficiently? What is the strategy that makes a report more logical and
empirical?

In addition, this term paper also focuses on some performance tools like Research
design and analysis of new model and problem. The components that are required
to write a good research report and the reasons have been discussed in this term
paper. To improve the current scenario of overall Research method in Bangladesh
there are some suggestion we have discussed.

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Acknowledgement
In the beginning, we want to give many thanks to the Almighty to help us complete
this term paper on Research report writing overall process from strategic point of
view.

We are also thankful to our instructor Professor Santi Narayan Ghosh sir who
helped us to complete this term paper in the right process. Without his
unconditional help, we would not be able to complete this term paper in due time.
His valuable advice and proper direction helped us to complete this term paper
within a short period of time.

We are really acknowledged Professor Santi Narayan Ghosh sir, because without
his help and support it would not have been possible to prepare this term paper.

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Abstract
Research on report writing assignments give an opportunity to demonstrate
practical skills and knowledge learnt so far in class within the end of a particular
study. This article highlighted some techniques, tools and common mistakes made
by people in research paper writing.

Textbooks, internet, and correction given during class seminar presentation


constituted the sources of information gathered. It was realized that in the effort to
give the best in writing research papers, people unconsciously make mistakes in
topic selection, objectives of research, writing format hypothesis or thesis
statement, literature review, research methodology, paragraphing, use of tense in
sentence construction, referencing and quoting to mention but a few.

This writing also incorporated some tips in avoiding these mistakes mentioned and
therefore concluded and recommended that the mistakes stated above should be
avoided at all cost when writing research papers. They can contribute to low grades
or disqualification of a project. Therefore, it is advisable that people seek for
guidance from their instructors or professionals in research papers writing.

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Introduction
Research is the manipulation of things, concepts, or symbols for the purpose of
generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge whether that knowledge aids in
the construction of theory or in the practice of an art.
A report is any informational work (usually of writing, speech, television, or film)
made with the specific intention of relaying information or recounting certain
events in a widely presentable form.
Written reports are documents which present focused, salient content to a specific
audience. Reports are often used to display the result of an experiment,
investigation, or inquiry. The audience may be public or private, an individual or
the public in general. Reports are used in government, business, education, science,
and other fields.

Background of the study


As a mandatory part of BBA program all the student have to submit a term paper
for each course about the selected topics to acquiring knowledge. Theoretical
Knowledge is not enough for a business student. There is a gap between the
theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge .Our this program has been
launched mainly to bridge the gap.

Rationale of the study


The study was restricted within a single topic with emphasis on the way of
Research report writing. To know how to write a good research report and how
much time is needed to a researcher to present his research on paper.

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Objectives of the Study


The objectives of the study is to understand the following fields and relate them
with the current process of report writing:
a. The nature of a good report.
b. The relationship between performance and report paper.
c. Empirical study and practical commitment
d. Positive and negative effects of ethical attitude
e. Factors need to know to analyze the report paper.

Limitations
Since specific behavior patterns of worker practices a sensitive issue for the
company, it was difficult to extract the expected information and data as per our
requirement. It is so much difficult to assess the whole information system due to
lack of time and resources

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Discussion
Research
The study followed a certain method to collect data and analyze the overall study
of a research paper:

Overall Approach
Our analysis is a combination of both current and literature survey with a special
emphasis of proceeding.

Data Source
The study worked with both primary and secondary data. We collect primary data
from Personal survey, Questioners and interviews and secondary data by literature
survey and various research related books, articles, references.

Data Analysis
Data collected from different sources were compared with the theoretical part
learned during the course. After comparison a reasonable conclusion is drawn
through analysis and evaluation.

Report Writing
The group as assigned with the task to prepare this paper visited the IPL, collected
necessary information through interviews and journals. Finally the paper was
prepared after detail analysis of the current practices and relates them with the
teaching of the course.

Computer software used


To prepare the term paper I have used MS Office 2007 and for collecting
information and guideline used Internet explorer for internet browsing.

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Structure
You must carefully read your course information details to ensure that you comply
with what the lecturer/tutor stipulates. A report is typically made up of three main
divisions:
Preliminary material,
Body and
Supplementary material.
Each of the sections contains a different kind of content. Refer to the tables below:

Table 1: Divisions and sections of a report


Broad division

Individual section
Title of Report

(1) Preliminary material

Table of Contents
Abstract/Synopsis
Introduction
Literature Review
Methodology

(2) Body of report

Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References or Bibliography

(3) Supplementary material

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Appendices

Table 2: Content of individual sections


Individual section
Title of Report
Table of Contents (not
always required)
Abstract/Synopsis
Introduction
Literature Review
Methodology
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
References or Bibliography
Appendices

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Content of each section


Concise heading indicating what the report is about
List of major sections and headings with page
numbers
Concise summary of main findings
What you researched and why
Other relevant research in this area
What you did and how you did it
What you found
Relevance of your results, how it fits with other
research in the area
Summary of results/findings
What needs to be done as a result of your findings
All references used in your report or referred to for
background information
Any additional material which will add to your report

STEP 1: Analyze the Task


As with any assignment task, you must first analyze what is expected of you. This
involves careful reading of the assignment task as outlined in your course
information book. You may find the following questions useful when analyzing the
task:
What is the purpose of the report? (It could be analyzing, persuading or
reporting on an investigation.)
Who is the audience for the report?
What is the word limit? (Many times the word limit only includes the body
of the report.)
What is the topic of the report? (The topic may be specified by the lecturer,
but other times you will have a choice.)
What is the expected format of the report?

STEP 2: Develop a Rough Plan


Use the section headings (outlined above) to assist with your rough plan. Write a
thesis statement that clarifies the overall purpose of your report. Jot down anything
you already know about the topic in the relevant sections.

STEP 3: Do the Research


Steps 1 and 2 will guide your research for this report. You may need to report on
other research on a particular topic or do some research of your own. Keep
referring to your analysis and rough plan while you are doing your research to
ensure that you remain on track.
Give yourself plenty of time for this step, as the research phase of your work will
usually take the most time of any step in producing your report. Also, ensure you
keep correct bibliographic details for all of the material you may later use in your
report.

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STEP 4: Draft the Body of Report


Introduction - The purpose of your report. The thesis statement will be
useful here. Background information may include a brief review of the
literature already available on the topic so that you are able to place your
research in the field. Some brief details of your methods and an outline of
the structure of the report.
Literature Review - If asked to do a separate literature review, you must
carefully structure your findings. It may be useful to do a chronological
format where you discuss from the earliest to the latest research, placing
your research appropriately in the chronology. Alternately, you could write
in a thematic way, outlining the various themes that you discovered in the
research regarding the topic. Again, you will need to state where your
research fits.
Methodology - Here you clearly outline what methodology you used in your
research i.e. what you did and how you did it. It must be clearly written so
that it would be easy for another researcher to duplicate your research if they
wished to.
It is usually written in a 'passive' voice (e.g. the participants were
asked to fill in the questionnaire attached in Appendix 1) rather than
an 'active' voice (e.g. I asked the participants to fill in the
questionnaire attached in Appendix 1).
Clearly reference any material you have used from other sources.
Clearly label and number any diagrams, charts, and graphs. Ensure
that they are relevant to the research and add substance to the text
rather than just duplicating what you have said. You do not include or
discuss the results here.
Results - This is where you indicate what you found in your research. You
give the results of your research, but do not interpret them.
Discussion - This is where you discuss the relevance of your results and how
your findings fit with other research in the area. It will relate back to your
literature review and your introductory thesis statement.
Conclusion - This is a summary of the most significant results/findings. You
should not include any new material in this section. Sometimes you could
indicate some areas where your research has limits or where further research
would be useful.

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Recommendations - This includes suggestions for what needs to be done


as a result of your findings. Recommendations are usually listed in order of
priority.

STEP 5: Draft the Supplementary Material


References or Bibliography - This includes all references used in your
report or referred to for background information. This must be done using
the referencing convention specified by your lecturer/tutor.
Appendices - These should add extra information to the report. If you
include appendices they must be referred to in the body of the report and
must have a clear purpose for being included. Each appendix must be named
and numbered.

STEP 6: Draft the Preliminary Material


Title of Report - Make sure this is clear and indicates exactly what you are
researching.
Table of Contents - List all sections, sub headings tables/graphs appendices
and give page numbers for each.
Abstract/Synopsis - This gives a very brief overview of the report in a
condensed form. For more specific details on how to write this, please refer
to the Learning Guide Writing an Abstract.

STEP 7: Polish Your Report


The final step is checking your report to ensure you have followed all of the
guidelines as outlined in your course information. For more detail on how to do
this well, please refer to the Learning Guide

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Common Errors in Research Report Writing


Topic selection: some people select wide topics making it difficult to provide a
satisfactory answer. On the other hand, the topics can be too narrow that the writer
does not have room to explore.
Objectives of the research ; Coming up with very ambitious research objectives,
lacking a depth in research, presenting descriptive researches and failure to create a
link between your research objectives and realities on the ground.
Writing formats: Using more than one format in writing research papers, for
instance, giving in text citation in Harvard and the bibliography in APA.
Hypothesis or thesis statement: Formulating or creating a general hypothesis or
thesis statement that does not address a particular issue, and creating a trivial thesis
statement or hypothesis that cannot be tested because of unavailability of data.
Literature review: Focusing on general literature as opposed to literature specific
to your project, giving titles for sources and the names of authors, and using
outdated resource materials.

Research Methodology
Using data collection and analysis methods that are not suitable to the research,
Applying in adequate methods some researches require that you use more than
one method to get the desired results
Methods that do not demonstrate a clear relationship between data collected and
variables under investigation.
Incoherent Paragraphs: Paragraphing as the key unit of research report should have
its essential qualities which are unity and coherence. Unity such that it deals with
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only one main idea or topic which every sentence in the paragraph relates to and
coherent in that the each sentence in the paragraph must develop the point naturally
and logically.
Use of Colloquial expression: these are expressions or language used in informal
situations. A colloquial expression diffuses meanings and may be interpreted
differently by different readers but since research writing is a formal writing
therefore should be treated as such..
Wrong Word Choice: Choose a word that means exactly what you intend them to
mean, and that would mean the same thing to your readers to avoid
misinterpretation.

Direct Quotes
When you write a paper related to literature, history, current events, and many
other fields, direct quotes may be essential to a full discussion of the subject. In
science, there is very rarely any call for a direct quote. On student papers, there is
no reason at all to include direct quotes, except in the case when the student doesn't
understand the concept and uses the quote to avoid having to explain it his/herself.
Obviously, this doesn't go over too well with the grader. As a rule, do not use
direct quotes in a scholarly technical paper. Your own thoughts must be expressed,
not those of someone else.
Grammar and spelling Error: Spelling errors in a paper make you look amateurish.
For example, absorbance is read from a spectrophotometer. You don't read
absorbency from a spectrometer. Grammar and spelling error can change the entire
meaning of your writing. One letter changes the chemical compound you describe
for example I know the action of cycloheximide in eukaryotic cells, but I do not
know the action of cyclohexamide. Avoid obvious grammatical errors. However,
clear written communication requires proper sentence structure and use of words.
Make sure that your sentences are complete, that they make sense when you
proofread, and that you have verb/subject agreement.

Tips for Avoiding Common Research Paper Mistakes

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Composing a research paper is a time, focus, and effort intensive activity that every
college and university student must undertake there the following are tips to
avoiding the most common mistakes found in research papers.
1. Write Well: Sloppy writing is the number one reason research papers receive
low grades and therefore should be avoided.
2. Stay focused: Wandering off the topic is one of the common focus mistakes
made by people.
3. Keep it in perspective: One of the greatest challenges of writing a research
paper is determining the major and minor points of the composition. This requires
an evaluation of the sources used as well as a decision of which points to
emphasize. Confusion of major and minor points is considered a weakness and
result in a lower grade than that earned by a research paper with clear priorities.
4. Incorporate references: Too many or too few references within the research
paper are common mistakes. Additionally, it is advised to keep correctly cited,
direct quotations to a minimum and use them only when they assist with
strengthening a point.
5. Write lean: people who write and write and write about one thing over and over
is a common mistake that fill the research paper with repetitive, irrelevant, and
over-written content. This is a clear sign that the student either has nothing of
interest to say on the topic or did not complete adequate research.
6. Bring it up-to-date: The most impressive research papers use all the latest
findings and publications in the piece. While historical works can be used and are
even desirable for many topics, it is always advised to limit other sources to the
last five or ten years.
7. Draw the boundaries: There are literally millions of topics that can be covered
with a model research paper, perhaps even more! Many people do not take the time
to limit the scope and set the boundaries for their research paper topic. This can
lead to many of the mistakes above, which can be avoided simply by narrowing the
area to be covered in the model research paper.
8. Follow the citation style: follow a specific citation style for each paper as
required. This is not, nor will it be, negotiable! Every detail of APA, MLA,
Chicago, or any other format must be followed literally to the letter.
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9. Use simple, unity and coherent sentences in a paragraph


10. Avoid the use of colloquial language, unnecessary repetition, outmoded
words and phrases.

Advantages of report writing


1. Report gives consolidated & updated information
A report provides consolidated, factual and an up-to-date information about a
particular matter or subject. Information in the report is well organized and can be
used for future planning and decision making.
2. Report as a means of internal communication
A report acts as an effective means of communication within the organization. It
provides feedback to employees. It is prepared for the information and guidance of
others connected with the matter / problem.

3. Report facilitates decision making and planning


Report provide reliable data which can be used in the planning and decision
making process. It acts as a treasure house of reliable information for long term
planning and decision making.
4. Report discloses unknown information
Reports provide information, which may not be known previously. The committee
members collect data, draw conclusions and provide information which will be
new to all concerned parties. Even new business opportunities are visible through
unknown information available in the reports.
5. Report gives Information to employees
Reports are available to managers and departments for internal use. They are
widely used by the departments for guidance. Report provide a feedback to
employees and are useful for their self-improvement.
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6. Report gives reliable permanent information


The information provided by a report is a permanent addition to the information
available to the office. We have census reports which are used even today for
reference purpose.
7. Report facilitates framing of personnel policies
Certain reports relating to employees are useful while preparing personnel policies
such as promotion policy, training policy and welfare facilities to employees.
8. Report gives information to shareholders
Some company reports are prepared every year for the benefit of shareholders.
Annual report for example, is prepared and sent to all
shareholders before the AGM. It gives information about the progress of the
company.
9. Report gives information to the Registrar
Annual report and annual accounts are sent to the Registrar every year for
information. Such reports enable the government to keep supervision on the
companies.
10. Report solves current problems
Reports are useful to managers while dealing with current problems faced by the
company. They provide guidance while dealing with complicated problems.
11. Report helps directors to take prompt decisions
Company reports relate to internal working of the company and are extremely
useful to directors in decision making and policy framing. Reports give reliable,
updated and useful information in a compact form.

Recommendation

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The mistakes stated above should be avoided at all cost when writing research
papers. They can contribute to low grades or disqualification of your project.
Therefore, it is advisable that people seek for guidance from their instructors or
professionals in research papers writing.

Reference List
1. A Manual for Writers for Research Papers, Theses & Dissertations by Kate L
Turabian.
2. Scientific Method and Social Research by B N Ghosh.
3. Methodology and Technic of Social Research by P. L. Bhamdarkar and
Wilkinson.

4. www.termpaperwarehouse.com/
5. www.Scribd.com
6. www.Slideshare.com

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T. S.