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SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF CEMENT

Procedure:
Weigh a clean and dry Le Chaelier Flask. Add kerosene to the flask and note the initial
reading. Then add cement ( 64 grams ) into the flask. The flask is stirred and mixed
thoroughly. The final reading of the kerosene is then noted and the difference will give the
change in volume.

Calculations :
Weight of cement = 64 g
Initial reading = 0.4 ml
Final reading = 21.4 ml
Difference = 21.4 0.4 = 21ml
Specific Gravity of cement = 64 /21 = 3.05

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF COARS AND FINE AGGREGATE


Procedure
(I) Take the sample and place it to fill a third of the pycnometer.
(II) Pour distilled water into it until it is full.
(III) Eliminate the entrapped air by rotating the pycnometer on its side ,the hole in the apex
of the cone being covered with a finger.
(IV) Wipe out the outer surface of pycnometer and weigh it (W)
(V) Transfer the contents of the pycnometer into a tray , care being taken to ensure that all
the aggregate is transferred .
(VI) Refill the pycnometer with distilled water to the same level .
(VII) Find out the weight (W1)
(VIII) Drink water from the sample through a filter paper .
(IX) Weigh it (W2)
1. Calculation for fine aggregate
W1 = Weight of empty bottle = 0.624g
W2 = Weight of bottle + Aggregate = 1.13 g
W3 = Weight of bottle + Aggregate + Water = 1.804 g
W4 = Weight of bottle + Weight of water = 1.508 g

Specific gravity =

W 2W 1
( W 2W 1 )(W 3W 4 )

1.130.624
( 1.130.624 )(1.8041.508)

=2.4

2. Calculation for coarse aggregate


W1 = Weight of empty bottle = 0.624g
W2 = Weight of bottle + Aggregate = 1.093 g
W3 = Weight of bottle + Aggregate + Water = 1.802 g
W4 = Weight of bottle + Weight of water = 1.508 g

Specific gravity =

W 2W 1
( W 2W 1 )(W 3W 4 )

Result
Specific gravity of fine aggregate =2.4
Specific gravity of fine aggregate =2.68

Mix Design of M40 OPC

1.0930.624
( 1.0930.624 )(1.8021.508)

=2.68

Grade of concrete = M40


Type of cement = OPC
Maximum size of coarse aggregate = 20mm
Minimum cement content = 320 kg/m3
Maximum cement content = 450 kg/m3
Maximum Cement water ratio = 0.45

MATERIAL PROPERTIES:

Specific Gravity of cement = 3.05


Specific Gravity of coarse aggregate = 2.68
Specific Gravity of fine aggregate = 2.4

Sieve Analysis :
Coarse Aggregate
SIZ WEIGHT
% WEIGHT
E
RETAINED
REATINED
40
0
20
0
16
0.082
12.
5
0.193
10
0.26
4.2
5
0.11
2.3
6
0.194
PA
N
0.154

COARSE AGGREGATE
CUMULATIVE % WEIGHT
RETAINED
0
0
8.2

% WEIGHT
PASSING
0
0
8.2

100
100
91.8

19.3
26

27.5
53.5

72.5
46.5

11

64.5

35.5

19.4

83.9

16.1

15.4

100

Nominal size of coarse aggregate = 20mm

Fine Aggregate

SIZE
4.75
2.36
1.18
600
m
300
m
150
m
PAN

WEIGHT
RETAINED

% WEIGHT
REATINED

0
0.01
0.092

FINE AGGREAGATE
CUMULATIVE % WEIGHT
% WEIGHT
RETAINED
PASSING
0
0
100
1
1
99
9.2
10.2
89.8

0.234

23.4

33.6

66.4

0.478

47.8

81.4

18.6

0.162
0.022

16.2
2.2

97.6
100

2.4
0

According to IS 383, it is of Zone I

TARGET STRENGTH FOR MIX PROPORTIONING

fm = fck +1.65 s
fm = Target characteristics compressive strength at 28 days
fck = characteristics compressive strength at 28 days
s = standard deviation
From Table 1 of IS 10262 -2009 , s = 5 N/mm2
Therefore , fm = 40 +1.65 x 5 = 48.25 N/mm2

SELECTION OF WATER CEMENT RATIO

From Table 5 of IS 456, maximum water cement ratio is =0.45


We adopt water cement ratio as 0.38

`
SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT

From table 2, maximum water content for 20 mm aggregate = 186 lire (for 25 to 50
mm slump range )

CALCULATION OF CEMENT CONTENT

Water cement ratio = 0.38


Cement material content =186 / 0.38 =489.47 kg/m3

PROPORTIONING OF VOLUME COARSE AGGREGATE AND FINE AGGREGATE:

From table 3 of IS 10262-2009, volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20


mm size and fine aggregate (ZONE 1) for cement ratio of 0.50 = 0.60
In the present case, the water cement ratio = 0.38.
Therefore volume of coarse aggregates = 0.60 + 0.024=0.624
Volume of fine aggregate = 1 0.624 = 0.376

MIX CALCULATIONS

The mix calculations per unit column of concrete shall be as follows


a) Volume of concrete
b) Volume of cement

= 1m 3
=

Mass of cement
1
X
Specific gravity of cement 1000

c)Volume of water

186
1
X
=0.186 m3
1
1000

489.47
1
X
=0.16 m 3
3.05
1000
Mass of w ater

= Specific gravity of water

1
1000

d) Volume of all aggregate

= [a (b+ c) ]
= 1- (0.16 + 0.186 ) = 0.654 m 3

e) Mass of coarse aggregate = 0.654 x volume of coarse aggregate x Specific gravity of


coarse aggregate x 1000
= 0.654 x 0.624 x 2.68 x1000 = 1093.69 kg
f) Mass of fine aggregate = 0.654 x volume of fine aggregate x Specific gravity of fine
aggregate x 1000
= 0.654 x 0.376 x 2.4 x1000 = 590.16 kg

TRIAL

Volume of 6 cubes, each of (150 x 150 x 150 ) mm with 20% extra volume = 6 x 0.15 3 x 1.2
= 0.0243 m3
Mass of cement

= 0.0243 x 489.47

=11.89 kg

Mass of water

= 0.0243 x 186

= 4.51 kg

Mass of fine aggregate

=590.16 x 0.0243

= 14.34 kg

Mass of coarse aggregate

= `1093.69 x 0.0243 = 26.57 kg

TESTING

CUBE 1
CUBE 2
CUBE 3

NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING


7 DAYS
ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY
TEST
REBOUND HAMMER
38 s
3950 m/s
19.1 MPa
40s
3750m/s
16.5 MPa
28.3s
3920m/s
19.9 MPa

CUBE 4
CUBE 5

28 DAYS
ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY
TEST
41.4 s
3620 m/s
39.4s
3810 m/s

REBOUND
HAMMER
32.2 MPa
24.7 MPa

CUBE 6

40.3s

3720 m/s

DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
COMPRESSIVE TESTING MACHINE
7 DAYS
CUBE 1
38.66 MPa
CUBE 2
36
MPa
CUBE 3
34.22 MPa
28 DAYS
CUBE 4
46.6 MPa
CUBE 5
40 MPa
CUBE 6
46.6 MPa

26.7 MPa